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Instructors-Dr. Laltu Chandra

Dr.Prodyut Chakraborty

B.V. Kishore ( UG201212009 )

Raghvendra Balla Goud ( UG201212010 )

1.Aim 1)Understand the working principles of different types of water flow meters.

2)Evaluate the attached flow meters and compare them.

2.Equipments -

2.Dont touch the hose pipe which is connected between DPT and any flow meter.

3.Inlet Valve and drain valve car fully operate.

4.One time use only one flow meter .At the time on the another station covered via

empty tube.

5.Without bleeding dont start experiment.

6.Always close inlet cock of pipe section before switching on pump.

7.Union nuts of pipe connections are only to be hand tightened pipe connections

may start to leak and thus be ruined.

Submersible pump

Max Flow Rate 225 L/min.

ii)Double Tap manometerMeasuring range 0-680mm

Differential Pressure GaugeMeasuring range 0-2000mbar

iii)Magnetic Inductive Flow Meter ( reference flow meter )Max Flow Rate-4760 l/h

iv)Tank

Capacity Approx 55 litres

4.TheoryFour flow meters viz. Venturi Nozzle,Turbine wheel flow meter,Paddle wheel,Orifice

device.

The measurement of fluid flow is important in applications ranging from

measurements of

blood-flow rates in human artery to the measurement of liquid oxygen in a rocket.

The selection of the proper instrument for a particular application is governed by

many variables,

including cost. Flow-rate-measurement devices frequently require accurate pressure

and

temperature measurements in order to calculate the output of the instrument.

The most widely used flow metering principle involves placing a fixed area flow

restriction of

some type in the pipe or duct carrying the fluid. This flow restriction causes a

pressure drop that

varies with the flow rate.Thus, measurement of the pressure drop by means of a

suitable differential-pressure pick up allows flow rate measurement.

Each of the flow measurement devices inherently has its own advantages and

disadvantages.

Some of those instruments are Venturi Nozzle,Turbine wheel flow meter,Orifice

device and Paddle wheel.

1.Venturi Meter-

Venturi Meter have the advantage of being able to handle large flow volumes at low

pressure drops. A venturi tube is essentially a section of pipe with a tapered

entrance and a straight throat. As liquid passes through the throat, its velocity

increases, causing a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet regions.

The flow meters have no moving parts. They can be installed in large diameter

pipes using flanged, welded or threaded-end fittings. Four or more pressure taps are

usually installed with the unit to average the measured pressure. Venturi tubes can

be used with most liquids, including those having a high solids content.

dV/dt=

2 p /

incompressible thus,=1.The density of water at a temperature of 20 degree C is

998.2 kg/m3.

Values obtained are tabulated belowdV/dt ref inL/h

p in mbar

measured

3000

546

2000

240

1500

135

1000

60

500

13

dV/dt in L/h

calculated

2914

1938

1436

964

472

Variance in %

-2.9

-3.2

-4.3

-3.6

-5.6

The flow measurement with the Venturi Nozzle shows good results as the measured

variances can be classified as relatively low.

2.Orifice deviceOrifices are the most popular liquid flowmeters in use today. An orifice is simply a

flat piece of metal with a specific-sized hole bored in it. Most orifices are of the

concentric type, but eccentric, conical (quadrant), and segmental designs are also

available.

In practice, the orifice plate is installed in the pipe between two flanges. Acting as

the primary

device, the

orifice constricts

the flow of

liquid to produce

a differential

pressure across

the plate.

Pressure taps on

either side of

the plate are

used to detect

the difference.

Major

advantages of

orifices are

that they have

no moving

parts and their

cost does not

increase

significantly

with pipe size.

dV/dt=

2 p /

water is incompressible thus,=1.The density of water at a temperature of 20C is

998.2 kg/m3

Values obtained are tabulated belowdV/dt ref inL/h

measured

3000

2000

1500

1000

p in mbar

75

31

17

6

dV/dt in L/h

calculated

2954

1900

1406

835.54

Deviation in %

1.54

5.12

6.46

17.91

The flow measurement with the Orifice device showsmore deviation thus, loss at

orifice tube is higher than venturi meter.

3.Paddle wheelPaddle wheel flow meters consist of three primary components: the paddle wheel

sensor, the pipe fitting and the display/controller. The paddle wheel sensor consists

of a freely rotating wheel/impeller with embedded magnets which is perpendicular

to the flow and will

rotate when inserted

in the flowing

medium. As the

magnets in the

blades spin past the

sensor, the paddle

wheel meter

generates a

frequency and

voltage signal which

is proportional to the

flow rate. The faster

the flow the higher

the frequency and

the voltage output.

The paddle wheel

meter is designed to

be inserted into a

pipe fitting, either

in-line or insertion

style. These are

available with wide range of fittings styles, connection methods and materials such

as PVDF, polypropylene, and stainless steel. Similar to turbine meters, the paddle

wheel meter require a minimum run of straight pipe before and after the sensor.

Flow displays and controllers are used to receive the signal from the paddle wheel

meter and convert it into actual flow rate or total flow values.

The water of flow velocity v flows into the inlet zone where it passes through a

nozzle and strikes the rotating paddles of the paddle wheel with a high kinetic

energy level.The kinetic energy of water generates a specific rotational frequency f

which is proportional to flow velocity v.

hence

f ~ v.

computation unit ,where it is converted into an analog voltage signal (~flow rate

dV/dt) and presented on display.

dV/dt ref inL/h

measured

3000

2500

2000

1500

p in mbar

426

258

167

141

dV/dt in L/h

calculated

2952

2224

1800

1350

Deviation in %

1.61

3.2

6.3

9.8

4.Turbine wheel flow meterThe turbine flow meter (better described as an axial turbine) translates the

mechanical action of the turbine rotating in the liquid flow around an axis into a

user-readable rate of flow (gpm, lpm, etc.). The turbine tends to have all the flow

traveling around it.

The turbine wheel is set in the path of a fluid stream. The flowing fluid impinges on

the turbine blades, imparting a force to the blade surface and setting the rotor in

motion. When a steady rotation speed has been reached, the speed is proportional

to fluid velocity.

dV/dt ref inL/h

measured

2120

2000

1500

1000

p in mbar

627

414

258

120

dV/dt in L/h

calculated

2102

1980

1462

990

Deviation in %

0.99

1.19

1.40

1.27

Result- Different flow meters have different accuracy levels.Various flow meters

can be arranged in increasing order of their accuracy by observing above

tables.Their accuracy order is Paddle wheel>Turbine wheel>Venturi>Orifice

device.Different flow meters

the requirements of the particular application. Therefore, time should be invested in

fully evaluating the nature of the process fluid and of the overall installation.Also

cost is one of the factor to decide which flow meter to be used.

2) Damaging impact.

3)Improper installation.

4) Buildup of deposits, minerals, oils, and solvents.

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