Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives
2.2 Basic Definitions
2.2.1 Standard Integrals
2.2.2 Algebra of Integrals
2.3 Integration by Substitution
2.3.1 Method of Substitution
2.3.2 Integrals using Trigonometric Forrnuias
2.3.3 Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Substitutions
2.3.4 Two Properties of Definite Integrals
2.4 Integration by Parts
2.41 ~ ~ ~of I
l e a~x sin~ b x dt x a ni d I
~ s a x~c o s b x d x
2.5 Summary
2.6 Solutions and Answers
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Objectives
After reading this unit you should be able to
define the indefinite integral of a funciton
evaluate certain standard integrals by finding the antiderivatives of the integrands
use the rules of the algebra of integrals to evaluate some integrals
use the method of substitution to simplify and evaluate certain integrals
integrate a product of two functions, by parts.
We shall use the symbol I f (x) dx to denote the class of all antiderivatives off. We call 11the
indefinite integral or just the integral off. You must have noticed that we use the samc sign
I,here that we have used for definite integrals in Unit 1.Thus, if F(x) is an antiderivative of
I
integral Calculus
qx), then we can write ] f(x) dx =F(x) + c.
This c is called the constant of integration. As in the case of definite integrals, f(x) is called the
integrand and dx indicates that f(x) is integrated with respect to the variable x. For example, in
the equation
(av + b)
I (av + b)4 dv =
5a
+ C,
(av + b)
(av + b)4 is the integrand, v is the variable of integration, and +c is the integral of
5a
the integrand (av + b)4.
You will also agree that the indefinite integral of cosx is sinx + c, since we know that sin x is an
On the other hand, the indefinite integral I f (x) dx is a cl'assof functions which differ from
one another by constants. It is not a definite number; it is not even a definite function. We say
that the indefinite integral is unique upto an arbitrary constant.
Unlike the definite integral which depends on a, b and f, the indefinite integral depends only
* .
onf. .
All the symbols in the notation f (x) f(x) dx for the definite integral have an interpretation.
Jab
The symbol I reminds us of summation, a and b give the limits for x for the summation. And
f(x) dx shows that we are not considering the sum of just the function values, rather we are
considering the sum of function values multiplied by small increments in the values of x.
I
In the case of an indefinite integral, however, the notation f(x) dx has no similar
interpretation. The inspiration for this notation comes from the fundamental Theorem of
Calculus.
Thus, having defined an indefinite integral. let us get acquainted with the various techniques
for evaluating integrals.
I1+1
1. Z + c, n # 1
n+l
2. sinx COSX +C
3. COSX sinx+c
4. sec2x tam + c
5. cosec2x COA + c
6. secx tsinx secx + c
7. cosec x cobr cosecx + c
1
8. sin'x + c, or  cos' x + c
hT2
cotlx + c
1
9. tan'x + c or
1+x2
I
cot' x + c
1
10. sec'x + c or
x J2T
cot' x + c

1 In(x(+c
11.
X
12. eX ex+ c
13. ax (aX/ha). + c
14. sinhx coshx + c
15. coshx sinhx+c
16. sech2x tanhx + c
17. cosech2x CON+ c
18. sechx tanhx sechx + c
19. cosechx cothx cosechx + c
Now let us see how to evaluate some functions which are linear combinations of the functions
listed in Table 1.
2.2.2 Algebra of Integrals
You are familiar with the rule for differentiationwhich says
d
.  [k{F(x) + c)] = kf(x)
" dx
Again, by definition, we have
We can make use of rule (2) to evaluate certain integrals which are not listed in Table 1.
1 3 1
We know that (X + )' = X' + 3x +  +7 .
Therefore,
X x X
..........Rule 2
Using integral formulas 1 and 11 from Table 1, we have
Note that c, + 3c2 + 3c3 + c, has been replaced by a single arbitrary constant c.
Ib f(x) dx = G(x)
r
:I
= G@)  ma).
Note that for the purpose of evaluating a definte integral, we could take the antiderivative
correspondmg to c = 0, that is,
1 x 3 + X 4 + 
4 s
x , as the constants cancel out.
3 5
See if you can do these exercises now.
E E 1) Write down the integrals of the following using Table 1 and Rule 2.
a) (i) x4 (ii) ymW(iii)4x2 (iv) 3

