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UNIT 3
CONES AND CYLINDERS
i
Structure
3.1 Introduction
Objectives
3.2
Cones Tangent Planes Cylinders
,
I
3.3 3.4 3.5
summary
3.1

INTRODUCTION
In the previous unit we discussed a very commonly found threedimensional object. In this unit we look at two more commonly found threedimensional objects, namely, a cone and a cylinder. But, what you will see in this unit may surprise you what people usually call a cone or a cylinder are only portions of very particular cases of what mathematicians refer to a_s a cone or a cylinder. We shall start our discussion on cones by defining them, and deriving their equations. Then we shall concentrate on cones whose vertices are the origin. In particular, we will obtain the tangent planes of such canes. The other surface that we will discuss in this unit is a cylinder. We shall define a general cylinder, and then focus on a right circular cylinder. The contents in this unit are of mathematical interest, of course. But, they are also of interest to astronomers, physicists, engineers and architects, among others. This is because of the many applications that cones and cylinders have in various fields of science and engineering. The surfaces that you will study in this unit are particular cases of conicoids, which you will study in the next block. So if you go through this unit carefully and ensure that you achieve the following objectives, you will find the next block easier to understand.
,
Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to : obtain the equation of a cone if you know its vertex and base curve; prove and use the fact that a second degree equation in 3 variables represents a cone with vertex at the origin if it is homogenous; obtain the tangent planes to a cone; obtain thc equation of a right circular cylinder if you know its axis and base curve. Let us now see what is cone is.
T h e Sphere, Cone a n d Cylinder
3.2
CONES
When you see an icecream cone, do you ever think that it is a set of lines? That is exactly what it is, as you will see in this section. Definition: A cone is a set of lines that intersect a given curve and pass through a fixed point which is nolt in the plane of the curve. The fixed point is called the vertex of the cone, and the curve is called the base curve (or directrix) of the cone. Each line that makes up a cone is called a generator of the cone. Thus, we can also define a cone in the following way. Definition : A cone is a surface generated by a line that intersects a given curve and passes through a fixed point which doesn't lie in the plane of the curve. For example, in Fig. 1 (a), we give the cone generated by a line passing through the point P, and intersetting the circle C. The base curves of the cones in Fig. 1 (b) and Fig. 1 (c) are an ellipse and a parabola, respectively.
Fig. I : (a) A circular cone, (b) an elliptic cone, (c) a parabolic cone.
At this point we would like to make an important remark.
, >, *. * Remark 1 : A cone is a set of lines passing through its vertex and;base curve. Thus, it
extends beyond the vertex and the base curve. So the cones in our diagrams are only a portion of the actual cones.
Fig. 2: A circular cone which is not right circular.
Id
I
Now let us introduce some new terms. Definitions :A cone whose base cuive is a circle is called a circular cone. The line joining the vertex of a circular cone to the centre of itsbase curve is called the axis of the cone. If the axis of a circular cone is perpendicular to the plane of the base curve, then the cone is called a right circular cone. nus, the cone in Fig. 1 (a) is a right circular cone, while the one in Fig. 2 is not. Cones were given great importance by the ancient Greeks who were studying the problem of dqubling the cube. A teacher of Alexander the Great, Manaechmus, is supposed to have geometrically proved the following result. This result is the reason for the continuing imporfance of cones.
i
I
Theorem 1 : Every planar section of a cone is a conic.
This theorem is the reason for an ellipse, parabola or hyperbola to be called a conic section (see Fig. 1 of Unit 3). It was proved by the Greek astronomer Appolonius (approximately 200 B.C:). We will not give the proof here. Now, according to Theorem 1 would you call a pair of intersecting lines a conic? If you cut a right circular cone by a plane that contains its axis, what will be the resulting curve be? See Fig. 3. Let us now see how we can represent a cone algebraically. We shall first talk about a right circular cone, which we shall refer to as an r.c. cone. So, let us take an r.c. cone. Let us assume that its vertex is at the origin, and its axis is the zaxis (see Fig. 4). Then the base curve, which is a circle of radius r (say), lies in a plane that is parallel to the XYplane. Let this plane be z = k, where k is a constant. Then, any generator will intersect this curve in a point (a, b, k), for some a, b E R. So the angle between the generator and the axis of the cone will 9 = tan' of the cone. Thus, every line that makes up the cone makes a fixed angle 9 with the axis of the cone. This angle is called the semivertical angle (or generating angle) of the cone. We can now define an r.c. cone in the following way. Definition : A right circular cone is a surface generated by a line which passes through a fixed point (its vertex), and makes a constant angle with a fixed line through the fixed point. Let us obtain the equation of an r.c. cone in terms of its semivertical angle. Let us assume that the vertex of the cone is 0 (0,0,0) and axis is the zaxis. (We can always choose our coordinate system in this manner). Now take any point P (x, y, z) on the cone (see Fig. 5). Then, the direction ratios of OP are x, y, z, and of the cone's axis are 0,O, 1. Thus, from Equation (9) of Unit 4, we get
Cones, and Cylinders
(i)
, which is a constant. This is true for any generator
Fig. 3 : A pair of intersecting lines is a conic section.
