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# Heat and Mass Transfer &

## Fluid Mechanics Lab

Instructors-Dr. Laltu Chandra
Dr.Prodyut Chakraborty

## Ayush Bhadauria ( UG201212008 )

B.V. Kishore ( UG201212009 )
Raghvendra Balla Goud ( UG201212010 )

1.Aim 1)Understand the working principles of different types of water flow meters.
2)Evaluate the attached flow meters and compare them.

2.Equipments -

## 3.Safety Precaution 1.Check the water level of water tank.

2.Dont touch the hose pipe which is connected between DPT and any flow meter.
3.Inlet Valve and drain valve car fully operate.
4.One time use only one flow meter .At the time on the another station covered via
empty tube.
5.Without bleeding dont start experiment.
6.Always close inlet cock of pipe section before switching on pump.

7.Union nuts of pipe connections are only to be hand tightened pipe connections
may start to leak and thus be ruined.

## Specifications of experiment setup i)Pump

Submersible pump
Max Flow Rate 225 L/min.
ii)Double Tap manometerMeasuring range 0-680mm
Differential Pressure GaugeMeasuring range 0-2000mbar
iii)Magnetic Inductive Flow Meter ( reference flow meter )Max Flow Rate-4760 l/h
iv)Tank
Capacity Approx 55 litres

4.TheoryFour flow meters viz. Venturi Nozzle,Turbine wheel flow meter,Paddle wheel,Orifice
device.
The measurement of fluid flow is important in applications ranging from
measurements of
blood-flow rates in human artery to the measurement of liquid oxygen in a rocket.
The selection of the proper instrument for a particular application is governed by
many variables,
including cost. Flow-rate-measurement devices frequently require accurate pressure
and
temperature measurements in order to calculate the output of the instrument.
The most widely used flow metering principle involves placing a fixed area flow
restriction of
some type in the pipe or duct carrying the fluid. This flow restriction causes a
pressure drop that
varies with the flow rate.Thus, measurement of the pressure drop by means of a
suitable differential-pressure pick up allows flow rate measurement.
Each of the flow measurement devices inherently has its own advantages and
Some of those instruments are Venturi Nozzle,Turbine wheel flow meter,Orifice

1.Venturi Meter-

Venturi Meter have the advantage of being able to handle large flow volumes at low
pressure drops. A venturi tube is essentially a section of pipe with a tapered
entrance and a straight throat. As liquid passes through the throat, its velocity
increases, causing a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet regions.
The flow meters have no moving parts. They can be installed in large diameter
pipes using flanged, welded or threaded-end fittings. Four or more pressure taps are
usually installed with the unit to average the measured pressure. Venturi tubes can
be used with most liquids, including those having a high solids content.

dV/dt=

2 p /

## Flow coefficient is taken to be 1 and expansion coefficient is given by ,as water is

incompressible thus,=1.The density of water at a temperature of 20 degree C is
998.2 kg/m3.
Values obtained are tabulated belowdV/dt ref inL/h
p in mbar
measured
3000
546
2000
240
1500
135
1000
60
500
13

dV/dt in L/h
calculated
2914
1938
1436
964
472

Variance in %
-2.9
-3.2
-4.3
-3.6
-5.6

The flow measurement with the Venturi Nozzle shows good results as the measured
variances can be classified as relatively low.

2.Orifice deviceOrifices are the most popular liquid flowmeters in use today. An orifice is simply a
flat piece of metal with a specific-sized hole bored in it. Most orifices are of the
concentric type, but eccentric, conical (quadrant), and segmental designs are also
available.
In practice, the orifice plate is installed in the pipe between two flanges. Acting as
the primary
device, the
orifice constricts
the flow of
liquid to produce
a differential
pressure across
the plate.
Pressure taps on
either side of
the plate are
used to detect
the difference.
Major
orifices are
that they have
no moving
parts and their
cost does not
increase
significantly
with pipe size.

dV/dt=

2 p /

## Flow coefficient is taken to be 0.67 and expansion coefficient is given by ,as

water is incompressible thus,=1.The density of water at a temperature of 20C is
998.2 kg/m3
Values obtained are tabulated belowdV/dt ref inL/h
measured
3000
2000
1500
1000

p in mbar
75
31
17
6

dV/dt in L/h
calculated
2954
1900
1406
835.54

Deviation in %
1.54
5.12
6.46
17.91

The flow measurement with the Orifice device showsmore deviation thus, loss at
orifice tube is higher than venturi meter.

sensor, the pipe fitting and the display/controller. The paddle wheel sensor consists
of a freely rotating wheel/impeller with embedded magnets which is perpendicular
to the flow and will
rotate when inserted
in the flowing
medium. As the
magnets in the
wheel meter
generates a
frequency and
voltage signal which
is proportional to the
flow rate. The faster
the flow the higher
the frequency and
the voltage output.
meter is designed to
be inserted into a
pipe fitting, either
in-line or insertion
style. These are
available with wide range of fittings styles, connection methods and materials such
as PVDF, polypropylene, and stainless steel. Similar to turbine meters, the paddle
wheel meter require a minimum run of straight pipe before and after the sensor.
Flow displays and controllers are used to receive the signal from the paddle wheel
meter and convert it into actual flow rate or total flow values.

The water of flow velocity v flows into the inlet zone where it passes through a
nozzle and strikes the rotating paddles of the paddle wheel with a high kinetic
energy level.The kinetic energy of water generates a specific rotational frequency f
which is proportional to flow velocity v.
hence

f ~ v.

## The rotational frequency is transfered using a proximity method by a toroid to the

computation unit ,where it is converted into an analog voltage signal (~flow rate
dV/dt) and presented on display.
dV/dt ref inL/h
measured
3000
2500
2000
1500

p in mbar
426
258
167
141

dV/dt in L/h
calculated
2952
2224
1800
1350

Deviation in %
1.61
3.2
6.3
9.8

4.Turbine wheel flow meterThe turbine flow meter (better described as an axial turbine) translates the
mechanical action of the turbine rotating in the liquid flow around an axis into a
user-readable rate of flow (gpm, lpm, etc.). The turbine tends to have all the flow
traveling around it.
The turbine wheel is set in the path of a fluid stream. The flowing fluid impinges on
the turbine blades, imparting a force to the blade surface and setting the rotor in
motion. When a steady rotation speed has been reached, the speed is proportional
to fluid velocity.
dV/dt ref inL/h
measured
2120
2000
1500
1000

p in mbar
627
414
258
120

dV/dt in L/h
calculated
2102
1980
1462
990

Deviation in %
0.99
1.19
1.40
1.27

Result- Different flow meters have different accuracy levels.Various flow meters
can be arranged in increasing order of their accuracy by observing above
tables.Their accuracy order is Paddle wheel>Turbine wheel>Venturi>Orifice
device.Different flow meters

## Conclusion-The basis of good flowmeter selection is a clear understanding of

the requirements of the particular application. Therefore, time should be invested in
fully evaluating the nature of the process fluid and of the overall installation.Also
cost is one of the factor to decide which flow meter to be used.

## Sources of error1) Wearing, breakage, or failure of internal mechanical parts.

2) Damaging impact.
3)Improper installation.
4) Buildup of deposits, minerals, oils, and solvents.