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2.1 Introduction
2.2 Basic Definitions
2.2.1 Standard Integrals
2.2.2 Algebra of Integrals
2.3 Integration by Substitution
2.3.1 Method of Substitution
2.3.2 Integrals using Trigonometric Forrnuias
2.3.3 Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Substitutions
2.3.4 Two Properties of Definite Integrals
2.4 Integration by Parts
2.41 ~ ~ ~of I
l e a~x sin~ b x dt x a ni d I
~ s a x~c o s b x d x

2.4 2 Evaluation of 1\i-h 1\/a' &, h

2 4 . 3 Integoals of the type Iex[f(x)if.(x)l dx

2.5 Summary
2.6 Solutions and Answers


In the last unit we have seen that the deffite integral I b

f(x) dx represents the signed
area bounded by the curve y = f(x), the x-axis and the lines x = a and x = b. The Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus gives us an easy way of evaluating such an integral, by first finding the
antiderivative of the given function, whenever it exists. Starting from this unit, we shall study
various methods and techniques of integration. In this unit, we shall consider two main
methods: the method of substitution and the method of integration by parts. The next two
units will cover some special integrals, which can be evaluated using these two methods.

After reading this unit you should be able to
define the indefinite integral of a funciton
evaluate certain standard integrals by finding the antiderivatives of the integrands
use the rules of the algebra of integrals to evaluate some integrals
use the method of substitution to simplify and evaluate certain integrals
integrate a product of two functions, by parts.


We have seen .in Unit 1, that the antiderivative of a function is not unique. More precisely,
we have seen that if a function F is an antiderivative of a function f, then F+c is also 311
antiderivative off, where c is any arbitrary constant. Now we shall introduce a notation here :

We shall use the symbol I f (x) dx to denote the class of all antiderivatives off. We call 11the

indefinite integral or just the integral off. You must have noticed that we use the samc sign

I,here that we have used for definite integrals in Unit 1.Thus, if F(x) is an antiderivative of
integral Calculus
qx), then we can write ] f(x) dx =F(x) + c.

This c is called the constant of integration. As in the case of definite integrals, f(x) is called the
integrand and dx indicates that f(x) is integrated with respect to the variable x. For example, in
the equation
(av + b)
I (av + b)4 dv =
+ C,

(av + b)
(av + b)4 is the integrand, v is the variable of integration, and +c is the integral of
the integrand (av + b)4.

You will also agree that the indefinite integral of cosx is sinx + c, since we know that sin x is an

antiderivative of cosx. Similarly, the indefinite integral of e2"is e2x

& = - e'x + c, and the
indefinite integral of x3 + 1is I (x3
+ 1)dx = - + x + c. You have seen in Unit 1 that
the definite integral 1
f(x) dx is a uniquely defined real number whose value depends on a,

b and the function f.

On the other hand, the indefinite integral I f (x) dx is a cl'assof functions which differ from

one another by constants. It is not a definite number; it is not even a definite function. We say
that the indefinite integral is unique upto an arbitrary constant.

Unlike the definite integral which depends on a, b and f, the indefinite integral depends only
* .
onf. .

All the symbols in the notation f (x) f(x) dx for the definite integral have an interpretation.

The symbol I reminds us of summation, a and b give the limits for x for the summation. And
f(x) dx shows that we are not considering the sum of just the function values, rather we are
considering the sum of function values multiplied by small increments in the values of x.

In the case of an indefinite integral, however, the notation f(x) dx has no similar
interpretation. The inspiration for this notation comes from the fundamental Theorem of

Thus, having defined an indefinite integral. let us get acquainted with the various techniques
for evaluating integrals.

2.2.1 Standard Integrals

Integration would be a fairly simple matter if we had a list of integral formulas, or a table of
integrals, in which we could locate any integral that we ever needed to evaluate. But the
diversity of integrals that we encounter in practice, makes it impossible to have such a table.
One way to overcome this problem is to have a short table of integrals of elementary
functions, and learn the techniques by which the range of applicability of this short table can
be extended. Accordingly, we build up a table (Table 1) of standard types of integral formulas
by inverting formulas for derivatives, which you have already studied in Block 1. Check the
validity of each entry in Table 1, by verifying that the derivative of any integral is the given
corresponding function.
Table 1 Methods of Integration

S. No. Function Integral ,


1. Z -+ c, n # -1
2. sinx -COSX +C
3. COSX sinx+c
4. sec2x tam + c
5. cosec2x -COA + c
6. secx tsinx secx + c
7. cosec x cobr -cosecx + c
8. sin-'x + c, or - cos-' x + c
-cotlx + c
9. tan-'x + c or

