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0023 01402
EASTERN REGIO}TAL LIBRARIES

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Developing $houjo
Manga Techniques

, ,t
,:i.l;i

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THE SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF SHOUJOMRNGR TECHNIOUTS

I.'

Vol.l : Compiling Characters


Chapter 1 Drawing the

Face

Chapter 2 How to Draw Bodies


Chapter 3 Drawing Characters
ISBN4-88996-042-2

Vol.2: Compiling Techniques


Chapter 1 Background Management Basics
Chapter 2 Tone Techniques
Chapter 3 Expressing Light and Shadows
I 5BN4-88996-044-9

Vol.3: Compiling Application and Practice


Chapter 1 How to Draw lnteriors and Exteriors
Chapter 2 How to Draw Machines
Chapter 3 How to Create a Short Story MANGA
lsB N4-88996-04s-7

Vol.4: Dressing Your Characters in Casual Wear


Chapter 1 Underwear andT-shirts
Chapter 2 Sweatshirts and Skirts
Chapter 3 Jackets and Jeans
lsBN4-88996-046-5

Special: Colored Original Drawing


(Copic Sketch Pen)
Chapter 1 Copic Sketch Pen
Chapter 2 Copic Airbrushing System
Chapter 3 Try Using Different Painting Materials with Markers
lsBN4-88996-047-3

Distributed by

JAPAN PUBLICATIONS TRADING CO., LTD.


1 -2-1 , Sarugaku-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 1 Ol -0064 Japan
Phone: B1 -3-3292-37 51 Fax: B1 -3-3292-041 A E-mail: jpt@lptco,co.jp

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IbCqfU Shoujo MangaTechniques


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Emrr m nfrtrstEd in 2002


qruilffiu h. tlr_

by

ffi tr"llh *dmart, tr fie Study of Shoujo Manga Techniques:


run tu@ ffio t(Lldo, Ryo Kagami
ffimrm
Kaoru Kajiwara
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Studio Pinewood lnc.
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Hideyuki Amemura
ISIE

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Yasuo lmai

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Shinichi lshioka

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Shinichi lshioka

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cudinator:

Lingua frdnca, lnc. (an3y-skmt@asahi-net.orjp)


Motofumi Nakanishi (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)
Kumiko Sakamoto (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)

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nlt trtrE HlIi]ation may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means mrc.to*d" ildrlding photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and

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pefrnission of the publisher.

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Table of Gontents

1x: >r. +

-r', Tt I
:,:r:, .::.:

:-=::

Seer irom a Vailety of Angles/Balance Between Head and Neck/Let's try giving characters expressions!/How to Draw Hair

xF furglesl-et's give characters movement!

of Common Mistakes

Lines 3 How to Draw Parallel Lines and Flashes (Converging

Lines)

..........77

Special Effects Used in Girls' Comics 1/Appeal of Characters/Something only possible in a girls' comic! Demands made 0n the

coy!/Psychological Characterization

Special Effects Used in Girls' Comics 2

Choose a subject (genre)!/Example of Romance Comic/Hints for Siories/How to Make the Story Development lnteresting/Element of Surprise .

lAttracting the Reader)/Growth and Development ofthe Heroine/Special Effects Used in Girls' Comics 3

Shapter 4 How to Create Manga

Manuscripts.....................

..........112

Writing a PloVStoryboarding/lnner Margin and Bleeding/Speech Balloons and Letter Size/How to Draw a Two-Page Spread/Borders, Speech
Balloons, and Drawn Letters/Frame Allocation/Picture Composition/Shift of Scenery/Page Turningishot Types,A/antage Point and Angle in Scenes

with Characters/CutBack/How to Attach Tracing Paper/Title Page/Basic Tools/Example of

Pen Work

t-

v\1

Chqpfer

FlowbDrqw

Do not think of the face as being flat. Think of it as a


rounded sphere as you draw. The eyes, nose, mouth,
eyebrows, ears, and other parts all have their proper
positions, so be careful,

The position of the eye


is about in the middle.

Position of Ears

Good

[*l"arle

t!-.

be
-

female
Front Side

Not good

ffi-m
Draw outline.

The lenqth ot
lhe face ie
aboul lhe
same ae thaL
of the handl

When you acLually

draw lhe face,


be7in by drawinq
f,he outlinel

:-Pay attention to ffie balance between the


ears, nose, and neckl

--e
s

:pposrte cheekbone

-rrf,Cefl bY

the

nOSe.

The

eyebrows

TA{
,

-,)

arenot\/
visible. (

\
I

?I
;i::i[l /"1 \
Iffi,il\

Neither the'
eyelashes nor

the nose is
visible.

The nose is slightly visible.

lsn't the neck line


attached to the
base of the ear?

At this angle The angle of


the nose
the nose is

is

not

visible.

The mouth
position.

wrong!

Face in Profile

Line around
eyebrow

Do not make the


nose and chin too
pointy!

The upper lip sticks


out a little more
than the lower lip.

Line under
nose

Balance Between Head and Neck


Length of Neck

The neck is too

thin.

The neck is too thick.

The neck doesn't bend


his farl

Looking Back

Her neck is

to the
point of being
scary!
Not good

Looking Up

YAAHH

The neck bone


protrudes
slightly.

i
T

-/
[fl

This is about the limit


(requires bending
backwards).

Looking Down

This angle is impossible to


attain without bending the
back.

t/1

The size of the eyes and the


position of the nose are wrong

Not good

on the face marked with X.

qq$ffirs
The far eye is smaller.

,'kt"

-/

Some ways to check to see if a drawing is


distofted are to look at it in a mirror, look
at it upside down, and asking a friend or
other third pafty to look at it.

@
.

'.f

?(e the eyes of children

:l

<-The tails

of ------>j
the eyes and

. -- rk

about the difference in


:r1e structure between fat

cheeks are

:-l

thin people.
--e amount of hair
:ioreases with age.

-- :'e case of elderly

low.

Draw the face a little


lower than the center

Middle-aged woman

line.

There are more

wrinkles.

"."acters, do not just add


'r(les to a young face!

The shoulder
line is also
lower.
Neck muscle
Elderly woman

Middle-aged man

Let's try giving characters expressions!


Facial expressions differ depending on
height of the eyebrows, the size of the
eyes, and how the mouth is opened.
Having a hand near the face will
make the face more expressive.

Smile

It's so funny there are

<-- He appears to
be bursting out
laughing.

Grin

?)
,l

rnese ora/wn
Standard smile

\,

letters convey
an outburst of
laughter.

dY
v

AHH
r'
Teary eyes
Add slanted
lines and tone
to the iace.

Looking down

Tears of joy
\_-_,

Troubled look

10

'' makes

Adding a
the character

,ngr.

' 1/"\
=-..*'
----,<;.look

i -\i,

i'tut/{' \

lfL,

Jl

Turn-down of

the mouth

-11
''

aan

--2
:::h.
1\

,t\1

\
A

hQ..

.Hmph

Folded arms are a


standard pose.

tried

drawing
fangs.

His eyes are


white.

EE?
Vertical lines on
face (turn ashen)

Cold sweat

--: cheeks are


: :rtly Puffed.

Oamn il,l

-'is

hand makes it look

The eyes
are dots.

<e the character is

:-rnking.
Absentminded

Try your beef, tro


ex?reee thinge

\\ou

can do irl

without relying l,oo


much on drawn
letbere and
dialoque.

She is fighting back


something. She has a
pained expression.

11

How to Draw Hair (Hairstyles)

Draw the hair one


size larger than the
sketch of the head.

Straight Hair
Adding a few stray hairs
will make the hair look
natural

This female pads


her hair in the
middle.

Adding volume to the hair


will make it look like a
wig.

iro@il
\

Looks like it was hardened


with hair spray.

Lurse head

rri'

',\
k;;-.,
',\,
?en f,o uee

ia the
Kound-pen

Act
-..-r^
\

/T\-

The hair is dry and straight.

Not good

The hair looks sp,c,:r ,


because there are tc':
strands. The lines ar:
monotonous and har:

12

The inner side is shaded.


Use tone in this instance.

-=-,

("re

When penning in the


drawing, do not get hung up
on the lines of the rough
sketch. Relax and draw in
light, sustained bursts

without stopping the pen


midway through lines.

Be aware of the hairline


and whirl of hair.

it appears to be
wrapping around
the other side.

Add thin lines.

Do not add sheen to the inner side


because it is shaded.
Not good
Use a pencil to
draw guidelines
for adding sheen.

lf you ignore the


shape of the head
when you add the
sheen, the head
will look flat.
Not good
Use a pen or brush
to draw lines while
noting the flow of
the hair (make the
ends of the lines

There should not


be a clear border

narrow).

between the sheen


and the solid
block.

Paint black making


use of the lines

drawn in Step 2. A
thin brush is best.
Use a stiff

brush where

the ends will


not split.

0ther Types of Solid Hair

@@
No

sheen

-*-

Add white or
leave some
white in the
shape of the

sheen.

Animation style

13

Permed Hair
Hold the pen lightly and draw in a relaxed
and nimble fashion in order to get the fluffy
look of a perm.

The hair looks


hardened with hair
spray and healry.

Adding several strands


of thin hair to the
outside will make it
look natural.

it\\
Hair is thin

at ends.
Hold the pen lightly
and draw with a flick
the closer you get to
the end of the hair.
The lines will be

unsteady and hard lf


you draw slowly.

It will look outdated


and hard if the lines
are uniform and the
thickness of the lines
is constant.

Monotonous lines are


not good.

Shaded portion

Too many lines make

the hair look outdated.

The : a',', oi the


hair ras reen

igni'e:

It is also good to
add tone to some
parts.

Adding thin hair on the


outside will make it
look fluffy.
Shaded

portion

- Shon Halr

ln the case of sheen. think about


how the iight hits the hair.

---

The key to shorl


hair is the cut!

The facial
expression
differs
depending on
the forelocks.

Sheen like
an angel's
halo.
l

Pay attention to the

part in the hair.

Pay attention to the

flow of the hair.

Hair with Tone


.':ate

::

sheen by scraping

tone.

Use tone here and there


(the hair wilt took fair).

ln this instance, it is best to

There are a variety of types


depending on the type bt tone

now tne tone is scraped.

and

Solid black and tone

Paint the hair black, add tone


after
the ink has dried completely, and

scrape. Pay attention to the balance


between the black and tone.

15

Other Hairstyles

be gure to
keep uV wiLh

Ihe lateef,
hairetyleol
Make sure the
hair looks braided.

Pay attention

tofie - -a

tro*oilnrna,i

/'

,z jA.

The position of the head and heels is

determined after deciding the height. lf


the character is to have a head-to-body
ratio of 1:7, then divicte the body into
seven parts based on the size of the
head.

Note f,haf,f,his rule of


Lhumb chanqee if the headLo-body ralio chanqee.

It is best for females to have a headtobody ratio of 1:7 or 1:8 (the character
The hair volume is
separate from the headto-body ratio,

below is 1:7).

The waist and elbow are


same position.

/atlhe

The wrists are located at

the crotch line.

The region below


the knees is
longer.

The calves fall


outside the
center line.

q --(:a:2, sr Sirlders than


flllrrrrEl{Bi[ t-l: :',],lE- mnes. Don,t forget to

ltfllllilillr

f|ia

iltLlllllli

[iifr]

l.rirtiE

It is best for males to have a headto-body


ratio of 1:B or 1:9. A ratio of 1:10 is
stretching it (the character below is 'l:8).

-A

.a--.<-

It can be difficult to draw


shoft people and children if
they have a headto-body
ratio of 1:7 or 1:8.

-&"<S>so

-@_.
a-2?-

'./+>
,r'-5

>)--;3

aa)2v.rt,
V2

".r47

ffi
:o"

z
Are you

ourprioed?

The arms and legs


are on the {at side.

school

Higher grades of elementary


(head-to-body ratio of about 1:5.5 to

1:7)

Lower grades o{ elementary school

Comical (headto-body ratio of

(head{o-body ratio of about 1:4 or 1:5)

Toddlers should also be a ratio of 1:3.

