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Structure
2.1
THE SPHERE
Introduction
Objectives
2.2
Equations of a Sphere Tangent Lines and Planes
2.3.1 Tangent Lines
2.3
2.3.2 Tangent Planes
2.4
Intersection of Spheres
Two Intersecting spheres
Spheres Through a Given Circle
2.5
Summary
2.1
INTRODUCTION
With this unit we start our discussion of threediemensional objects. As the unit title suggests, we shall consider various aspects of a sphere here. A sphere is not new to you. When you were a child you must have played with balls. You must also have eaten several h i t s like limes, oranges and watermelons. All these objects are spherical in shape. But all of them are not spheres from the point of view of analytical geometry. In this unit you will see what a geometry calls a sphere. We shall also obtain the general equation of a sphere. Then we shall discuss linear and planar sections of a sphere. In particular, we shall consider the equations of tangent lines and planes to a sphere. Finally, you will see what the intersection of two spheres is and how many spheres can pass through a given circle. Spheres are an integral part of the study of the structure of crystals of chemical compounds. You find their properties used by architects and engineers also. Thus, a analytical study of ; spheres is not merely to satisfy our mathematical curiosity. A sphere is a particular case of an ellipsoid as you will see when you study Block 3. So, if you have grasped the contents of this unit, it will be of help to you while studying the next block. In other words, if you achleve the following objectives, it will be easier for you to understand the contents of Block 3.
Objectives
After studying'this unit you should be able to : obtain the equation of a sphere if you know its centre and radius; check whether a given secdnd degree equation in three variables represents a sphere; check whether a given line is tangent to a given sphere; obtain the tangent plane to a given point on a given sphere; obtain the angle of intersection of two intersecting spheres; , 8 find the family of spheres &rough a given circle.
The Spheye, Cone
Cylinder
and
Let us now see what a sphere is and how we can represent it algebraically.
2.2
EQUATIONS OF A SPHERE
,I
In 2space you know that the set of points that are at a fixed distance d from a fixed point is a circle. A sphere is a generalisationof this to 3space (see Fig. 1).
Definition :The set of all those points in 3space which are at a fixed distance d from a point C (a, b, c), is a sphere with centre C and radius d.
Fig. 1 :(a) A cireie, (b) a sphere, with origin as centre and radius d.
Spheres are, of course, not new to you. A ball and a plum are spherical in shape. However, whenever we aalk of a sphere in analytical geometry, we mean the surface of a sphere. Thus, for us a hollow ball is a sphere, and a solid cricket ball is not a sphere. Let us find the equation of a sphere with radius d and centre C (a, b, c) now. If P (x, y, z) is any point on the sphere, then, by the distance formula ((1) of Unit 4), we get
which is the required equation. For example, the sphere'with centre (O,O, 0) and radius 1 unit is xZ+ y2 + z2= 1. Now, if we expand (I), we get the second degree equation x2 + y2 + z2 2ax2by2cz+a2+b2 +c2d2=0. Looking at this you could ask if every equation of the t ) pe a(x2+y 2 + z 2 ) + 2 ~ ~ + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = 0 , where a, u, v, w, d E R, represents a sphere,
It so happens that if a # 0,then (2) represents a sphere. (What happens if a = O? Unit 4 will give you the answer.)
Let us rewrite (2) as
u2 v2 w2 Adding 7 + 3 +  on either side of this equation, we obtain a a2
.
Comparing this with (1), we see that this is a sphere with centre

(
u
v
a7 a7 a
and radius
'
'
u2 + v 2 + w 2 ad la l
The following theorem summarises what we have said so far.
Theorem 1 : The general equation of a sphere is
~~+~~+z~+2ux+2v~+2wz+d=0.
Its centre is (u, v, w) and radius is ,/u2 + v2 + w2  d
.
Note that the general equation given above will be a real sphere iff u2 + v2 + w2  d 2 0. Otherwise it will be an imaginary sphere, that is, a sphere with no real points on it. So, what we have seen is that
k
a second degree equation in x, y and z represents a sphere iff
ii)
the equation has no terms containing xy, yz or xz.
Why don't you see if you've taken in what has been said so far'?

E 1) Find the centre and radius of the sphere given by x2+ y2 + z2 2x + 4y  62 = 11.
E2) Does 2x2+ 1 + 2y2+ 3 + 2z2+ 5 = 0 represent a sphere? E 3) Determine the centre and radius of the sphere x2 + y2 + z'
= 42.
