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Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

Interrelationships between cutting force variation and


tool wear in end-milling
A. Sarhan, R. Sayed, A.A. Nassr, R.M. El-Zahry*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt

Abstract
Wear of a cutting edge in end-milling is a complicated process that requires a reliable technique for in process monitoring and control of
the cutter performance. This paper presents an approach to examine the effect of wear variation on the magnitude of the cutting force
harmonics. This approach implies a cutting force based model of end mill wear using computer simulation as function of axial depth of cut,
feed rate per tooth, specic cutting pressure of work material and instantaneous angle of rotation. The results were plotted at various cutting
conditions in time and frequency domains. Cutting forces in end-milling were measured using highly sensitive strain gauge dynamometer
which was calibrated in static and dynamic ranges. The tool wear was measured in an off-line manner and interrelationships of cutting force
harmonics and tool wear magnitude were constructed and were found comparable with the computer simulation results. Hence a cutter wear
monitoring strategy is constructed. # 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Keywords: Computer simulation; Cutting force; Tool wear; End-milling

1. Introduction
In the study of the relationship between the cutting force
harmonics and cutting tool ank wear of a cutting edge in
end-milling. Bamdyopadhay et al. [1], found that the amplitude of the dynamic components of the cutting signal are
continuously decreasing up to the deterioration stage of the
tool ank wear. Lee et al. [2], found that the dynamic components are sharply decreasing at the onset of the accelerated
wear zone after a earlier increase. While Zhang and coworkers [3], Elbestawi et al. [4], found that the dynamic
cutting components are continuously increasing. The production of an industrial product with high accuracy and surface quality requires control of the tool performance. The
development of a fully automated machining system is a
practical method to sense the amount of tool wear. Such a
development would enhance the quality of the product by
insuring that surface and geometrical specications are
within tolerance. In addition, there would be decrease in
cutting times, and savings in tool changing times. All of
which could result in an estimated overall savings of up to
40% [4]. There are two techniques for tool wear sensing:
direct and indirect. The direct technique includes measuring
the actual wear, using radioactive analyses of the chip. Indirect
technique includes measuring of cutting forces, torque,
vibration, acoustic emission (stress wave energy), sound,
*

Corresponding author.

0924-0136/01/$ see front matter # 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.


PII: S 0 9 2 4 - 0 1 3 6 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 8 0 3 - 7

temperature variation of the cutting tool, power or current


consumption of spindle or feed motors and roughness of the
machined surface [47]. In this study, the cutting forces are
used as the indicator of the tool ank wear variation. Finally
an on-line ank tool wear monitoring system is constructed.
2. Cutting forces in end-milling
In end-milling process, there are two components of
cutting force on each tooth; the tangential and radial components are shown in Fig. 1. In steady-state cutting, the
instantaneous tangential force acting on a single cutting
straight edge is given by [410]
Ft Ks aSt sin y aCw VB

(1)

and the radial force is given by


FR R1 Ks aSt sin y R2 aCw VB

(2)

Thus the resultant force is given by


p
FRR Ft 2 FR 2

(3)

and
y ot

(4)

Eqs. (1) and (2) consist of two terms. The rst term is due
to the formation of the chip and the second term is due to the
friction force caused by ank wear (VB), Fig. 2, which is

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A. Sarhan et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

Nomenclature
a
CW
FR
FRR
Ft
Fx
Fy
Ks
R 1, R2
St
VB
Vf

axial depth of cut (mm)


the edge force constant (N/mm2)
radial force (N)
resultant force (N)
tangential force (N)
force in X-direction (N)
force in Y-direction (N)
specific cutting pressure of work piece material
(N/mm2)
force ratio constant
feed rate per tooth (mm/tooth)
the width of flank wear (mm)
feed speed (mm/min)

Greeks
y
o

instantaneous angle of rotation (degree)


angular velocity (rad/s)

determined by experimental measurement of the average


ank wear on each tooth of the end-mill cutter using a tool
maker's microscope as follows [11]:
Z
1X
VB i
VB
Z i1

(5)

where Z is the number of teeth. The experimental interrelations between ank wear and machining time were constructed at various cutting conditions as shown in Fig. 3.
Non-linear modeling techniques are used to formulate these

Fig. 3. (a and b) Experimental measurements of tool ank wear width at


a 0:5; 1:0 mm.

relations. The tting equation is as follows:


VB a5 T 5 a4 T 4 a3 T 3 a2 T 2 a1 T a0

(6)

where a0, a1, a2, a3, a4 and a5 are constants. Substituting


Eqs. (1), (2), (4) and (6) in Eq. (3) gives the resultant cutting
force equation.
3. Detail of the cutting force simulation

Fig. 1. Forces in end-milling cutter.

Fig. 2. Flank wear of an end-mill cutter tooth.