cos e = Thus, x2 + y2 + z2 = z2 sec29 x2+ y2 = z2 tan2 9. (1) is called the standard form of the equation of a right circular cone. Now, why don't you try the following exercises?
Fig. 4 : A right circular cone with vertex at the origin and base curve x2 + y = IJ, z = k. '
Show that the equation
2C
the r.c. cone with vertex
xa yb axis 
Y
[a(x a)
E2) Can you deduce (1) from (2)? F.3) Find the equation of the r.c.,cone whose axis is the xaxis, vertex is the origin and semivertical angle is
X


.a
P
and semivertical angle 9 is
+ P(Y b)

+ y (z  c)12(a2 +
P2 + J ) { (X a)2+ (y  b12+ (Z c)'
) cos2e ...(2)
3
.
Fig. 5: x2 + y2 = z2 tan1 0
Let us now look at a cone whose vertex is the origin. In this situation we have the following result.
The Sphere. Cone and Cylinder
Theorem 2 :The equation of a cone whose base curve is a conic and whose verteh is (0,0,O) is a homogeneo.us equation of degree 2 in 3 variables.
.
An equation is homogeneous of degree 2 if each of its terms IS of degree 2.
Proof: Let us assume that the base curve is the conic.
cl~~+2hx~+b~~+2~~+2f~+c=0,z=k.
Any generator of the cone passses through (0,O. 0). Thus, it is of the form
Ihis line intersects the plane z = k at the point This point should lie on the conic. Thus,
[, Y
a k Pk
9
Y
k ,
'
Eliminating a, y from this equation and (3), we get P,
This is the equation of the cone. As you can see, it is homogeneous of degree 2 in the 3 variables x, y, and z. For example, the equation of the cone whose base curve is the ellipsc plane z = 5, and whose vertex is the origin, is x2

4
+9
Y2
=
1 in the
Do you see a pattern in the way we obtain the equation of the cone from the equation o the base curve? The following remark is about this. Rerpark 2: To find the equation of the cone with vertex at (O,O, 0) and base curve in the plane Ax =By + Cz = D, D # 0, we simply homogenise the equation of the curve, as Ax+By+Cz follows. We multiply the linear terms by ,and the constant ten? by D
5
Bd,
* ;and we leave the quadratic terms as they are. The equation that we get by
this procesq is a homogeneous equation of degree 2, and is the equation of the cone. Let us look at a few examples of cones with their vertices at the origin. Example 1: Show that the equation of the cone with the axe= fyz + gzx + hxy = 0, where f, g, h E R Solution. By Theorem 2, the equation of the cone is ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2fky + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0, for some a, b, c, f, g, h E R.
.
Since the xaxis is a generator, (1,0,O) lies on it. Therefore, a = 0. Similarly, as it passes through (0, 1,O) and (0,0,1), b = c = 0. So the equation becomes fyz + gzx + hxy = 0. Example 2: Find the equation of the cone with vertex at the origin, and whose base curve is 16,x+2y+2z=9. the ~ i r c l e x ' + ~ ~ + z ~ =
+
generators is
Cones and Cylinders
The Sphere. Cone and Cylinder
E6).If
,
X
=  =  is a generator of the cone given by the homogeneous equ,ation (4). then
Y
Z
P Y
show that (a,p, y) lies on (4). E7) Whit,. of the following equations represents a cone?
3x+4y+5z=o;x2+y2+z'=9;3(x2+y'+z')=xy;xyz=~zx+xy.
u2 v2' w2 I E8) If +  +  = d, show that ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 represents a b c a cone.
Let us now go back to Example 1. This is an example of a cone with three mutually perpendicular generators. Its equation has no term containing x2, y2 or z2.Does this mean that whenever a cone has three mutually perpendicular generators, its equation,must have no term with x2, y2 or z2? The following theorem helps us to answer this question.
Theorem 4: If the cone ax2 + by2+ cz2+ 2fyx + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0 Ms 3 mutually perpendicular generators, then a + b + c = 0. Proof: Let the direction cosines of the three mutually perpendicular generators be li, mi, n;, where i = 1,2,3. Since they are mutually perpendicular, we can rotate o w coordinate system so that these lines become the new coordinate axes.
