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Basic Reciprocating Engine &

Compressor Analysis
Techniques

Azonix-Dynalco
Kathy Boutin, B.Sc.
Ben Boutin, P.Eng.

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Focus of this course


In this course, we illustrate engine and

compressor behavior using data taken from


running machinery
The data were recorded by analysts running
their own predictive maintenance programs
We show faults that are seen in recip
equipment and present techniques to detect
them

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Short Course Outline


Analysis Programs
Characterizing engines and compressors
Data types
Testpoint Locations
Sequence of events
2-stroke engines
4-stroke engines
Compressors
Analyzing engine faults
Analyzing compressor faults
Analyzing auxiliary equipment faults
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Analysis Programs

Objectives
Types of analysis
Analysis process

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Analysis Programs
Objectives of analysis programs
Eliminate expensive, unnecessary maintenance
Decrease maintenance costs
Increase machine availability
Decrease down time
Improve performance
Reduce emissions

You cant improve what you dont measure

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Analysis Programs
Types of machinery analysis
Maintenance Analysis
Identifies incipient failure so that you can turn unscheduled
maintenance into scheduled maintenance
Helps avoid in-service failures
Goal is to reduce maintenance cost
Performance Analysis
Characterizes the engine/compressor operating potential
Efficiency
Fuel consumption
Horsepower
Throughput

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Analysis Programs
The analysis process

Gather data from the machine


Reduce the data to measures of performance

and condition
Organize and present the reduced data
Infer performance and condition
Report findings
Take action
Follow up

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Characterizing Engines and


Compressors

Data Types
Testpoint Locations

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Special data types

Process data
Tell about the process
Examples: suction temperature and pressure
Phase-marked data
Data is referenced to the flywheel
Example: pressure versus time data
Non-phased data
Sampling is a function of time only
Example: acceleration data from a
turbocharger bearing
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Measuring flywheel position
Once-per-degree
Shaft encoder
360 pulses per
revolution
Better accuracy
Once-per-turn
Magnetic, active or
optical pickups are
common
1 pulse per revolution
Usually permanently
mounted
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

10

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Example of phase-marked pressure (PT)
C402 - C cylinder 2 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM HE Period 5, CE Period 5
1700
1600
1500

Head and
crank end
pressure
traces on a
compressor
cylinder

Pressure (psig)

1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135
180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

360

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

11

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Free-running, non-phased data
Data is recorded independent of crankshaft position
Returns
Overall vibration level
Spectrum showing frequency components
Common applications:
Structural vibration
Supports, foundations
Turbochargers
Oil and water pumps
Pressure pulsation

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

12

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Example of free-running, non-phased, spectrum data
UNIT #4-E Testpoint OPEH 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
1.0
Testpoint
: OPEH VIB
No. Of Lines
: 400
No. Of Averages : 5
Calc Overall
: N/A
Trap Overall
: 1.325

1 times
run speed

0.9
0.8

Peak At Frequency
1.020 at 322.5
0.507 at 1305.0
0.122 at 652.5
0.110 at 487.5
0.098 at 1627.5
0.079 at 2932.5
0.073 at 1357.5
0.061 at 1140.0
0.061 at 1020.0
0.061 at 975.0

2 times
run speed

mil (pseudo-pk-pk)

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

4 times
run speed

0.3

Spectrum from
engine frame
near anchor
bolts. Mils peakpeak, oil pump
end, horizontal
direction.
Engine speed
323 RPM

0.2
0.1
0.0
0

500

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

1000

1500
cpm

2000

2500

3000

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

13

Engine Data
Cylinder exhaust temperatures
Infrared temperature wand
pyrometer

Turbocharger/blower
Standard accelerometer
mounted on bearings and near
turbine and compressor wheels
Frequency domain vibration
Ignition secondary
Inductive connection to unshielded
spark plug cable
Multi-period sampling statistics
Ignition secondary patterns

Cylinder, valve, wrist pin


and bearing vibration
Ultrasonic microphone
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position

Cylinder pressure
Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Peak pressure statistics

Ignition primary (not shown)


Connection to primary box
Ignition primary firing patterns
TDC Reference
Shaft encoder
Magnetic pickup
Phased data
RPM

Frame vibration (displacement)


Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A)
taken at opposite corners of
engine frame
Frequency domain data

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Typical 2-stroke engine PT/VT
20905-E Cylinder P5 3/27/2002 8:57:46 AM Period 0
600

118

137
Fuel 213

PT

550

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

--------------

500

VT

Pressure (psig)

450
- P5 VT4

400
350

300

- Scale 2.4

250

200

150
-

100

50

--------------

0
0

45

90

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

135

180
Angle (deg)

225

270

315

360

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

15

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Typical 4-stroke engine PT/VT
5302-E Cylinder 2L 12/3/2001 9:15:58 AM Period 1
1100

Intake 281

140

Fuel 315

620

391 Exhaust

--------------

583

1000

900

VT

Pressure (psig)

800

- 2L VT4

700

600
- Scale 5.0
500
-

400

300

200

PT

100

--------------

0
0

45

90

135

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

180

225

270

315 360 405


Angle (deg)

