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Important Process piping questions

11 2013 12:57 PM
These are the important things in piping.

Q1. What is the minimum distance to be maintained between two welds in a pipe?
Answer: - The thumb rule is that the minimum distance between adjacent butt welds is 1D. If
not, it is never closer than 1-1/2". This is supposedly to prevent the overlap of HAZs. Minimum
spacing of circumferential welds between centerlines shall not be less than 4 times the pipe wall
thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater.

Q2. What are Weldolet and Sockolet? And where they are used?
Answer:-Weldolet and Sockolet are basically self-reinforced fittings.
Weldolet is used for Butt weld branch connection where standard tee is not available due to size
restrictions and the piping is of critical / high-pressure service. Sockolet is used for socket
welding branch connection, which require reinforcing pad.

Q3. What do you mean by Jacketed Piping?


Answer: - Piping which is recognized as providing the most uniform application of heat to the
process, as well as maintaining the most uniform processing temperatures where steam tracing is
not capable of maintaining the temperature of fluid constant. Usually used for molten sulphur,
Polymers service.

Q4. What is the basis of using of short radius & long radius elbow?
Answer:- Long radius elbow are used for small pressure drop whereas short radius elbow are
used for high pressure drops. For catalyst flows vary long radius elbows are used.

Q5. Normally where do we use the following?


A. Eccentric reducers. B. Concentric reducers.

Answer:
A. Eccentric reducers = Pump suction to avoid Cavitation, To maintain elevation (BOP) in rack.
B. Concentric reducers = Pump discharge, vertical pipeline etc.

Q6. Concentric reducer is used in pump suction. (Yes / No). Explain.


Answer:No. Air pockets may form if concentric reducer is used at pump suction, which results in
cavitation and cause damage to Pump. To avoid this problem, Eccentric Reducer with flat side up
(FSU) is used in Pump Suction.

Q7. How the pipe fittings are classified based on end connections?
Answer: - Pipe fittings are classified based on end connection as: A. Socket weld fittings.
B. Screwed end fittings.
C. Beveled end or Butt weld fittings.
D. Spigot socket fittings.
E. Buttress end fittings.

Q8. From which side of pipe will you take a branch connection?

Answer:-W hen fluid is Gas, Air or Steam and Cryogenic Service Topside.

When Fluid is Liquid Bottom Side.

Q9. What is the difference between Pipe and Tube?

Answer: - Pipe is identified by NB and thickness is defined by Schedule whereas Tube is


identified by OD & its thickness as BWG (Brimingham wire gauge or 1/100 inch).

Q10. From which size onwards NB of pipe is equal to OD of Pipe?


Answer: -From the size 14 and onwards NB = OD of pipe.

Q11. What should be the radius of long radius elbow?


Answer:1.5D (Where D is the diameter of the pipe.)

Q12. How can flanges be classified based on Pipe Attachment?

Answer: - Flanges can be classified based on pipe attachment as: -

Slip on. : - The Slip-on type flanges are attached by welding inside as well as outside. These
flanges are of forged construction.

Socket Weld. : - The Socket Weld flanges are welded on one side only. These are used for small
bore lines only.

Screwed. : - The Screwed-on flanges are used on pipe lines where welding cannot be
carried out.

Lap Joint. : - The Lap Joint flanges are used with stub ends. The stub ends are welded
with pipes & flanges are kept loose over the same.

Welding Neck. : - The Welding neck flanges are attached by butt welding to the pipe. These are
used mainly for critical services where the weld joints need radiographic inspection.

Blind. : - The Blind flanges are used to close the ends which need to be reopened.

Reducing. : - The reducing flanges are used to connect between larger and smaller sizes without
using a reducer. In case of reducing flanges, the thickness of flange should be that of the higher
diameter.

Integral. : - Integral flanges are those, which are cast along with the piping
component or equipment.

ASME Code
11 2013 12:21 PM
These are the ASME/ASTM code used in oil and gas, power and chemical industry. Every oil
and gas, power and chemical industry has to follow these standard for safety of their plants

ASME 31 code for pressure piping

A. ASME B31.1 - Power piping.


B. ASME B31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping.
C. ASME B31.3 - Process piping.
D. ASME B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation system for liquid hydrocarbon & other liquid.
E. ASME B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping.
F. ASME B31.8 - Gas transmission & distribution piping system.
G. ASME B31.9 - Building services piping.
H. ASME B31.11 - Slurry transportation piping system.