c) (1") ex + eeX+ 4 (ii) 4cosx 3sinx +ex+x (iv) 4sech2x + eX  8x
Integral ,Calculus
4 1 1
b) i) J (X + d (ii) Jo (X +113 dx
You have seen that with the help of Rule 2 we could evaluate a number of integrals. But still
there are certain integrals like sin 2~ dx which cannot be evaluated by uiing
Rule 2. The method of substitution which we are going to describe in the next section will
come in handy in these cases.
Methods of Integration
2.3 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION
In this section we shall study the first of the main methods of integration dealt with in this
unit: the method of substitution. This is one of the most commonly used techniques of
integration. We shall illustrate its application through a number of examples.
2.3.1 Method of Substitution
The following theorem will lead us to this method.
Proof We shall make use of the chain rule for derivatives (Unit 3) to prove this theorem.
The statement of this theorem by itself may not seem very useful to you. But it does simplify
our task of evaluating integrals.For example, to evaluate sin 2x dx, we could take v = g(x) =
2x and get
1
=
2
I sinv dv by Theorem 3, since g(x) = 2x and gS(x)= 2.
 cos v + C

2
=   cos 2x +C
2
We make a special mention of the following three cases which follow fiom theorem 3.
Case i) If f(v) = v", n #  1 and v = g(x), then by Formula 1 of Table 1.
Iab flg(x)lgl (x) dx = 'j;(v; d V, wherev =g(r) [The limits of integration are g(a) and g(b)
1 1
nerefore, ( 2 +~ I) (x'+x+I)' dx = (x' + x+116 +c.
6
Alternatively, to find 1(2" + 1) (x2 + x + 1)' dx, can substitute x2 + x + I by u. This
means
1
=  u6 + c by Formula 1 from Table 1.
6
du
We put x2 + 2x + 3 = u. This implies  = 2(x + 1). Further,
dx
4
On the basis of the rules discussed in this section, yov will be able to solve this exercise.
E E3) Evaluate Methods of Integration
Integral Calculus Now we shall use the method of substitution to integrate some trigonometric function. Let's
start with sin ax.
Example 8 To evaluate I sin ax dx, we proceeded in the same manner as we did for
1 sin 2x dx. We make the substitution ax = u
du
This gives  = a. Thus,
dx
I sinaxdx a1 1sinu..dx
=
du
dx
=
1
a
1sinu d u = 


a
+c
COS U

 1
 cosax +c
a
E E4) Proceeding exactly a s in Example 8, fill up the blanks in the table below.
I tanx dx =
sec x tan x
secx .
dx
d
= Inlsec x( + c, as  sec x = sec x tan x
dx
iii) To integrate cosec 2x we write
2cosec2x (cosec2x  cot 2x)
J cosec'2x dx =
l
2 J cosec2x  cot 2x dx
d
Here again,  (COSec2x  cot 2x) = 2 cos ec2x(cos ec2x cot 2x)
dx
du
lfweputs$x=uthe  = 2 s i n x ~ s x= s h 2 x
dx
1 (1cos2x)
sin 2 x = 
2
1 (l+cos2x)
cos 2 x = 
2
3 3 . 1 .
sm x =  smx   sm3x
4 4
1
sinrnx cosnx =  [sin(m + n)x + sin(m  n)x]
2
In each of these formulas you will find that on the left hand side we have either a power of a
trigonometric function or a product of two trigonometric functions. And on the right hand side
we have a sum (or difference) oftwo trigonometric functions. You will realise that the
functions on the right hand side can be easily integrated by making suitable substitutions.
The following examples will illustrate how we make use of the above formulas in evaluating
certain integrals.
cos 3 ax dx = 1(43 1
cos ax + cos 3ax)dx
4