-cot-' x + c
10. sec-'x + c or
x J2T
-cot-' x + c
1 In(x(+c
12. eX ex+ c
13. ax (aX/ha). + c
14. sinhx coshx + c
15. coshx sinhx+c
16. sech2x tanhx + c
17. cosech2x -CON+ c
18. sechx tanhx -sechx + c
19. cosechx cothx -cosechx + c

Now let us see how to evaluate some functions which are linear combinations of the functions
listed in Table 1.
2.2.2 Algebra of Integrals
You are familiar with the rule for differentiationwhich says

There is a similar rule for integration :

R U I ~1 J[af(x) + bg(x)dx = a J f(x)dx + b J g(x)dx

This rule follows from the following two theorems.
Theorem 1 If f is an integrable function, then so is kqx) and

proof Let J f(x)dx = F(x) + C.

Thenby definition, - [F(x)
+ c] = f ( x )

. - [k{F(x) + c)] = kf(x)
" dx
Again, by definition, we have

kf(x)dx = k[F(x) + c] = k J f(x)dx

Integral Calculus Theorem 2 Iff and g are two integrable funcnons, then f+g is integrable, and we have

J [f(x) + g(xlldx = J f(x)dx + J g(x)dx

~ l o o f ~ e ft ( x ) d ~=F(x) + c , j g(x)dx = G ( X ~+ c
Then, - [(F(x) + cl + (G(x) + d l = f(x) + g(x)
Thus, J [f(x) + g(x)ldx = [F(x) + e l + [G(x) +el
= f(x)dx + J g(x)dx
Rule (1) may be extended to include a finite number of functions, that is, we can write

We can make use of rule (2) to evaluate certain integrals which are not listed in Table 1.

, Example 1 Let us evaluate I (x +

;I3 dx

1 3 1
We know that (X + -)' = X' + 3x + - +7 .
X x X

..........Rule 2
Using integral formulas 1 and 11 from Table 1, we have

Note that c, + 3c2 + 3c3 + c, has been replaced by a single arbitrary constant c.

Example 2 Suppse we want to evaluate 1(2 + 3 sin x + 4ex )dx

This integral can be written as

Example 3 To evaluate the defmite integral k I

(X + 2x' )' dx. we first find the indefinite

integral J (x + 21' 1' dx

Thus, J (X + 2 x 2 ) dx = (x2 + 4,' + 4 x 4 ) d \
According to our deffition of indefinite integral, this gives an antiderivative of (x + 2 ~for~a ) ~ Methods of Integration
given value of c. By using the hdamental Theorem of Calculus we can now evaluate the FTC says that if G(x) is an
definite integral. antiderivative of f(x), then

Ib f(x) dx = G(x)
= G@) - ma).

Note that for the purpose of evaluating a definte integral, we could take the antiderivative
correspondmg to c = 0, that is,

-1 x 3 + X 4 + -
4 s
x , as the constants cancel out.
3 5
See if you can do these exercises now.
E E 1) Write down the integrals of the following using Table 1 and Rule 2.
a) (i) x4 (ii) ymW(iii)4x-2 (iv) 3

b) (i) 1 -2x +x2 (iii (X - i)2 (iii) (1 +XY

c) (1") ex + ee-X+ 4 (ii) 4cosx 3sinx +ex+x (iv) 4sech2x + eX - 8x
Integral ,Calculus

E E2) Evaluate the following definite integrals.

4 1 1
b) i) J (X + d (ii) Jo (X +113 dx

You have seen that with the help of Rule 2 we could evaluate a number of integrals. But still

there are certain integrals like sin 2~ dx which cannot be evaluated by uiing

Rule 2. The method of substitution which we are going to describe in the next section will
come in handy in these cases.
Methods of Integration
In this section we shall study the first of the main methods of integration dealt with in this
unit: the method of substitution. This is one of the most commonly used techniques of
integration. We shall illustrate its application through a number of examples.
2.3.1 Method of Substitution
The following theorem will lead us to this method.

Theorem 3. If I f(v)dv = F(v) + c, then on substituting g(x) for v, we get

Proof We shall make use of the chain rule for derivatives (Unit 3) to prove this theorem.

Since 1f(v)dv = F(v) + C,

we can write -- f (v). Now if we w t e v as a function of
x, say v = g(x), then
d dFtg(x)l dg(x)
- Qg(x) = -- dx by chain rule
dx dg(x)
= f[g(x)l. dx since v = g(x)
= f[g(x)l-g'(x)
This shows that F[g(x)] is an antiderivativeof flg(x)g'(x). This means that

The statement of this theorem by itself may not seem very useful to you. But it does simplify
our task of evaluating integrals.For example, to evaluate sin 2x dx, we could take v = g(x) =
2x and get

I sinv dv by Theorem 3, since g(x) = 2x and gS(x)= 2.