The length 0f the arms when extended is the


same as the length of the body.

Center of Gravity
This shoulder is

raised.

It

ia

true

Weight rests on

lhat lhere

the right leg.

are ?oeaa
Nhaf, are

only poeeible
tn comtce,

20

i:3)

ilE\

sta
'

:afss a
rlct r
rda
+.-

[l

lrlnde

Center

oraw a rough

sketch. @

OiviOe by the number

ot @ Roo the character.

heads based on the


center.

High Angle (Looking Down From Above)

(Looking Up From Below)

6
5

4
3
2
1

The feet are small.

,mn:,ffiI'w9!
l- "..........

4..

.. a a. a a.

o. a a. a a. a t..

a...

a....

a..

a. a 3

21

[eft

give characters movement!

Pay attention to

the movement
of the chest.

(t

X\

l?)
VLJ

tfl
H1

\1\

W
\il

N
tr

The hair

---*
sEeams back.

r- Leanino fonivard makes it look like


V tne chiracter is running fast.

Lorq stides make it


hol< like

fie

is running

character

fa$.

Flying pebbles add


the'atmosphere!

tn ;

wr[in-s

The knees always bend a litile while walking.

Both knees
locked.

'l|li'

l)lill lllllllillli*

ri::r lilIi
'llrriililrii

lllLl

ri*
:*

llllrilii!Ji:

Do not bend the leg joint

rrurlfT.

in the opposite direction.

One of the feet

is on the
ground at all
times.

When takinq a

f
{'y
\

You can raa

Lheee

tha|

lor

walkinq

looke

uncoordinated,

.t

streams back.

long eteV, bobh


kneee are pretty
much locked.
Caution

\
This looks unnatural.

_"+-

--r-:-

I
I

-.1

---"

-,

-l

="::iView
-a

,/

Exaggeration makes the


picture interesting.

A Variety of Actions

24

Middle finger
lillllru{flflfirrrlmtturry

Imrnm -:r:nr a variety 0f angles,


*nrg61
length, width, and

1lluffififltilrflqili rMtrrMT'Ii

Itlffillffif,ill

Little finger ,

-l

l-x

a{/ni---{.t

/\
/\

-{

indicates joints.

The bone protrudes


slightly.

Fingertips are round


and not pointy
(fingernails are

ryr.qntrmwff*e
]llllln]l''lilffilm

exception).

sised
r,'ell.

Do not add too many creases.

Drawing the hands too


realistically will look unnatural.

,lir*

25

When holding a can or other object,


you can strike the right balance by
also drawing the parts of the hand
and can that are not visible.

Common Mistake
Male hande have
oharV

joinlo and

muscles.

The lonq,lhin

finqero ol
females are
beauLiful,

It is a mistake to have the base of


the thumb and the base of the little

finger at the same level.

Try drawing feet in a variety of


poses as well.

)(Shoes are one size


larger than the feet.

t,1l
26

il@nmlmtmrn of

milmn

Fmm the l{eck to the Shoulders and Arms

mmrmtakes

r ./

It is unnatural for
the left shoulder
to be higher than
the right one.

:.

-n'ilh.'ry'
,,mi*-=:,
\Lz^ *
j -\- if
f-*
*^'
,,'r.==:4
=

e line/l,\\
Correct

- _:

fr;_."-',', i

flffiH, mrmt^A;i'

Position of Shoulders
Not good

Good

(
(
[)

The thighs

\
/

hl/

/\

The shoutder is

T toohish.

Raised Arm
Not good

The elbow is
too high.
It looks like

there is no
shoulder joint.

27

differs

B6
f'lN=/
q#*J
";;\

r\"$M1"
\,li.r-27

The texture of clothing


depending on the type
material. Actually touch clothing
and look at magazines and photo

of

collections for ideas.

AN
Corsage

Kimono (long-sleeved
The

left o
right.

Enlarged

illustration

l1-l:=:ilTl
,l
I1 ' ,.'.::',l:rr.l
I
ll

tt
tt
|

r',i." ::i', -i'rr


:,'
I
':'r:,:,r:l

::, ::l
Print

Fur, imitation

fur

Gingham check

Lightly sketch the lines of the body


even when the character will be

wearing clothes that will hide them.


The position of the feet and
the balance of the characta
will be off if you draw just
clothes without thinking
the lines of the body.

De carefull i-,.e eaei'-.c

make theee mistakea.


Kememberinq iheae wili

come in handy later.

Ladies' jackets (right over left)


zii Some ladies' jackets are
left over right.

-/-

Sleeve

tr

-t-/
v
"

I tr

:]ililt1ittt!,iltr

llllll

-rlt

-/' -.-

l!: /i:en

the

flrrr*:

Steeve

---t
^

'\

t+
t

rr3?[

@
An

{,Ul
\/
)-jI

r-1
Faf

Jeans rendered

Jeans done with tone,

with a pen.

Striped T-shirts

1'-qi

I" q,,

7'

",:

::pes

Good

are unaligned at the creases.

29

Wrinkles in

Wrinkles in trousers when


the legs are crossed.

\__._

*There will be more


wrinkles near bent
joints.

to use too
many wrinkles. lt will look
overdone.
Be careful not

Tight-fitting slacks
will have fewer
wrinkles. There will
be some near the
knees.

.Loose-fitting clothes made


of soft materials have more
wrinkles.
oTight-fitting clothes made
of hard materials have
fewer wrinkles.

30

-,Jn

s{. dS

''rtfi::*

-.II'

I lXrrnllilllilll llliil

There are almost no


wrinkles when standing

straight up.

Sitting on heels

Sun glasses/GIasses/Caps
Do

theee

took

Draw the
stems so
that they
lean toward

the eyes.

tame?

It will look silly if


the eyebrows are
above the frame of
the glasses.

The dotted line


indicates the head line.

The cap rests on


the head and hair.

32

\F4

4q

33

Many of you may think that backgrounds do not have to be


drawn clearly since it is a girls' comic. However, that is not true.
lf you know the basics, lt will be surprisingly easy to draw any
kind of background and it will be effective for the girl's comics.
We hope that by all means you will give it a shot.

^^

.2)

|
I

Think abouL

.aa 5'nave
1a araw a
e

Whala

VeroVecNive

?erc?e:.

when drawinq

<.--.ch?

backgrounde.

'R.

D,l

almoophere.
You can also
look af,

pho\oe.
Teropecbive ie lhe Nechnique ol
reVreeenting the opaiial relaNion

ol

objecta ao Nhey nighl apVear to Ihe e',:

You can cre;"t


a eVace by
drawinq objetr

nearby biqqe"
and objecto n
away omalle'

.-$'a-UUHH

)
i -i

to'can

ta

/ ,/

J4

ffiUrmrrrrffi

Spread out a box that is


missing one side.

I will explain

il in a way
lhat io eaoy
tro undersland.

Divide each side


into nine equal
parts.

--lffiipum

+
You can see in perspective

when you put the box back


together. Add in g characters,
a door, a table, and a
window results in the next
picture.

A t all pereon ie
in Lhe back.

I forgot' to tell you, but


lhere are t'hree rulee of

ffi

A point (this is called the vanishing point)


is drawn in the middle to make it easier

to comprehend.

oint
oint
perepealive, and threect|ve:

er ep

erep ealive, tw o-

on

e - p

perepealive.

-_=___

is

35

Gre-Paint Perspective
This is convenient for drawing pictures that show depth. You
establish one vanishing point and draw depth lines toward the
vanishing point (it is called one-point perspective because the
lines all converge on one point).

First, choose the vantage point


of the camera. Eye level is the
height of the eyes of the person
viewing the picture or the height
of the camera lens.

The vanishing point was placed


in the center in order to make it
easier to understand.

Let's try adding characters.

JO

Good example
By way of experiment, draw characters in
perspective with the eyes of the characters at
eye level (assuming they are the same
height). The position of the eyes stays the
same no matter how small the character is.

Poor example
lf you draw a character in perspective relative
to the hallway and eye level and the
character do not go together, the character
will look very tall.

You need to be careful

when it comes to the size

ffit

of windows and doors.


They should match the

ffi
;t
iffi lliilrll"riimmr

size of characters.

]mm

rffiliillrliiiii:illlll,,

-ll-:r-

-l

\---/

(t
1t,

i-

4LTi

-:
-:

\"\ \
The lines will meld

;<!l

together as they get


nearer the vanishing
point.

Good Example

Ceiling Lights
lillll0l

lr[

37

lncorrect example (Figure A)

Even if a picture is drawn


using one-point perspective,

it will feel odd if it is taken


too far.

For insNance,

takeLhetoV of
lhe desk.lN will

Correct example (Figure B)


It is close to how a human would see it.

look oquaehed
if the depth
lines are nol
correcN.

r----

/R;x"',
J-W Ps,",'
"_f".
,/

l\./ )j,
,,

,,+D.

oCube
Before we move on to twopoint perspective, let's
fam liarize ourselves with
low and high angles.
i

0ne-point perspective

[_l
!=J

Lowangte

High angle
I

38

Above eye level is low angle


(looking up from below) and

below eye level is high angle


(looking down from above).

mry1

i1611fl, llflllt,lsrrrilflfllifq

-l-t;

t-qlfi -:r:

llllllltl'ttqlg11ffiilllllllllllllnp

F
:':i[,, r,.

-'

:llit"rfir'

,l -

.111,.."-"'l:rIullll

.dL

rrilrfllt]

rrrllllii

rl

Ong@

3O1l

;: _ ^.

:,--

:e nned
haS

r -"-:-

ald62;

-t! I

rl11r
llil

-.r_

:,.

" .."j.', -: ::-a

,1, ri

:,-

,lfll luutil ll]]ur:l'

,,r:11!lllllil illill,

:,1

-f

' I :,
.,1:

-Cer, think of

;-::-ally

being

.Cylinder

- :r:':: af0und.
rlLli.

Eye level

(n0flz0n)

B
_u/

This may be more easily


understood in the case
of a comical object
(simple object).

39

Two-point perspective is used the most when drawing pictures.


It is used when you want to show two sides of a building, and it
is often used for the exterior and interior of buildings. lt is called
two-point perspective because there are two vanishing points.

Good example

Poor example
ln the case of two-point perspective, there is a tendency to
want to include two vanishing points in a frame, but if you do
so the drawing will look very different from what the human
eye would see.

Please note that this is not a mistake. This can intentionally be

used to make it look like a wide-angle lens has been used (it is
normally best for the perspective to look natural).

+(-j

trffilirp
trfttA

Vanishing

point

@r,m nt 6 irduding the


trhut

da

ffi.

llts a coint at,


e;el where

rfi

The

re

two points (vanishing points)


always at eye level (eye level

b fie horizon),
B

The drawing witt be distorted if


eye level is tilted.

Drawing a Room Using One-Point and Two-Point Perspective


Example of One-Point Perspective

,r"'

The height of the


camera lens is eye
level.

Eye level

This is the image seen by the camera.

ln the case of two-point


perspective, the room is
diagonal in relation to the
camera.

Eye level

This is the image seen


by the camera.

42

Ir",ffirr

rttfltilliltliltuttutlititiiirttlEl,[

]?r,r

a table that iS Sitting

-t

perspective. ln other
*'
,rrrrrrfilllilluru,, tlltlttrh",:rl
:enpective can be used for
lilrilririiirflrts,,;
ffiM&mullltll
;ii- I sQuare that is parallel to
'$1, illllillllxllllillll,l :rur,t*:i- rt perspective is used for
,iMuriilrNil iilil Urlril[

:]rrE*:i:

,tri;iled diagOnally tO the


ililmfi ]itr ,anishing points are

lillfi(tllr|::iullfi illlllliiiiiifll
liiifll]]tl|ltnlfluflrititr

illl
'1,::;iilllllllllllrlllllll

firi-T

tLr{

E',:

lUSt like in One-pOint

rlillll[illlillllllliiiiillTlT lllri

llllr' :rl

rr-i :*"SpeCtiVe and tWO-

:E-i['*::Ve

Seem tO be
ltililii:ar[ il:,_c of drawing, but
.n]ilfi

ilrLrr
fllflllllllilillrrr

ifr

are both types of

I'r'i

: faWi

g.