Now, if you look at the general equation of a sphere,yi;ru will see that it has 4 arbitrary constants u, v, w, d. Thus, if we know 4 points lying on a sphere, then we can obtain its equation. Let's consider an example.
Example 1 :Find the equation of the sphere through the points (O,O, O), (0,1, I), (1,2,0) and (19 293). Solution : Suppose the equation is
Since the 4 given points lie on it, their coordinates must satisfy this equation. So we get
Solving this system of simultaneous linear equations (see Block 2, MTE04), we get
Thus, the required sphere is 7(x + y + z )15x25yllz=O.
2 2 2
T h e Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
Note that it can happen that the system obta~ned subst~tuting four points is by the inconsistent, that is, it does not have a solutlon (Such a situation canroccui if three of the points lie on one line.) In t h ~ case there n 11: be no sphere pass] thral:p5 these pnln+. s You can try some exercises now. E4) Find the centre and radius of the sphere passing through (1,0, O), (0, 1. O), (0.0, 1) and
E5) Is there a sphere passing through (4,0, l), ( 10, 4,9), (5,6, 1 1) and ( 1,2,3)? If so, find its equation. Now, if instead of four points on the sphere, we only know the coordinates of the two ends of one of its diameters, we can still determine its equation. Let us see how. Let A (x,, y , , z,) and B (x', y2, zz) be the ends of a diameter of a sphere (see Fig. 2). Then, if P (x, y, z) is any point on the sphere, PA and PB will be perpendicular to each other. Thus. from (10) of Unit 4, we see that
A d i a ~ l e t e r f a sphere. is a o .line segment through its
centrc and with end points on tht sphere. .
This is satisfied by any point on the sphere, and hence is the equation of the sphere.
I
adiameteris(x+3)(~3)+(y5)(y
For example, the equation of the sphere having the points (3, 5. 1) and (3, 1,7) as the ends of l)+(zl)(z7)=0.
thatis,~~+~~+z'=6~+8~3.
You can obtain the diameter form of a sphere's equation in the following exercise.
Fig. 2
E6) Find the equation of the sphere described on the join of (3,4,5) and (l,2,3). By now you must be familiar with spheres. Let us now see when a line or a plane intersects a sphere.
2.3
TANGENT LINES AND PLANES
In this section we shall first see how many common points a line and a sphere can have. Then !n we shall do the same for a pa e and a sphere.
2.3.1
Tangent Lines
Supnose you take a hollow ball and pierce it right through with a knitting needle. Then the ball think this is true of any line and the needle will have two points in common (see Fig. 3). that intersects a sphere? See what the following theorem has to say about this.
you
Fig. 3 : A line intersecting a sphere
Theorem 2: A line and a sphere can intersects in at most two points.
yb zc a=P Y
xa
= t (say) be
~ r o o f~ e t x ' + ' + z 2 + 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d  ~ a n d : y
a given
sphere and line, respectively: Then any po~nt the line 1s of the form ( a t + a, Pt + b, y t + c), on where t E R. If this lies on the sphere, then ( a t + a)' + (Pt + b)' + (y t + c)' + 2u ( a t + a) +2v(Pt+b)+2w(yt+c)+d=O.
This is a quadratic in t. Thus. it gives two values oft. For each value oft, we will get a point of intersection. Thus, the line and sphere can intersect in at most two polnts.
4
Note that (4) can have real distinct roots, real coincident roots or distinct imaginary roots. Accordingly, the line will intersect the sphere in two points, in one point, or not at all. This leads us to the following definitions.
The Sphere
Definitions : If a line intersects a sphere in two distinct points, it is called a sacant line to the sphere.
If a line intersects a sphere in one point P, it is called a tangent to the sphere at the point P; and P is called the point of contact of the tangent. For example, the line L in Fig. 3 is a secant line to the sphere; and the line L in Fig. 4 is a tangent to the sphere at the point P. Now, (4) will have coincident roots iff x  a  b = yzc
Fig. 4 : L intersects the sphere in only one point, P.
Thus, (5) is the condition for
_
D
Y
to be a tangent to
Let us consider an example.
Example 2: Find the intercept made by the sphere x2 + y2 + z2= 9 on the line x 3 = y = z. Solution : Any point on the line is of the form (t + 3, t, t), where t E R. This lies on the sphere if
(t+3)2+t2+tZ=9a3t2+6t=~=,t=0,2,
Thus, the points of intersection are (3,0,0) and (1, 2, 2). Thus, the intercept is the distance between the two points, which is You can try some exercises now.
z x+3 E 7) Check if  =    is a tangent to the sphere 4 3 5
W + X = 2& .