--- cos v + C
= - - cos 2x +C
We make a special mention of the following three cases which follow fiom theorem 3.
Case i) If f(v) = v", n # - 1 and v = g(x), then by Formula 1 of Table 1.

Case ii) If f(v) = I Iv and v = g(x).

then, by formula 11 of Table 1

Case ill) If J f(x) dx = F (x) + c, then

Iab flg(x)lgl (x) dx = 'j;(v; d V, wherev =g(r) [The limits of integration are g(a) and g(b)

Since x = a = > v = g(x) = g(a), and

We shall be using these three cases very often. Their usefulness is evident from the following
Integral Calculus
Example 4 Let us integrate (2x + 1) (x2+ x + 1)'
For this we observe that - (x2 + X + 1) = 2x + I
Thus, I(2x + I) (x2 + x + 1
dx is of the form [g(xllngf(x) h a n d hence can be
evaluated as in i) above.

1 1
nerefore, ( 2 +~ I) (x'+x+I)' dx = -(x' + x+116 +c.
Alternatively, to find 1(2" + 1) (x2 + x + 1)' dx, can substitute x2 + x + I by u. This

= - u6 + c by Formula 1 from Table 1.

Example 5 Let us evaluate J' (ax + b)* dx

= J (ax + b)" dx = -1 (ax

+ bin dx
Therefore, when n # - 1,

and whenn =-1

Example 6. Suppose we want to evaluate the definite integral

We put x2 + 2x + 3 = u. This implies - = 2(x + 1). Further,

Example 7 To evaluate I xe 2x2 do

dx. we substitute2x2=u. Since - = 4% we can write,

On the basis of the rules discussed in this section, yov will be able to solve this exercise.
E E3) Evaluate Methods of Integration
Integral Calculus Now we shall use the method of substitution to integrate some trigonometric function. Let's
start with sin ax.

Example 8 To evaluate I sin ax dx, we proceeded in the same manner as we did for
1 sin 2x dx. We make the substitution ax = u
This gives - = a. Thus,
I sinaxdx a1 1sinu.-.dx
1sinu d u = -

- 1
- -cosax +c
E E4) Proceeding exactly a s in Example 8, fill up the blanks in the table below.

S.No. f(x) I f(x) dx

1 cosax
-- +c
1. sin ax
1 .
2. cos ax -sin ax +c
3. sec2ax ..............
4. cosec2ax ...............
5. cosec ax cot ax ...............
6. secaXtanax ...............
7. P ...............
8. anx ...............

Example 9 Suppse we want to evaluate

9 Jwtxdx, ii) J t a m dx and iii) 1cosec2x dx

3 We can write
cos x d
Icotxdx, = -
sin x
dx. Now since - sin x = cos x, this integral falls in the category of

case ii) mentioned earlier, and thus, icon: dx = In /sinxI + c

ii) To evaluate i t a m dx, we write

I tanx dx =
sec x tan x
secx .

= Inlsec x( + c, as - sec x = sec x tan x
iii) To integrate cosec 2x we write
2cosec2x (cosec2x - cot 2x)
J cosec'2x dx =-
-2 J cosec2x - cot 2x dx

Here again, - (COSec2x - cot 2x) = 2 cos ec2x(cos ec2x -cot 2x)

This means J cosec2 dx = -21 In lcosec2x - cot2xl + e

In this example we have used some 'tricks' to put the integrand in some standard form. After
you study various examples and try out a number of exercises, you will be able to decide on
the particular substitution or the particular trick which will reduce the given integrand to one of
the known forms. Let's look at the next example now.
Methods of ~ n t e ~ r a t i o n '
Example LO Let us evaluate r e ' sin 2 x dx

lfweputs$x=uthe - = 2 s i n x ~ s x= s h 2 x

%=fore, J esin2' sin2x dx = du

1 See if you can solve this exercise now.

E ES) Evaluate the following integrals

a) Isecxdx b) JOzI2 sin2 x cos x dx C) eYnxsec2 X ~ X

Integral Calculus
2.3.2 Integrals using Trigonometric Formulas
In this section, we shall evaluate integrals with the help of the following trigonometric

1 (1-cos2x)
sin 2 x = -

1 (l+cos2x)
cos 2 x = -
3 3 . 1 .
sm x = - smx - - sm3x
4 4

sinrnx cosnx = - [sin(m + n)x + sin(m - n)x]

In each of these formulas you will find that on the left hand side we have either a power of a
trigonometric function or a product of two trigonometric functions. And on the right hand side
we have a sum (or difference) oftwo trigonometric functions. You will realise that the
functions on the right hand side can be easily integrated by making suitable substitutions.
The following examples will illustrate how we make use of the above formulas in evaluating
certain integrals.