43

Characters the Same Height in a Room


When two characters are the same height,
draw in perspective with the position of the
eyes and shoulders aligned. When there is a

height difference, draw in perspective after


determining the height difference.

Eye level

Not good: Character A looks smaller than character

though they are the same

height.

! , ,fr

Eye level

Good: Change the height of characterA.

Good: Change the perspective of the backgrouM.

WJ'
H
Fii

i:

Think about the overlap

raqq.:

lffi

Think about the


depth of a

window drawn in
perspective.

Leads to vanishing point.

rlilMfllllilrflffirilflMm6

llllllllfiifiIllrilllllllllffi

rflmTrulr

6 opened...

s-

Think
about the
thickness
of the
wall.

The window gradually narrows as it gets nearer the


vanishing point.
0verhead

View <-----,-

lncorrect Example

|---]----l
Not good

tl

\
rllrltilillil$frtilTflillllliltlllrr

$ t|lE same width even when

Good

This looks like a casement


window.

milriruuf,xlllilmilii

{ttflllffimrrlntrm

ffimm equally a window and other squares in perspective.

iflm!1rililrilllllllfl

*N*K*K-il

ru[0 sffl Pl pats.

f
rMmiftr,illtmm

!fi'rsf equal parts.

3
i,mtffi

rffiilrm

lmlfim m
t

lvt
/t\l *M*M-ru
"1-7

---"'"4

truun

mp*

equal

Follow steps 1-4 above


to get to this point.

EIEItr

Low Angle

*The vanishing points were

This is used when a large building is


being looked up at from below 0r looked
down on from above. lt is called threepoint perspective because there are
three vanishing points. The picture will
look unrealistic if the vanishing points,,
are not far away.

placed nearby for explanation


purposes. lt leaves something
to be desired as a picture.

Eye level

Leads to point C.

To make drawing easier, think of buildings as boxes lined up

0n squares. All the veftical lines of the buildings converge on


point C (in this case off the page).

46

il,ll'$rt*"

lli"'lfli'll1l|l

ln the caee of two-?aintr ana

'rll[{ti;.li l
olllll' lfllll

flrllJlii

Lhr e e- ? oi nt,

e r a e ctiv e, Ih e
?
?
van\eh\nq ?olnLo lA,, b, and C)
never fall wilhin tha frame.You

rllll'

'

lnll

ra

.--x :.-.,t'',

,rl

have

ta la?e aome ?a?er to

ii

for drawtn4 lhe vaniehln7


?ainte.

ftnee-Poi nt Perspective

:r

: - gh angle, place point

I m :e ow the picture.

Eye level

It will aloo help


you learn where Lo
-

-) -

- -^il

':a

place vaniohing

?ointo and how f,o


draw in
?ere?ective.

47

Lctt Trf Heprcduci*g

F.h.stafrphs

leproducing photographs in photo collections and magazines


eractly ivill cause copyright problems, so think of photographs as a
$afring point for your drawings. Photographs you have taken
.,*ourself are the best.

Tones used: Letra 61

lc

.+8

473

,62,1210, and 1021

tr:,,,'n using one-point perspective.

-./-/'

.Ll"n

in the lines, fill in the solids, and make corrections with correction
Then apply tone and you are finished.

'ud.

49

How to Abbreviate Classrooms


Drawing all the chairs and desks in a classroom

will make the picture look cluttered and annoying"


When there are n0 characters in the picture, decirie
what part of the classroom you are going to
emphasize. ln the case of peripheral characters,
one approach is to draw them as parl of the
background using thin lines.

Drawn Exactly Like


Photograph

Put enough distance bemr


desks for people to srt anr
walk. Adding small objem
such as messages on

fr

bulletin board, speaker.

um

blackboard eraser will ru


look more like a classromr

Upper Left (Direction of Vanishing


Point) Blurred
When blurring one paft of a frame, it is
common to blur a part in the distance
(direction of vanishing point) or blur the
foreground (in the case of background
alone with no characters). When there
are characters in the frame, it cannot
be summed up so easily, because the
effect will differ depending on the parl
you want to show at any given time. :

50

ril|ffIl,fl,lrtiltrlIlt]]lltnilItiltfl',*rqre

E?ra

False perspective is often used for

lel Perspective)

backgrounds in girls' comics, I will


explain exactly what this means.

These lines do
not converge
on a vanishing
point. They are

parallelwith
eye level.

lf you think of
this section as
being depicted
in one-point
perspective, it
can be said to
be the same
as Figure 1.

These lines
converge 0n a
vanishing poini

l r '- - i.- :xtreme

Figure 3

The drawing in Figure 1 may be odd from a


theoretical standpoint, but visually it is more
stable than that in Figure 2.
Why does the drawing in Figure I look more
stable even though it goes against the theory of
two-point perspective?
The truth is that, to the human eye, the drawing
in Figure 3 looks like that in Figure 4.

way, this is what it looks like


eyes are lenses. They are

,] t't t:-.:-Se the human

r,,'.--:,e

Try lying faceup on the


ground and

lens or wide-angle lens on a camera.).


:'a,,ling in Figure 3 to the human eye

rrr li 1 ;:
r, r ft l-r -

Point A

COrfeCtS it.

stare

Let's say you


_____>
vacantly at pointA on the
ceiling without
concentrating (or
focusing) on it.
The line with point B on it
should look curved like in
Figure 5. lf you shift your
gaze and focus on point
B, however, it

will look

like a completely normal


straight line.

,ri

,:'r

riiir':.iirii

"

il

::

'1

.-: 6 The

Point

Figure 5

/\
/ I 4et it, The \
I brain
\
\ compenoatee
l
\on the fly. /
-------L---'/

rrealitythe

r:lre

tt

looking up at

the ceiling.

looks likg
theory

] l '' ,: r,r2S Ofiginally


r,r . -:(e a dfawing
rirj ' : -: what the eye
til I -: :: there is

nr

Ir ,,

, : ,,:iry about as

' ,il

:,:

iS natufal.
Figure 6

5t

There seems to be a surprisingly large number of people who


cannot draw a circle in perspective. Try drawing with an
understanding of the concept.

Vanishing point

Try drawing circles on a cube.

Draw an oval by

drawing a line
(B) that crosses
at a right angle
the perspective
line (A) that
leads to the
vanishing point.

The best way to


flatten an oval in
perspective is to

Make the oval


symmetrical with the
line (B) in the middle.

draw a square and


work from there.

---^\-6---qr-Z
] --'--,--

tl)
-!/-

To

@
\a]
*
={,p {'r'

vanishing

point

\- -\

To vanishing poi

Poor Example

52

I had be:'
drawin4

circles

a'

Point C

For side views, make the vertical lines completely perpendicular.

Background Technigues

Round Arch-Shaped Windows


There appear to be many people who
can draw square windows but few who
can draru round ones. Do not just copy
what you see. Draw with a grasp of the
concept.

lncorrect Example

Many people
cannot draw this
curved porlion.

*'-

*n*

\l,

A flexible ruler is easy tc


use once you get used tc
Circles, ovals, etc.

Draw using a curved rule.


Those with the
confidence can draw
freehand.

-1-:l irg Characters

,,

:]

'
l

lr

rrrrllr

- , i *: -: grt of the fence and the height of


, : -- = :iaracters using lines that are
J. :_ ::

r ,, t- : - :- : se used for the baCkgrOund,


. : : ::' :- :e in front of it.

they

: t -: :' . .:r objectsthatare inthe way,


'i" *' :' -Z,a an intriCate deSign, and ObjeCtS
. .. :::
,."'-"::-

yvhen reproduced exacfly as in

55

0peninq and Closinq of Doors

56

rmml[hkrilnFmfit
,,",1$1-,rt*

Lmrmul

mFluil0flillllm

ilmllnlllllMr

tru {hor. wall, and doorframe using

IEWdrve

MA

(Eye level is always

b the focal point.).

ttext, draw an oval using the widffr of tre


doorframe (segment C) as the radius and fie axis
of the door B (A) as the center.

ffifitm
Iltumllllmffi

twtr d

a circle will retreat slighfly because of

mltlduuru ilt ril deviate from the center of a drafted

oval.)

rc
-

@
ffimmfl$r fte angle that you want the door to

ilo'

Llmmn
tllllillfrr

rd

mrr

draw a line (segment a)from point B to

d he

circle.

a line (segment b) perpendicutar to the


ffir,*
umrm from the point (point C) the

line touches

lllllllfiP

m.

trtext, extend segment


a from point B to eye
level. Call the point

where the line


intersects wifi eye
level point D. Point D
is the vanishing point
for the depfi of the
open door.

57

a I ^e l:c,,,arC point B'from point D. Callthe


point r,,,te'. 'l r:iei'sects with segment b point E.

Thickness

@Oraw

of door

It has been exaggerated to make


easier to understand.

flfor

the thickness of the door a-i:


angle of the thickness, using :,.

riir

circle drawn earlier makes th ":;


easier. A close-up is shown a:,:,,r
First, determine the thickness tnt
door (point C ) relative to poir': Next, join point C ard point C ,, llltri
straight line. This yields the ar;- -

the thickness.

fxtenO the angle of the thickness oi


the door (C and C') sought earlier
straight toward eye level. Call the
point where the line intersects with
eye level point F (this point is the
vanishing point for the g0-degree
depth relative to the surface of the

Once thia ie determined


lhe reat io eaoy,

door).

This yields the angle of the

thickness here.

l/

To

point

Eye level

58

drawing will be complete on:l


the doorknob has been add::

Tc point

Respective thickness angles


sought from point F. The

LiillllMmmrffi
l{@nil 6t $rould be
r

rxtlnffi'tflililr
liitllt

dr#

hdf he height of

ilrlr rase of a door that is

mCIh).

This is the center.

Point
*{lllllllltru

fllliluffir d the doorknob' is

flnlllllllfllfltr,@

mtsnnine if you use

tffiflfllF

lhus

in

;Wnese

homes are between

m md 90 cm (32 in, and 36


mr-,

ride. They may be

The doorknob itself is


at a slight angle.

'mrrmver in some instances.


are usually 180 cm (6
t., iugh. ln countries other
iwt Japan, they are about g0

Ms

Ern (36 in.)

wide and two


(6.67 ft.) hiqh. Use
ilnf, own house as a guide as

nrnmbrs

d!

59

Look aN

lhe

VicNure on

the

riqht,. Firel you


draw a box and
Lhen you

determine Nhe
anqle of

You can easily draw stairs if you think of them as

one rectangular parallelepiped on top of another.

ind high-angle views


ililrfll lltlrllrrxlrr" ::e same way. Draw a

riirlllxu

liit!)rulr-

Low-Angle Gross Shot

'ir x-l

other parts s0 that


'*iiilI:
ir''mlrll
fie height of
tuflilllL

it;rlliilllurililtil-1gf

-!

To vanishing

point

To point D
To point C

ldentical sloping parallel lines


converge on the same point (to
point D). Point D is on the line that
connects vanishing point B and
vanishing point C.

To point

,lliuil

:i:]r:

ln Ine

To vanishing

I rr* 1 "ar in the


litiiiLliil\.,:

point B at

eye level
Vertical lines converge
on vanishing point c.

61

Vertical line

High-Angle Cross Shot


As in this example, you can
also draw stairs by determining

the vertical and horizontal lines


from inside a large box.

Boxes with the top sudace


visible are stacked on each

Horizontal line

other.

Horizontal line

This surface gradually gets


narrower and no longer visible.