American institute standard used for Oil & Gas, Power

A. The American Petroleum institute (API).


B. The American Iron & Steel institute (AISI).
C. The American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM).
D. The American National standard institute (AISI).
E. The American welding society (AWS).
F. The American Water Works Association (AWWA).
G. The American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

Different sections of ASME code

A. ASME section I : - Rules for construction of power boiler.


B. ASME Section II : - Materials.
Part A Ferrous materials.
Part B Non-Ferrous materials.
Part C Specification for electrodes & filler wire.
Part D Properties.
C. ASME Section IV : - Rules for construction of Heating Boiler.
D. ASME Section V : - Non- destructive Examination.
E. ASME Section VI : - Recommended rules for care & operation of heating boiler.
F. ASME Section VII : - Recommended guidelines for care of power boiler.
H. ASME Section VIII : - Rules for construction of pressure vessels. (Division I & II)
I. ASME Section IX : - Welding & Brazing qualification.

ASME standard used for piping element

Flanges
1. ASME B16.1 : - Cast iron pipes flanges & flanged fittings.
2. ASME B16.5 : - Carbon steel pipes flanges & flanged fittings. (Up to 24)
3. ASME B16.47 : - Large Diameter steel flanges. (Above 24)

Butt welded fittings

1. ASME B16.9 : - Steel butt welding fittings.


2. ASME B16.28 : - Butt-welded short radius elbows & returns bends.

Gasket
1. ASME B16.20 / API -601: - Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges- Spiral wound,
Octagonal ring Joint & Jacketed flanges.
2. ASME B16.21 : - Non metallic gasket.

Socket & Threaded fittings


1. ASME B16.11 : - Forged steel socket welding & threaded fittings.

Valves
1. ASME B16.10 : - Face to face & end to end dimension of valves.
2. ASME B16.34 : - Flanged & butt-welded ends steel valves (Pressure &Temperature ratings)
except Ball, Plug & Butter fly Valves.

Pipes
1. ASME B36.10 : - Welded & Seamless wrought iron pipes.
2.ASME B36.19 : - Stainless steel pipes.

ASTM Material
11 2013 12:32 PM
These are ASTM material code used for piping material section as the service of the fluid.

ASTM Material used in Pipes

1. Carbon Steel:- ASTM A53 Gr. A/B, ASTM A106 Gr. A/B/C, ASTM A333 Gr.1/Gr.6

2. Alloy Steel:- ASTM A335 Gr.P1/P2/P5/P7/P9/P11/P12/P22

3.Stainless Steel:- ASTM A312TP304/TP304L/TP304H/TP308/TP310/TP316/ TP316L/


TP316H/TP317/TP321/TP321H/TP347/TP347H/TP348/TP348H.

4. Nickel Steel:- ASTM A333Gr.3/ Gr.8.

ASTM Material Wrought Iron Fittings

1. Carbon Steel:- ASTM A234Gr.WPA/B, ASTM A420 Gr.WPL6.

2. Alloy Steel:- ASTM A234 WP1/WP5/WP7/WP9/WP11/WP12/WP22

3. Stainless Steel:- ASTM A403 WP304/WP304L/WP304H/WP309 /WP310/WP316/


WP316L/WP316H/ WP317/WP321/WP321H/WP347/WP347H/ WP348

4. Nickel Steel:- ASTM A420WPL6/WPL8.

ASTM Material Forged Fittings

1. Carbon Steel:- ASTM A181. ASTM A105, ASTM A350 LF1/2.

2. Alloy Steel:- ASTM A182F1/F2/F5/F7/F9/F11/F12/F22.

3. Stainless Steel:- ASTM A182F6/F304/F304L/F304H/F310/ F316/F316L/F316H/F321/


F321H/F347/F347H/F348.