Eumplc 11 To evaluate I cos ax dx. We write


cos 3 ax dx = 1(43 1
cos ax + cos 3ax)dx

-1 c o s a x d x + 1- I c o s 3 a x d x
4 4
- -3 sin ax
- +- sin3ax + c (see E4)
4a 12a

Example 12 Let us evaluate i) Isin3x cos4x and ii) I sinx iin2x sin3x dx
Here the integrand is the form of a product of trigonometric functions. We shall write it as a
sup^ of trigonometric functions so that it can be integrated easily.

i) J'sax c o u l x h = I 11 (sm. 7x - sin x) dx

1 1
- = (sin7x dx - - Jsinx
2 2

= - - 1 cos7x
+ - cosx + c
14 2

ii) To evaluate ] sin2x cos3x dx, again we express the product sinx sin2x sin3x as a sum of
trigonometric functions.
sinx sin2x sin3x = - sin x (cos x - cos 5x)
1 1
= - sinx cosx -- sinxcos5x
2 2
Methods of Integration
1 1 .
= - sin 2x -- (sm6x -su14x)
4 4

Therefore, Isin x sin2x sin3x dx

- - -1 cos 2 x - -
+- cos6x + c
8 16 24
Try to do some exercises now. You will be able to solve them either by applying the
trigonometic formulas mentioned in the beginning of this section or by using the method of
substitution. Don't be scared by the number of integrals to be evaluated. The more integrals
you evaluate, the more skilled you will become. You have to practise a lot to be able to decide
on the best method to be applied for evaluating any given integral.

E 6) Evaluate each of the following integrals.

cos X
cot 2xcosec22x dx

iv) sin 20 c~~~~~d o e ( l + cos4 9)de

sin2 Ode
b) 9 (I + sin e d e i)
6 3

fii! 4l;J sec e tan O(1 + sec E I )CIO


) j;1;6s 5 0 ~ 0 s e d e iv) ji:s 0 cos 20 cos 46 de

Integral Calculus

E E 7) The cost of a transistor radio is Rs. 7001-. Its value is depreciating with time according to
dv -500
the formula dl = 3where Rs. v is its value t years after its purchase. What will be its
value 3 years after its purchase? (Don't forget the constant of integration! Think how you can
find it which the help of the given information.)

23.3 Trigonometricand Hyperbolic Substitution

Various trigonometric and hyperbolic identities like sin% + cos'0 = 1
sinh 0
1 + tan20 = sec20 ,tan h 0 -and so on, prove very useful while evaluating certain
cosh 0
integrals. In this section we shall see how.
A trigonometric or hyperbolic substitution is generally used to integrate expressions

involving Jn,
\/a', or a' + x 2 .We suggest the following substitutions.
Methods of lrrtegretion
.. - .
Expression involva Substitution

-J x = a sine

'../ x = a tan0 or a sinhe

JTZF x = sece or a coshe

a2 + x2 x-atan0

Thus to evaluate I Jn
' put x = a s i n 8 Then we h o w that
- = a -8. This means we can write
dx a cos 8 d8
J = 5J ~ l n Z e
a cos 8 de
= 1 acme
= /d8=8+c

Similarly to evaluate I m9 we shall put x = a tan8
dx 2
Since - = a sec 8 de , we get
dx a sec 8d8
Sm= la'

- 1
- tan-' ( x l a )
We can also evaluate 1 Jm,by substituting x =a tan6

dx a secLOde
= 1sec Ode

We can also evaluate this integral by x = asinhe. With this substitution we get,
1Jn = s1nh-l (x 1a) + c, and we know that

, sinh-' ( x / a ) = In.
x + ,/n (see Unit 5)

x + dx2 - a2
= In. +C
Integral Calculus Let us put these results in the form of a table
Table 3

S.No. f(x) I flx)d.

1. J.'-f sin-' @/a) +c

1 1
2. a2 + x 2
- tan-' (XIa) +c
a 1
3. - sec-'(xla) +c
x J m - a

4. JX7
or sinh-'(da) + c

1 x +JTF
~n +c
5. J77 - a

or cosh-'(da) + c

Sometimes the integrand does not seem to fall in any of the types mentioned in Table 3, but it is
possible to modify or rearrange it so that it conforms to one of these types. We shall illustrate
this through some examples.
Example U Suppose we want to evaluate J12
Let us try to rearrange the terms in the integrand j 2x - 2 to suit US. YOUwill see that

Ifweputx- 1 =v, - =1 and
dx = -
1 dv
jl2sd jo
Note the new limits of integration.