Eye

-he vanishing point is placed nearby, so the


-r:'spective is a bit tight, but it may make it
:r'',,enient for observing changes in
^-?-^^^rt,,^

level

This pad is

visible becar
ln the case of low-angle stairs, pay
attention to the pafts that are not visiblel

overlapping

---'-_-.=\

il ie eaey once
you learn the
lheory.
t\

\_\_,___-/

"1'

" :.r-: ililgh-angle views


,,''
r""
I,i S"ame Way. DfaW a
li,iilr L- I :frer pafts s0 that

"liutitlir:,,
I

Liili

"

:e

height of

lliir'"''"

Vedical Lines (Ihis drawing uses parallel perspective.)

lir1,:r":: nkaboutthe
and the vertical
,-r"'-'nding the vanishing
'"*
-,-1 being obsessed with
lri,
it, ',r i""Y :'the sloping road.

ir
r,

" ^'i :a1s

'r

:-

-\x\ ->
/

tel

ln(

0ne-Point Perspective

63

i How

to Draiiu:,Natural'sbieet$l

,\inep 6;6*,ng natural objects


such as trees, grass, and

You need

to

thickets, it is important to make


sure that the lines do not become
monotonous. Think about
simplification with variety" when
drawing.
ComicalTree

Leaves Lacking Variety

-?

-N"ffrr

..r\\$

C*"*,
33.\Y--?
.*l
.)i,\!Jrs {

Not good

\Sr*t

\\\\\

Not sood

'rr\\r .
--\1,t\\\\

.ll],t

The same shape is repeated.


It is symmetrical.

Good

easier to rendi'
softness.

Think of a thicket as a
single mass while being

"/"-

When drawing : m
adding rhythn .:;
variation make.

Realistic Tree

" \$ '' '

aware of the leaves.


Applying tone to the
shaded areas will make
it look three-dimensional.

The shape of the leaves is


monotonous, but overall there is
variation.

Comical Style

1.. j
l: )..''.i,1

ilr],:j-.,i:;:-

.,,;\r

,i
'

'-',,.;,;,:.

.'':.1:;', ,r':.

l"

It is boring when
symmetrical or ti'
"

ln order to bring the soft


:ines done in pencil into
rlay. pen drawings in

shape is repeate:

,,,,|h a relaxed and

"ahrral touch.

Realistic Style

ilr;l .i

r\
/tr
Ju
/,L,;,',,,

i,,;l:,t

. "'

:\
;t_trD

fr
"\\

I r?:

ri

ar]d leaves in the foreground were d0ne with a G-pen. The


:-i done with a drafting pen (0.1).
_:it'a 1211 and 61
I 676 and 668

65

When drawing natural objects


such as trees, grass, and

thickets, it is important to make


sure that the lines do not become
monotonous. Think about
"simplification with variety" when
drawing.

Morning-fhe clouds were scraped


using normal gradation.
Letra 1 21 0, 1211, 63, 684, 704,and 761

lc 244
ln the morning and afternoon, it is
darker indoors. Clouds reflected
window panes can be drawn bV
scraping.

in [g
6

ffi

Afternoon -The

clouds v,n
scraped using the middle or r
of the cutter blade.
Letra 121 1, 61, 684, 704, ar,:

tc 244

66

Night-lone was used for the sky and


dark windows, but you can also make
them solid black.
Letra 1 21 1, 63, 684, and 704
lC 244 and 477

m{l

:.

",.,

'.

1.

.'"

!bjects in the Evening-The sky is done


"; :rth gradation and sand gradation. The

.';

ijark in the evening, so objects in the


.ust be silhouettes. lf objects in the
.'e drawn in silhouette and objects in the
: rade whitish, it will have the effect of

:,-

.,"

::< designish.
.

Natural 0bjects at Night-Like in the afternoon,


vary the tone in order to give perspective to nearby
objects using objects in the distance,
Near (dark)r[ar (light)

t.'

.':d

0r
Near (light)rFar (dark)
Objects far away are often lightened when blurred.
Letra 1210, 684,and754
lC 418 and 244

For evening skies, clouds are

by applying overlapping gradated tone.

t'

r'

,ty

,r,^')
-v

;4
"f

1_i

,,,Y,

/-,

)Iy

i ti
fl

i'
'i /,,i
"t
/.
::|

ii

.t i
:._

illliiiiil.::"

-:

0bjects in the Afternoon-The

group of buildings in the distance was done by applying double tone.

";,"asplacedinanofthodoxmanner.Nearbyobjectsareclearwhileobjectsinthedistancearelightorblurred,
I

:--? tone gives a

picture perspective. Objects very nearby were made light in this drawing, but it is alright to

::ll mOfe Cleafly.


-' :. 1 21 1 , 1 538, 761 , and 786
"

67

Rendering Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter

:.y'

I rr,
'. ;'t:.
.r.-.r.i:._: i. .

L4-

.fit
I

., \ ,+*f'-4
)lw'

;tr

otl
,,,it,i
d:l

.1,f
gt:

Using an ofthodox background and placing branches of seasonal


plants in the foreground will bring out the feel of the season. ln this
case, the lines of the windows of the school were abbreviated and
whitened, and the thick parts in shadows were penned in.
Letra 1 21 0, 1211, 62, 104, and tB6

^_f,

LV

',_:: :'at

throughout the year the

:l -l -r' OharaCters and the

::. :':--a

are intricately connected.

Dandelions and butterJlies are typical of spring.

--

For the sun, a ruler was used and it was scraped

to look like a flash.


can render the intensity of the sun's rays by using solid black for
the dark shaded areas and silhouetting trees in the distance.
Letra 62, 63, 5.1 , 704, and 754
You

--E sun's rays are intense in the summer, so make the shadows darkish. The sky
s :so dark. Clouds are white and clear. We wanted to make the sky high and

fiaiious, so we used three-point perspective and a low-angle view.

"ra
1-

61, 62, and 63

!77 and676

69

ffiF
r
t-)
fu I

&

fi

4
:,.---'

B
ffi
F}.

C LJr'
-?

---_-_- -l

Fall

I
I

f::

The sun's rays in the fall are soft and shadows are long.ln this
Orawing, mesh was used forthe shaded portions of the buildings to
create a soft feeling.
Letra 1210 and 61
lC 418, 452, 477, and 676

'r)r

-r!-:,: -: :erspective. The feeling of fall was created by


Ja- -;:'a-:^es and dead leaves in the foreground. The
}t,,rr I t' :::: : /,as made a part of the background.
-ir-:'--' al -a'. and 1538
rlj

Double gradation was applied for the sky and clouds. Pla
seasonal flower in the foreground.
Letra 786
lC 418 and 477

You might want to

try using a slightly dark tone to emphasize the


whiteness of the snow.

,-:w the contrast between the whiteness of the snow and


':ck surJace. Think about the sufface of the mountain when
:^e shadow tones.

71

Characters and Natural Phenomena


Whenever possible, it is best to depict rain, coldness,
and other natural phenomena uslng pictures and not

rely on dialog.

Ripples on water surface.

:)

T
I

t\

.1,\i
,-(

Jr(

.4\ i'

i .'

'u

l,i
,r(
l^ \\'
|

Rain on the other side of a window.

Depiction of soms'
drenched by rain.

i ,.t ----..
l/ut(Ntr,r\

2
d\

Sag3";
due

weig-

wate'

7A
Depiction of State of Mind Using Wind
is effective if used in a comic way for
:mes when things do not turn out as
:xpected or when a cold draft blows through
:e heart of the character.

kp

'rihis

\ry-7
at

Winter Feeling

Make sure it does not look unnatural.

a
Have the character hunch over
to depict the cold.

73

ffist Lines 1 Hotu ts Draw htles*


i,*

'

:':sent several effect lines that


i-: -r:.:t rlen in girls' comics. Some
\"': :-1,',' ireehand and some are
l'-1

r'r:harulef.

. Triple Mesh
How to Draw the
Double Mesh

. Single

-l

Mesh

Good Example

Poor

Example

I-YII

l'l

- .I

'-...

,l
Ii''r''-r\i' ri]!. fl
[;

l.l ,.-, '1.'r' ' I

l
I

The lines should


be parallel and an

When you stagger


the direction of thel

equal distance
apart. The
thickness of the
lines should also

the directions are


different, but

be the same.

the lines

Draw the first two lines


at a slight angle (so they
look like diamonds)

lines, make

sure

do

not forget to make

unltorl

I
I

t__
I

. Ouadruple

Mesh

Completed Mesh
(Triple Mesh-r0uadruple Mesh)

Poor Example

Draw lines at a 45degree angle to the


double mesh lines.

Draw lines at a
90-degree angle to
:le single mesh

two lines.

when you are going to


draw triple mesh.

Double Mesh

Good Example

Draw the third lines, altering the


direction from those of the first

Draw so that you


end up with
regular squares.

It should look like grains of


rice!

Draw lines at a 4S-degree angle


to the triple mesh lines.

ffi
W

-: S.lid Black and Blurring


i : :,- -g from solid black to a fine
I fl - :-: -lradually to a coarse mesh. lt is
,rr' : ::: ,,the solid black last.
,riri

o Blurring Using Gradation


Blur by gradually going from a fine
mesh to a coarse mesh.

Blurring Just the Edge of Mesh

Blur just the last mesh part of the

mesh being done. You can also do it


by whiting out lines with correction
fluid. ln this case, you should white
it out as if you were drawing mesh

with correction fluid.

:;:dom

Mesh

- --'.li<r:
_

l'rt;

-rir!-'

" " :=i blurthe mesh


,

by
ly staggering each line.

,:-a

. ::i also make it irregular by


-; the tone (tone is the
r

-,

r this example).

Trick to Making Mesh Look Good

Bad Example
ln this kind of situation, you should fill in the
gaps between squares later.

"

:'e that it will end up


" -3 like the shell of a turile

r,

:.l add one block of mesh to


:t

75

This effect emphasizes anxiety. lt is


drawn freehand.

Make the
lines the
same

___>-

:-

thickness and
as parallel as
possible.

t
Draw by
staggering
lines lightly at
an angle less
than 45
degrees.

t
o Gradation from Solid Black to Rope
You are free

to choose the
flow of the
rope pattern.

t
It will look
nice if the
tone matches

throughoui.
Use of rope. Gradually make it lighter by widening the
gap between lines.

lrregular Ropee

Draw irregular rope by mixing dark and light tones.


Make sure that the color does not become solid black
due to the gaps between lines being too fine.

76

iffect Lines 3 How to [}raw Parallel


*ines and Flashes (Oonverging Lines)
will
"*;:
ately be reflected in the lines, so
:rawing lines, any hesitation

"

::nfidence and relax when


-3 lines. The key to drawing clean
i ", : to grow accustomed to using
-' , ,'d to grasp the technique in your
, '" ,., ay,

Draw using a ruler and a Round-pen!

: ! ack Flashes

: :'. lrawn in the same


" .: llashes, but you
: :'.,',,the
iii,"

'

'..

lines in a

in the direction

:-:?r point, using as


, .- outline that is
'' '::
ithe lines may

itl
r ,,:
,

:n

lhtl!fromthe
-"e flash will be

-': :1ce you paint the


';. solid black.
,

Flashes (Converging Lines)


Draw a dot in the place where you
want lines to converge and draw
lines in the direction of the dot
(draw in the same manner as
when drawing parallel lines),

"

Parallel Lincs

Using a ruler with an


.4edge and a Roundpen, draw a line

from left to right


.zltrigntto left for
lefties) in a swift
motion, tilting the
pen slightly in the

moving the ruler a little bit at a


time. lf you are having a hard time
keeping the lines going in the
direction of the dot, you should
poke a tack into the dot and draw
with the ruler up against the tack.
Patch up the hole with conection

direction you are


drawing.

fluid.
Relax

at

and

draw lines that


appear to
disappear
naturally at

E.

t
When you use a drafting
pen or ink pen, always
turn the ruler upside
down (wipe any ink off

Good

the ruler often).