1 c o s a x d x + 1 I c o s 3 a x d x
3
=
4 4
1
 3 sin ax
 + sin3ax + c (see E4)
4a 12a
Example 12 Let us evaluate i) Isin3x cos4x and ii) I sinx iin2x sin3x dx
Here the integrand is the form of a product of trigonometric functions. We shall write it as a
sup^ of trigonometric functions so that it can be integrated easily.
=   1 cos7x
1
+  cosx + c
14 2
ii) To evaluate ] sin2x cos3x dx, again we express the product sinx sin2x sin3x as a sum of
trigonometric functions.
1
sinx sin2x sin3x =  sin x (cos x  cos 5x)
2
1 1
=  sinx cosx  sinxcos5x
2 2
Methods of Integration
1 1 .
=  sin 2x  (sm6x su14x)
4 4
  1 cos 2 x  
1
cos4x
1
+ cos6x + c
8 16 24
Try to do some exercises now. You will be able to solve them either by applying the
trigonometic formulas mentioned in the beginning of this section or by using the method of
substitution. Don't be scared by the number of integrals to be evaluated. The more integrals
you evaluate, the more skilled you will become. You have to practise a lot to be able to decide
on the best method to be applied for evaluating any given integral.
sin2 Ode
b) 9 (I + sin e d e i)
6 3
(15
E E 7) The cost of a transistor radio is Rs. 7001. Its value is depreciating with time according to
dv 500
the formula dl = 3where Rs. v is its value t years after its purchase. What will be its
value 3 years after its purchase? (Don't forget the constant of integration! Think how you can
find it which the help of the given information.)
involving Jn,
\/a', or a' + x 2 .We suggest the following substitutions.
Methods of lrrtegretion
1I
..  .
Expression involva Substitution
J x = a sine
a2 + x2 xatan0
dx
Thus to evaluate I Jn
' put x = a s i n 8 Then we h o w that
dx
 = a 8. This means we can write
dB
dx a cos 8 d8
J = 5J ~ l n Z e
a cos 8 de
= 1 acme
= /d8=8+c
dx
Similarly to evaluate I m9 we shall put x = a tan8
dx 2
Since  = a sec 8 de , we get
de
dx a sec 8d8
Sm= la'
 1
 tan' ( x l a )
a
+c
dx
We can also evaluate 1 Jm,by substituting x =a tan6
dx a secLOde
= 1sec Ode
We can also evaluate this integral by x = asinhe. With this substitution we get,
dx
1Jn = s1nhl (x 1a) + c, and we know that
, sinh' ( x / a ) = In.
x + ,/n (see Unit 5)
a
Sunilarly,
x + dx2  a2
= In. +C
Integral Calculus Let us put these results in the form of a table
Table 3
1 1
2. a2 + x 2
 tan' (XIa) +c
a
a 1
3.  sec'(xla) +c
x J m  a
4. JX7
1
jx'""
or sinh'(da) + c
+C
1 x +JTF
~n +c
5. J77  a
or cosh'(da) + c
Sometimes the integrand does not seem to fall in any of the types mentioned in Table 3, but it is
possible to modify or rearrange it so that it conforms to one of these types. We shall illustrate
this through some examples.
dx
Example U Suppose we want to evaluate J12
=
J
1
Let us try to rearrange the terms in the integrand j 2x  2 to suit US. YOUwill see that
dv
Ifweputx 1 =v,  =1 and
dx
dx = 
1 dv
jl2sd jo
Note the new limits of integration.
This integrals is finally in the form thit we want and using the fvst formula in Table 3 we get
1
J12 sd dx
= sin' v
lo
Example 14 The integration in 1 x2
dx does not again
fall into the types mentioned in Table 3. But let's see what we can do.
du = 3x 2 ,n u s ,
~fwe put x3 = u, 
dx
1
.:
du, by Theorem 3 ( u = 1 when x = 1 and u =O when x = 0)
Methods of Integration
1
Here the integrand 3can be evaluated using formula 2 in Table 3.
lo
1
n u s , we get LJ ~ dx =A31 tan'~ u
3 0l+X6
If you have followed this disscussion, you will certainly be able to solve this exercise.
x xZ
xi)    1 2 )1
l + x 2 mt: l+xZ 
Integral Calculus
then c(b  a) 5
Jab f(x) dx S d(b a).
Now we shall use the method of substitution to derive two more properties to add to this
list. Let's consider them one by one
V) Ji f(x)dx = Jo
a12
f(x) dx + J;IZf(a  x) dx f i r any integrable function f.
1; f(x)dx = 6a12
f(x) dx + Ja;:(x) dx.
Now if we put x = ay in the second integral on the right hand side, then since
The usefulness of this property will be clear to you from the following example.
Example 15 Let us evaluate i) I' sin4 x cos5 X ~ and
X ii) So2' ms3 x dx
of Integralion
Our next property greatly simplifies some integrals when the integrands are even or odd
functions.
vi) Iff is an even function of x, i.e, f (x) = Kx), then
nl2
I,,, sin x dx = 0
nl2
1%,2
cosxdx=2
6""cosxdx=2sinx
I:" =2
E E9) a) Evaluate
%I2
b) show that sin 2 x In(tan x) dx = 0
u(x)v(x)dx, in which the integrand u(x)v(x) is the product of two functions. In other words,
we shall first evolve the integral analogue of
d d
u ( x ) (v
dx
(x)) dx = u ( x ) v ( x )  J V(X) (u(x)) dx
To express this in a more symmetrical form, we replace u(x) by qx), and put
d
 V(X)= 8(*) This means V(X)= g(x) dx.
dx
As a result of this substitution, (I) takes the form
Example 16 Let us use the method of integration by parts to evaluate J xex dx.
In the integrand xeXwe choose x as the first factor and ex as the second factor. Thus, we get
5 5 d
xex'dr = x e x dx  { (x) e x dx) dx
dx
5
,
Integral Calculus
Example 17 To evaluate r I 2 x 2 cos x dx, We shall take x2 as the fxst factor and cos x as the
'I
~ x 2 c o s x d x = x cosxdx {%d
I
( x 2 ) cosxdx) dx I
=x%inx
I 2xsinxdx
=x2 sinx2
I xsinxdx
We shall again use the formula of integration by parts to evaluate ] x sin x dx. Thus
=  xcosx+
I cosxdx
Hence,
 7c
4
2
+ c)
1,
Example 18 Let us now evaluate I X In 1x1dx
Here we take In 1x1 as the first factor since it can be differentiated easily, but cannot be
integrated that easily. We shall take x to be the second factor.
Ixlnlxldx=
IInlxlxdx
While choosing In I x I as the first factor, we mentioned that it cannot be integrated easily. The
method of integration by parts, in fact, helps us in integrating In x too.
Example 19 We can find I lnx dx by taking lnx as the first factor and 1 as the second factor.
Thus,
= xinx  J d x = xinx  x +c
= x l n x  xlne + csincelne=l
= xln(x1e) +c
The trick used in Example 19, that is, considering 1 (unity) as the second factor, helps us to
evaluate many integrals which could not be evaluated earlier.
You will be able to solve the following exercises by using the method of integration by parts.
E E 10) Evaluate Methods of Integration
b)
I (I+x)exdx Take f(x) = 1 + x and g(x) = ex
C) I ( I + x 2 ) c X dx
To evaluate isaxsin bx dx and I eaxcosbxdx, we use the formula for integration by parts.
1
I eaXsin bx dx = (ea*) ( c1 o s bx) 
b J ( a s a x )(  cor bx) dx
b
I  I ea\cosbx + 