This integrals is finally in the form thit we want and using the fvst formula in Table 3 we get

J12 sd dx
= sin-' v
Example 14 The integration in 1 x2
dx does not again

fall into the types mentioned in Table 3. But let's see what we can do.

du = 3x 2 ,n u s ,
~fwe put x3 = u, -

du, by Theorem 3 ( u = 1 when x = 1 and u =O when x = 0)
Methods of Integration
Here the integrand 3can be evaluated using formula 2 in Table 3.

n u s , we get LJ ~ dx =A-31 tan-'~ u
3 0l+X6

If you have followed this disscussion, you will certainly be able to solve this exercise.

E E 8) Integrate each of the following with respect to the corresponding variables.

1 1 1 '1
I ) -- ii) iii) --- iv) ----
Js-k LC &+,2 JGZ
X t2 u
vii). -
v) ------ vi) ---
JX4_1 G h-7
1 1 1
viii) x)

x xZ
xi) - -- - 1 2 )1
l + x 2 mt: l+xZ -
Integral Calculus

2.3.4 Two Properties of Definite Integrals

We have already derived some properties of the definite integrals in Unit 11. These are the

i) Constant Function Property : Jab = c(b - a)

ii) Constant Multiple Property : I b

kf(x)dx = k l
f(x) dx

iii) Interval Union Property : 1 f (x) dx = Jc

f(x)dx +
f ( x ) ~ where
x a i c 6 b.

iv) Comparison Property : If if c <f(x) < d V X E [a,b],

then c(b - a) 5
Jab f(x) dx S d(b -a).

Now we shall use the method of substitution to derive two more properties to add to this
list. Let's consider them one by one

V) Ji f(x)dx = Jo
f(x) dx + J;IZf(a - x) dx f i r any integrable function f.

We already know that

1; f(x)dx = 6a12
f(x) dx + Ja;:(x) dx.

Now if we put x = a-y in the second integral on the right hand side, then since

since x is a dummy variable.

The usefulness of this property will be clear to you from the following example.
Example 15 Let us evaluate i) I' sin4 x cos5 X ~ and
X ii) So2' ms3 x dx
of Integralion

i) Using proper& v), we can write

Ji sin2 xcos xdx =

sin4 xcoss xdx + - x)dr
sin4(n - x)cos5~n

sin(n - x) = sin x, and

cos ( x - x) = -COS

cos (2n - x) = COSX

Our next property greatly simplifies some integrals when the integrands are even or odd
vi) Iff is an even function of x, i.e, f (-x) = Kx), then

faa f(x) dx = 2 5: f (x) dx

and iff is an odd function, i.e., f (-x) = - f(x), then

This is also obvious from Fig. 1(a) and (b)

Inteeral Calculus We shall prove the result for even functions. The result for odd functions follows easily and
is let to you as an exercise. (see E9)c)).
So let f be an even function of x in [-a,a], that is f(-x) = f(x) Q x E [-a,a].

If we put x = -y in the first integral on the right hand side, we get

~h~~ f (x) dx = 2 1; f (x) dx.

Using this property we can directly say that


I,,, sin x dx = 0

I:" =2

E E9) a) Evaluate

b) show that sin 2 x In(tan x) dx = 0

C) Prove that dx = 0 iff is an odd h c t i o n of X.

In thls secttoll we have seen how the method of substitution enables us to substantially Methods of Integration
increase our list of integrable functions. (Here by "integrable function" we mean a function
which we can integrate!) We shall discuss.another techmque in the next section.


In this section we shall evolve a method for evaluating integrals of the type

u(x)v(x)dx, in which the integrand u(x)v(x) is the product of two functions. In other words,
we shall first evolve the integral analogue of

and then use that result to evaluate some standard integrals.

2.4.1 Integrals of a Product of Two Functions
We can calculate the denvative of the product of two functions by the formula

Let us rewrite this as

lntegrating both the sides with respect to x, we have

d d
u ( x ) -(v
(x)) dx = u ( x ) v ( x ) - J V(X) (u(x)) dx

To express this in a more symmetrical form, we replace u(x) by qx), and put
- V(X)= 8(*) This means V(X)= g(x) dx.
As a result of this substitution, (I) takes the form

This formula may be read as:

The integral of the product of two functions = First factor x integral of second factor -integral
of (derivative of first factor x integral of second factor)
It is called the formula for integration by parts. ' h i s formula may appear a little complicated to
you. But the success of this method depends upon choosing the first factor in such a way that
the second term on the right-hand side may be easy to evaluate. It is also essential to choose
the second factor such that it can be easily integrated.
The following examples will show you the wide variety of integrals which can be evaluated by
this technique. You should carefully study our choice of first and second functions in each
example. You may also try to evaluate the integrals by reversing the order of functions. This
will make you realise why we have chosen these functions the way we have.

