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Structure
1.1
SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS
Introduction
Objectives
12
Linear Systems
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1.3
1.4
Solving by Substitution SolvingbyElimination
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1.1
INTRODUCTION
In the last unit we introduced you to polynomial equations in one variable. In this unit we will start by considering linear equations in one or more variables. After that we shall consider ways of obtaining common solutions for several such equations. We call a set of linear equations a system of linear equations. Such systems of equations can arise while studying many practical problems. These include studying oscillations, the flow of currents, migration patterns, chemical contents of various solutions, inputoutput models of industrial production, and so on. Therefole, it is important that you spend some time studying them. The fust definite t r a c ~ systems of linear equations is found in Chuichang Suanshu, that is, of Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. This is an ancient Chinese mathematical text which was probably written in 1100B.C. Much later, in the third century B.C., the Greeks used some methods for solving certain systems of equations; Further notable developments in this area of mathematics took place in the 17th century. The Japanese mathematician Seki Kowa (around 1683) contributed greatly to the theory of systems of linear equations. About the same t h e the European mathematician Leibniz also discovered a method for solving systems of linear equations. In the next century the mathematic& Gauss and Cramer published methods that use the concepts of matrices and determinants for solving simultaneous equations. In this unit we will discuss two methods for solving systems of linear equations. We will explain the method due to Cramer in the next unit. Let us now list the objectives of this unit.
Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to : obtain the solution set of a linear equations in one or more variables; deftne a system of m linear equations in n unknowns; apply the methods of substitution and elimination for solving simultaneous linear equations; choose the appropriate method, of the two methods discussed, for solving a given linear Let us now start our discussion on linear equations.
I
Equation8 and Inequalities
1.2
LINEAR SYSTEMS
in one variable x is ax + b = 0, 0. You also know that this has a unique solution, namely, x =   . a
You know that the most general forin of a linear equation over a, b E R, a
#
b
Now, can you think of a linear equation in two variables? What about 2x + 5y + 5 = O ? According to the following definition, it is linear in two variables. Definition: A linear equation in two variables x and y is an equation whi~h be written as can
where a, b, c E R and a and b are not both zero. For example, 1  x +  y = 0, x = 25 and 2s  4t = 2 are linear equations in two variables. 2 What about xy = 1, the equation of a hyperbola? Is it a linear equation in 2 variables? It is not, since x and y are both variables; and hence, it is not of the form
Try the following exercises now.
E 1) Which of the following equations are linear in 2 variables? Can you explain why ?
c) J; + v = 2, where u and v are variables.
E 2)"Every linear equation in one variable is also a linear equation in two variables." Is this r statement true? Why o why not?
Now, what would any solution of the linear equation 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 look like? It would consist of an ordered pair of real numbers say (a, b), such that 2a + 3b + 1 = 0.For example, (1,  1) is a solution, since 2(1) + 3(Ll)+ 1 = 0. 1 You can check that  ad 0) are also solutions.
(i* i)
(
19
in R. How do we get this general form of the solution? We can rewrite the equation as  (2x + 1) . Then, for any value that we give to x ,say x = a, we get a corresponding value Y' 3  (2a + 1) for y. T ~ U S ,  (2: I)) is a solution a E R ~ o t that the solution set is a (al e 3 subset of It2.
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hecause from 
(3y + 1) = r: we get  (2x + 1) = v throu~h T suitable arithmetic owrations.
+
would have been
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R} .Are the two solution sets different? Not at all. If
+
Now, we could also have rewinen 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 as x =  '3Y 2
I) . hen the solution set
+
In fact, the given equation has infinitely m h y solutions given by
(X*
 ( 2 i I)) ,as x varies
+
This shows us that we can either obtain the solution set in terms of x or in terms of y. Now, consider the equation x  2 = 0 as a linear equation in two variables. What is its solution set? Whatever value y takes, x will always have to be 2. Thus, the solution set is ((2, y) 1 y E R) . It is the set of all points on the line x  2 = 0 (Fig. 1). In fact, any linear equation in 2 variables can be geometrically represented by a straight line in the ~y~lane. Now let us define a linear equation i n n variables, where n E N. Definition: A linear equation over R in n variables x,, x,, ..., x,, has the general f o m a l x l +a2x2+...+a,,xn+b=0. where a,, a,, .........,a,,, b E R and not all of a , , a,, ........ equal zero. a, Thus, 2x + 3y = 1 l z is a linear equation in 3 variables x, y and z. What does a solution of this look like? It will be ordered triple of real numbers that satisfies the equation. For example, (0,0,0) and (22,0,4) are solutions. But, (I, 1, 1) is not a solution. Let us see what a solution of general linear equation looks like. Definition: An ntuple (b,, b,, ......, b,,) in R"is called a solution of the linear equation alxl + a2x2+ ...+ allxll= b, if h;b, + a 2 b 2 +...+ anb,,=b. In this case we also say that x, = b,, x,
= b,,
Systems o f Linear Equations
Fig. 1 : x = 2
....., xn = bn satisfy the linear equation.