b
a
ea\ cosbx dx
b
1
1 a a .
=ea"cnslvt+[em)(s1nbx)
b b b

  1
b
Therefore, you will notlce that the last Integral on the r ~ g hhand
t side is the same as the
Integral on the left hqnd s ~ d eNow
. we transfer the t h ~ r dterm on the right to the left hand s ~ d e ,
and obta~n,
(I
a'
+ ;)
b
I e a xslnbx dx = eax
a
(2 I
smbx   cosbx)
b
This means,
1eax cosbx dx =
1
a 2 + b2
eax (acosbx + bsinbx) + c
I Example 20 Using the foimulas discussed in this ~ubsection,we can eas~lycheck that
and
1 71
ji) l e X c o s , / ~ d d * =  e xc o s ( \ / j ;  ) + c
2 3
Example21 Toevaluate [ e2' ,in x c o s ? x d x , weshallfirstwrite
I
sin x cos 2x =  (sin3x  sinx) as in sec. 3.
2
Therefore,
1e2' x cog2' dx =
1

2
e 2 " sin 3 x dx 
I

2
J e l x sin x dx
Now the two integrals on the r ~ g h hand
t side can be evaluated. We see that
I ,?x
s .~ 3x
n dx = L e l x sin (3x  tan'
fi"
1)+ c
2
and
1 1
2
J'e2x s i n x c o s 2 x dx = e  " [sin(jx tan' 2)   sin (x  fan' )I1 + c
J13 2 4 5 2
53
Example 22 Suppose we want to evaluate x 3 sin (a In x) dx
= 1elu sin au du
 e4' sin (au tan' (a 14)) + c
 JS
1
 a+ c
 ,/a x4 sin ( a l n x  tan'
4
In this subsection, we shall see that integrals like Id n dx, dX, dx?
and I4x2 dx can also be evaluated with the help of the formula for integration by pa*
and Table 3.
Shifting the last term on the right hand side to the left we get
Id T 7 dx = 12 x Jn
+ 2 sin
2
);(
X
+c
and
= I
2
xp7 a' 2
In x + \/X'= a +C
in the next subsect~onwe shall consider another type of integrand which occurs quite
frequently in mathematics.
I We take up (i) f i t ,
X X
cos  sin 
I
= I 2
2
2cos ;x
2 ex12 dx
Now
J' sec 
X
2
c'I2 dx =
2
X
(sec 1 (2e"I2)  J' (T1 seo X X
tan 1 (2e"')
2
dx
I Thus,
i
In this unit we have exposed you to various methods of integration. You have also had a fair
C amount of practice in using these methods. We are now giving you some additional exercises.
You may like to try your hand at these too. To solve these you will have to first identify'the
t
method which will suit the particular integrand the best. This is the crucial step. The next step
where you apply the chosen method to get the answer is relativelyeasy. If you have studied this
unit thoroughly, neither of these steps should pose any problem. So good luck!
E E 15) Evaluate the following integrals :
x2 + 2
b, Ix dx.
I
c) . sinh (x / 2) cosh (x / 2) dx
g) J sin xecomxdx
~ 1 2sin x cosx
i, lo (1 + sinx)' dx.
Integral Calculus
But l/x is not defined at x = 0, and In 1 x I is also not differentiable at x = 0. As such, at this
stage, we should use the result only if the inrerval [a,b] does not include x = 0
121
, J  dx = In 
111
= In 2 is not valid.
Again, consider
1 71
dx = [sin' XI; = .
Jo 2
1
We have used this in Example 3. However does not exist at x = 1, and sin'x is not
dlx'
differentiable at x = 1. L(sin'x)' exists at x = 1, but sin'x)' does not exist, since sin'x itself
does not exist when x > 1.
However, the above result is true in some sense. This sense will be clear to you in your
course on analysis.
The antiderivative of every function need not exist, i.e., it need not be any of the functions we
are familiar with. For example, there is no function known to us whose derivative is ex2
However, the value of the definite integral f(x) dx of every function, where f(x) is
Jab
continuous on the interval [a,b], can be found out by numerical methods to any degree of
approximation. You can study these methods in detail if you take the course on numerical
analysis. You will study two simple numerical methods in Block 4 too. Thus, we cannot find
the antiderivative of ex2,but still, we can find the approximate value of
Jab e"' dx, for all real valuer of a and b. In fact, this integral is very important in
probability theory and you will use it very often if you take the course on probability and
statistics.
That brings us to the end of this unit. Let us summarise what we have studied so far.
3.5 SUMMARY
In this unit we have covered the following points.
1) If F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), then the indefinite integral (or simply, integral) of f(x) is
In particular,
I [f (x)
[f(x)" fl(x) dx = +c, n
"+' f  1 , and
n+ 1
1 a '
f (x) dx = Ii2 f (x) dx + r2 f(a  X) dx
x) dx, if f is even
f(x) dx =
4) Standard formulas :
Thls leads us to
Z&
i\=fj x\i.'+c~n2 X + $32 +x2
a +c
X+J=
."'~j n +c
2 2 a
b
J' eax sin bx dx = e a x sin (bx  tan' ) +c
JFZF a
b
J' e x cosbx dx = eax cos (bx  tan' 1 +c
d m a
5
X .
El) a) i)  + c ii)2xv2 +c iii)  4xI +c iv) 3x +c
5 61
Integral Calculus
L
iii) 4 tanhx + ex  4x2 + c