Example 16 Let us use the method of integration by parts to evaluate J xex dx.
In the integrand xeXwe choose x as the first factor and ex as the second factor. Thus, we get
5 5 d
xex'dr = x e x dx - {- (x) e x dx) dx
Integral Calculus
Example 17 To evaluate r I 2 x 2 cos x dx, We shall take x2 as the fxst factor and cos x as the

second. Let us first evaluate the corresponding indefinite integral.

~ x 2 c o s x d x = x cosxdx- {%d
( x 2 ) cosxdx) dx I
I 2xsinxdx

=x2 sinx-2
I xsinxdx

We shall again use the formula of integration by parts to evaluate ] x sin x dx. Thus

Ixsinxdx=x(-cosx)- I (I)(-cosx)dx a~(f(x)=x,~(x)=~i~(x)

= - xcosx+
I cosxdx

Note that we have written the arbitrary constant as c instead qf 2c


J0'l2 x2 cosx dx =(x2 sin x +2xcosx -2sin x

- 7c
+ c)
Example 18 Let us now evaluate I X In 1x1dx
Here we take In 1x1 as the first factor since it can be differentiated easily, but cannot be
integrated that easily. We shall take x to be the second factor.


While choosing In I x I as the first factor, we mentioned that it cannot be integrated easily. The
method of integration by parts, in fact, helps us in integrating In x too.

Example 19 We can find I lnx dx by taking lnx as the first factor and 1 as the second factor.

= xinx - J d x = xinx - x +c
= x l n x - xlne + csincelne=l
= xln(x1e) +c
The trick used in Example 19, that is, considering 1 (unity) as the second factor, helps us to
evaluate many integrals which could not be evaluated earlier.
You will be able to solve the following exercises by using the method of integration by parts.
E E 10) Evaluate Methods of Integration

a) I x 2 In x dx Take f(x) = Inxand g(x) = x2

I (I+x)exdx Take f(x) = 1 + x and g(x) = ex

C) I ( I + x 2 ) c X dx

d) J' x 2 sin x cosx dx Take f(x) = x2 and g(x) = sinx cos x

E Ell) Evaluate the following integrals by choosing 1 as the second factor.

a) I sin-' x dn b)
tan-' x dx c) cot-' x dx
E E 12) Integrate
a) xsin-'x
Methods of Integration
2.4.2 Evaluations at' eaxsinbx and leal eosbr dx

To evaluate isaxsin bx dx and I eaxcosbxdx, we use the formula for integration by parts.
I eaXsin bx dx = (ea*) (- c1 o s bx) -
b J ( a s a x )(- - cor bx) dx
I - I ea\cosbx + -
ea\ cosbx dx
1 a a .
b b b
- - -1
Therefore, you will notlce that the last Integral on the r ~ g hhand
t side is the same as the
Integral on the left hqnd s ~ d eNow
. we transfer the t h ~ r dterm on the right to the left hand s ~ d e ,
and obta~n,

+ --;)
I e a xslnbx dx = eax
(2 I
smbx - - cosbx)
This means,

We can similarly show that

1eax cosbx dx =
a 2 + b2
eax (acosbx + bsinbx) + c

If we put a = rcose, b = rsine, these formulas become

, Ie sx sin bx dx =
I eax sin (bx - 0) +c
1 b
J eax cosbx dx = eax C O S ( ~-X0) + C, where0 = tan-' -.
\la?+b' a

I Example 20 Using the foimulas discussed in this ~ub-section,we can eas~lycheck that

1 71
ji) l e X c o s , / ~ d d * = - e xc o s ( \ / j ; - ) + c
2 3
Example21 Toevaluate [ e2' ,in x c o s ? x d x , weshallfirstwrite
sin x cos 2x = - (sin3x - sinx) as in sec. 3.

1e2' x cog2' dx =
e 2 " sin 3 x dx -
J e l x sin x dx
Now the two integrals on the r ~ g h hand
t side can be evaluated. We see that

I ,?x
s .~ 3x
n dx = L e l x sin (3x - tan-'
1)+ c

1 1
J'e2x s i n x c o s 2 x dx = e - " [-sin(jx -tan-' 2) - - sin (x - fan-' -)I1 + c
J13 2 4 5 2
Example 22 Suppose we want to evaluate x 3 sin (a In x) dx

Let lnx = u. This implies x = eUand duldx = I lx

Then, I x3sin ( a b )dx I x4 sin ( a h ) (llx) dx


= 1elu sin au du
- e4' sin (au- tan-' (a 14)) + c
- JS
- a+ c
- ,/a x4 sin ( a l n x - tan-'

Why don't you try some exercises now.