4. Nickel Steel:- ASTM A350 LF3, ASTM A522.

ASTM Material Cast Fittings

1. Carbon Steel:- ASTM A216, ASTM A352 LCB/C.

2. Alloy Steel:- ASTM A217 WC1/WC6/WC9/C5/C12.

3. Stainless Steel:- ASTM A217 CA15, ASTM A296 CA15, ASTM A351 CF8/CF3/CH20/
CK20/CF 8M/CF 3M/CF 8C/HK40

34 Nickel Steel:- ASTM A352LC3.

ASTM Material Plates

1. Carbon Steel:- ASTM A285, ASTM A515, ASTM A516

2. Alloy Steel:- ASTM A387 Gr.2/Gr.5/Gr.7/Gr.9/Gr.11/Gr.12/Gr.22.

3.Sainless Steel:- ASTM A240 TP410/TP405/TP430/TP304/TP304L/ /TP310S/


TP316/TP316L/TP317/TP321/TP347/TP348

4 Nickel Steel:- ASTM A203 Gr.D/Gr.E, ASTM A353

Piping abbreviations
8 2013 09:03 PM

piping design blogs


21 2013 09:02 PM
1 Petroleum communities

http://www.egpet.net/vb/

2 Piping Info

http://piping-info.blogspot.in/

3 Society of Piping Engineers and Designers

http://www.spedweb.com/

Piping design tips & guide


8 2012

Pdms piping and equipments modeling commands


Posted Date: 20-Jul-2011 Category: Computer & Technology
Author: Harjit Singh Member Level: Gold
Rating: 3 out of 53 out of 53 out of 5 Points: 30 (Rs 20)
In this article I shall let you know regarding the 3D piping designing software plant design
management system (PDMS), overview of PDMS, its uses, its commands. This is one of the best
software for designing the big plants with more accuracy. There are different modules in the
pdms for designing of the plants.
Overview of PDMS
These day lots of 3D piping designing software are available in the market. Every software has
own limitations and uses. The engineering designing consultancy companies are selecting this
software as per their business model, as per requirement of the project and the client demands for
particular software in which they want the project. Right now 3D piping designs software are
available in the market are Plant design management system (PDMS), Plant Design System
(PDS), Cad Pipe, Cad works, and spid3D etc. In these software's I shall you let you know
regarding plant design management system (PDMS).
Plant design management system (PDMS) is used for 3D designing of the oil and gas offshore
platforms, refineries, chemical plants and nuclear power plants. The purpose of using that
software is that we can see the actual model of offshore platform, refineries etc which is going to
build actually in the site. With the use of the 3D software companies can reduce overall costing
of the project from 10% to 30% in the form of time saving of the project, material saving of the
object. Big engineering procurement and construction companies like Technip, Flou, Pertofac,
Sumsung heavy industry, Worley person, Aker solutions many more company are using these 3D
software like pdms and pds. These software are used globally in their business operations. Now
every MNC company has their offices in different part of the world. So while designing of these

platforms, refineries, and chemical plants every office has to contribute their role on that project
as per their specialty. In PDMS work can we done globally. It means if design office at London
did some work on that project. The other employees of Mumbai office can see that work in the
model online and work accordingly.
PDMS software is produce by Aviva industries. PMDS is best 3D designing software. We can
design the entire plant in the PDMS. To use the PDMS software by any company they have to
buy the numbers of license as per their requirements.
PDMS contains 9 modules on which designing can be done in the model
Piping modeling
Equipment modeling
Structure module
HVAC Design
Hanger and supports or MDS
Cabling System
Cable trays
Design temples
Room design
Advantages of PDMS
1. To see the actual model of the plant in the software with exact dimensions.
2. To reduce the material from 10% to 30% from the manual calculations of the material of the
project.
3. We can save time while designing the project in pdms. Designing project in 2d like AutoCAD
taking much more time as compared to pdms.
4. In pdms we check the piping clashes of the piping, equipment and other inter disciplines.
5. Designing is of piping is more accurate. Because we can see all space around the plant.
6. Very less chance of rework, if the designing is done on the pdms. This helps us to save
fabrication time on the yard.
7. The accuracy is more in pdms as compared to other 2D software
8. Pdms can generate the material take off report of each every component in the pdms, which is
not possible in 2d software. From the material take off report we can get exact quantities of
material which are going to use in the plant for fabrication purpose. We can order that material as
the material take off reports.
9. From pdms we can run isometric drawing of the piping for fabrication purpose automatically.
In AutoCAD isometric drawings are taking too much time.
10. Modification of any pipe, equipment or structure can be done easy as compared to other
software.