1
1. sin ax cosax+ c
a
1 .
2. cosax  sin ax + c
a
1
3. sec2 ax  tan ax + c
a
1
4. cosec2 ax  cot ax +c
a
1
5. sec ax tan ax  sec ax +c
a
1
6. cosec ax cot ax a Cosec ax + c
62
sec x(sec x + tan x Methods of Integration
d x = In (secx + tanxl + c
sec x + tan x
1
sin x cos xdx = 
0
du 2
C) if u = tanx,  = sec x
dx
sin6 x 2
E6) a) i, 6+ c ii) + c
sin2 x
iii) k16
x13
cot 2x cosec2 2x dx =  cot 2x (2 cosec2 2x) dx
V) Ion" O (I +
sin cos4 6) dO = I0
xl2
sin O dO + /ox12sin0 oos4 O dO
1
ii) 
10 (15tan8)'
) i) I sin4 0 de =
I sin3 9 sine de
= I ,(
3
sin2 O  41 sin O sin 38) dO
Integral Calculw
= 500 tan' t +c
v(0) =700 =  500 tan'0 + c = c
ac=700
v(3) = 700  500 tan' 3.
E 8) For solution, see P. 104
n n
=r4sin2(l , x) in tan (  x) dx
2
= p d s i n z x in (taoxmtx) dx
~ 1 a)
0 I x2 lnxdr = lnx I x 2 d x  I I x2 dx) dx
;(
1
E12) a) I x
x sin' x dx =  sin'x 
2
x2
x sinL u
put x = sin u in d x = J  cos u c o s u du
 1 u  1 sin2u + c = 1 u  1 sinucosu + c

2 4 2 2
1
=  [sin' x  x cos(sin' x)] + c F
2
x2 1 . 1
:. I x s i n  ' x d x =   s2i n  l i   [ n n 4 xxJGFl+e
[L
= 1 e2' (2cos2r t ZsinZr) + I s Z x ] + c
2 8 2
=  
2 (2t b2)
[em (ssin br  b msbx) + srU (a sin bx  b cm bx)] + c
FJ em
1
(asinbx  bcosbx) dx
 
 x em (a sln br  b cos bx)
a2 +bz
 [aeU (a sin bx  b cos bx) 
(a2 + b212
beaX(acosbx + bsinbx)] +c
21
c ) coshr t c
,d
66
Methods of Integration
(1 + sin X )
= 
1
2
[I t 7 dt 2 1t 6 dt]
=
1
 (x2 +l) +f smh' (x2 + 1) + c
4
x tan' x
dx = 1 9sin9d9,ifx= tan9

Answer 2[0 tan9 + In ( case I] + c where 8 = tan' x
I
n ) / e x ( l n ~ i n ~ + ~ o t ~ )e d* l~n =s i n x d x + I excotxdx
cotx e x dx + I excotxdx
2
J x 3 sinx dx = J x 3 (rinx) dx
dx
=  x 3 cosx + 3x2 sinx  6 J' x sinx dx