You are on page 1of 9

Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier

30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA


The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK
2010 ELSEVIER Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek
permission, further information about the Publishers permissions policies and our
arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright
Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions.
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the
Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).
Notices
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and
experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or
medical treatment may become necessary.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in
evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein.
In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the
safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.
To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors,
assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of
products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods,
products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ahmed, Tarek H., 1946
Reservoir engineering handbook / Tarek Ahmed.4th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-85617-803-7 (alk. paper)
1. Oil reservoir engineering. 2. Oil fields. 3. Gas reservoirs. I. Title.
TN871.A337 2010
622.3382dc22
2009039148
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
For information on all Gulf Professional Publishing
publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com
10

11

12

13

Printed in the United States of America.

Working together to grow


libraries in developing countries
www.elsevier.com | www.bookaid.org | www.sabre.org

This book is dedicated to my children,


Jennifer, Justin, Brittany, and Carsen Ahmed.
The book is also dedicated to a very special person, Wendy.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Much of the material on which this book is based was drawn from the
publications of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). Tribute is due
to the SPE and the petroleum engineers, scientists, and authors who have
made numerous and significant contributions to the field of reservoir
engineering. This book reflects my style of teaching during my tenure at
Montana Tech of the University of Montana and my understanding of the
subject of reservoir engineering. I would like to thank all my former students at Montana Tech for putting up with me and my Egyptian temper.
I hope that my friends and colleagues in academia will enjoy this edition of the book. Special thanks to Dr. Bob Chase, Dr. Tom Blasingame,
Dr. J. Tiab, Dr. F. Civan, and Dr. Nathan Meehan for their constructive
(I think) criticisms and discussions. I would like also to thank the
Petroleum faculty and their students at Cairo University and Suez Canal
University for their suggestions for updating and improving the book.
It was my pleasure to spend the past 7 years with Anadarko Petroleum
and work with an outstanding group of professionals. Special thanks to
Kevin Corrigan, Brian Roux, Diana McCranie, and Aydin Centilmen.
I would like to thank the editorial and production staff of Elsevier for
their work and professionalism, particularly Ken McCombs and Sarah
Binns.

xi

PREFACE TO THE
FOURTH EDITION

To make the fourth edition of this textbook as complete as possible,


I have added Chapter 17 that deals with the topics of Fracture Reservoirs
and Hydraulically Fracture Wells. The book documents the technical
materials that have published and addressed this subject over the last
20 years, particularly the research work that has been authored by
Dr. H. Kazemi and Dr. Steve Holditch.

xii

PREFACE TO THE
THIRD EDITION

To make the third edition of this textbook as complete as possible,


I have included the following: a new chapter on decline curve and type
curve analysis, a section on tight and shallow gas reservoirs, and waterflood surveillance techniques.
Many of my colleagues have provided me with valuable recommendations and suggestions that I have included through the textbook to make
it more comprehensive in treating the subject of reservoir engineering.

xiii

PREFACE TO THE
SECOND EDITION

I have attempted to construct the chapters following a sequence that


I have used for several years in teaching three undergraduate courses
in reservoir engineering. Two new chapters have been included in this
second edition; Chapters 14 and 15. Chapter 14 reviews principles of
waterflooding with emphasis on the design of a waterflooding project.
Chapter 15 is intended to introduce and document the practical applications of equations of state in the area of vapor-liquid phase equilibria.
A comprehensive review of different equations of state is presented with
an emphasis on the Peng-Robinson equation of state.

xiv

PREFACE TO THE
FIRST EDITION

This book explains the fundamentals of reservoir engineering and their


practical application in conducting a comprehensive field study. Chapter
1 reviews fundamentals of reservoir fluid behavior with an emphasis on
the classification of reservoir and reservoir fluids. Chapter 2 documents
reservoir-fluid properties, while Chapter 3 presents a comprehensive
treatment and description of the routine and specialized PVT laboratory
tests. The fundamentals of rock properties are discussed in Chapter 4 and
numerous methodologies for generating those properties are reviewed.
Chapter 5 focuses on presenting the concept of relative permeability and
its applications in fluid flow calculations.
The fundamental mathematical expressions that are used to describe
the reservoir fluid flow behavior in porous media are discussed in Chapter 6, while Chapters 7 and 8 describe the principle of oil and gas well
performance calculations, respectively. Chapter 9 provides the theoretical
analysis of coning and outlines many of the practical solutions for calculating water and gas coning behavior. Various water influx calculation
models are shown in Chapter 10, along with detailed descriptions of the
computational steps involved in applying these models. The objective of
Chapter 11 is to introduce the basic principle of oil recovery mechanisms
and to present the generalized form of the material balance equation.
Chapters 12 and 13 focus on illustrating the practical applications of the
material balance equation in oil and gas reservoirs.

xv

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Tarek Ahmed, Ph.D., P.E. is a Senior Reservoir Engineering Advisor


with Baker Hughes International at the Reservoir Engineering Technology Center. Before joining BHI, Dr. Ahmed was a professor and the head
of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Montana Tech of University
of Montana. Until recently he was a Reservoir Engineering Advisor with
Anadarko Petroleum. He holds a Ph.D. from Oklahoma University, an
M.S. from the University of Missouri-Rolla, and a B.S. from the Faculty
of Petroleum (Egypt)all degrees in Petroleum Engineering. Dr. Ahmed
is also the author of other textbooks including Hydrocarbon Phase
Behavior (Gulf Publishing Company, 1989), Advanced Reservoir
Engineering (Elsevier, 2005), and Equations of State and PVT Analysis
(Gulf Publishing, 2007).

xvi