E E 13) Evaluate the following integrals

a) JPCOWIX~X , b) JPsin 3x d~ c) e4xcoa x OQSZX d~

c) J cos ax sin bx dx (writecosh ax in tnmr of

the exponential function)
2.4.3 Evaluati~nof I I-/,
d ~ , dx, and I dr
Methods of Integration

In this sub-section, we shall see that integrals like Id n dx, dX, dx?

and I4x2 dx can also be evaluated with the help of the formula for integration by pa*

and Table 3.

Shifting the last term on the right hand side to the left we get

Using the formula,

= sin-' (-): + c, we obtain

Id T 7 dx = 12 x Jn
+ 2 sin

Similarly, we shall have,


= I
xp-7- -a' 2
In x + \/X'= a +C

Example 23 Let us evaluate JZdx

Surelv. vou will be able to do these exercises now.

Integral Calculus E B 14) Verify that

in the next sub-sect~onwe shall consider another type of integrand which occurs quite
frequently in mathematics.

2.4.4 Integrals of the Type [ex [fix) + I.(x)] dx

We first prove the formula

integrating some functions.
I ex [f(x) + f' (x)] dx = e x f(x) + c and see how it can be used in

By the formula for integration by parts

= f(x)ex - J f ' (x) e x dx + c

This implies
Methods of Integration
Example 24 Let us evaluate the following integrals.

I We take up (i) f i t ,

Now we shall evaluate ii)

cos- - sin -

= I 2
2cos ;x
2 e-x12 dx


J' sec -
c-'I2 dx =
(sec -1 (-2e-"I2) - J' (T1 seo X X
tan -1 (-2e-"')

I Thus,

In this unit we have exposed you to various methods of integration. You have also had a fair
C amount of practice in using these methods. We are now giving you some additional exercises.
You may like to try your hand at these too. To solve these you will have to first identify'the
method which will suit the particular integrand the best. This is the crucial step. The next step
where you apply the chosen method to get the answer is relatively-easy. If you have studied this
unit thoroughly, neither of these steps should pose any problem. So good luck!
E E 15) Evaluate the following integrals :
x2 + 2
b, Ix dx.

c) . sinh (x / 2) cosh (x / 2) dx

g) J sin xecomxdx
~ 1 2sin x cosx
i, lo (1 + sinx)' dx.
Integral Calculus

n) I ex (In sin x + cot x) dr

Methods of Integratbn

E E16) Prove that

and use it to evaluate J x sin x dx

Integral Calculus Before we end this unit, here are some general remarks about the existence of integrals.
The result

Jab f(x) dx = [~(x)l,b= F(b) - F(a),

where F(x) is the antiderivative of f(x), will make sense only if f(x) exists at every point of the
interval. Hence we have to be careful in using this result.

But l/x is not defined at x = 0, and In 1 x I is also not differentiable at x = 0. As such, at this
stage, we should use the result only if the inrerval [a,b] does not include x = 0

, J - dx = In -
= In 2 is not valid.

Again, consider
1 71
dx = [sin-' XI; = -.
Jo 2
We have used this in Example 3. However -does not exist at x = 1, and sin-'x is not
differentiable at x = 1. L(sin-'x)' exists at x = 1, but sin-'x)' does not exist, since sin-'x itself
does not exist when x > 1.
However, the above result is true in some sense. This sense will be clear to you in your
course on analysis.
The antiderivative of every function need not exist, i.e., it need not be any of the functions we
are familiar with. For example, there is no function known to us whose derivative is e-x2

However, the value of the definite integral f(x) dx of every function, where f(x) is

continuous on the interval [a,b], can be found out by numerical methods to any degree of
approximation. You can study these methods in detail if you take the course on numerical
analysis. You will study two simple numerical methods in Block 4 too. Thus, we cannot find
the antiderivative of e-x2,but still, we can find the approximate value of

Jab e-"' dx, for all real valuer of a and b. In fact, this integral is very important in

probability theory and you will use it very often if you take the course on probability and
That brings us to the end of this unit. Let us summarise what we have studied so far.

In this unit we have covered the following points.

1) If F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), then the indefinite integral (or simply, integral) of f(x) is

I f(x) d x = F(X) + C, where c is an arbitrary constant.