E 8) If we extend the rule of thumb to find the tangent to a conic (see Unit 3) to a sphere, will we get the equation of a tangent line to a sphere? Why ? Let us now discuss the intersection of a plane and a sphere.
.
2.3.2
Tangent Planes
Consider a sphere and a plane that intersects it. What do you except the intersection to be? The following result will give you the answer.
Theorem 3: A planar section of a sphere is a circle. Proof: LetS be a sphere wit11 radius r and centre 0 (see Fig. S ) , and let the plane l intersect it. l
Fig. 5: A planar intersection of a sphere is a circle.
The Sphere. Cone and Cylinder
Drop a perpendicular ON from 0 onto 11, and let ON = a. Now let P be a point which belongs to Il as well as S. Then OP = r and OP' = ON' + NP'. Thus, NP = d r 2
 a2 ,which is a constant.
Thus, the intersection of S and n is the set of polnts in n which are at a fixed distance from a fixed point N. Thus, it is a circle m the plane n wlth centre N and radius
/,
. 
If a = 0 in the proof above, the plane passes through the centre of the sphere. In this case the circle of intersection is of radius r and is called a great circle (see Fig. 6 ) of the sphere. Note that a sphere has infinitely many great circles. one for each plane that passes through the centre We have seen that the planar section of a sphere is a circle. Now let us find its equation. Let the equation of the sphere be x' + Y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0, and that of the plane intersecting it be A By + Cz + D = 0. Then the equation of the planar section can be written + ; as
Fig. 6: The intersection o f S ;od P i s a great circle o f the sphere S.
4
Z
x2 + y2 + z 2 + 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = O = A x + B y + C z + D , o r
x 2 + y 2 + z 2+ 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = 0 , A x + B y + C z + D = O
y2
I
...( 6 )
O
For example, the equation of the planar section of the sphere x' + y2 + z2 = 1 by the plane I 7 ? 3 I 2 2 ' z =  (see Fig. 7) is x + y + z  1 = z  = 0. This is the circle x + y =  ,in the plane 4 2 2 1 z= 2' Since the centre of the given sphere 1s (0, 0,O), we can get a great circle of the sphere by intersecting it with z = 0. Thus, one great circle is x2+ y = 1 1n the plane z = 0. Let us consider an example of the use of Theorem 3. Example 3 :Find the centre and radius of the *:ircle.
Fig. 7 : Planar sections of
XI+
yz+ z'= I
* Solutiom: The centre of the sphere is C(4, 2, 4) and its radius is
x Z + Y 2 + ~ 2  8 x + 4 y + 8 z  4 5 = ~ , x  2 y +2x=3.
The distance of the plane from the centre of the sphere is
Thus, the radius of the circle =
,/Gf = 4fi .
The centre of the circle is the foot of the perpendicular from C onto the plane. To find this, we first need to find the equations of the perpendicular. Its direction ratios are 1, 2,2. Thus, its equati~ns are
Therefore, any point on the perpendicular is given by (t + 4, 2t  2,2t  4), where t q R. This point will be the required centre of the circle if it lies on the plane, that is, if
Hence, the c e n a of the circle is
" ( y  1. E).
You can do the following exercise on the same lines. E9) Find the centre and radius of the circle X ' + ~ ~ + Z 12x12y16z+ 111=0=2x+2y+z17. " Now, if we take a = r in the proof of Theorem 3, then what happens to the circle of intersection? It reduces to a single point, that is, a point circle. And in this case the plane only touches the sphere (see Fig. 8). Definition : A plane is tangent to a sphere at a point P if it intersects the sphere in P only. In this case we also say that the plane touches the sphere at P. P is called the point of tangency, or the point of contact, ofthe tangent plane. Remark 1: If you go back to the proof of Theorem 3, you will see that the line joining the point of tangency to the centre of the sphere is perpendicular to the tangent plane. We will use t h ~ s to obtain the equation of q tangent plane. fact Let us find the equation of the tangent plane to the sphere x2+ y2 + z' + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 at the point P (a, b, c). As P lies on the sphere.
T h e Sphere
Fig. 8: The plane r is tangent to the sphere S at the point N.
a'+b"+c2+2ua+2vb+2wc+d=0.