Then the direction cosines of the previou~ coordinate axes with respect to the new axes are 11,12,13;m,, m2, m3 and n,, n,, n,, respecti+ely. So ~ n G (Equations(3) and (10)) tell us that 4
Further, since the perpendicular lines are generators of the cone, using E6 we get
Adding these equations, and using (6), we get a + b + c = 0. Actually, the converse of this result is also true. The proof uses a fact that you have already seen in Fig. 3 in the case of an r.c. cone, namely,
If the lines of intersection of a cone and a plane through the cone's vertex ate imaginary, the intersection reduces to a single point, namely, the cone's vertex (as in Fig. I(e) of Unit 3).
any plane through the vertex of a cone intersects the cone in two lines, which may or may not be distinct.
C
The following result, which we shall not prove, tells us about the angle between the lines of intersection.
Theorem 5: The angle between the two lines in which the plane ux + vy + wz = 0 intersects the
cone C(x, y, z) E ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0 is
Cones and Cylinders
a
h
wherep2 = g u
h. b f v
g
f
u . v
w
c w
o
Looking at (7), you give the condition under which the angle will be n/2? can The lines of intersection of the plane and the cone will be perpendicular iff
~(u,v,w~)=(a+b+c)(u~+v~+w~)
....(8)
Let us use (8) to solve the following example, which includes the converse of Theorem 4.
Example~3: Show that if a + b + c = 0, then the cone
C(x,y,z)
P$+by2+~~2+2fyl+2gzx+2h~y=~
has infinitely many sets of three mutually perpendicular generators.
X Y Z Solution : Let  =  =  be any generator of the cone. Then, by E6, we know that
a
P
Y
C (a, y ) = 0. Therefore, using the fact that a + b + c = 0 and (S), we see that the plane B, a x + p y + y z = 0 intersects the cone in two mutually perpendicular g'enerators, say L and
X Y Z Now  =  =  is noimal to the plane a x + P y + yz = 0. Thus, it is perpendicular to both L
a
P
Y
and L'. Thus, these three lines f o m a set of three mutually perpendicular cone.
of the
X Z Note that we choose  = Y =  arbitrarily. Thus, for each generator chosen we get a set of a P Y three mutually perpendicular generators. Hence, the cone has infinitely many such sets of generators.

Why don't you try some exercises,now?

Find the anglk between the lines of intersection of
3x+y+5z=Oand6y~2~+5xy=O.
E 10)
rrove f i t a3 +by + cz = 0, where abc # 0, cuts the cone yz + zx + xy = 0 in 1 1 1 perpendicular lines iff  +  +  = 0. a b c
E 11)
Prove that if a right circular cone has three mutually perpendicular generators, its semivertical angle is tan' JZ . .
Let us now discuss the intersection of a line and a cone.
3.3
TArGGZNT PLANES
In the previous unit you saw that a line can intersect a sphere in at most two points. What do you expect in the case ofthe intersection of a line and a cone? Let's see. Letthe equation of the cone be (4), that is, ax2+ bya + cz2+ 2fyz + 2 p + 2bxy = 0.
The Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
Note that, by shifting the origin if necessary, we can always assume this equation as the cone's eqyation. For convenience, we will write C (x, y, z) = ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy. Now consider the line
 1'   y l  a
P
Y
. Any point on this line is given by
(x, + ra, y, + rp, z, + ry), for some x E R. Thus, the line will intersect the cone, if this point lies on the cone for some r E R. This happens if
a ( ~ ~ + r a ) ~ + b ( ~ ~ ~ + r ~ ) ~ + ~ ( ~ + r+ )r+~ g (~ l + r2 ) ( ( l +~ a+ +r ~ ) ( ~ ~ ~ y 2) i yf x~ r )
2h (x, + ra) (y, + rp) = 0.
o r 2 c(a, P, y ) = 2r {a(=, +by, + gf,) + P (hxl +by1+fill + Y (gx,+ fy1+ C Z I ) ~
+C(x13 ~ ~ Z ~ ) = O . Y .
...(9)
Now, if (x,, y,, 2,) doesn't lie on the cone, then (9) is a quadratic in r, and hence has two roots. Each root corresponds to a point of intersection of the line and the cone. Thus, we have just proved the following result.
Theorem 6 :A straight line, passing through a point not on cone, meets the cone in at most two points.