Not good

77

1,,

i//
lt ///
,ll

,/

' /rt-

-?7

__-:

-::

SotiO Black Flash

Metamorphic Dialogue Balloon Using Flash

Lightning Flash (Variation of solid black flash,


First determine the positions of the flashes
and then add the lightning. You can also add
them with correction fluid after adding the
solid black.)
ln the case of tone flashes, you should turn
the cutter over when shaving the tone.

Cutting

Bad Example

Tone Flash

(Scraped with Cutter)

You can use

ruler 1oo.

78

E-

slainless ekl

A curved rule was used for this drawing. Make sure the
width of the streamlines is not too orderly.
Good Example

Poor Example

Make the distance between lines uniform. lf you try too


hard to align the ends of the line they will not fade
cleanly. Have them fade in a natural manner.

rrru ioout where the solid black pads


rr,r :e before starting and then draw
lil,ru*--d in swift motions. Apply the solid
{ ,ast. Then look it over and add the
ynn s Be mindful of the overall rolling
iiirL,,

''ltl

This effect was created using finetip pens (0.8, 0.3, 0.1,
and 0.05). The solid black portion was determined in
advance. We drew dots starting with a thick pen and
gradually changing to thinner and thinner pens. The solid
black was applied last. You can add correction fluid later if
you want.
*See
the following page.

79

SLipVlin4

Stippling is not just a matter of drawing


dots. Your pictures will look nicer if you

lakeo lime.
but il is fun

think about rhythm and balance.

uoea I,a it.

anca you qaf,

Things to Prepare

Round-pen-lt
takes a long
time, but you
can draw a very
detailed picture.

Drawing lnk-lt dries


fast, so you have to
wipe the pen tip
often.

Who dio

lndia lnk-The fluid

this to

is smooth, but be
careful because it
dries slowly.

drawin4l

my

Drawing Pen
(0.05 - 0.1 mm)You can draw

relatively round
dots in a uniform
manner.

Trick to Mastering
f/akelhe
Dots drawn with
\
Aiatance between \ a Round-pen
Stippling
dola and lhe aize
of dots aa
Enlarged View
I
uniform aa
/

Voeeiblel

/
Good Example

The dots are


round.

Dots drawn

with a drawing
pen

Poor Example

'
/t\

Oh, my.

NexN

are

eome
exarrt/ee

Gradation (Blurring) from Solid

\
ol"

Black to Stippling
1

SLt9altna. /

"/
\_-/

iili:',:tt will look


'better if the

:I

dots are
closer

a
7he io crawlinq
und,er a rock.

"

togetherthe
closer they
get to the

solid black.

)<lt is best to apply the solid


black last (you can apply it i
if it is on the small side).

iiti;

g is a special technique that is always

i:'depicting mental images in girls'


lur* r::' Depending on how it is used, it is an
lnt,: :'iat creates dreamy, beautiful, and

lluriiiir

ll1ll

:,:::

fnages.

An

atr

i;:
l:'

il

a LI A

makes interesting

tr . !dialogue
balloons.

Atr
au i

A Round-pen was used.


It was used as an
accent in this example.

];i:
..t,,t

11'r

'

'I

was

":

mist in

" :.nple.

"ltlt :''r , ng pen


Llltr

,ir .:":C,)

B1

$olid:Bfack and Whitening


lndia ink and other types of ink

Whitening is used when you want

are brushed to create solid black.

to correct something or add a


highlight.

Solid black (the white letters

are painted over the black with


a brush)

Good Example

Watch

Poor Example

for

l;

pat:

that yoL
forgot

complc*
filled in

mlll

black.

'
--t

Use correction

fluid when the


Use

background
and drawn

correctin-

letters overlap

fluid for

and are

ink that iar

difficult to see.

spilled c$fll

lrregular black

area.

into

ang1rli*

is no good.

Oil on you'

Apply ink

hands repel

evenly.

ink.

Precautions Regarding Tools

Paint the
edges with a

thin brush.

old
up

Note

Prepare separate

Add a little water

brushes for ink

ln order io extend

often and store after

and conection

the longevity of

the ink will

mixing well (mix

fluid (You may

brushes, wash them

on the

with a glass rod).

think thai you

well after use.

Do not use

lndia ink. Use it


quickly,

Paint the rest

with a thick
brush.

because

settle
bottom.
Conection fluid t

have washed the

dries easily, so

ink brush well, but

always replace the

the ink sometimes

cap after use,

mixes in with the

conection fluid if

,t,-3n painting solid black, it will

:,:r

'ii

'

:e if you paint the edges

i,'T a thin brush and then


t;1,- , t- a ihick brush.

a"

you use it for


whitening.).

Note

Much Water to Add to Correction


lE(

Not good

good

\\

..6

ryt

:ompletely first. Wait

":r ::rh layer to dry


:=': -: applying conection

'- :

-.

ffii

-:' applying correction


'- : /,,ait until the ink has
:-+:

\xx

r)\

Daub correction fluid on

The conection fluid

The picture underneath

a plate with a brush and

stands out because it is

stands out because the

thin with water until the


part underneath is

too thick.

correction fluid is too


thin.

barely visible.

secause even if the


s dry, the part of the

-, /,'roro lines have been


::--:d rn will break up
.": ;et mixed in if you
--: :

persistently.

llnl,aterials and Tools

for Solid Black and Whitening

:i,uid Black
Lettering sol (lt
dries quickly.)
Kaimei lndia ink (lt
Choose an ink to

is a very smooth

which conection

liquid that it easy

fluid can be

to use.)

& ilffiii',lI--oE'
l'""::*, -'

Brushpen

&

applied.

}n'H
"/

{h:Pning
Correction ink (lt is designed

ffhis is convenient for

for manga artists, so it is

Glass rod

easy to use.)

mixing conection fluid,


transferring it to a plate, and
kneading it.)

tr**e1{
.:,;';;{11

When you apply conection fluid to


tone, the tone will repel it if it is
applied as is, so rub the surface
of the tone with an eraser first.

r\NDNI
Line brush (thin)

mEr,,
83

i I will teach you


You're

applyinglcul,ting

pointinq

the blade
here, riqhL?

ltl:,:,::t:t::l:: ::l:l::t:::tll:l:1:l:!:i(

want to use dot

ts After
pressing down

tone No. 51 for the

on it lightly, cut

girl's uniform,

carefully

all the tone

without

from the back


paper. lt will

running off the


pen lines.

Do not remove

wrinkle and get


dirty.

Not good

i\
,,"\

t___l
lf you
accidentallY

get dirt on th=


back of the
tone...

El

tr

First cut a piece

of tone the size of

the clothing and


remove it from

the

back paPer.

E Place the tone You


removed on toP of the Picture.

Rub hard

with a spatulate

-;-

object to finish.
lf you rub lightlY

...you can

on the middle of

remove lt using

the clothing in

adhesive taPe.

step 3 it will not


move.

Try using both


depending on the
artwork and your
tastes.

84

This is what happens when You


overlap two or more sheets of tone
at the same angle.

-:l,r'ls to N0te

u"er Scnaping Dot Tone


':- :;:r- ;i! fiat the dots are arranged

:i:

/{ ll disappear if you cut

.. .r

For blurring, cut diagonally just like mesh at about an angle of 20-30
degrees. The mesh gets finer as it nears the white area,

angle of 20-30 degrees, cut in

- : Cirection while looking closely at


:= iots

:i

(an angle of 45 degrees will

:ne same as the above figure).

Cut crisscross at about a 30-degree angle. The key is for them


all to be in a uniform direction. The crisscross gets finer as it
nears the white area.

:.lines for applying and cutting tone should be


:'" ,:r with light blue colored pencil directly on
":
-lp! paper (will not be seen when printed).

l-.

blue and other colors may be visible when

o Points to Note
after Tone
Scraping

'::d.
.

tt
- nof, overuge

-rc.Think abouf,

The cut sufface of


this part will be
printed, so always

:-zcf,s LhaL
"-tch

lhe elyle of

apply correction

fluid.

Be careful about pencil lines under


tone. They will be seen when
printed.

re:

85

Various Uses of Tone

-.', .-, * :: ,. ci tne cutter blade or the wide back of the blade was used to scrape the tone. First, the general
:-a:.,',::.i'aced

:::. ,':-:

usrngwidestrokes(atthisstagethereisnoneedtowonyaboutunevenness).Then,usingthe

: ace it lvas finely scraped


:-: :-a:: :l tne fluffy clOuds,

Clouds

using a kind of hitting and scratching motion. Special attention was paid to

:;r:,er
:a-,1
Gauze

rr -asking film into the shape of a heart and apply.


- q-:l dab the area around the heart with balled up

m;:

put on just a little lndia ink).

li: , masking film and cut out the shape of a heart. Put
I ':e lndia ink on a toothbrush, spread it lightly with
rr:r;-'ngel, and cover with a tissue. Use paper when you
'rE,i 1o masking film.

ffi

ffi

When drawing a rough sketch, use a template or a


compass for the circles. Use gradation for the border
between mesh and solid black (Note that greater use of
solid black will result in a heavier picture.). Add
correction fluid last.

lC 61 and solid black were used. Always apply the solid

black first and wait for it to dry completely before


applying tone and cutting out the portion around the
letters so it is white (together with the letters).
:r?SBt, lnstantex Midi 34
-.rsfers to the spot of your choice when rubbed. Use it

r-::tively.

87

Effect of Light and Shade


Light and shade are always together and inseparable. How
effectively they are used in a girls' comic depends on the
drawing style and the work.

Make the inside darker


when you want to
make the outside look

ln this case, light

Put tone

lor shade over the

tone of the clothing.

is <l

shining down from the


upper left.

bright.

Light was added to the top and the


Iines were not drawn clearly.

L-: i'-@---eHere the borderline was broken up

minutely. Solid black for the background


makes it look brighter in comparison.

Scattering light tone around a character

Surrounding the contour line o{ a character with correction fluic

:"a:a:icaily

creates the sensation of light.

chan ges the atmosphere.

'

r.al-:

Roses

--tes

Flowers make a work more


cheerful and colorful. Make
them fluffy or scatter the
petals, whatever matches
the image of the work.

(p
::"

hy

:atterns (fine ones can be used for kimono and dresses)

.t;,1 -ti.r

-ii'r

-ti*

-t:n

'iyl' -tin -tii


,\x

X
Uf
',

' !\r

i\',"

"a

':) I l'

\r-{

{ ,:{\-.

Peonies

Flowers with tone

:an be combined with fruits.

lc s-679

Flowers depicted in a comical way.


The atmosphere of a

picture will differ


greatly depending on

the direction and


balance of the flowers.

@x .ru
'o\-

" ln)

'

\ti\l

\!' \rr.

)1)(--r- "^lV"\
-\
v'\-u
-\.-.\'
\ -)-

"k (Se,qP:
@ )\t'( F
\-\,":
" \s--

1'-==- -

89

Chqpter

3
WilMwn-,

b*\v*w(
w@5,)0'N

w\

-{

o,o

,h

/f-u)) -./\
,i-'1
f
/
lFl
,----'(
,a/ --'

Begin with something you are interested in!


You can stad v,'ith any of
the five belor',

Dream worlds are possible in the world of girls' comics.

What kind of world exists in your mind? lf you have just


one thing you want to draw, try making your dream come
true on paper.

wanl to

This is all the

d,raw a

inspiration you

cute

need.

(cool) qirl

(orv)!

"

Preh^,

human love, campus

.,1"
",Le,

story, animal story, etc.

wom._ "
would

be

Love story, overcoming

adversity in sports,

toa

Car auch a

lhinq

't

lo

be allowt

hapVen?

l,
I

.:

R
d

0nce you have

decided on the
characters, think aboul
parameters and

themes that will make


the most of the
personalities and

characteristics of the
characters.

t,
',,,\,,

Yi

f:+

A single shell (prop)


picked up off the beach
may hold a memory.

St character parameters.

r;r,fl of character can be made the leading


fl;a?fier. To start with, generate a character that
,i,xr, ?illy like. Draw a distinctive character that

,r,,1-r

,:t'1r

rlu

Can draw.