,
..(7)
Also, the centre of the sphere is C (u, v, w). Thus, the direction ratios of CP are a + u, b + v, e c + w (see Equation (8) of Unit 4). Now, the tangent plane passes through P (a, b, c). Thus, its equation will be
Now CP is perpendicular to (8), and hence, is parallel to the normal to (8). Further, f, g, h are direction ratios of the normal to the plane. Therefore, a + u, b + v, c + w and f, g, h are proportional.
=... = L + w = t, say. a+u b+v c
Then (8) gives us
,
f
h
1
, ~ x a + y b + z c + u x ' + v y + w z = a Z +2b C 2 + u a + v b + w c + Using (7) and (9), we get x~+yb+~c+ux+vy+wz=uavbwcd
a
...(9)
hug,
the equation of the tangent plane at the point (a, b, c) to the sphere x ' + y 2 + ~ ' + 2 u x + 2 ~+ 2 w z + d = 0 i s y xa+yb+zc+u(x+a)+v(y+b)+w(z+c)+d=0.
/
11
i
t
In this the equation you got while doing E8? From the equation you may have realised that there is a similar thumb rule for the tangent plane (and not tangent line!) to a sphere. Rule of Thumb: To obtain the equation of the tangent plane io a sphere at the point (a, b, c), simply substitute ax for x', by for y2,cz for z'; and in the linear terms substitute for x, 2
x+a
I
i
1
y+b for y,
2
for z in the equation of the sphere.
X+C 2
The Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
For example, the equation of the tangent plane to x' + y2 + 2' xa+y~+y*aZ.
Why don't ygu try an exercise now ?
= a2at
(a, y ) is P,
E 10)
Find the equations of the tangent planes
a)mx2+y2+z2+2z=29at(2,3.+).
b)to~~+~~+z~4~6~+4=0at(2,3. 1).
So, what we have seen so far is that if a plane is at a distance d from the centre of a sphere with radius r, then
.
3
ii)
if r : d, the plane and sphere do not intersect; : if r = d, dhe plane is tangent to the sphere; and
1
I I
*
iiii) if r > d. the plane intersects the sphere is a circle of radius
Now, if you qre given the equations of a sphere and a plane, can you tell if the plane is tangent to the sphere? An obvious way would be to check what the distance of the centre of the sphere from the plane is. Let us use this method to derive the condfiion for the plane is. Let us use this m e t h a to derive the condition for the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 to be a tangent : plane to the sphere x2 + y2+ z + 2ux + 2vy + 2w2 + d = 0. Now, the radius of the sphere is Ju2 + v2 + w2  d. The length of the perpendicular to the plane from the centre (u, v, w) of the sphere is
This distance must equal the sphere's radius since the plane is tangent to&e sphere.
. :
( A U + B V + C W + D= ~ A ~ + B ~ + C ? ) ( ~ ~ + V ~ + W ~   ~ ) , )(
...( 10)
e
which 1s the required condition. Let us consider an example.
Example 4: Show that 2x  y  22 = 16 touches the sphere of contact. x' + y2 + z2 4x + 2y + 22 3 = 0, and find the
Solution: The centre of the sphere is (2. 1. 1) and its radius is
The length of the perpendicular from the centre to the plane 2x  y  22  16 = 0 is 12.2+1+2+161 9 . . . . =  = 3, which is the same as the radlus ot the sphere.  3 So the plane touches the sphere. Let (x,, y,,
2 , ) be
= 3.
. ;
4
the point of contact. Then the equation of the tangent plane is
xx,+yy,+zz,2(x+x1)+(y+y,)+(z+2,)3=0
(x,2)x+[y,+l)y+(zI
+1) z  2 x , + y , +z,3=0.
But this should be the same as the given plane 2x  y  22  16 = 0. So the coefficileint of x, y, z and the constant term ih both these equations must be proportional.
The Sphere
pd~t w g @ g t ~ e tbe plane as a tangent plane. In the example below we illustrate this. gs and
1
Uah$ d $@ .@ I
mahod, if we are given a point and a plane, we can find the sphere with the
Fgorn~ld m tho sphere with centre (1,2,3), and which touches the plane 2x  y + 22 = 6. $1 d
84tiU~n:
distance ~ f , t hplane from the point is e
Th~r shadd $c the radius of the sphere.
