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Alex T.

Zhao
Gregg Kerr
IB Chemistry HL
February 23, 2013
Heat of reaction for the neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium
hydroxide solution
Objective: To experimentally determine the molar heat of the
neutralization reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
by measuring the temperature increase that occurs.
Equipment:
Polystyrene cup
Graduated cylinder (100 mL)
Thermometer (-10-100C)
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 1 mol dm-3 (50 mL)
Sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) 1 mol dm-3 (50 mL)
Procedure:
1. Place 50 mL of 1 mol dm-3 HCL into the polystyrene cup and
measure its temperature.
2. Measure 50 mL of 1 mol dm-3 of NaOH into a measuring cylinder and
record its temperature.
3. Add the NaOh into the HCL, stir briefly with the thermometer, and
note the maximum temperature reached.
Data collection:
Volume of HCl (mL 1mL)
50
Volume of NaOH (mL 1mL)
50
Int. Temp HCl (C 0.2C)
22.0
Int. Temp NaOH (C 0.2C)
21.8
Average Temp* (C 0.2C)
(22.0+21.8)/2=21.9
Final Temp (C 0.2C)
26.0
*Average Temp will be used as the Initial temperature of the system,
denoted by Ti
Processing of results, and questions
1. Using the average temperature of the two reactants as the initial
temperature, calculate the change in temperature of the solution:

T Tf Ti 26.0C 21.9 C 4.1C


2. Calculate the amount of heat energy released
Let Q be heat energy released; m be mass; C be specific
heat capacity; T be change in temperature, then:

IB Chemistry HL Lab 10

February 23, 1013

Q m C T
Q (0.100kg) (4.18 10 3 J C 1Kg 1 ) (4.1C)
Q 1713.8 J
,
Thus, 1713.8 joules of heat energy was released in the
reaction. Since the heat was released, the change in enthalpy, H, should
be negative, hence H1= -1713.8 J.
3. The answer to question 2 is the heat released when 50 mL of 1 mol
dm-3 HCl is neutralized with 50 mL of 1 mol dm-3 NaOH
a. Calculate the molar heat of reaction.

n CV
n (1 mol dm 3 ) (0.050 dm 3 )
n 0.05 mol
This means that for 0.005 mol of reactants, 1713.8 J of heat is
released. Thus, using ratios, we can find the molar heat of reaction.
n1
n
molar
H1 H molar
H molar

nmolar H1
n1

(1 mol) (1713.8 J )
0.05mol
34276 J 34.276KJ

H molar
H molar

b. Is this reaction exothermic or endothermic?


i. Exothermic
c. Write the molar value of H for the neutralization reaction
using the appropriate sign.
HCl(aq) NaOH (aq) NaCl(aq) H 2O(l ) H 34.276KJ
i.
, or the
molar heat can be written with the units KJ/mol, as -34.3
KJ/mol.
Since the reaction is exothermic, the H is negative
Percentage Error:
Valueexp ValueTheo
%Error
100%
Valuetheo

(34.276KJ / mol) (56.2KJ / mol)


100%
56.2KJ / mol
%Error 39.0%
%Error

Conclusion:
We have determined in this experiment that the neutralization of
hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide is an exothermic reaction, with an
IB Chemistry HL Lab 10

February 23, 1013

experimental molar heat of reaction of -34.3 KJ/mol. The theoretical molar


heat of reaction is -56.2KJ/mol, which yields a percentage error of 39%.
The greatest source of error was that the system was not completely
isolated, hence heat was constantly lost to the surroundings. Due to this
loss of heat, the temperature rise was not as great as expected, which
caused the empirical molar heat of reaction to be lower than the
theoretical molar heat of reaction.

IB Chemistry HL Lab 10

February 23, 1013