Example of Gir!

Name:

Miss A (Bth grade)

Personality: She is earnest and shy.

Problem:

She cannot make

regular friends because


on the outside she looks

flashy and tawdry.

I've keep

Lellinqyou
LhaNlhave

nalurally
curly hair,

Element of Surprise
The element of surprise can
involve the dreams, personality,
hobbies, or environment
surrounding a character. Making
use of one of these areas in the
lf you go overboard with
character parameters, the
story will end up just being a
narrative. Do not use any
more parameters than are
necessary to the story.

lNlurns out

lhal sheis
bad al

story will bring out the element


of surprise (Using all of them
may be comical.).

oVof,o,

93

Example of
Name: John Doe

a-:

Personality: He is energetic

cheerful. 0n the

Element of
Surprise
He is a fan of the

outside he appe:":

Takarazuka Revue.

truth he has

optimistic, but ri
a

nervous disposi: : -

Problem:

His parents ma1

:r

divorcing.

Depicting
Characters
Think about the
inner
characteristics of
characters and not
just physical
attributes.

SpecialSkills

He likes all sporls


to the point
r'//
being obsessed. .--"-

of

4.-r

The above is just one example. The


element of surprise is important for
both characters and the story. Just
rake sure that the personallty of a

:-a'acter does not change with every

:.::-: change, Make it clear to readers


:-:: : s ihe same character.

D99999V9V99999999VVa
> Special Effects Used in Girls' c
c
Comics 1
3
D A6A6AA6a6AAA6ooooo

ti"'

r:

*,

-:"

These are special techniques used in girls' comics


such as campus stories and love comedies. They
live or die by the characters and story.

l:S
,',

-:.: the angle,

'r * : - -: rne pady is


'::l l- ,- ard CannOt

The male is daring and aggressive. He is


confident and does not think about the other
person's feelings.
Kiss of Confirmation

/-/-'\\

u)t

Clooe

^(ff)

your

eye0,

\
,/,

',;, 1
{.'.:

..,:,

lavinq

is ng in any Location

aevera

:nis type, the kissers have no


rs about kissing at school or
=
::.er location where people can see.

//4

lmporlance is placed on the mood, so


awareness of the other party is
enhanced. You will win over readers
even if the kissing scene goes t0 a wideangle shot after this.

=l:t

t,\

95

rJuvenile Delinquent Type


There is always a reason why someone acts
like a delinquent, i.e., quiet, cold, playboy type
and a little melancholy. Readers will be
alienated if you go overboard. Naturally such a

Appeal of Characters
Once you have set simple parameters for a
character, think about the appeal of the character.
Appeal lies in the personality and actions of the

character will use foul language. The orlhodor


type of character will also use such language

character.
1.
-

His way of life and

r/
l

ideas may be

--\'

different, but...

uui,,,n

shFfltlH

uffi*
'-mt' \

"t i.'ia" ld'trt'

f$e4Sf,=-fl I

't!/

Types of Males
who are Popular

rOrthodox Type
This type is good at
sports, gets good
grades, and is
popular with the

in Girls' Comics

oirls. He understands \
I
the feelings of

the

leading character. He
will protect only one
person.

fi,,

{ K/
ir(
\/
after me.
fruryon,

Age and the surrounding environment can be


the source of a variety of episodes.

.,,be

fashionable,

and have
Anyway, a
boy ohould
look good...

96

more
humaniLy
Nhan a qirl.

: :- : I I tIT999V9V09VV99V9
C
!":'*e:hing only possible in a girls'
::* :l Demand made on the boy!
, . --.---::laaa6a0006a0(JaJ(J(Jac
r

:
:

)on'l worry about.


what oilhers eay,

Whal you did.


wao VerfecLly

all riqhi,

The male
understands
her appeal
(or her
weaknesses).
But, the heroine has

to act on her own,


After all, she will
not be liked if she
doesn't do
anything.

\
,'ot''

'.

nett'*
....
'.f;i * -

don't, remember

-,ellinq

ycu I don'r"

;ike you.

'o/d

!i,

n'

l:u ,,[:

ii " e/thetr:jii
,ilo

tr

ln the end, the

male falls for the


heroine (or had
always liked her)

?,umph

97

Psychological Characterization
Psychological characterization is an indispensable
part of girls' comics. Characters live and die by
their subtle emotional swings.
/t\

aan
sLill

we
be

I
i

frtende?

\/\_

Ir

Examples of girls confessing their love and being


turned down

/
___-/

iLIi
\t\\\

( *un,r *,\

jueL

\ kid,dina I
rnyrry. I
\
\/

She is being honest

with herself, but


inside she is holding
back tears.

t) @1

b.rtll

/ llnew
I shouldnt
\ have

She blurls ou:


something sh:
doesn't mear
and forces a
laugh.

\
\

This is the type of girl :


that kicks herself and
drives herself into a
corner. She will

probably grieve for


some time.

.EiE

confidence. She
cannot believe
her ears. She is
in a state of
denial.
Tleaoe look
at my eyeo
There are many examples like these.
and pick uV
The psychological characterization
an rny
fee)inqe for
differs depending on the personality o'
you.

the character, so be sure to set clear


character parameters.

.1)

It is best if you can depict the


psychological state of characters using
pictures and not words.

g8

cffi

rsiohotogical

Energetic and
cheerful

-l
r,, i.=-le, Iet's

-:''l ie WantS

'*u

lndependent and

say

earnest

tO

i*":;-: rgr lovg to a

rr i-:rentpeople

- :--erent ways.
-l'*-: : a mental
-.1"
.,-,j

0
a//

-:.]
-''.

-:-:

a:"aiir\ tt'ie

ne CfeateS

,,- :,::':nunity to talk

: ::

r
.

-:

boy. Use of

, ,,a,a ai,,i e

:.

,:<t:z

):

t,ta: -n

l,

;rops will make

' l:{ Tore natUral.

ia r

Net

teeLia

har,4lnq
ner riba.

"'-

* :,:r, likes another

, ' -^? heroine sees


. . :,: i being friendly
, ": :a other girl and
- ,^a
. . - --r_\uu.

,l

NU[/D

ir{
rli
,1"i,

l,i
I

ni
Jl,

,t

What, if he haLee me

rr :-aracterSthink

,Lr:
ur;t:

:;

after I confees my

r facial

I will probabry reqrel


my love lo him.

il

,f t aan'r, confess

love?

-:r:s cns
will differ

:,:",:

I don'L

care if

he

likee someone elee

.,-^\-

rF:*-,:19 on their
rur

('i/

lties.

)il-' z

\\0j''g

Maybe it'e

beLter if

we

lli

-t2eur?

juel

sLay friende,

I like hlrn

ae he

io

now,

99

El",fihooss a theme!
lt is
the ideas and opinions you want to convey to
A theme is the objective for writing a comic.

4I
\l-

readers.

-\

Urtt

\\

'

lf you

r-1

.*</ ili'ffffi'JilI,,

\--\

think (
story \

draw, a
and theme will
come to you

\
A

l/aybe
Ehouli

t:.

il off ar;
inaenit

laler,
There are different types
of love stories, i.e., love
comedies, tales of tragic
love, campus love stories.

Never do

thatl
(Don't kid
yourself.)

No matter what actions characters with


different personalities and ways of thinking
take, they have to adhere to the theme.

Do not take the theme too


seriously. Take it lightly.

-' " -rl :TT?999V990VV99V999V9V9V


Special Effects Used in
Comics

Girls' :c

Surprisingly, blushing and


sweating are often used together.
Try coming up with effects that
are only possible in girls' comics.

il

Lilll

',ll

' rN\l

'i

\T,'i/x\i

Y,
r

fiq.ltlhy Troubled

--E

:-,:.

L*ti

:r :'0p

'

s to draw

0f

uli i--

Pressured

\\
Feverish
Draw it so that sweat is
springing forth from all over

the body.

The key is to draw the blush


lines so that they stick way
out from the face,

Giving Someone the Eye

,. -g it comically is interesting
"'.,',,n letters are also effective.

as well.

101

:[[:l]lffi{g a storyl
Even if the drawings are good, a comic is not
going to be interesting if the story is not sound. lt
all begins with the logical process of introduction,
development, turn, and conclusion.

Choose a subject
A campus story with
a normal girl as the
heroine is the

Genres such as science

fiction, fantasy, and history


are more suitable for long

easiest to do, but of


course you are free
to choose a genre
of your choice.

comics, because the


explanation of the setting
takes up many pages.
They are difficult to pull off
in a shorl comic of about
16 pages that is going to
be submitted.

\t\

N,

\
\,,

\i il

\\

\\''

Even if the story itself

'..l'

''l

'

''
,-t,;:,ii'

";

-.}i

. " . I,i li',ilj.

"r'r..

,..,,';

;,
r i.e -_r.'.
r.;-.
-. ,
i'
.. .:;
l ..i

is open and shut, it will


be all right if the base
is solid. You will be

able to come up with


several interesting
episodes.

tl
tl

102

"m

wy

lmpress upon readers the name of


the heroine and her relationship
with those around here. lnclude
the season, hour, and place.

lnsert an episode where the


heroine and boy become friendly
with each other (catalyst).

is

uu,emed witr
:irllsent episodes

trumrb).

lnsert an episode where they have


a falling out.

The two are unhappy and hit rock


bottom.

They are happy (a large gap is


more etfective).
lnsert an episode where the two
make up.
(Ihe heroine can have no doubts
about her feelings.)
There could be a change in hour
or place.

'Tle s fie last

we.The

Make an impression by including a


last scene that ditfers from that of
others,

readers

mLud be left

m-ffi'g

(by leaving

mmefiing
mrnuted).

103

Hints for Stories


Everything about your existence can offer hints for
comics. You will soon discover what you want to
convey to people and what opinions you want to
express.

There are fun things and painful things.


Curiosity is impoftant. You may be
motivated or moved by the surrounding
environment. Actively look for things
that are interesting.

Romance

What are eoisodes?


Episodes are connected incidents or circumstances

that move a story along. The main episode of a story


is always suppofted by other incidents. Episodes
should be fresh.
That could spark other events.

1)

t>

l4

_u \al^;

vou.

..'o/
Y

CL
v/

Main

characLer

s:oes are connected incidents or circumstances that move a story


The main episode of a story is always supported by other

, -.c

':

.?ris,

Episodes should be fresh.

\;

Oope

\,

ir

No way

e'e my

l7l

Circumstances

These are
emotional
circumstances
such as family
reiations, human
relations, a
or jealousy.

x\
\\\\\.

@f secrecy

L.,r had

This could be
something from
your past that you

no
idea.

o\,'nj'

Resulting in...

[f

want to keep quiet


such as an
extramarital affair.

5-E-C-R-E-T

Foreshadowing

Drop advance hints


without having too
many coincidences
or being too
opportunistic.

CI
\--

YI
(kl
J.-\\

flForeshadowing
These are events

that happen
without any
foreshadowing
(which is more
effective).

/)

The heroine should not


catch a
cold all of a sudden. you
could
add a scene where she is
out in
the rain all night for some
reason before she catches
a
cold. This is foreshadowing.

I,,q^rY

'i

ru

I ritl

rlli

105

Element of Surprise

ffiracting the Reader)

We talked earlier about the element of surprise

and characters, but the element of surprise in the


story is impofiant too.

Here we have an old house that looks like it is

Here we have a nice, handsome mansion.

There are flowers everywhere and there is a


oleasant aroma.
but, the truth

The trees are withered and forbidding.


But, the truth

is...

is... +

The house is
occupied by a very
mean-spirited sister...

,\

A cool guy lives in the


house alone.

tl

mn

\:> 'w
'?n;-

He may be a

descendant of
ninja.
What is the fate of the heroine who
has gotten mixed up with them?

Dream Endings
The readers will feel betrayed if in
the end you say the whole story was
a dream. lt is best if the story
progresses in the present.