To determine the nature of the effect of ank wear on the


individual cutting force harmonics; the cutting parameters
used in the simulation are as follows: Ks 5300 N=mm2
[12], CW 150:0 N=mm2 , St VF =Z rpm, a 0:5; 1 mm,
cutting speed 580; 290 rpm, Z 4, VF 28; 42 mm=min,
R1 0:5; R2 1:0.
The computer simulation was constructed using Fortran
program. The results were plotted at various cutting conditions in the time and frequency domains. Figs. 4 and 5,
shows the variation on the resultant cutting force frequency
spectrum (FRR), using a four-teeth cutter (a 0:5; 1 mm)
axial depth of cut for different amounts of ank wear. The
resultant cutting force is given by
p
FRR Ft 2 FR 2
Samples of the theoretical results are given in Figs. 4 and 5,
corresponding to Fig. 3a and b, St 0:012 mm=tooth. It can
be seen that the magnitudes of certain cutting harmonics
increase signicantly with ank wear while other harmonics
are unaffected, Figs. 912. For example in case of a

Fig. 4. Force simulation for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5 mm, St 0:012 mm=tooth.

Fig. 5. Force simulation for a four-tooth cutter with a 1:0 mm, St 0:012 mm=tooth.

Fig. 6. Experimental setup.

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A. Sarhan et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

Fig. 7. Experimental result for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5 mm, St 0:012 mm=tooth.

Fig. 8. Experimental result for a four-tooth cutter with a 1:0 mm, St 0:012 mm=tooth.

Fig. 9. The variation of DC component against tool ank wear width for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5; 1:0 mm: () St 0:012 mm=tooth; (---)
St 0:024 mm=tooth;() St 0:036 mm=tooth.

A. Sarhan et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

233

Fig. 10. The variation of the rst harmonic against tool ank wear width for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5; 1:0 mm: () St 0:012 mm=tooth; (---)
St 0:024 mm=tooth;() St 0:036 mm=tooth.

Fig. 11. The variation of the second harmonic against tool ank wear width for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5; 1:0 mm: () St 0:012 mm=tooth; (---)
St 0:024 mm=tooth; () St 0:036 mm=tooth.

Fig. 12. The variation of the third harmonic against tool ank wear width for a four-tooth cutter with a 0:5; 1:0 mm: () St 0:012 mm=tooth; (---)
St 0:024 mm=tooth; () St 0:036 mm=tooth.

four-teeth cutter (St 0:012 mm=tooth, a 0:5 mm) the


second, third harmonics variation against ank wear are
unaffected. On the other hand; the rst harmonic increased
signicantly with ank wear. Then any changes in the
cutting conditions or on the tool performance lead to
changes in the amounts of ank wear, leading to changes
in the signicant cutting forces harmonics.
4. Experimental tests
An experimental setup, Fig. 6, was constructed out on a
vertical milling machine to verify the signicance of
cutting force harmonics obtained from the computer simulation. A table strain gauge dynamometer was designed

Fig. 13. The relation between change in force harmonics and tool ank
wear.

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A. Sarhan et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

and manufactured and used to measure the two components


of the cutting force (Fx and Fy). The forces acting on the
dynamometer were averaged in the time domain while
resultant cutting force acting on the cutter was calculated
by
q
FRR Fx 2 Fy 2

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was performed to obtain


the frequency spectrum. The cutting testes were carried out
using HSS end mills (10.0 mm diameter). The cutting conditions used were as following:
1. work piece material: steel (90 BHN),
2. depth of cut 0:5; 1:0 mm,
3. feed 28; 42 mm=min,

Fig. 14. Schematic of on-line tool ank wear monitoring strategy.

A. Sarhan et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 109 (2001) 229235

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cutting force. The relation between the experimental force


harmonics and tool ank wear is then obtained and the force
model simulation program runs. A test run was performed to
verify the strategy where the theoretical and experimental
results were found in close agreement, as clearly seen in
Fig. 15.
7. Conclusions

4. speed 580; 290 rpm,


5. number of teeth 4.

This paper has presented the strategy for monitoring


the amount of ank wear and interrelationships between
cutting force harmonic variation and tool wear in endmilling. Certain harmonics increase signicantly with
ank wear while other harmonics remain unaffected.
Computer simulation was constructed to determine the
effect of ank wear on the cutting harmonics and was
veried through cutting tests. An on-line monitoring strategy using the cutting force harmonics magnitudes as indicator to tool ank wear was developed and veried
experimentally.

5. Experimental results

References

Experimental results of the cutting force harmonics are


given in Figs. 7 and 8, at different values of cutter ank wear
(VB). The variation of the experimental and theoretical
cutting force harmonics with ank wear are clearly seen
in, Figs. 912. Variation of the static component of the
cutting force and different feed rates per tooth is shown in
Fig. 9(a) a 0:5 mmand in Fig. 9(b) a 1:0 mm. Magnitudes of the rst harmonics of the cutting force and
different feed rate per tooth (Fig. 10(a) a 0:5 mm and
Fig. 10(b) a 1:0 mm) increase signicantly with ank
wear while the second and third harmonics (Fig. 11(a) and
(b) and Fig. 12(a) and (b)) are unaffected. This can be seen
clearly in Fig. 13, where the change of rst harmonic against
tool ank wear (VB) is plotted.

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Fig. 15. Experimental verication between force harmonic and tool ank
wear.

6. Tool ank wear monitoring strategy


This section describes a tool ank wear monitoring
strategy in milling process which uses the cutting force
harmonics as an indicator of the amount of tool ank wear.
An outline of the strategy is shown in Fig. 13. The monitoring strategy begins by dening the initial cutting conditions,
collecting the X and Y components of the cutting forces
acting on the dynamometer and measuring the corresponding tool ank wear (Fig. 14). The resultant cutting force is
then determined and an FFT is performed on the resultant