I
Xx,  y  y , 22 Now suppose @at the line    =  is a tangent to the cone (4) at (x,, y,, 2,).  I a P Y Then, since (x,, y,, z,) lies on the cone, C (x,, y,, z,) = 0. So (9) b c ~ ~ m e s r2c(a,p,y)+2r {a(ax,+hy,+gz,)+P(hx, + b ~ , + f ~ , ) + ~ ( g x , + f y ~ + c z ~ ) )=O This equation must have coincident roots, since the line is a tangent to the cone at (x,, y,, 2,). The condition for this is
So, (10) is the condition for a 3 I
ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 262 + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0.
X
 XI

1
= 2to be tangent to the cone
22
Y
Note that (10) is satisfied by infinitely many values of a , P, y,Ths,
at each point of a cone we can draw infinitely many tangents to the cone.
Now, from See. 4.3.3, you know that (10) tells us that each of these lines is perpendicular to the line with direction ratios. ax, +hy,+gz,,hx,+by, +fz,,gx,+fy,+cz,. Thus, the set of all the tangent lines at (x,, y ,, z,) is the plane (xx,)(ax, +hy, +gzI)+(yyl)(hxl +by, +fz,)+(zz,) (gx, +fy, +cz,)=O
\
1
~ x ( a x , ~ h y , + g z , ) + y ( h x , + b y , + f z , ) + z ( g x , ++cz,)=O. fy,
since C (xl, y,, 2,) = 0. This plane is defined to be the tangent plane to the cone at (x,, y,, z,). Thus, (1 1) is tbe equation of the tangent plane at (x,, y,, z,) to the cone ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0. There is a very simple working mle for writing (1 1).
Rule of thumb: To write the equation of the tangent plane at any point (a, B, y) on the cone (4),
replace x2by ax, y2 py by, z' by yz,2yz by yy + pz, 2zx by a + y x and 2xy by px + ay. z
I
Cones and Cylinders
For example, the tangent plane tothe cone 2x2+ y2 2xz (x+z)=O,tbatis,x=z.
= 0 at (1, 0 , l ) is 2x (1) + y(0)
So far we have only found the tangent plane to a cone whose vertex is at the origin. What about a general cone? The following remark is about this. Remark 4: We can find the tangent plane to a cone with vertex at (a, b, c) in the same manner as above. All we need to do is to shift the origin to (a, b, c) and find the tangent plane in the new coordinate system. And then we can shift back to the old coordinate system, in making the required tra~sformations the equation of the plane. This will give us the required equation. Now, if you look closely at (1 l), you will notice that (0, 0, 0) satisfies it. Thus, the tangent planeto a cone passes through the vertex of the cone. Therefore, the tangent plane at P (x,, y,, z,) contains P as well as the vertex 0of the cone. Hence, it contains the generator OP of the cone. Thus, the tangent plane to a cone touches the cone along the generator passing through the point of contact. This generator is called the generator of contact of the plane. In Fig. 6 OP is the generator of contacf of the tangent plane T. You can try some exercises now.
0
Fig. 6 : T is the tangent plane to the cone at P.
E 12)
Find the equation of the~angent plane at the point
1 1
(Tr
q r 1)
to the cone
E 13)
Use Theorem 5 to obtain the condition under which a given plane is tangent to a cone.
If you've solved El 3, you would have seen that the condition for ux + vy + wz = 0 to be tangent to the cone (4), that is, ax2+ by2+ cz' + 2hxy + 2fyz + 2gzx = 0 is a h u h b f v g f c w u v = 0, that is, w o
Thus, the line  =  =  ,which is the normal at (0, 0, 0) to the tangent plane, is a generator of
U
X
Y
Z
v
X
the cone AX' + ByZ+ cz2+ 2Hxy + 2Fyz + 2Gzx = 0.
...(12)
n i u s , (12) is the cone generated by the normals to the tangent planes at the vertex (0, 0,0) of the \ cone (4). Since it is homogeneous, it vertex is also (0, 0,O). Note \ that (I?) is r othing but the determinant equation.
.
The Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
a h g x
h b f y '
g f c z
x y z=O 0
Now, if we bonsider the surface generated by the normals at (O,O, 0) to the tangent planes to (12), what do we get? On calculatin ,you will get a surprise! The cone is (4), because Bc~=*.cAG2=bA,AB3=c~GHAF=fA7HFBG=gA,FGcH=M, where, a A= h g h b f g f c
Because of this relationship between (4) and (12) we call them reciprocal cones. Actually, the following example shows why the name is appropriate. x2 Y 2 z2 , Example 41 Show that the cones ax2+ by2+ cz2= 0 and  + +  = 0 are reciprocal. a b c (Here abc # 0). Solution: The reciprocai cone of ax2+ by2+ cz2= 0 is given by the determinant equation
b e a O
Y
O
c
Z
O Y z  X O
O
b 0 y
O c = o
1 .
x
o
I $ I *I $1' 1 I
= 0, dividing throughout by
dkA
abc.