11. Pdms is user friendly with other software like Ceaser II for stress calculations and With
AutoCAD to import the data from pdms to these seawares.
12. We can design supports for piping in the hanger and supports module.
Pdms is commands based software. While operating the software we required some command to
use the software.
These are the few commands which are using in the PDMS piping design module
Axes at CE= to check the axes of component like North, South, East, West direction
Q axes at ph= to check the head of the branch of the pipe.
Q axes at pt= to check the tail of the branch of the pipe.
Q Hstu= to show the branch head tube attribute
Q Lstu= to show the branch tail tube attribute
Q Hbore= to check the arrive bore or diameter of the component
Q Tbore= to check the leave bore or diameter of the component
Q Spre= to check the specification of the particular component
Q pspec= to check material class of the pipe.
New elbow choo all= to create new elbow through command line
New tee choo all= to create new tee through command line
New gasket choo all= to create new gasket through command line
New flange choo all= to create new flange through command line
New olet choo all= to create new olet through command line
Unclaim all= to remove claim the by user so other user can work in that pipe, equipment,
member,structure.
Getwork= to refresh the design model. After get work all the change done any user will show in
the model.
Axes at hpos= To check the branch head axes
Axes at tpos= To check the branch tail axes
Q ltle= to check the length of the spool between the two component
Conn ph to fir member= to connect the branch head to first member of the next branch by
common line
Conn pt to fir member= to connect the branch tail to last member of the next branch by common
line
Q ori = to check the orientation of the component
Dist= to give the distance between two component
Clea= to give the spool length between the two component
Conn= connect to the member
Fconn= to component forcefully
Q styp= to check the component selection type
Q dtxr= to check the detail text description of the component
Q mtxx= to check the material of the component

Q mode= to check the mode weather it in forward mode or backward mode


Q para= to check the parameter of the component
Dir tow next= to connect the next member by direction
Q ref= to check the reference
Add all the pipe within vol ce 500= all pipes to added in the area 500 around the selected
component.
Incl= to include the component from one branch to other branch
Ori and p3 is up= to orientate the point 3 of the tee in up direction
Own= navigate the owner of component
Q angle= to check the angle of the component
Q atle= to check the length of the first tube of the branch
Attype ccnn= comment attachment without dimensions
Attype cccc= comment attachment with dimensions
Attype xxxx= to set the attachment for isometric break up
Ch ce= to check the data inconsistency
Dir tow next elb= to align the elbow with next elbow
Dir tow id@= to align the elbow by using mouse click on the component
Q hcon= to check head connection attached with which branch
Q tcon= to check tail connection attached with which branch
Q ispec= to check the insulation of pipe
Ispec nulref= to remove the insulation of the pipe
Mtoc dotd= to appear the component in doted in the isometric
Mtoc off= to remove the material off the component. With this command material of the
component will not appear in isometric
Nex conn= connect to next component
Nex thro ce= align the next component in same direction
Q p3 = to check the p3 point of the component
Q pa= to check arrive point
Q pl= to check the leave point
Attype flow= to create the flow direction attachment
These are the few commands which are using in the PDMS equipment design module.
New site= for creating the new site in pdms
New zone= for creating the new zone in pdms
New equi= for creating the new equipment in pdms
New sube= for creating the new sub equipment in pdms
New nozzle= for creating the new nozzle in the pdms
New box= for creating new box in the pdms
New cylinder= for creating new cylinder in the pdms
Conn idp to idp= to connect design point of two cylinder/box etc.