Methods of Integration

3) The method of substitution gives :

In particular,

I [f (x)
[f(x)" fl(x) dx = -+c, n
"+' f - 1 , and
n+ 1

1 a '
f (x) dx = Ii2 f (x) dx + r2 f(a - X) dx

x) dx, if f is even
f(x) dx =

4) Standard formulas :

5) Integration of a product of two functions (integration by parts):

Thls leads us to

i\=fj x\i.'+c~n-2 X + $32 +x2
a +c

-."'~j n +c
2 2 a
J' eax sin bx dx = e a x sin (bx - tan-' -) +c
J' e x cosbx dx = eax cos (bx - tan-' -1 +c
d m a

1ex[f(x) + f'(x)]dx = exf(x) + c


X .
El) a) i) - + c ii)-2x-v2 +c iii) - 4x-I +c iv) 3x +c
5 61
Integral Calculus

iii) 4 tanhx + ex - 4x2 + c


S. No. f(x) 1f(x) dx 1

1. sin ax --cosax+ c
1 .
2. cosax - sin ax + c
3. sec2 ax -- tan ax + c
4. cosec2 ax -- cot ax +c
5. sec ax tan ax - sec ax +c
6. cosec ax cot ax --a Cosec ax + c

sec x(sec x + tan x Methods of Integration
d x = In (secx + tanxl + c
sec x + tan x
sin x cos xdx = -
du 2
C) if u = tanx, - = sec x

sin6 x -2
E6) a) i, 6+ c ii) -+ c
sin2 x

iii) k16
cot 2x cosec2 2x dx = - cot 2x (2 cosec2 2x) dx

V) Ion" O (I +
sin cos4 6) dO = I0
sin O dO + /ox12sin0 oos4 O dO

ii) -
10 (1-5tan8)'

(1 + sec814 (i+fi1~-2~ 1+12fi

iiii 4 4 4

) i) I sin4 0 de =
I sin3 9 sine de

= I ,(
sin2 O - -41 sin O sin 38) dO
Integral Calculw

= -500 tan-' t +c
v(0) =700 = - 500 tan-'0 + c = c
v(3) = 700 - 500 tan-' 3.
E 8) For solution, see P. 104

b) Jo2 sin 2 In t xx = [I4 sin 2x In tan x dx

n n
=r4sin2(l ,- x) in tan (- - x) dx

= p d s i n z x in (taoxmtx) dx

= [I:4 sin 2 x in idx = o

Methods of Integration

~ 1 a)
0 I x2 lnxdr = lnx I x 2 d x - I I x2 dx) dx

C) 1 ( 1 + x 2 ) e x dx = ( I + x 2 ) e x - 2 1 xex dx = (1 + x 2 ) e x - 2[xex - 1e x dx]

E12) a) I x
x sin-' x dx = - sin-'x -

x sinL u
put x = sin u in d x = J - cos u c o s u du

- -1 u - -1 sin2u + c = -1 u - -1 sinucosu + c
2 4 2 2
= - [sin-' x - x cos(sin-' x)] + c F

x2 1 . -1
:. I x s i n - ' x d x = - - s2i n - l i - - [ n n 4 x-xJGFl+e

= xln (1 + x 2 ) - 2[x - tan-' XI +c .

El3 a) - eZx (2 cos4x + 4 sin 4x) + c
Integral Calculus

= 1 e2' (2cos2r t ZsinZr) + -I s Z x ] + c
2 8 2

e) cmh ox sinbr dx = (- s i n b ~&


= - -
2 (2t b2)
[em (ssin br - b msbx) + srU (-a sin bx - b cm bx)] + c

FJ -em
(asinbx - bcosbx) dx
- -----
- x em (a sln br - b cos bx)
a2 +bz
- [aeU (a sin bx - b cos bx) -
(a2 + b212
beaX(acosbx + bsinbx)] +c

c ) coshr t c

Methods of Integration

(1 + sin X )

= -
[I t 7 dt -2 1t 6 dt]

- (x2 +l) +f smh-' (x2 + 1) + c
x tan-' x
dx = 1 9sin9d9,ifx= tan9

= - core + j cos0 d0 (inegration by parts)

m) Put x = tan0 in ]' COs (-11 + x 2 1 dx

-1 -X2

Answer 2[0 tan9 + In ( case I] + c where 8 = tan-' x

n ) / e x ( l n ~ i n ~ + ~ o t ~ )e d* l~n =s i n x d x + I excotxdx

cotx e x dx + I excotxdx

J x 3 sinx dx = J x 3 (-rinx) dx
= - x 3 cosx + 3x2 sinx - 6 J' x sinx dx

=- x3 ~ o s +i 3x2 sinx - 6 [-xmsx + J UISX dx]

= - x3 cosx + 3x2 sin x + 6(xcos x - sinx) + c