Note that the first element of the ntuple is substituted for the first variable, the second for the second variable, and so on. Remember that a linear equation in two or more variables has infinitely many solutions. In general, m linear equations in n variables has infinitely many solutions, if m < n. Now why don't you see if you have absorbed what we have done so far.
E 3) Which of the following are solutions of 3x  2y + 5z = 80?
E 4) Find the solution set of x = y. Also give its geometrical representation.
Studying only one linear equation at a time has been found inadequate for interpreting and solving realworld problems mathematically. The mathematical models of many problems consist of a set of several linear equations which need to be solved at the same time. For example, suppose the Indian Government has to suddenly send supplies of blood, medical kits, food and water to a quakehit area. It knows the volume and weight of each unit of these items. It also knows that each aeroplane can take a maximum capacity of 600 cubic nietres and q maximum weight of 20,000 Kg. These facts, put together, lead to the two equations
where x,, x2, x,, x4denote the number of containers ofblood, medical kits, food and water respectively. We need to find common solutions to both these equations so as to get the amounts that can be sent. In other words, we need to solve these equations simultaneously. That is why we call such a set of equations simultaneous lines! equations. Definition: Any finite set of linear equations is called a system of linear equations, or a linear system, or simultaneous linear equations.
Equations and Inequalities
You have just seen one example involving emergency airlifting. For another example, consider the three equations.
I
They forma ~inear's~stem. system is the mathematical formulation of the following This problem:
A company produces 3 products, each of which must be processed through 3 divisions, A, B, and C. The number of hours taken by each unit of the product in each division, and the total number of hours available for production each week is given in Table 1
Table 1

Product Division
A
1 2 3 4
2 3.5 2.5 3
3 3 2
2
Total number of hours per week 1200 1150 1400
B C
What is the number of units of each product that should be produced so as to exhaust the weekly capacities of the 3 divisions? How is the system(1) obtained from this problem? Well, if x, y andz denote the number of units of each product, we get the system (1).
l the following exercises you can see some more examples of linear systems arising from n practical problems.
. E 5) A dietitian is planning a noon meal for school children. It consists of 3 food types. He wants to ensure that the minimum daily requirements (MDR) for 4 vitamins are satisfied.
In Table 2 we summarise the vitamin content per unit of each food type in milligrams, and we give the MDR.
Table 2
Vitamin contentiunit (in mg.)
Food 5 p e
1
v,
3 5 2
55
v z
1 7 3 45
v,
0 2 0 10
v4
2 3
b
1 6 2
45
MDR
What is the mathematical formulation of this problem?
E 6) Thirty litres of a 50% alcohol solution are to be made by m x n 70% solution and 20% iig solution. We want to know how many litres of each solution should be used. Translate the problem into a linear system.
Let us now discuss what the set of solutions of a system of linear equations looks like. Consider the following liear system in one variable:
where a, b, c,
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This will have a solution if and only if the two equation@ave a,cpmmonsolution, that is, b d b d  * iff  =   .And the%i =  '  ) is the uniq* solutim. (or a c a . . c < ..a

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For example, the systerp x+l =o 3x+3 * o
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Now consider the !ystem x+2y=5 . , x+y=3
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From the second equation we get y = 3  x. substihtinikii value in the first equation we get
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So, (2) has a solution, namely, x = 1 and y = 2, that is, the ordered pair (l,2). Now, recall that the solutions of a linear equation in two variables correspond to the points on the line representing h e equation. Thus, the solutions of (2) would correspond to the points of intersection of the two lines representing the two equations. From Fig. 2(a) you can see that they intersect in only one point, namely, (1,2). Thus,(2) has a unique solution.
(a)
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: 3 .! 1 " YOUean&ck?hatfarany FR&=oidered pair (3  fy,j.7 is a sblution of (3). Thbs, his *systemhas infinitely many solutions.
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Now consider the system x+2y=5   .* y4ygm 2
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Geometrically, since both the equations of (3) are multiples of eachother, they represent the same line in the plane (see Fig. 2Cb)). Thus, every point on the line is a common point. Hence > : , the system (3) has infmitely my'conimon points.