Mark with (nam) all nozz for ce= to mark the all nozzle of equipment with name in pdms
Q level= to check the level of the component
Axes at p1= to check p1 point of the primitive
Axes at p2= to check p2 point of the primitive
New cylinder copy prev by n 500= to copy the previous cylinder by north direction by 500
Which MNC companies are using PDMS
Big engineering procurement and construction companies like Technip, Flou, Pertofac, Sumsung
heavy industry, Worley person, Aker solutions many more company are using these 3D software
like pdms.
PDMS uses in the following industries
1. For designing oil and gas project for offshore platforms and onshore refineries.
2. For designing of the Chemical plants
3. For designing of the power plants
4. For designing of the nuclear power plants.
5. For designing of big distilleries
Less awareness in the people regarding PDMS in India
There are very less numbers of user of PDMS in India, so the chance of getting the job is very
good in big MNC companies. Anyone can lean PDMS with minimum qualification for that I.T.I,
Diploma, B.Tech.
The initial salary will be around 30k for beginning in the job in pdms. After certain years of
experience in pdms and with good technical knowledge peoples can get handsome salary from
MNC companies and there is lot of more chance of getting the job in abroad on the basis of
PDMS. After getting the training candidates get the job of PDMS designer, PDMS Engineer in
the oil and gas designing consultancy companies.
There is very less training center for PDMS in India. Interested persons check more from the
below source PDMS Training Institute in India.

List softwares for Design and Engineering survey


11 2013 10:49 AM

computer Administrator

List softwares for Design and Engineering survey :

GHS 13 : 800usd http://www.ghsport.com/ bocad V 22 : 1500usd shaftdesigner V 1.2.6 =


3500usd NAPA 2010 : 1500usd for unlimited and Server http://www.napa.fi/

NUPAS HULL VERSION 6.02 : 1200usd for 50years License/Server-Clients http://www.nupascadmatic.com/

CADMATIC PIPING DESIGN : 2500 usd/unlimited /46Licenses available for 40years


Licenses http://www.nupas-cadmatic.com/

PLANT DESIGN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 12 : 600usd for all modules


Licensed http://www.aveva.com/Products_and_Services/Product_Finder/AVEVA_PDMS.aspx

AVEVA MARINE 12.1sp2 : 10 000usd for Lastest version/50years


Licensed. http://www.aveva.com/Products_and_Services/AVEVA_for_Marine.aspx

FORAN 3D_V7.1 : 6000usd for unlimited Licensed http://www.senermar.es/NAVAL/inicio/es

SMART MARINE 3D : 4000usd for unlmited


crack http://www.intergraph.com/products/ppm/sm3d/default.aspx

NESTRIX 2008 : 800 usd http://www.nupas-cadmatic.com/

ORCAFLEX : 2000usd

http://www.orcina.com/SoftwareProducts/OrcaFlex/index.php

MOSES ULTRAMARINE : 600usd http://www.ultramarine.com/

OPTIMOOR : 500usd http://www.tensiontech.com/software/optimoor.html

SACS 5.4 : 500usd http://www.sacs-edi.com/

PARAMARINE V6.1 : 10 000usd for Dongle


Emulator http://www.defensefile.com/Customisation/News/Naval_Systems/Bridge_Systems/Qin
etiQs_GRC_-_Canada_buys_Paramarine_Seagoing_for_Submarines_Software.asp

MAXSURF 16 : 750usd http://www.formsys.com/

AUTOSHIP 10 : 250usd for 6 modules : autoPlate-AutoHydro-AutoPower-Autostructure and


AutoYatch http://www.autoship.com/

SHIPCONSTRUCTOR 2012 : 1500usd for unlimited Dongle


emulator http://www.shipconstructor.com/

TRIBON M3 sp 5 : 800usd for 9999Licensed


Server http://www.aveva.com/Products_and_Services/AVEVA_for_Marine.aspx

SHIPFLOW : 850usd http://www.flowtech.se/index.php?


option=com_content&task=view&id=42&Itemid=20

ORCA 3D : 500usd http://www.orca3d.com/Orca3dJ/

Navcad 2009.7 Licensed : 500usd http://www.hydrocompinc.com/navcad/default.htm

Propcad 2010 : 500usd http://www.hydrocompinc.com/propcad/default.htm

CAESAR 2011 : 800usd PVELITE 2012 : 1500usd

http://www.coade.com/

NAUTICUS hull 2011 : 1500usd nauticus machinery 2011 : 4000usd SESAM 2011 : 1500
usd. http://www.dnv.com/services/software/publications/2008/no_2/softwareconferencehovik.asp