This is the nequired equation. Now you can do the following exercises. This will help you to understand reciprocal cones better.
E 14)
Find the cone on which the perpendiculars drawn from the origin to tangent planes to thecone 19x2+11y2+3z2+6yz1Ozx26xy=Olie. Prove that the cone 4 has three mutually perpendicular tangent planes iff bc+ca+ab=~=d!h~.
E 15)
And now ldt us shift our attention to another surface that is generated by lines.
3.4
CYLINDERS
You must have come across several examples of the surface thai we are going to discuss in this section. For instance, a drain pipe is cylindrical in shape, and so is a pencil. But for us, the will, pencil will pot be a cylinder, only its surfac~ according to the following definition.
Definiton :A. cylinder is the set of all lines which intersect a given curve and which are parallel to a fvred line which does not lie in the p h e of thecurve. The fixed line is called the axis of the cylinder and the curve is called the base curve (or directrix) of the cylinder. All the figures in Fig. 7 represent portions of cylinders.
Cones and Cylinders
Flg. 7: (a) A circular cyilnder, b) an elliptic cyiinder, c) a parabolic cyiinder.
In Fig. 7 (b) the cylinder's base curve is an elipse, while it is a parabola in Fig. 7 (c). Fig. 7 (a) is an example of a right circular cylinder according to the following definition. Definition: A cylinder whose base curve is a circle, and whose axis passes through the centre of the base curve and the perpendicular to the plane of the base curve, is called a right circular cylinder. As you can see, in common parlance when people talk of a cylinder, they mean a portion of a right circular cylinder. Henceforth, in this section, by a cylinder we shall mean a right circular cylinder. Let us now find the equation of a cylinder. We shall first assume that its axis is the zaxis, and its base curve is the circle x2+ y2 r2,z = 0 (see Fig. 8). Let P (x,, y,, 2,) be any point on the cylinder. Let the generator through P intersect the plane of t+e base curve (that is, the XYplane) in M. Then the perpendicular distance of P from the axis i s 0 ~ =
42

Jm.
But this is also r. Thus,
Fig. 8: The qllnder xz +
; '

r'.
This equation is true for every point P (x,, y,. cylinder is
)r
*2
.' .
.
.' nder. Thus, the equation of the
'
You may wonder why z is not figuring in the e uation. This is because whatever value of z 9 you take, the equation of the cylinder remains x + y2 = r2
.
What does this mean geometrically? It says that whatever plane parallel to the XYpiane you take, say z = t, and take its intersection with the cylinder, you will always get the circle 2 2 x +y2=r. Thus, in a sense, the cylinder is made up of infinitely many circles, each piled up on the other!
The radius of a cylinder is the radius of its bw curve.
49
The Sphere, Cone and Cylinder
Note that the plane z = t is perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder x2 + y2 = r2 Also note that the length of the perpendicular from any point on a cylinder to itsaxisis equal to its radius. Using this fact, let us find the equation of a cylinder of radius r and whose axis is x = =a =  b z  c (see Fig. 9). Y
a
P
*
/
Fig. 9 : A right circular with axis AM.
Let P (x,, y,, z,) be any point opthe cylinder. Let A be the point (a, b, c), which lies on the axis, andM be the foot of the perpendicular from P onto the axis. Then PM = r. Also, AM = AP cos 9, where 9 is the angle between the lines AM and AP.
: AM = .
(x,  a)a + (Y,  b)P + (2,  C)Y
,+ l u / p+ '
,using Equation (9) of Unit 4.
Since Al&' is jghtangled triangle, we get A P ~ =
AM^ + M P ~Thus, .
This equation holds for any point (x,, y,, z,) on the cylinder. xa yb zc =Thus, the equation of the right circular cylinder with radius r and axis a P Y
Let us logk at an example. Example 5: Find the equation of the cylinder having for its base the circle x2 + y2 + z2= 9, xy+zr3. Solution :The centre of the sphere is (0, 0, O), and radius 3. The distance between (0, 0,0) and the plane x ~y + z = 3 is
Fig. 10
. So the radius of the base circle is
Y
= & (see Fig. 10).
. The axis of the cylinder is perpendicular to the plane x  y + ::= 3 and passes through (O,0,0).
SOits equations are  =  = 1 1 1
X
.