Significance of Episodes
For

Long Comics

,E
\:---------

Poor Example
Make sure that the
finale is not left
unfinished.

Short Comics

As the main story (A) progresses, it

branches out (B). ln the end, A and B

tie into each other, hopefully making


the main story clearer.

and Development of the Heroine

--: -i': -= must grow emotionally and in terms


"r ';' :r. s ,through effort) between the
:lo. '' -; ard the end of the story. Find many
l-:L^ :: : , ents. which will be convincing to the
"1ii,:a-: '-rr the heroin to become stronger.

\
\.\ ..

r\
\f,(
""..\

rl

-","

-:-: -:

..,1.-a

*: - -

-:

II
CannOt

to*

:a end.

Example: A somber heroine

who is always looking down

fi' rl
f't

z
l'm shy in fronl
of strangers

I don't know \
what I want to

\"1

and can't look


people in the

eye.

\_-/

Parl2

A friend appears on

the scene.
not be dramatic if the heroine

Episode

:,::s the situation and solves the


,: :"n all by herself.)
-

';

The heroine becomes interested in pictures


and makes the effort to begin drawing.

She discovers her kue dream (she wins a


prize for her drawing).

:ecomes able to clearly convey

' " ::inions to others.


'

Heroine after Growing and Developing

107

Here the heroine is surrounded by good-looking boys.


l+

t!',e heroine does not have a

*enro a hoyfnend. or other

s"mwrhnE character that can


r"'dfrte m her. adding another
ffxaffircter such as a new friend
wtrl grve more breadth to the story.
Contlngency is important including
encounters and dialogue that do
not appear to be self-serving.

,Th"y

"un't

,i!f,$!j#",
Add characters
fiat fit in with

he

story.

Ill,,i:,!:1,a

Notes on Giving Shape to the

These are such

beautiful red
roses. These

drops must be

from this
morning's rain.
And what a
lovely aroma!

Convey the feelings of a character with a


simple picture and not a lot of dialogue

(must not be explanatory).


0mit superfluous characters and events
to improve the tempo of the story.

108

D9VV9VV9VV9VVVV9999VVV9999V9V99

Special Etfects Used in

Girls' :

aaaaaaaaaAAA6aa6ao6oo6a6ouuuuo
_.-'v'l

,\-

r \i

\,i.
- //---'ll
_
\'\ ]

I
\,

"r'lil
-Y ,(lil
\\\
-*'1 /r{.1[
/1t\n/
?6 ll (r(t (
;

ti

Comical

This is the

l(z

//

type of person
who is moved
to tears and

I,Iil
1l

point in every girls' comic.


Whether it is a girl or a
boy crying, tears have a
very Strong impact.

It

\G

-i

There always seems to be


someone crying at s0me

(\,

cannot be
stopped by

6Y

any0ne.

l:r:::

"l',Yill beCOme

llr: -

any,

*e-T.,, if there

are

l, Zh
\'i1tr

ft,,U"l

\r
",\r\\.,'
/.\\\s

I
Single Tear Builds Up
Choking down tears.

,el\

t\

t-l)

Streaming Tears
One tear after another spills out.

The eyes were left out on purpose to show only the tears.
Tone was applied to the

entire character and the


tears were made by
scraping with a cutter.

There are many other situations


where tears can be used for
much greater effect by making
an impact through the actions of
characters and the plot.

Here snow and tears were

assimilated.

109

This is where the story comes to a climax. lt is where the characters' true
feelings and actions are expressed. This is the high point of the comic, so
use large frames and let the pictures do the talking.

Not

good This is too mundane for


confession of love.

I love you,

rl
{

l-)"fr,

{<
-,r

'!)

-4*
Example: Use Christmas to make the scene
more romantic. Use the background effectively
as well. Create a memorable scene!

o When you want to convey a concept,

try to show it to readers without use


of lines and monologues.
o The climax is the place to
demonstrate your concept. This is
the place to express what you want
to express.

1"t0

t
-:re

Props

A prop is any object that can be picked up like a magazine or food. Use of
props can eliminate the need for excess explanations and play a large hole
in advancing the story.

are some examples:

This lighter is a gift


from a girlfriend.

She is fixated
on the picture

I wonder

how Taro

io doinq

[g

Lheee

dayo?

You

[g

can

'\

depicthis "// \\tll


personality in
\!/
this manner.

,J A one-yen

riiu
"oi,
io my tucky

day.

@y'

\
I'e io Light-fiobed.
o Props can give you ideas for a
story. You want to make good use of
interesting ideas in your story.
. Collect information from a variety of
sources to find hints for stories.

't'11

Chopter 4

Howto

Creqne

fvtqngq Mqnuscripts
o6fla'ut''

. fx-.\
,hl

:tf*

ru
112

r{

Writing a Plot
A plot is an outline of a story. For instance, the heroine and another character may fall
in love. After deciding on the central pafi of the story, you flesh it out with an
introduction, episodes, a main scene, and an ending scene.
Turn it into an enjoyable composition, paying attention to the following:
. ls the setting fully explained?
. Is the foreshadowing effective?
. ls the climax exiting?
. Is the story left unfinished?

Example

Plot
Title Page
Picture of the heroine arriving at school
in the morning.

A boy runs up to her. He chides her on


her new haircut.
lf you are going to
draw a 16-page
comic, write a plot
that will fit within
the '16 pages.

They are in the same class and sit next


to each other.
They have fights but are good friends.
When the talk turns to what type of girl
the boy likes, he indicates a type that
is opposite that of the heroine.

The next day, the boy runs into the hall


and bumps into a girl in a neighboring
class. He apologizes profusely. The
heroine sees this and gets angry.

Even pages are on the right.


Odd pages are on the left.
Note: The pagination above is based

on the Japanese right-side


binding style. ln the case of a
left-side binding, the even
pages should be on the Ieft and
odd pages should be on the
right.

114

Storyboarding
:['.,'D0arding is allocating frames based on the plot, drawing rough sketches, and
r,: -g dialogue in pencil 0n any old paper.
: , not always easy to fit the entire plot into the predetermined number of pages. Try
-a-:iving down the story to the most important episodes. Discard any unnecessary
.": s!'des. Think about the composition in terms both left and right pages.
--'r'r yoU compose and present a work is important.

\_s

aopa /

Morning,
Mioe A!

3orry,
, wae lokinq.

I gof, my

hair

cul

Loo short,.,

ll,'g guoer cute.

lnbelivablv

Ng
U\

cut e,

4?

fr,

lhis is how

ley, you
qoL your

ohe alwayo

hair cut.

0qA7-_

)h.no,
'trr*tn,iu1

lnbtaclswith
hin

basLardl -

).t)-

{;r16

t'.y'tu

Left page

Right Page

'r,:te: The manga above is in their


original layout. Please read
from the right to the left.

115

Bleeding is when elements of a page extend off any of the


sides. Bleeds are created by trimming the page after
pnnting.Make sure that important drawings, dialogue, and

Magazine

tmr

drawn letters are always within the standard border line.

lnner margin
)<The inner margin is hard to see,
so do not put drawings and
dialogue there.

Left page

Right Page

24-30 mm (0.96-1.2

7(

in.)

+
1

180 mm (7.2 in.)

f_$
l2

+-

/Half of the face

Dialogue must not


extend beyond the
border line.

will not be

Standard Border Line

visible after the


comic is bound.

BOm^

X 270^*

(7.Zin.x 10.8

in.)

Apply solid black


bleeds 3 cm
beyond the

standard border
line.

lnner Line

24-30 mm (0.96-1.2

This will be printed as is. ln this case it has


not been painted properly.

Bleeding Techniques
. Use bleeds when you want to emphasize
the impact.
r Use bleeds to make a frame stand out
from the rest.

0veruse of runover will make the


comic hard to read.

116

in.)

trnnnrtr
tr[nxnn
trnrtrntr
nntrnnn
!trnnrn
nnxntrn
nntrtrtrn
trnf,ntrn
rnnntrn
trtrntrntr
Itrnnnn
trntrtrtrn

This border is called a speech balloon.

A single letter should be 4.5 mm (0.8 in.)


square and the space between lines about

2.5 mm (0.1 in.).

Leave plenty of space between


the words and the border of
the speech balloon.

Aon'a uee
letler?' in a
omall epeech

balloon and
don'L pack Loo

any inLo one.

Drawn on One Sheet of Paper (83)

'ru can draw on either two sheets of


31 paper or on one sheet of 83
:aper. Two-page spreads are used for
:.'e high point of the comic and for
:e climax. Use this too much in short
:;mics will often result in a simple
.r0ry. lt is suited more towards long
::,mics.

Tleaae

don'L draw

a clooe'up
of my face
or any
dialoque in

the

,^4"\r h '

}[ilr)
O,\ IJ
? llt)

i N""'""'--l '-\"1'/'

ll

Drawn on Two Sheets of

lLDo not draw this part of the border.

117

Borders, Speech Balloons, and Drawn Letters


Tools to Prepare

Rotring (Brand Name)

(0.'l - 2.0 mm)


Used for drawing

Note: Lines will become lighter if


an eraser is used on them
Iater.

uniform lines.
Pigma Graphic (Brand Name)

(0.05 - 3.0 mm)


Water-based pen
(water-resistant when dry).

w,,"*
.il.

/4n

t ry

'Qd "oat

border of

tor the

eVeech

balloone,

The atmosphere

willdiffer
depending on
how drawn
letters are used.

o.

c''HK'ib.r,:i}^-*

Pigma (0.5 mm)

,**,,v1il^i

Pigma (1.0 mm)

Attention
Using Water-Based Pens
:<They will smear and soil the paper if rubbed when not
completely dry and the color will become lighter if an
eraser is used on them (choose water-resistant ones
since they are vulnerable to water).

118

Ven

'.

"@0
uo

\77$Eq\

Use a Round-

t,nrrrffiW
t"u-'orr, \ertA

Draw letters so

that they match


the individuality
of your pictures.

Using Oil-Based Pens


blur easily on paper.

*They

ue

*ame Allocation
1:r-e allocation is very impoftant to the
'

:,nu

*:

f the story. Think about the balance of

-mes
;r: 3ages.

l,:"*t

when looking at both left and

Frame Allocation

ln the Japanese
style, frames are
read from top to
bottom and from

The average
number of frames
per page is 6 to B,

right to left. The


ultimate goal is to
make them easy
to see and read.

Too Simple

0rder of Frames lndiscernible

EE

TT
TT

)iaHaving too many frames makes it

hard to read.

l':

TreeenL

the knee injury

ueinq

rot allocate frames

:esed on dialogue.
:-=ent the story using
:,,::ires, thinking about

:r

"rrgh point of the

:a:2.
-:ge frames are

:::ctive when used for


i,= climax.

KBru
Swoon

lmprovement

Thie frame ie the hi1h poinl.

119

FrcUre Composition I

It is hard to discern
where characters are
and what they are
doing if you always

'.t'u Ean express the emotions of


chamders and add punch by rearranging
tre composition of pictures.

use close-ups and


bust shots.

ln this position, it is
hard to tell whether it
is Joe or his friend
who is talking.

Poor Example

*Make

locations clear by adding a


balanced amount of close-ups
and wide-angle shots.

Adding a background will


tell readers where the
characters are.

ThaN's

The position of Joe was


fixed.

lhe

laol Nhirq

neeA.

}H,,C\Wffi

s\

\-=
--,
-t"/

+,.

il

s''%

--:2

=:

Joe!!

ir,
=
Z

\\"l'

,/,
'

'
'r

120

S
s

I 'tli \ttttt'

IhatPtq!

'c,

1\

wide-angle shot.

#/lri\\)

b?^ 'i
!-"

th n*

-r'\'r.
\d

The shock she feels is


depicted using a low,

s;
..

I K\AW.

Hahaha

*When you want to emphasize a part


of the story or make a character stand
out, think about effective frame
allocation and picture composition.