$0, sin;@ tfq cpptre of the sphere is (1,2,3),
its equation will be
m ~ Q P you do same exercises now? y Y
E 11)
E 12) E 131
&QW (hat 4b? plane x + y + z =
1
L
fi
touches the sphere x2 + y' + z2= 1. Find the
of contact.
that the equation of the iphe;e which lies in the octant OXYZ and touches the @kidinate planes is x2+ y2 + z2 2k (x + y + z) + 2k2= 0. for some k E R.
. I
P~QW
tho equation of the sphere with centre (1,0, O), and which touches the plane
q + y + 2 t 3f;o.
In thio prrptipn we have seen what sets can be got by intersecting a line or a plane with a 8pliot9. Mg1Y'Iet us discuss what fprm the intersection of two or more spheres can take.
.
III @? awtj@t first see that result of two the as d?@wyou willspheres whosetheplane, thatintersectingcircle.spheres is willsamehowthat bp igt,m~ciing sphere and a a is, a circle. And then you see to dbta19 fnf9qitsly many intersection is a given
Z4.1 Two fntemecting Spheres
Let us o o ~ i & rtwo spheres given by
t
f@ that sstisfies S, = 0 as well as S2= 0 will also satisfy the equation S,  S2= 0,
a(~,~,~~+2(~,~,)y+2(w,w,)z+d,d?.=0.
...(11)
T h e Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
But, from Theorem 1 of Unit 4 you know this is a plane. Thus, the points of iltersection of the spheres S, = 0 and S2 = 0 are the same as those of any one of the spheres a d the plane (1 1). Since the intersection of a plane and a sphere is a circle, the intersection ofS, = 0 and S, = 0 is a circle (see Fig. 9).
Fig. 9 : T w o spheresintersect in a circle which can be (a) a real circle, (b) a point circle, or (c) and imaginary circle.
In Fig. 9 (a), the circle of intersection has positive radius, while in Fig. 9 (b) the two spheres intersect in only a point. In Fig. 9 (c), they don't intersect at all. While studying the motion of rigid bodies, you may come across a situation in which two spheres just touch each other, as in Fig. 9 (b). Remark 2 :If S, = 0 and S2 = 0 are any two spheres, which do not necessarily intersect, the. S,  S2= 0 is a plane, and is called the radical plane of the spheres. Now, when we discussed the intersection of lines or of planes, we spoke about the angle of intersection. Is it meaningful to talk abouA angle of intersection of two spheres? the Definition: The angle of intersection of two spheres is defined to be the angle between the tangent planes to these spheres at a point of contact. You may wonder if the definition given above is 'proper' the angle could vary from one point of contact to another. But, you will now see that the angle is irdependent of the point of contact. Let the spheres be S, = 0 and S2= 0, where
7 S i = x2 + y2 +z+2uix+2viy+2wiz+d,=0,wherei=1,2.
Fig. 10: 0 is the angle hetween the two. spheres.
Then, their radiiare r, = ,u /:
+ v j +w:
 d l and r, =
,u + v: + w: /:

d, ,respectively.
Let d be the distance between their centres C , and C, (see Fig. 10). Let P be a point of intersection. Thin the angle between the spheres is the angle between the tangent planes at P to each of the spheres. This, in turn, is the angle between the normals to these planes, which are PC, and PC,; Thus, if 8 is the required angle, then from elementary trigonometry you know that 2PC,.PC2cos 8 = P C , + PC,'  c,c,~ ~
: .
Two spheres are called orthogonal i f angle of intersection is d2.
r : cos 8 =
+ ri  d2
2r1 r2
...( 12)
Thus, in particular, the spheres will be orthogonal iff r,' + rZ2 d2 =
3(
~ 1 +v12+ W 1 2  d) +(u,'+ 1
vZ2 w,'d2) +
= (U, t
u,)' +(V, + v2)' + (W. + w2)'
Thus, the spheres S, = 0 and S2= 0 intersect at 90" iff (13) is satisfied. Let us consider an example.
T h e Sphere
Example 6: Find the angle between x2 +,y2+ z2= 4 and x2 7 y2 + z  2x = 0.