Z
Thu's, using (14), we get the required equation as ~(X~+~~+Z~~)2 (X~+Z) =
3 ~ z +xy+yzzx9=0. + ~ ? ~
2 2
Cones and Cylinders
Why don't you try an exercise now? El@ Findlthe equation of the cylinder a) whose axis is x = 2y =  z and radius is 4. x1  y 23 b) whose axis is   = and radius is 2. 2 3 1 our discussion on cylinders here. Let us now briefly review what we have
In this unit we have discussed the following points : 1) A cone is a surface generated by a line passing through a fixed point (its vertex) and intersecting a given curve (its base curve), such that the vertex does not lie in the plane oft& base curve. 2)
A cqne whose base curve is a circle, and for which the line joining its vertex to the centre of the base curve is perpendicular to the plane of the base curve, iscalled a right circular cone.
3) A planar section of a cone is a conic. 4)
5)
The equation of a right circular Cone with semivertical angle 8 is x2+ y2 = z2tan28.
A second degree equation in x, y, z represents a conk with vertex at the origin if it is homogeneous.
generators 6) The cone ax2+ by2+ cz2+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0 has 3 mutually ~erpendicular ifa+b+c=O.
7) Any plane through the vertex of a cone intersects the cone in two distinct or coincident
lines. The angle between the lines obtained by intersecting ux + vy + wz = 0 with C (x, y, a) = ax2+ by2+ cz2.+2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0 is
tan'
1
2 ~ ~ 2 ~ 7 (a + b + c)(u2 + v2 + w2)C(U,V, W)
l7
~
7
Thus, the plane is tangent to the cone iff p2 = 0.
8) The equation of the tangent plane to the cone ax2+ by2 + cz2+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0 atthepointP(x,, y,,z,)is
(ax, +hy, +gz,)x+(hx, +by, +fz,)y+(gx, +fy, +cz,)z=O.
This contains the line OP, where 0 is the vertex of'the cone.
The Sphere, Cone and Cyllnder
I
I
I
aa' + bpZ+ cy + 2@y+ 2gya + 2hap = 0.
Cones and Cylinders
: .
(a, P, y) lies on (4).
E7) only ~ ( X ~ + ~ ~ + Z ~ ) = X ~ . E 8) Substituting the value of d in the equation, we can write it as
which is a homogeneous equation of degree 2 in x + Thus, it is a cone with vertex at E9) The required angle is 2p
.. =, Y + L, z + . a b c
( a
U
9  j r ;
v
f).
I
i v
j
m
a = tan'
0  6(1) (5) + 2 (5) (3)  3 3 ) (1) '
where P'
1

0
3
11
3
: .
E 10)
a = tan'
J35 .
In this situation (8) tells us that the lines will be perpendicular iff bc+ca+ab=O:
a
E 11)
b
c
.
Let its semivertical angle be 8. Then the equation of the cone is (I), that is, x2 + y2 = z2 tan' 8. Since this has three mutually perpendicular generators, Theorem 4 tells us that 1+ I  t a n 2 8 = 0 j 8 = t a n  ' A . The required equation is
E 12)
E 13)
A tangent plane must touch the cone along a generator. Thus, the two linas of intersection of the plane and the cone must coincide. Thus, the angle between these lines must be 0.
Thus, from Theorem 5, we see that ux + vy + wz = 0 is a tangent to the cone ~ ( x , ~ , z ) = ~ ~ ~ = ~ ( s i n c e ~ ~ + ~ ~ + w ~ ~ ~ . )
I
1
a
lil
h
b f v
g c w
u v =o w o
i
I
*
I
g u
f
T h e S p l ~ e r e ,Cone and Cylinder
The required cone is the reciprocal of the given cone. Thus its equation is
The cone will have three mutually perpendicular tangent planes iff the reciprocal cone has three mutually perpendicular generators. Using Theorem 4 and its converse, we see that this happens iff In ( 12), A + B + C = 0, that is, iff (bc  t') + (ca ,g2) + (ab  h') = 0, that a iff bc + ca + ab = t + g' + h'.
b) The required e uation is 14 {(x1) 2 +y+(z3)'4)={2(x1)+3y+(z3)}2 e 10x"5y2+ 13z'12xy6yz4xz8x+3~y74z+59=~.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
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In this section we have gathered some problems related to the contents of this block. YOU may like to do them to get a better understanding of these contents. O r solutions to the questions u follow the list of problems, in case you'd like to countercheck your answers.
AZ
1)
x.2 y  3 2  4 Find the equations to the planes thrqugh the line =  ,which are 2 4 5 parallel to the.coordinateaxes.

