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Castillo, Mark Bryan T.

BSEE 4-3

Building and Industrial Automation

1. Analog Also spelled analogue, describes a device or system that represents changing
values as continuously variable physical quantities.
2. Compensation Control In order to obtain the desired performance of the system, we
use compensating networks. Compensating networks are applied to the system in the
form of feed forward path gain adjustment. Most commonly, the phase characteristics
are in need of compensation, especially if the magnitude response is to remain
constant.
3. Control Point
a. An interlocking, or the location of a track signal or other marker with which
dispatchers can specify when controlling trains. (Rail terminology)
b. In computer-aided geometric design a control point is a member of a set of
points used to determine the shape of a spline curve or, more generally, a
surface or higher-dimensional object.
c. A control point is a marked waypoint used in orienteering and related sports
such as rogaining and adventure racing.
4. Control Medium storage and/or transmission tools used to store and deliver
information or data
5. Control Variable
a. In an experiment, the control variable is something that is constant and
unchanged in an experiment.
b. In computer programming, a control variable is a program variable that is used
to regulate the flow of control of the program.
c. In control theory, is the variable that a controller regulates. A control variable
in an experiment is also a controlled variable to the extent that the
experimenter or the experimental setup acts as controller to prevent it from
changing. A control variable in a computer program is analogous to the
setpoint in a control system
6. Controller Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built computers with input and
output capabilities. These controllers come in a range of sizes and capabilities to
control devices commonly found in buildings, and to control sub-networks of
controllers.
7. DDC Direct digital control (DDC) is the automated control of a condition or process
by a digital device (computer).
8. Direct Control a control that is directly imposed upon the manufacturing, pricing,
and distribution of specific goods in contrast with an indirect or general control (such
as a credit and fiscal policy) that affects the economy in its entirety and specific goods
only indirectly
9. EPID Electrophoretic Image Display (EPID) is an electrophoretic display is an
information display that forms visible images by rearranging charged pigment
particles using an applied electric field.
10. Lag fall behind in movement, progress, or development; not keep pace with another
or others.
11. Manipulated Variable The variable in a scientific experiment that is changed.
12. Measure ascertain the size, amount, or degree of (something) by using an
instrument or device marked in standard units or by comparing it with an object of
known size.
13. Modulating exert a modifying or controlling influence on.

Castillo, Mark Bryan T.

BSEE 4-3

Building and Industrial Automation

14. Pneumatic Control is the use of air as a control medium, or as the controlled
medium, in which one medium controls the flow of another.
15. Process Sequence of interdependent and linked procedures which, at every stage,
consume one or more resources (employee time, energy, machines, money) to convert
inputs (data, material, parts, etc.) into outputs. These outputs then serve as inputs for
the next stage until a known goal or end result is reached.
16. Proportional Band the amount of change in the controlled variable, expressed in
engineering units, required to move the actuator from one end of its stroke to the
other. This is also referred to as throttling range.
17. Proportional Control A proportional control system is a type of linear feedback
control system. In the proportional control algorithm, the controller output is
proportional to the error signal, which is the difference between the setpoint and the
process variable. In other words, the output of a proportional controller is the
multiplication product of the error signal and the proportional gain.
18. Proportional Integral Control the Proportional-Integral (PI) algorithm computes and
transmits a controller output (CO) signal every sample time, T, to the final control
element (e.g., valve, variable speed pump). The computed CO from the PI algorithm
is influenced by the controller tuning parameters and the controller error, e(t).
19. Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control A proportional-integral-derivative
controller (PID controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely
used in industrial control systems. A PID controller calculates an error value as the
difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller
attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process through use of a manipulated
variable.
20. Sensing Element any device that receives a signal or stimulus (as heat or pressure
or light or motion etc.) and responds to it in a distinctive manner.
21. Set Point is the desired or target value for an essential variable of a system, often
used to describe a standard configuration or norm for the system. Departure of a
variable from its setpoint is one basis for error-controlled regulation, that is, the use of
feedback to return the system to its norm, as in homeostasis.
22. Step Control In electronic engineering and control theory, step response is the time
behaviour of the outputs of a general system when its inputs change from zero to one
in a very short time. The concept can be extended to the abstract mathematical notion
of a dynamical system using an evolution parameter.
23. Time Constant In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by
the Greek letter (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of
a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.
24. Zero Energy Band is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Substances with large band gaps are generally insulators, those with smaller band
gaps are semiconductors, while conductors either have very small band gaps or none,
because the valence and conduction bands overlap.
25. Zoning Zoning describes the control by authority of the use of land, and of the
buildings thereon. Areas of land are divided by appropriate authorities into zones
within which various uses are permitted.