Solution:Hereu, =O,v,=O,w, = O , d , =  4 , u 2 =  1 , v 2 = 0 , w 2 = 0 , d 2 = 0 . Thus, the centres of the two spheres are (0,0,0) and (1,0,O), their radii are 2 and 1, respectively, and the distance between their centres is 1. , ' ~ h e r f l r e ,by (12), the angle between the two spheres is
/
2
You can see these spheres in Fig. 11. They intersect in only one point P, and the xaxis is the normal from the centres of the spheres to both tangent planes. You can try some exercises on intersecting spheres now. E 14) E 15) Find the angle of intersection of the spheres x2 + y2 + z2 2x + 2y  42 + 2 = 0 and 2 2 2 x + y +z =4. Find the equation of the sphere touching the plane 3x + 2y  z + 2 = 0 at P (1, 2.1) and cutting the sphere x2 + .y2+ z2  4x + 6y + 4 = 0 orthogonally. a) Two spheres of radius r, and r2 and with centres C, and C,, respectively, will touch each other iff r, + r2 = CIC2.True or false? Why? b) Under what conditions on r,, r2 and C,C2 will. the spheres not intersect? E17) Showthatthespheresx + y +z,  2 x  4 y  4 z = ~ a n d x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + l ~ x + 2 z100 + touch each other. What is the point of contact?
2 2 2
E 16)
So far you have seen that two spheres intersect in a circle. Now let us see whether, given a circle, we can find two or more spheres passing through it.
2.4.2
Spheres Through a Given Circle
Suppose we are given a circle. Can we find two distinct spheres whose intersection the circle is? In fact, we can construct many spheres passing through a given circle (see Fig. 12).
Fig. 12: P a r t o f a family o f spheres through a circle.
In Fig. 12, the circle is a g;eat circle of the sphere S,, but not of S2, S,, etc. Let us see what the method of construction of this kind of family is. You know that a circle is the intersection of a sphere and a plane. So its equation if of the form S=O,n=O, where S ~ X ~ + ~ ~ + Z+2wz+d,andllm + ~ ~ ~ ~ + ~ U X Ax+By+Cz+D.
T h e Sphere. Cone and Cylinder
Any sphere through this circle will be given by S+kIl=O,
...( 14)
where k is an arbitrary constant. Do you agree? Now. if you apply Theorem I , you can see that (14) represents a sphere. Further, every point that lies on the circle must satisfy (14). Thus, (14) represents a sphere through the given circle. So, for each value of k E R in (14) we get a distinct sphere passing through the given circle. Thus, we have infinitely many spheres that intersect in the given circle. Now, a circle can also be represented as the intersection of two spheres S , = 0 and S, = 0. In this case what will the equation of any sphere containing it be? It will be S, + kS, = 0, where k E R. Thus, the infinite set {S, + kS2 = 0 ( k E R ) gives us the family of spherespassing through the given circle. Let us consider some examples of the use of (14).
Example 7: Show that the dircles x' + y' + z'  y + 22 = 0, x  y + z  2 = 0 and
Solution: Thk equahon of any sphere through the first circle is
x ' + y2 + z2  y + 2 z + k ( x  y + z  2 )  O , t h a t i s ,
~~+~~+z~+kx(k+l)~+(k+2)ztk=0.
for some k E R Similarly, the equation of any spliere through the second circle is ~ * + ~ ~ + ~+~ + ( 2 +k )~ + ( 4 k l + 1 ) z  ( k , + 5 ) = O 1)x(k, 3 y for some kl E R.
...(16)
To get a common sphere containing both circles, we must see if (1 5) and (16) coincide for spine k and k, in R. Comparing the coefficients of x, y and z, and the constant terms in ( 15) and ( 16), we get k = 2 k 1+ l , k + 1 = k , + 3 , k + 2 = 4 k , + 1 , 2 k = k I + 5 These equations are satisfied for k = 3 and kl
1.
Thus. there is a sphere passing throi~gll both the circles and its equation is xZ+y~zzl+3x4y+5z6=~.
Example 8: Find the equation of the sphere through the c~rcle x' and the orlgin.
Solution: Let the equation of the sphere be x2 + y' k € R.
Since, it passes through (O,O, 0), we get 9 Thus, the required equation is ~ ( X ' + ~ ' + * ~ ) " O ( 3y+4z). ~X+

+ y'
+ z'
=9
. 2 + 3y + 42 = 5 ~
+ z'  9 + k (2x + 3y + 42 4) 0, where =
9 5k = 0. that is, k =  5
Example 9: Find the path traced by the centre of a sphere which touches the lines y = x , z = 1 andyx,z=1.