C
Y
x + l _  3  + 2 y z and the point 2) Find the equation of the plane passing thrdugh 3 2 1 I 2y z+2 (0,7, 7). Also check if x = =  lies in the plane. 3 2 3) The plane  +  +  = 1 meets the axes in the points A, B and C. Find the equations a b c determining the circumcircle of the triangle ABC (see Fig. 1).
4)
X Y Z
b
8
)
X
Fig. 1
Prove that if every planar section of a surface given by a quadratic equation is a circle, the surface must be a sphere.
4z
5) Find an equation of the set of points which are twice as far from the origin as from (191, 1).
6) If the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0 cuts x2+ y2 + z2+ 2u8x+ 2v'y 2w'2 + d' = 0 in a great circle then show that 2 (uu' + vv' + ww')  (d + d') = 2f2,where r' is the radius of the second sphere.
\
+
Y
7) Find the equation of the sphere inscribed in the tetrahedron whose faces are
A
Fig. 2
8) Show that the sum of the squares of the intercepts made by a given sphere on any three mutually perpendicular lines through a fixed point is constant. (Hint: Take the fixed point to be the origin.)
9 Find the equations to the lines m which the plane 2x + y  z = 0 cuts the cone )
4x2 Y2+3z2=0.
Y 10) If x = 2
= z represents one out of a
set of three mutually perpendicular generators of
the cone 11yz + 6zx  14 xy = 0, find the equations of the other two.
(Hint: Take a plane through the given line, and apply the condition for the lines of intersection of this plane and the cone to be perpendicular.)
,11)
Find the equation of the right circular cone with vertex (1,1,3), axis parallel to the line
==
1
2
2
and with one of its generators having direction ratios 2, I, 1.
12) Find the eqnation of the cone which passes through the common generators of the cones x2+ 2y2+ 3z2= 0 and 5xy  pz + 5xz = 0 cuid the line with direction ratios 1,O.l. (Hint: The cone passing through the common generatorsof the cone C, = 0 and C, = 0 isC1 +kC2=0,whereks R) 55
T h e Sphere, Cone and* Cylinder
13) Find the equation of the right circular cylinder that is generated by lines which are parallel to  =  =  ,and which are tangent to the sphere x2 + y2 4 z' = r2 (see Fig. 3). a b c (Note: Such a cylinder is called the enveloping cylinder of the sphere.)
X Y Z
14) The axis of a cylinder of radius 3 has equations of the cylinder.
5= 
x
y + l z1 = 2 1
. Find the equation
15) Prove that for a cylinder the tangent plane at any point to its axis (see Fig.4).
SOLUTIONS
%"
Fig. 3: The cylinder envelops the sphere.
1)
The equation to any plane through the given line is a(x2)+b(y3)+c(z4)=O,where2a+4b+5~=0 If this is parallel to the xaxis, we must have a(l)+b(O)+c(O)=Oa=O. Thus, the equatipn of such a plane is 5y  42 + 1 = 0. Similarly, you can check that the planes parallel to the y and z axes are 5x  22  2 = 0 and2x  y  1 = 0, respectively.
2)
Theplanewillbea(xl)+b(y3)+c(z+2)=0, where 3a + 2b + c = 0. Since (0,7, 1) lies on it, we have a + 4 b 5c=0. Eliminating a, band c from (2) and (3), we get
b  =  =  . =  c c a b 104 115 122 1 1 I : (1)becomes I(x+ I ) + 1 ( ~  3 ) + ( z + 2)0 . l *x+y+z=o.
D
....(1)
....(2)
....( 3)
 a
The line
i=
x
y2z+2
 7 lie on this plane, if it is parallel to the plane and any will
point on it lies on the plane. Since 1 (1) + (3) ( 1 ) + 2 (1) = 0, the line is parallel to the plane. Also, (0,2, 2) is a common point. Thus, the line lies in the plane.
Fig. 4 : The plane i s tangent to the cylinder.
3)
The circurncircle will be the intersection of the given plane with any sphere passing through A, B and C. So, let us take the sphere through 0, A, B and C. The coordinates of these points are (0,0,0), (a, 0, O), (0, b, 0) and (0,0, c). You can check that the equation . ., i s x2 + y2 + z2 axbycz=O. Thus, the equations that give the circurncircle are x2 + y7 + z 2 axbycz=O, 
x+  y  z +
a b
c

1
4)
Let the :quation of the surface be ax2+ by + cz2+ 2hxy + 2gzx + 2fyz t 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0. It intersects z = 0 in the conic a~~+b~~+2h~~+2ux+2v~+d=0. This will be a circle iff a = b and h = 0. Similarly, on intersecting with x = 0 and y = 0 we will get a = b = c and f = 0 = g = h. Thus, the e uation of the surface reduces to ' a ( ~ ' + ~ ~) + 2 u x + 2 v y + 2 w z + d = O , z which represents a sphere.
