LEMBAGA PENGEMBANGAN DAN PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR BOGOR 2008

WHAT IS BIODIESEL??
 Biodiesel is an alternative fuel aside from petroleum based fuel we have known before.  Biodiesel is categorized as biofuel because of its renewable characteristic.

Jatropha oil

H2SO4 + Methanol

Esterification, temperature 550C, 1 hour
Methanol residues and water

Precipitation and separation from water and methanol residues

KOH + Methanol

Transesterification, temperature 550C, 1 hour
Precipitation and biodiesel separation from water and glycerol Crude biodiesel

Glycerol and water

Biodiesel purification IMPORTANT!!
Crude biodiesel contain impurities

Performances

Machines

Biodiesel Purification Methods

Dry washing VS Wet washing Cleaning agent Water

PROSPECTIVE ALTERNATIVE

WHY??

Differences between wet washing and dry washing
Wet washing
More investment needed More energy needed More drying time needed Less quality of biodiesel that have been produced

Dry washing
Less investment needed Less energy needed No needs for drying time Better quality of biodiesel that have been produced

Cleaning Agent Preparation
Cleaning agent Low Adsorption

ACTIVATION
Activation of cleaning agent is aimed to enlarge the contact surfaces of adsorbent through pores structure forming that increase its adsorption.

Activation Method
There’s 2 method, e.g.  Drying  Acid-base activation using HCl or H2SO4 Based on Diaz and Santos (2001), acid-base activation shows significant differences of physicchemical characteristic such as surfaces and pores volumes between activated clay and non-activated one.

Acid-base Activation Reaction in Cleaning Agent
Based on Ketaren (1986), reaction that happened when acid-base activation applied on cleaning agent are  First, the acid dissolve Al2O3,CaO, and MgO that fill in adsorbent’s pores so the pores will be widely opened and the contact surfaces enlarged  Ca++ dan Mg++ ions are substituted by H+ ions from the mineral acid  Some of H+ ions that substitute Ca++ dan Mg++ will be replaced by Al+++ ions within acid aqueous liquid

Cleaning Agent Activation
B/T 100-200 g 400 ml HCl 16 %

Warming and agitation on temperature 80 oC for 3 hours
separation

HCl

Aquadest

Washing for 5 times until pH 3,5-4,0

Washing waste water

Drying on temperature 110 oC for 2 hours

Activated cleaning agent

Cleaning agent agitation using HCl, temperature 80oC, 3 hours

Cleaning agent agitation after 3 hours

Cleaning agent and HCl separation using vacuum filter

Waste water and cleaning agent separation using vacuum filter

Cleaning agent washing by water

Biodiesel Purification by Cleaning Agent
Crude biodiesel Cleaning Agent Agitation, constant speed, 20 minutes, room temperature Precipitation, for 2-3 hours Filtering

Adsorbents residues

Pure Biodiesel

Cleaning agent’s weight measuring

Mixing cleaning agent with biodiesel

Agitation at 20 minutes long

Separation between cleaning agent and biodiesel

Precipitation for 2 hours long

Biodiesel Analysis
Parameters which used for analyzing effectiveness of biodiesel purification process by cleaning agent are • acid value • soap and catalyst value • glycerol value (free, bound, and total)

Acid Value Graphic
0.90 Bilangan Asam (mg KOH/g biodiesel)

0.80
0.70 0.60 0.50

0.40
0.30 0.20 0.10

Bil Asam (mg KOH/g biodiesel) Standar

0.00

Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Lowest acid value measured
T100% = 0,1467 mg KOH/g biodiesel

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = 0,2341 mg KOH/g biodiesel

Biosponge Standard

= 0,2155 mg KOH/g biodiesel = 0,8000 mg KOH/g biodiesel

Soap Value Graphic
3500.00 3000.00 Kadar Sabun (ppm) 2500.00 2000.00 1500.00 1000.00 500.00 0.00 Kadar Sabun (ppm)

Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Catalyst value

undetected

Lowest soap value measured
B100% = 53,37 ppm

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = 17,79 Biosponge = 22,23

Free Glycerol Value Graphic
0.04 Kadar Gliserol Bebas (%-berat) 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 Gbbs %-b Standar

0.01
0.01 0.00

Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Lowest free glycerol value measured
B = 0,0054 %-weight

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = 0,0014 %-weight Biosponge = 0,0184 %-weight Standard = 0,0200 %-weight

Bound Glycerol Value Graphic
0.3000 Kadar Gliserol Terikat (%-berat) 0.2500 0.2000 0.1500 0.1000 Gikt %-b Standar

0.0500
0.0000

Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Lowest bound glycerol value measured
B : T (2 : 1) = 0,2190 %-weight

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = 0,2575 %-weight Biosponge = 0,2229 %-weight Standard = 0,2200 %-weight

Total Glycerol Value Graphic
0.35 Kadar Gliserol Total (%-berat) 0.3

0.25 0.2 0.15
0.1 0.05 0 Gttl %-b Standar

Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Lowest total glycerol value measured
B : T (2 : 1) = 0,2318 %-weight

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = 0,2589 %-weight Biosponge = 0,2413 %-weight Standard = 0,2400 %-weight

Best Cleaning Agent
B 100% and B : T (2 : 1)

Water Content Analyzing

Water Content
0.12 0.1 Kadar Air (%) 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 Kadar Air (ml/100 ml Biodiesel) Standar

0
BCA Biosponge B100% B2T1 Jenis Perlakuan Pemurnian

Lowest Water Content Measured
B 100% = 0,01 %

Comparison
Water-washing biodiesel = undetected Biosponge = undetected Standard = 0,05 %

Conclusion
•Cleaning agent utilization can be applied as an

alternative for purificating biodiesel, because cleaning agent effectively reduce impurities from crude biodiesel and efficiently less investment. •This can be viewed from significant decreasing of acid value, soap value, and free glycerol value from cleaning-agent-purificated biodiesel.