Solution:Let x' + y' + z' + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0,be the equation of a sphere that touches the re two lines. Since y = x, z = 1 touches it, the intersection of the line and t11f ~ ' ~ i zmust be only one point. Any polnt on the line is ( 1 . t, i), where t E R. I t l ~ e on the sphere lf s
T h ~ equation has equal roots 11 s
Slmllarly. slnctl. y x, z
 I touches the sphere. we get
Subtractinr! tlicse two conditions, we get 7 4uv. = 4at ( 1 + I ). that is. uv = 2w. Thus. the centre of the sphere, (u, v. w), satisfiss t l x equation xy + 22 = 0. This is true 101 any sphere satisfy~ng given conditions. Thus, tlie required path is the XY22 50. Now, why don't you check if you've uiidcrstood what
wg
have done in this section so far'?
E 18)
Prove that the c ~ r c l e s
lie o n tlie same sphsre. Find its equation also
E 19)
Find tlie equations of the sp11el.e~ that pass through x' + y2 + z' and touch the plane 3x 4 y = 15.

=
5 , 2 x + y + 32 = 3
E20)
F ~ n d equation ot'thc sphere f o ~ the \vhicli the circle 2x  3y + 4z = 8. x' + ?' + z' 7y  22 + 2 = 0 is a great circle.
t
We will stop our discussion on spheres for now. though we shall refer to them off and on in tlte next block. Let us now do a quick review of what we l i a v e c t e r e d in this unit.
2.5
1)
SUMMARY
The second degree equation x ' + y ' + ~ ~2ux+2vy+2wz+d=O i rcprcscnts a sphele with centre (u, v. w) and radius Conversely. the equation of any sphere is of this form.
In this unit we have covered the following polnts.
p+ + w2  d . v2
2)
A line intersects a sphere in at most two points. It is a tangent to the sphere if itintersects the sphere in only thc polnt.
3)
4)
A plane ~ntersects sphere i11 a c ~ r c l eWhen this ciiclc rcduces to a m ~ nct~ r c l e then a . P, the plane IS tangent to the sphcre at P. The equation of the tangent plane to tlie sphere x + y + z2 + 2us + 2vy + 2wz + d =; 0 atthepoint(xl,yl.zl)isxxl+yyl+zzl+~~(x+xl)+v(y+yl)+w(z+zl)+d=0. This is peipendicular to the line joining ( x , , y , , z , ) to the centre of'the sphere.
7
7
5) Two spheres intersects in a circle.
6) TI angle of intersrction of the two intersecting spheres x' + y2wlz+ d l
7 A
z
I
,
+
2u!u + 2v,y 4
0 and .<+ y + z + 2u,x + 2v,y + 2w,z + d,
7
7
,
=0
is cos
( r I 2+ r2?  d 2
\
21.1r2
where r , and r, are their radii and d is the distance between their centres.
In particular, the two spheres are orthogonal is 2 ~ 1+,2vlv2t 2wIwI = d l + d y ~ ~
Tltr S p l t e r ~Cone and Cylinder
7)
T11el;e are infinitely many spheres that pass through a given circle.
You inay now like to go back to Sec. 5.1 and go through the list of unit objectives to see if you have achieved them. If you want to see what our solutions to the exercises in the unit are. we have given them in the follow~ng section.
Its rttdius is ,/(I)'
1
+ 2' + (3)'
9
 (1 I) = 5.
9 E2) We can rewrite the equation as x2 + y' + z' + 2
= 0.
This represents an imaginary sphere with centre at the origin. E3) Its centre is (O,O, 2) and radius is 4. E4) Let the sphere be x2 + y2 + z' + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0. Then, since the given points lie on it, we get 1+2u+d=O 172v+d=0 1+2w+d=0 2 (u+v+w)+d=O On solving these equations, we find that u = v = w = 0, d = 1.
T h s , the centre of the sphere is (O,0,0) and radius is 1.
E5) Suppose such a sphere exists. Let its equatlon be ~~+~'+z~+2ux+2v~+2wz+d=0 Since the given points lie on it, we get the linear system 17+8u+2w+d=0 197 +20u8v+ 18w+d=O 192 IOU+ 1 2 ~  2 2 w + d = O 14+2~+4v+6w+d=O. You can check that this systemis incons~stent. Thus. the point do not lie on a sphere E6) The required equation is (x;)(x;l)+(y4)(y2)+(z5)(~3)=0. ~x~+y~+z'4x6y8z+26=~. E7) Any point on the line 1s (4t  3.3t  4, 5t), where t e R. Tha will lie on the sphere d (4t3)'+(3t4)'+25t2+4(4t3) 6(3t4)+ 10(5t)=0. e50t2+36t11 =O
+
Since these are real distinct roots. the line will intersect the sphere in two distinct points. Hence,it will not be a tangent to the sphere. E8) If7 we extend the rule of thumb to obtain the tangent at a point P (x,, y,, 2,)on the sphere 7 7 ~+y+z+2~~+2vy+2wz+d=O.~eget xx, +yy, +zz, + u ( x + x , ) + v ( y + y , )t w ( z + z , ) + d = 0 . This is a linear equation, and hence represents a plane. and not a line. Thus. ~tcannot represent the tangent line.