MAXSURF 15.01 : 750usd http://www.formsys.com/

Fastcam : 1500usd

tubeCam : 1500usd

Almacut : 2000usd

http://www.almacam.com

shipweight 10

www.shipweight.com

shipflow 4.7

Poseidon 12 http://www.gl-group.com/en/maritime_software/poseidon.php Deeplines 4.5 :


2000usd http://www.principia.fr/expertise-fields-software-products-deeplines-126.html Diodore :
2000usd http://www.principia.fr/expertise-fields-software-products-diodore-132.html Intool V8
keygen : 2000usd PDS 8 : 2000usd

Friendship-framework 2.4 https://www.friendship-systems.com/products/friendship-framework

Leonardo Hull Leonardo shaft Leonardo propeller http://www.rina.org/en/index.aspx

all intergraph softwares available.

PDMS Commands Piping Modeling


11 2013 11:45 AM
These are the PDMS Piping Commands which are used while modeling in the PDMS.
Designer can use this commands while modeling in PDMS. These PDMS piping commands are
helps to designer while modeling

1. Axes at CE = to check the axes of component like North, South, East, West direction
2. Q axes at ph= to check the head of the branch of the pipe.
3. Q axes at pt= to check the tail of the branch of the pipe.
4. Q Hstu= to show the branch head tube attribute
5. Q Lstu= to show the branch tail tube attribute
6. Q Hbore= to check the arrive bore or diameter of the component
7. Q Tbore= to check the leave bore or diameter of the component

8. Q Spre= to check the specification of the particular component


9. Q pspec= to check material class of the pipe.
10. New elbow choo all= to create new elbow through command line
11. New tee choo all= to create new tee through command line
12. New gasket choo all= to create new gasket through command line
13. New flange choo all= to create new flange through command line
14. New olet choo all= to create new olet through command line
15. Unclaim all= to remove claim the by user so other user can work in that pipe, equipment,
member,structure.
16. Getwork= to refresh the design model. After get work all the change done any user will
show in the model.
17. Axes at hpos= To check the branch head axes
18. Axes at tpos= To check the branch tail axes
19. Q ltle= to check the length of the spool between the two component
20. Conn ph to fir member= to connect the branch head to first member of the next branch by
common line
21. Conn pt to fir member= to connect the branch tail to last member of the next branch by
common line
22. Q ori = to check the orientation of the componen
23. Dist= to give the distance between two component
24. Clea= to give the spool length between the two component
25. Conn= connect to the membe
26. Fconn= to component forcefully
27. Q styp= to check the component selection type
28. Q dtxr= to check the detail text description of the component

29. Q mtxx= to check the material of the component


30. Q mode= to check the mode weather it in forward mode or backward mode
31. Q para= to check the parameter of the component
32. Dir tow next= to connect the next member by direction
33. Q ref= to check the reference
34. Add all the pipe within vol ce 500= all pipes to added in the area 500 around the selected
component.
35. Incl= to include the component from one branch to other branch
36. Ori and p3 is up= to orientate the point 3 of the tee in up direction
37. Own= navigate the owner of component
38. Q angle= to check the angle of the component
39. Q atle= to check the length of the first tube of the branch
40. Attype ccnn= comment attachment without dimensions
41. Attype cccc= comment attachment with dimensions
42. Attype xxxx= to set the attachment for isometric break up
43. Ch ce= to check the data inconsistency
44. Dir tow next elb= to align the elbow with next elbow
45. Dir tow id@= to align the elbow by using mouse click on the component
46. Q hcon= to check head connection attached with which branch
47. Q tcon= to check tail connection attached with which branch
48. Q ispec= to check the insulation of pipe
49. Ispec nulref= to remove the insulation of the pipe
50. Mtoc dotd= to appear the component in doted in the isometric
51. Mtoc off= to remove the material off the component. With this command

52. material of the component will not appear in isometric


53. Nex conn= connect to next component
54. Nex thro ce= align the next component in same direction
55. Q p3 = to check the p3 point of the component
56. Q pa= to check arrive point
57. Q pl= to check the leave point
58. Attype flow= to create the flow direction attachment

PDMS commands Equipment Modeling


11 2013 11:41 AM
1.

New site= for creating the new site in pdms

2.

