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The 19th Century World of Jose Rizal

2. Growth and Development of Nationalism

3. Nationalism is a sense of loyalty or psychological attachment
that members of a nation share, based on a common
language, history, culture, and desire for independence. It is a
feeling that drives a people together as a nation. It is love of
country expressed in devotion to and advocacy of national
interest and independence.
4. The growth of nationalism can be attributed to two major
revolutions of the earlier century; the American Revolution of
1776; and the French Revolution of 1789
5. The American Revolution gave birth to the United States of
America. On the other hand, French Revolution led to the
overthrowing of the absolute rule of the Bourbon Dynasty and
the abolition of the feudal system.
6. The ideology of the French Revolution ; Liberty Fraternity
Equality had influenced subject peoples to cast off the yoke
of colonialism by means of armed uprising.
7. There are three points that stand out in this complex
ideology; 1.Nationalism has evolved from a real and or
imagined cultural unity manifesting itself in a common
language, history and territory. 2.Nationalists have usually
sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the
territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries.
3.Nationalist believed that every nation has the right to exist in
freedom and develop its character and spirit.
8. Negative side of Nationalism; - The ideas of national
superiority and national mission can lead to aggressive
crusades and counter- crusades. - Nationalism can also stress
differences among peoples.
9. Rise and Gradual Spread of Liberalism and Democracy -The
principal ideas of liberalism- liberty and equality- were first
realized successfully in the American Revolution and then
achieved in part in the French Revolution. This political and

social philosophy challenged conservatism in the European

continent. -Liberalism demanded representative government as
opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as
opposed to legally separate classes. The idea of liberty also
meant to specific individual freedoms: freedom of the press;
freedom of speech,freedom of assembly; and freedom from
arbitrary arrest.
10. Rise and Gradual Spread of Liberalism and Democracy Democracy became a way of life in many European countries,
like Britain, Belgium, and Switzerland. -Democracy was
gradually established thru the following means: *promulgation
of laws that advance democracy; *undertaking of reforms thru
legislation; abolition of slavery; *adoption of a liberal
constitution; providing the citizens the *opportunity to propose
laws; *adoption of manhood suffrage; and *granting of political,
economic and social rights to the people.
11. The Industrial Revolution One of the most crucial
developments in the 19th century was the Industrial
Revolution. The Industrial Revolution refers to the
transformation of manufacturing brought about by the
invention and use of the machines. This development started in
England and later on spread into Belgium, France, Germany,
and even in the United States.
12. Positive effects of industrial revolution; The rise of the
factory system; Mass production of essential and non-essential
goods; Improvement of peoples standard of living; Greater
urbanization of society; Beginnings of specialization or division
of labor; Invention of labor-saving devices; The beginnings of
industrial capitalism; Fostering of liberalism and nationalism;
and Encouragement of peoples mobililty.
13. Negative effects of Industrial Revolution; -Widening of gap
between the rich and the poor; -Unending economic warfare
between labor and capital and other environmental problems Beginning of child and women labor; and -Intensification of
imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialized
countries. In the Philippines, it caused the displacement of the
farmers from their lands.

14. The Advancement of Science The triumph of science and

technology had at least three significant consequences. - First,
everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the
importance of science on the mind of ordinary citizens. Second, as a science became more prominent in popular
thinking, the philosophical implication of science spread to
broad sections of the population. Technical advances led the
people to develop optimistic faith in mans capability to
achieved progress. -Third, the methods of science acquired
unrivaled prestige after 1850. For many, the union of careful
experiment and abstract theory was the only route to truth and
objective reality.
15. Optimism and Confidence in Progress Optimism or faith in
society and mans ability to progress was brought about by the
advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered
industry, and the spread of liberalism and socialism. The
optimism of the century was summed by Marquis de
Condorcet in his work, Sketch for the Historical Picture of the
Progress of the Human Mind. He saw that the strongest
reason for believing that nature has set no limit to the
realization of our hopes and foresaw the abolition of
inequality between nations, the progress of equality within
nations, and the true perfection of humanity. Progress was now
independent of any power that might wish to halt it and will
never be reversed.
16. Optimism and confidence in progress can be gleaned from
the achievements of men in the 19th century. Notable among
these were the following; -Extensions of human rights to many
people; -Promotion of higher education for men and women; Education for nationalism in schools; -Investment in science to
serve mankind; -Improvement of public health thru the
establishment of numerous, hospitals; and -Emergence of
realistic literature, depicting the life of the time
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