*A

page will be appealing when there


is a frame that catches the eye of the
reader when a page is turned.

i,-r-T of ScenerV I

*:

: r-' rne way to liven up story development.

There is no need to go out


to do it for a change
-r-;?rofr. passage of time, or a retrospective scene, for instance, then it
-:':r1ant to express it in an easy-to-understand manner. Make use of
" ;,:. t'3unds and props
that can express seasons and time.

" ji-,-'

"

,r/ay to shift the scenery, but when you need

Examples of Shifts in Place and Time


.'r; :ir.(ground

such as a building.

Explain using language.

Night is falling.

.
,;,i:r:

rx

-;asier to understand with words included.

wide-angle background.

It is now night.

-:me was placed in between to show passage

of time.

Retrospective Scene

)Kl Letr's do
it Noniqht.

There is an
explanation using
dialogue as well.

Consecutive frames are gradually made smaller.

121

PagE

Ttming

here are some ways to surprise readers when they


5n a page. These can also be used to depict
al'm.nges in scenery and passage of time.

I've been hidinq

oomehhirq

lron

you tor a lonq

lime,

i,'rrr,,yr,*\ S;

Turn the Page


d

tu',,t*litr'

)rr:d

ffi

Use a large
frame for the
high point.

0h, my qod.You're kiddinq ne.You're bald,

Shot Types

Surprise readers, make them laugh, or


touch their hearts.

Wide-Angle Shots
. Used to depict places and tt*iu

FullShots

This is a shot of the full


length of a character. Can
be used to depict
personality and
characteristics via body
motions.

Middle Shots

Convenient for explaining


where characters are.

Close-Ups

Bust Shots
. This is a shot of the upper
body.

122

. Used to depict facial


expressions and emotions of
characters (make them
attractive).

Point and

les in Scenes with Characters

l,:

not allocate frames and compose pictures in a haphazard


"anner. Creative use of vantage point (position from which

i:mething is viewed) and angles will enrich the presentation.


As viewed from the

EHighAngle

ffi
lfl-^-

ffi

=t"",t't.-4t''

-he camera is fixed in a horizontal position

This is a normal
angle. It has a
quiet feel. This
angle is used
often.

This is a
slightly
high angle

view of a
close-up.

A several vantage points have been used


(perfect for powedul scenes, etc.).

123

hrt-Back
Thls ls a method by which
two or more different cuts
are alternately inserted to
build up tension or a
sense of impending crisis.

Golf,a run.

Note: Do not use this


technique excessively. lt
is effective when used
before the climax.

lryd

What is happening at
the same time at two
different places is
depicted here,

How to Attach Tracing Paper


When there are going to be letters on solid black, a pattern,
or tone, place tracing paper over the drawing paper, write
the letters, and mark the position. This includes white
letters printed on solid black and tone.

It is all right to cover


the entire page with
tracing paper.

Here the tracing paper is placed on one


portion of the page.

124

Write the letters on the


tracing paper with a
pencil and mark it (so

you know the position).

Firmly attach the tracing paper


to the back of the drawing
paper with adhesive tape.

-is s:e first page of a comic. lt is

Hints

.n6r;r1arl to compel readers to want to


TK":e comic, Try to impress upon
a13:f- ,,rhat you want to express most

fh::efie)

in the comic.

/'W@
r.:r mf,
#i

M
Movie Titles

You

Song Titles and Lyric Cards

will find hints for titles

hidden among these.

F>

\S:..

\-\ ,-\
N-.
\\'r \

\l

),r\

1'

,i.

t\

EIUr
truul

The title is on top of the character. The


composition is no good either.

Uninspired Title Page


Leave space for the title. Keep the

space for the title in mind when


choosing the composition of the picture.
Write the title in a corner of the page in
pencil.

A close-up of
the heroine
in the middle
of the page
is mundane.

Avoid titles that will give away the story.


Titles should also not deviate too far

from the story.


When you choose a foreign-language
title that is not understandable,
incorporate the meaning of the title in

This garden-variety title should


be redone.

the story.

125

tErasers

Basic Tools

lnk eraser (AIso used for erasing tone.)

The ease of use of pens


and brushes differs
depending on the person,
Try different types to find

the right tools for you.

M(}NO

erasers for sketching.

lPencils (Mechanical Pencils)


0nes with soft lead are easier to use
(B

IPaper
We recommend manga paper

to 2B).

rBrushes (Line brushes are

best.)

Have separate brushes for painting

black and white.

marketed by Too.

fij

.,,,ri.
'''t'r''
j:t,{

L*rr*
8Cm

/A-.-

:lr:r
ir'i

'
;*i: j'
.-'

*rf

d',j'
+ rr

*4'"

x?/0iii

<- ,/

+r.'

can

when drawing border lines yourself, you


measure the size of several sheets of paper at
once by making holes in the four corners with an

of each other.

lPen Nibs and Holders

eyeleteer.

tFeather Dusters
Used for sweeping away

8qs,*$s 1st*

bits of eraser grit.

\lll? /

-ru
r0ontainers for
Washing Brushes
Any containers will do as
long as you have separate

126

ones for black and white.

Round-pen

Here /

,,,@"-@)verheadView of
Holder

?en

iLrrffin r,

rRulers

a.l e{ge are

lffirEi i:r i,*\'''ing lndia


*,u -E!

5F

r:

''ayJing

-q

,/l

P\

//

t\
,/4
-----v\
Edge

lTemplates
Convenient for
circles and ovals..

3:'een-Tone, and lC Screen


:' iigh quality and are easy

ffi
Curved Rule

lTone
lC

Scrapers

tone scrapers

are easy to use.

rCutters
Convenient

for minutiae.
This paft can be used
for scraping tone.

I r ,.lndia lnk

Lettering Sol
(Dries QuicklY)
Used for Whitening
Correction ink for comics and illustrations
(The Conection lnk manufactured by Art
Color dries quickly, is water-resistant, and is

rltems

-z,r -g lnk
:--;- PeF (Both lndia

-. .-d ink.)

Kaimei lndia lnk

ffii*,
r -ght

easy to Paint over.)


Misnon (Not suited to
minutiae.)
1Correction Eraser Pens
Designed for both waterbased and oil-based Pens

Table

-,:,-,enient for tracing pictures, cutting


-: -= and finding deviations in
I

-: ,', fl$S.

Poster Colors

!,:clies

:'.

Provided bY
aido lnc.

127

Tvnes of Pen Nihs

Spoon-pen

Round-pen

G-pen

l; rstered ,\
T-,!e / \
/r \

/t

U
This pen cannot create the
dynamics of the G-pen, but it
can be used to draw thin lines.
Though the shape is similar,
the lustered type can be used
to draw thick lines.

Convenient for drawing thin


lines such as background Iines
and effect lines (a dedicated
pen holder is required). This

Can be used to draw dynamic

lines and thick lines depending


on how much force is used.

can also be used to draw


dynamic lines.

*There are other types of pens as


well, like the school-pen (thin
lines).

Main lines of
character (G-pen)

Example of Pen Work


At first, pen nibs repel oil, so
wipe the tip before using itl
Replace pens when it becomes
difficult to draw with them.
Eyes, nose, mouth,
eyebrows, and hair
(Round-pen)

Plants (Round-pen)

Wrinkles in clothing
(Round-pen)

0uter lines of clothing


(G-pen)

Background lines
(Spoon-pen)

128

Frocess from Begi*ning tc Campletion of,Manuscript


;-

,=.fl

-*_-*-^-r
: .-r i -'-l-

:r:-;-

=
:J

=
r,

Create a rough
storyboard on a
separate sheet of

- r- -g Touches (Completion)

Storyboard

Sxetch

-,_- t --.
-r fr-\

ri/l][

paper.

,:,:" at production in this order.

:e

story of this comic.

Snly leave necessary rough sketch lines so as not t0 become confused


!uring pen work.

@ Rough Sketch
Transfer the storyboard to
drawing paper. There is no
need to copy the
storyboard faithfully. Slight
alterations are common
(page changes are not
allowed).

*-+-

A r/r

/l

0t

lt

Note that a mark

fr\*t 1

&'l:
tiL
t?

will be

left after erasing if you


draw with too much force.

?''

5
Y
?

/:

;4;.

B {-l'
to

./7

i
,-.cr
;'--

*L
\-t I
.\

f,r'

'd

*You may draw border


lines and speech bubbles
in ink at the rough sketch
stage.

129
Ii rililr

*-E

ru r:i:rl ilas

ora\',,n from a rough sketch after the character was penned in.
are dfficuft to draw without being corrected at this stage, use
:::r3::,:,. iurd. Farts that will be solid black are sometimes marked with an X
3:i as a flag during the finishing touch stage.

::r

:Er=

:al

Border lines have been


penned in,

_-]-

Ad)
j-?

irq

D\v),
t*t) *
I qc

The sketch lines

have been erased.

lz t"
2
Y

Tone

will be

used later for

effect lines.

(f' \-\
-)

t-=-

,!

/---\,'
,t

-l' /,

+-'

{9'l

rJ{
n
f+'

p'E*h
t&i'2? LrK
/=

z)

?v
'lv
Supplement

rstart

by penning in the characters. Some people start with the main lines (contour lines)
while some people begin with the thin lines (eyes and hair).
lPen work should be done from left to right (in the case of a right-handed person), so as
not to rub ink lines that have not dried yet with your hand.
ruse the different types of pens in a suitable manner, and carefully draw the accents and
minutiae.

lDraw the

130

main pictures more clearly than backgrounds and effect lines. lf the lines are
all the same thickness, it will look flat.

,,,,,l qllmmlmrmry

lrlllilr,f
lI

iliilLilIi

illuii|

ui

iruCnes t C,ompletion)

uflriiiii, :l'- :,.. r

l*'rll llili

Add page number in


pencil (above
cutting plane Iine).

tt

;)
4>

f
2
*.
t-*

b?

'].

ii':
'i ^,

,,

r1

ld

aa

[u1]*:- - :lily erasing the pencil lines that have been penned in, pen in converging lines and other
.t.,.-

--^Jq

l[ ur - ]f -lt the solid black parls. After they have dried, use correction
:t' "-

lr*::::

r";:

- :--^),^^
-dl\uS,

fluid on any runover, smudges.

, icpl! and scrape tone.


' :: :ne dialogue where it has disappeared and check for errors and 0missions. When there

,i:n': lir top of tone

l"-::. :i

and solid black, attach tracing paper and write letters on it.
make sure the pages are numbered and you are

done.

are

l3l

Aae any dialogue


aVVeared (dialoque ie
eomef,imee eraeed, alonq
with l,he reet)?
die

@ lave you placed


tone over any

@ flae rough

sketchee
been compleL.ely eraeed?

tu iN dirty
(runover,
eoilinq from
hande, tone
residue, elc.)?
?'ave you

for7of,ten

dialogue?

tu Nhe uVVer

riqhL corner
numbered?

lf you are going to


submit the comic,
remember to write
the destination
address and your
name and address.

lo

whiLeouL

anylhin4?

@ tave

you

forqolLen lo

forgotf,en

draw
anytrhinq or

lracinq

forgoNLen

any finiehinq

to attach
vaper?

The End

??l

Vo!.5: Developing Shoujo Manga Techniques


Chapter 1 How to Draw Characters

Ito+/tomAv

Chapter 2 How to Draw Backgrounds


Chapter 3 How to Create Stories
Chapter 4 How to Create Manga Manuscripts
rsBN4 88996-08 1 -3

Vol.6: Martial Arts & Combat Sports


Chapter

1 JuCo

Chapter 2 Karate
Chapter 3 Kendo
Chapter 4 Boxing
Chapter 5 Streei Battles
rsBN4-88996-082- l

Diamond's Comic Shop Locator Service

sffi

o
u

Lr

@oo

e*2"5-49

You can access the Comic Shop Locator

Service by calling toll free; 1-BBB-COMiCBOOK (1 888-266-4226 ) in the U S

SBN

t+

-88811h-081,-3

Iffiil||

i4889 96081 5

)4

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rqri

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