E9) The centre of the ~ p h e r e C (6,6,8). is Its radius is r = 5. The distance of C from the plane is d = 3. Thus, the radius of the circle =
= 4.
T h e Sphere.
x+6 y6 The equatioi~s the perpendicular from C onto the plane are =  = z  8. of 2 2
ci
U
Thus, the centre of the circle is (4,8,9).
E 11,) The radius of the sphere = 1. The dl tance of the plane from the centre (O,O, 0) of the sphere = 1. Thus, t e plane is tangent to the sphere. If the point of contact is (a, b, c), then the equation of the plane is ax + by + cz  I = 0,
d
a b .  .. 1 1
c  1 1  3 .
Tbus, the point of contact is
iij 1
1
9 9
z. )
1
E 12) Let the equation be x Z +y Z + z ' + 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = 0 . Since the plane x = 0 is a tangent to it, the distance ( u, v, w) from x = 0, must
(Note that I  u / =  u, since the centre lies in the octant in which the x, y and z coordinates are all positive). Similarly,v = w = r. 2 ~ h e n u ~ + v 'w 2  d = r 2 = t , d = 2 r . + Thus, the equation of the sphere is
7 1 7
X  + ~  + Z   ~ ~ ( X + ~ + Z ) + ~ ~ ' = O .
Thus, its equation is
E 14) Their centres are C, (1, 1,2) and C, (0.0, O), respectively. Both their radii are 2, and C,c:' = 6: Thus, the angle of intersection is
E 15) Let the sphere be given by
x 2 +y 2 + z 2 + 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = 0 . Then the plane 3x + 2y  z + 2 = 0 is the same as ~  2 y + 7 ~ u ( ~ + l ) + v ( y  2 ) +l ) +(d~ + ~ =O x2y+z+u(x + l)+v(y2)+w(z+ l)+d=O o x ( 1 +u)+y(v2)+z(w+ l)+u2v+w+d=O
)
T h e Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
Further, this sphere cuts x2 + y' + z2 4x + 6y + 4 = 0 orthogonally. Thus, using ( 13) we see that 4~+6v=d+4. 7 5 Substituting the values of v and d, we get u =  . And then v = 5, w =   , d = 12. 2 2 Thus, the required sphere is x2+ y " E 16) z2+ ./x + 1O  5z + 12 = 0. y
M
a) This is true only if one sphere doesn't lie inside the other. Otherwise, as in Fig. 11, ClC2# r, + r2. b) If one lies outside the other and r, + r, > C,C2,then they won'dntersect. If one lies inside the other and I r,  r;l> C,C2,they won't inters&
E17)
TheircentresareC,(l,2,2)andC2(5,0,1).
C,C2= 7 =sum of their radii. Thus, they touch each other. The plane S,  S2= 0 is the common tangent plane, where S, = 0 and S2= 0 are the two sphere. ThiswilIbe6~+2y+3~+5=0. The point of contact will be the intersection of the line C,C2with the plane. Now, x+5 y z+l C,C, is given by =  = . Any point on this is (6t  5,2t, 3t  1). This lies 6 2 3
:.
Thus, the point of contact is E 18)
(T 7 i )
7
7
11
8 5
Solving this on the lines of Example 7, you can check that they lie on the sphere x2 + y2 + Z2  2 ~  2 ~  2 ~  6 = 0 .
Its centre is (k7  77  3k) . Its distance from 3x + 4y = 15 is the same as the radius of the sphere.
2
Thus, the two spheres that satisfy the given conditi0.q~ are ~ ~ + y ~ + z ~ + 4 ~ + 2 11+ 0 a n d 5 ( ~ ~ + ~ ' + ~ ~ ~  8 ~  4 ~ 13=0. y =6z12z E20) Any such sphere will be given by x2+y2+~2+7Y2z+2+k(2x3Y+4z8)=~,wherek~ R. Since the given circle is a great circle of the sphere, the centre of the sphere must lie an the plane 2x  3y + 42 = 8.
Thus, the equation af the $here
IS
/
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