New zone= for creating the new zone in pdms

3. New equi= for creating the new equipment in pdms


4. New sube= for creating the new sub equipment in pdms

5. New nozzle= for creating the new nozzle in the pdms


6. New box= for creating new box in the pdms
7. New cylinder= for creating new cylinder in the pdms
8. Conn idp to idp= to connect design point of two cylinder/box etc.
9. Mark with (nam) all nozz for ce= to mark the all nozzle of equipment with name in pdms
10. Q level= to check the level of the component
11. Axes at p1= to check p1 point of the primitive
12. Axes at p2= to check p2 point of the primitive
13. New cylinder copy prev by n 500= to copy the previous cylinder by north direction by
500

!
Pressure Relief Valve Piping Design
Posted by Ankit Chugh on 10:19 AM 2 Comments
.
Block valves are usually provided upstream (and downstream if discharging into a
closed system) of pressure relief valves where necessary to permit on stream
isolation and maintenance of the PR devices without interrupting process unit
operations.

Where block valves are used, the installation should conform to the requirements of
Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code when protecting an unfired
pressure vessel. These valves are typically installed so that they are car sealed
open (CSO). Mechanical interlocks or key systems are usually required for spared PR
valve installations to help ensure continuous safety protection of the system.

Generally, the most difficult and important feature associated with sizing relief valve
discharge lines and headers is the determination of the maximum probable flow.
The flow is based on the number of valves which may discharge simultaneously
owing to a fire or to abnormal process conditions. To do this, the layout of the unit
must be considered along with many possible abnormal operation conditions.

The permissible back pressure must also be determined. Generally, the back
pressure should not exceed 10 percent of the set pressure for unbalanced safety
valves. Balanced pressure-relief valves will operate satisfactorily at higher back
pressures (approximately 30 percent of the set pressure), and consequently their
use will sometimes result in a more economical relieving system.

Pressure relief valve discharge piping should be sized so that any back pressure that
may exist or develop will not reduce the capacity of the pressure relief valve below
that required to protect the equipment. Regardless, the discharge piping for each
pressure relief valve should not be smaller than the nominal pipe size of the
pressure relief valve outlet.

For gas, vapor, or flashing liquid service the inlet piping pressure drop at design flow
should not exceed 3 percent of the safety relief valve set pressure. Nor should the
inlet piping to a pressure valve be smaller than the valve inlet nominal pipe size.
The inlet piping includes all piping between the protected equipment and the
inlet flange of the valve. Excessive pressure drop in the inlet piping will cause valve
chatter (extremely rapid opening and closing of the valve) which may lower the
valve capacity and damage valve seating surfaces.

Pressure relief valves should be located so that the inlet piping is short and direct
and self-draining with no pockets. However, on installations where pressure
pulsations or turbulence are likely to effect the pressure relief valve (e.g., discharge
side of reciprocating compressors and pumps), it may be desirable to locate the
valve farther from the source in a more stable pressure region. The differential
between operating and valve set pressures is also important when the operating
pressure is not steady. A large differential will tend to reduce valve maintenance
costs.

On certain vessels, pressure relief valve leakage and consequent premature


shutting down of the process unit can be anticipated. For getting details on various
types of Valves, checkout Gotstock. These vessels should be provided with a
sufficient number of pressure relief valves (and accompanying block valves) so that
in the event of pressure relief valve leakage it will be possible to shut off any one
defective valve and replace it while the vessel is in service and still retain full
calculated relieving capacity.

Pressure Outlet Piping Discharge to Atmosphere


Outlet piping for pressure relief valves discharging flammable vapors directly to the
atmosphere should normally be equipped with steam and drain connections
controlled from grade, as shown by Fig. 1.

Snuffing steam to pressure-relief atmospheric vent


Outlet piping from pressure relief valves should be equipped with drains or
otherwise suitably piped to prevent accumulation of liquids at the valve outlet.
Pressure relief valve outlet piping for water or other liquids should be self-draining.

Separate pressure relief valve lines should be provided for each valve discharging
directly to the atmosphere. On towers, the pressure-relief valve vent piping should
be extended at least 10 ft (3 m) above the nearest working platform within a radius

of 40 ft (12 m). Outlet piping should be arranged so that the pressure-relief valve
discharge will not impinge on any equipment.