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Finally, consider the system
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Equations a d InequaJities*
YOU see that this system of equations has no solution, since any sohtion would lead to can the false statement 3 = 4. Geometrically, the two equations of (4) represent distinct parallel lines (see Fig. 2(c)). Thus, they have no point of intersection. So you have seen three situatidns, riahelp,
3
a linear system can have a unique solution, or
ii) a linear system can have infinitely many solutions, or
6) a linear system can have no solution.
Innfact,these are the only situations possible fix my system of linear equations. We shall not
. prove this statement here.
Now let us go back to a general linear system. We give the following definition.
4
Definition: If a systenl of linear equations has a soiution, we call it consiste~~t; otherwise we call itinconsistent. Thus, (2) and (3) are consistent systems, while (4) is not. Why don't you try the lollwin exercise now?
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E 7) Give the geometrical view'dthe following system of equations. Hence find out which of them are consistent. , a). x + y = 3 x=i,
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b) x + y = 2 2xi2y=10 x=y c) Z x + y = O
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d) x = 3
y=4
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*Nowlet us discuss a method of solving a kystem of linear equations.
.
1.3 SOLVING BY
SUBSTITUTION
9
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Let us consider the following system of linear equations in one variable: 3%+'5=d 6x+10=0
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5 From the first equation, we get x   . Substituting this value of x in the second equation, we 3 ., get , ,
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 5 + 5 = 0, a true statement.
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Systems
Thus, the equations in (5) are consistent. and the unique solution is x =   . The method we 3 have just used for solving (5) is called Ge substitution method. Let us see how this method can be used for solving linear systems in two variables. Consider the system 2x+y=7 5x+3y=18
.....(6)
5
We want to solve the equations in (6) simultaneously, that is, at the same time, by substitutiw. For this we first wie one variable in terms of the other by using either of the equations. We rt will use the first oneto write y in terms of x, as y = 7  2x. Then we substitute this value of y in the second equation, to get 5x + 3 (7 2x) A 18, thau is, 21 x= 18.
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This gives x = 3. Substituting this value of x in y = 7  2x, we get y = 1. But, is (3, 1) a solution? We kust double check by substituting these values i ~ ( 6 )We get . 2 x 3 + 1 x 1 = 7, which is m e , and (5 x 3) + (3 x 1) = 18, which is true. Thus, the system (6) has . the unique solution (3, 1) 18 3y We can also solve (6) by using the second equation to write x = ' . Then 5 18  3y substituting in the fist equation, we get 2 + f = 7, giving y = I.
(;3)
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183y  18(3x1) = 3. And then x = 5 5 To get some practice in solving by substitution, try the following problems.
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E 8) Find solutions (if any) of the following sets of simultaneous equations by the substitution method.
a) x + y =  2 y=3
The sul>stitutiohmethod that wehave employed for two"equations in two unknowns can also be extended for solving several equations in several unknowns. But it becomes more and more difficult.to apply as the number of equations and variables increase. In the next section we will
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1.4 SOLVING BY ELIMINATION
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me$od we use multiplication add addition to,eliminatethe variables, one by wg,fraptb&. ' equations. At each stage we transform the system of equations into an equivalent one.
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Any of the foll6wing tramformWions are allowed:
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Two systems of equatrons are equivalent if they have the same solution set.
3) replacing an equation'by thk sum of that equation and a nonzero multiple of another ' & , A intht"sp&&., ' ' . ' 2 ' ." ,'. ., . t , ' .'; < ,:
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Let's work out a simple example, using this method. Consider the system
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x+2y + x = 4 3xy4z=9
...(7)
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Now let us eliminafey from (7)'hnd (8).For Ss we add(7)m Zrimes (8). We get i
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Dividing throughout by 7, we gtt
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we Substitutingthis value of z in (111) get
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x =  2 + 1=1. Substitutingx = 1, z = 1 in ( ) we get 9, y=2. We must verify if the ordered triple ( 1,2,1) satisfies all three equations.
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On substituting this triple in each of the equations, we find that it is indeed the solution. whenever we use this method, or any method for solving a linear system we must keep the , following remarks*mi n d .
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Remark 1: wenever we solve an equation or a system of equations, we must'trhVhysZvefify our solution.
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Remark 2: m i l e solving a linbar system, if &eiei&a false.statement, it rnegns.that the ' .. . . d , . ,. ... !'. system:.h k n o solution.
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Now why don't you try to solve some linearsystems.
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E 10) Solve
system that you got in E5, by elimination.