4
5)
Let (x, y, z) be any point in the set. Then p + y 2 + z ' = 2 \ j ( x + 1 ) ~ (y  I ) +(*+ ~

112
56
3
3 (x2 + y2 + z2)+ 8x  8y  82 + 12 = 0, which represents a sphere.
If the two spheres are S = 0 and S, = 0, then (u', v', w') lies on S  S, = 0, that is, on2(uu')x+2(vv')y+2(ww')z+dd'=0. : 2(u  u') u' + 2(v  v') v' + 2(w  w') w' = d  d'. . + 2(uut + vv' + WW') d + d' = 2(ur2+ vt2+ wt2)= 2rt2+ 2d' + 2 (uu' + vv' + ww')  (d + d') = 2rt2. Let the equation be x'+ y'+z'+2ux t2vy 4 2 w z + d = 0 . Since the givc I11.e~ tangent to it, the distance of (u, v, w) from these planes are
IS
Miscellaneous Exercises
r=
A*+ v2 + 2



d . Thus, we see that
Solving these equations, we get r = Thus, the equation of the sphere is,
3+& 6
7 2 7 3+& X+y +~2r(x+~+z)+2r'=0,wherer= 6 '
Let us assume that the fixed oint is (O,O, 0) and the three lines are the axes. Then let 1 : the sphere be given by x2 .+ y + z' + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0. Its intercept on the xaxis, that is, y = 0 = Z. is 2 , / r d Similarly. the other intercepts are 2 NOW,( 2 ~ d ) ' + ( 2 which
IS
Jz 2 , and
/ /
.
~~2d)' +(2
a constant, since the sphere is a given one.
x y z 2 7 2 Let a line of intersection be  =  =  . Then 21 + m  n = 0 and ul  m + 3n = 0. 1 m n Solving these equations. we get nz=21.n=00rm41,11=21. Thus, the two lines are
2x y + k (y  22) = 0, k E R, gives any plane through the given line. This will cut the given cone in perpendicular lines if 11 (k I)(2k)+6(2k)(2) 14(2)(kl)=Ok=2,7111. Thus, the planes are 2x  3y + 42 = 0 and 1l x . 2y  72 = 0. Now, 2x  3y + 42 = 0 intersects the cone in two perpendicular lines of which one is the given one which lies in the plane. Therefore, the other one has to be the normal to the plane at (0, 0,O). This is
x y 3 i= II 21/ = a. So this will be another of the required set of
mutually perpendicular generators. Similar1y;the third generators will be the normal to 11x  2y  7a = 0 at (O,O, O , that is, )
If 0 is its semivertical angle, then 2+22 2
The Sphere, Cone and Cyllnder
Also, the axis.is given by =1 2 n u s , the equation of the r.c. cone is
A  1
y  1
A   J
2
1
@x2+ 10y2+1 0 z 2 + 1 2 x Y + 2 4 ~12xz5oX104y96~+221 =O. + Let the cone be (x2+ 2y2+ 3z2)+ k (5xy  y + 5xz) = 0, where k E R. Since the line with z 4 direction ratios 1,0, 1 lies on it, (1,0, 1) must satisfy i t This gives us k =   . 5 Thus, the required cone is 5 ( ~ ~ + 2 ~ + 3 ~ ~ )  4 ( 55xz)=O. z + x~~ Let (a, p, y) be any point on the cylinder. A generator through this will be given by xyp a +. z  y a b c This line intersects the sphere in (ak + a , bk + B, ck + y), where k is given bv
(ak + a + (bk + P ) + (ck + Y)2 r2. ? ~ =
This quadratic equation in k gives two values of k, which correspond to two points of intersection. Thus, the generator will be a tangent to the sphere if these points coincide, that is, iff . (aa + bp + cy12= (a2+ b2 + c2)(a2+ p2 + $  r2). Thus, the locus of (a, P, y ), which is the equationof the enveloping cylinder, is (ax +by + C Z ) ~(a2+ bZ+ c2)(x2 + y2+ z2 r2). =
We can always assume the equation of the cylinder to be x2 + y2 = r'. Its axis is the zaxis, that is, x = 0,y = 0.
/
II
I
As in the case of a cone, you can show that its tangent plane at a point (x,, y,, z,) is xx, +yy, = r2. This is parallel to the zaxis. Hence, the result.
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