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 E 1 1) D ~ r ~ n n i nby, elirnhtiion, thesolution set of the system e
In E 10 and E 11 you came naross system in which the humber of equations wps;ipdre &n the number of variables. In such a situation also the system can havea uniqie solbtion: infmitely many s~lutions no solurion. or
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Let us consider the folI6Umg e~a&"l&""'~'"
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w e can't eliilinate any m c 1v ~ p a y ek a l, C ; e p k y i,e q (mypd.?$$/J+~.nd4hq,yrn. : y( 1 , ;;:.::.::.s ? q ;. . , systemwill only end in reuiirducing x.lnstead, we use (11) write y in terms of z. to.
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For example, when z = 0 we ger a solution Gii, 4,&)ymd wben.~%;t we~get:acWtibnfI ,
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Now consider the systern
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EqlPations rod ~ ~ g u a ~ i t i e sNOW
why don't you practicBthe elimination method some more?
E 12) Solve the system you got in E6, if it is consistent.
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E 13) Solve the system (1) that we gave at the beginning of Sec. 4.2. E 14) Solve the system
E 15) Solve the systems
a) x + y + z = O y+2z .=3
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b) x + y + z = O y+2z =3 z =4
6
So f a wk have discussed two methods of solving lineai systems.'In the next unit we will consider yet another method, which is specifically meant f ~a rsystem of linear equations in which the nuinber of equations is the same as the number of unknowns.
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Let us now sumparise what wu have covered in this unit.
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1.5 SUMMARY
I.
I
In this unit we have discussed systems of linear equations. In pa&u~ar yoli studied
1) what a linear system is andkow it can arise from practical problems.
2) that a linear system can have a unique solution, infmitely many solutions or no solution. 3) the substitution method for solving "small" linear systems simultaneously. 4) the Gaussian elimination method, which is the methog that is the most widelyped. have tried all the exercises in the unit. You may like to see what out .We hope that solutions t 0 . b are.
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1.6 SOLUTIONS/ANSWERS
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E 1) (a) is not, since the quadratic term xy occurs in it.
(b) is not, since the quadratic:& y2 occurrs in i t I
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(c) is not; in fact, it is not even a polynomial equation. (d)ds linear, sioce it k equiWalent to the linear equation 3x + 2y 4 =6.
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E 2) It is true because any linear equation in one variable is ax + b = 0, a c O . This is ecpivalent' to ax + 0 y + b = 0, a # 0, which is linear in two variables.
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E 3) (b) and (d) are, (a) e R and hence can't be a solution. (c) is not, shce 3(2) 2(3) + 5(11 ' ,
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E 5) Let, x, y, z d&te the units of each food type.Then 3x+5y+2z =55 x+7y+3z =45 2y 110' x+6y+2z =45
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Systems ofLlnear Equptlons
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E 6) Say, we take x litres of the 70% solution and )Ilitres of the 20% solution to make 30 litres of . the 50% solution.
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100
30 3 7x + 2y = 150.
FIE. 5 : An laconsistent system,
Also x + y = 30. Thus, the problem reduces to solving the linear system ?x+2y=150 x+y=30
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E 7)a) From Fig. 5 you can see that there is no point common to all three lines. Hence the
system is inconsisient. b) We have given the geometrical representation of this system in Fig. 6. Again, you can \ see that the system is inconsistent. , k
a
C) In Fig. 7 you can see tharthe three lines have a unique point of intersection, namely, ' (0,O). Thus, the system has the unique solution (0,O). d) From Fig. 8 you can see that this system has the unique solution (3.4).
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Fig. 6 : An inconsistent aystem
E 8) a) The wand equation says y = 3. Substituting this value in the first equation,
wegetx+3=2*x=5.
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( 5,3) is the golution.
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*, , b) a + 3 b = 13 *a= 133b. ; 3a+7b=33*3(133b)+7b=33*2b=6?b3. . ; a = 133(3)=4. . : (4,3) is the solution. .
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c) .2s+t=20&t=202s .
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is the solution.
Note that the second equation is equivalent to the fmt one. Thus, any solution . of the sysfem is a solution of x + y = 2. Thus, for any value of x E R, (x, 2  x) is a solution. For example; (0,2) is a solution. This system has id3nitely many solutions.
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e) 3x=y+S*y=3xS ; 9+y=3~*9+3~5=3~~4=0,afalsestatement. . This the system is inconsistent. E9) a) 2 x + y + ~ = 9 xy+z =1 ~xY+z=~
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Fig. 8 :
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...( 1s)
....(19)
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To eliminate y we add (17) and(l8). We get
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eliminate z wc subtract ( ~ $ j ifd&(ig) 4x=8,thatis,x=2. Substituting this valve of x in (ZO), we get
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2~=102=8*~=4. Then (17) gives us 4$2)+y+4&4..9*l;'y%1: ' Thus, (2.1.4) is the solution. (Verify this!)
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