450

495

540

585

630

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

675

720

16

Compressor Data

Crosshead Vibration
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Relate to rod load

Valve cap temperatures


Infrared temperature wand
thermocouples, RTDs

TDC Reference
Shaft encoder
Magnetic pickup
Phased data
RPM

Suction/discharge temperatures
Infrared temperature wand
thermocouples, RTDs
Suction/discharge valve vibration
Compressor ring leak vibration
Liner scoring
Ultrasonic microphone
Standard accelerometer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Head/crank end pressure
Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Multi-period sampling statistics

Rod Motion
Proximity probes
Time-domain data phased to
crankshaft position
Rod displacement trends

Suction/discharge nozzle pressure


Pressure transducer
Time domain data phased to crankshaft
position (valve/passage loss calculations)
Frequency domain (pulsation spectrum)
Multi-period sampling statistics

Frame vibration (displacement)


Tri-axial accelerometer (H, V, A)
taken at opposite corners of
engine frame
Frequency domain data

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Characterizing Engines and Compressors


Typical HE compressor pattern
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
-------------- 4HD1 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 145 DGF
---------------4HD2 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 146 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
---------------

CE PT

600

Pressure (psig)

550
HE PT
500
450

HE VT

400
350
300
250
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)


2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

18

Sequence of events

2-stroke, spark-ignited engine


4-stroke, spark-ignited engine
Double-acting, reciprocating compressor

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

19

Understanding Machine Faults


To recognize faults in compressors and

engines, we must understand how they


behave in normal operation
Do the mechanical events you expect to see
actually happen?
Do the events appear to be normal?

when do they occur?


what is the relative magnitude?
do they look the same as they did last time?
do they look the same as the next machine?

What is the performance of the machine?

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

20

10

Sequence of events
for a 2 stroke engine

Pressure versus crank angle (PT)


Pressure-Volume (PV)
Vibration versus crank angle (VT)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

21

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: start of cycle

Ignition has occurred


Flame front travel has begun

Pressure

Mixture is superheated air and fuel

0
90

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180
Crank Angle (Deg)

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

270

360

22

11

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: combustion

Flame travels through chamber


Heat is released, pressure rises
Temperature at flame front is
about 3500F
Pressure

Peak occurs 10-15 deg ATDC


Speed of propagation is critical
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

23

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: power

Combustion is complete
Pressure drives piston down

Pressure

As volume increases, pressure decreases

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

24

12

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: exhaust blowdown

Piston uncovers exhaust port


Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)

Pressure

Temperature is now about 800F

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

25

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: air intake

Intake port is uncovered


Cylinder pressure intake pressure

Pressure

Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools

0
90

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180
Crank Angle (Deg)

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

270

360

26

13

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: scavenging

Scavenging continues until intake closes

Pressure

Cylinder cooling continues

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

27

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: fuel intake

Scavenging continues until intake closes


This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
Pressure

Open exhaust port drags fuel down


Port closes before any fuel escapes

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

28

14

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: compression

Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed


Pressure begins to rise
Air-fuel charge is turbulent
Pressure

Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge


Temperature rises

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

29

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: ignition

Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC


Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel

Pressure

Air-fuel charge is superheated

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

30

15

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PT: end of cycle

Pressure

Flame front begins propagating


through chamber

0
0

90

180

360

270

Crank Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

31

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: start of cycle (TDC)

Ignition has occurred


Flame front travel has begun

Pressure

Mixture is superheated air and fuel

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

32

16

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: combustion

Flame travels through chamber


Heat is released, pressure rises
Temperature at flame front is
about 3500F
Pressure

Peak occurs 10-15 deg ATDC


Speed of propagation is critical
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

33

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: power

Combustion is complete
Pressure drives piston down

Pressure

As volume increases, pressure decreases

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

34

17

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: exhaust blowdown

Piston uncovers exhaust port


Pressure drops more rapidly (blowdown)

Pressure

Temperature is now about 800F

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

35

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: air intake

Intake port is uncovered


Cylinder pressure intake pressure

Pressure

Fresh air under pressure sweeps and cools

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

36

18

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: scavenging

Scavenging continues until intake closes

Pressure

Cylinder cooling continues

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

37

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: fuel intake

Scavenging continues until intake closes


This is the lowest pressure in the cylinder
Fuel is injected just prior to exhaust closure
Pressure

Open exhaust port drags fuel down

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

38

19

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: compression

Fuel injection ceases, ports are closed


Pressure begins to rise
Air-fuel charge is turbulent
Pressure

Turbulence mixes the air-fuel charge


Temperature rises

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

39

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: ignition

Ignition occurs 5-10 degrees BTDC


Advance gives time to initiate combustion
and for flame front travel

Pressure

Air-fuel charge is superheated

0
0

25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

40

20

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


PV: end of cycle

Pressure

Flame front begins propagating


through chamber

0
25

50

100

75

Swept Volume (%)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

41

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


Cylinder vibration: start of cycle
137
118

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Fuel 213

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

42

21

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


Cylinder vibration: combustion
137
118
Fuel 213

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Rings become fully loaded by gas


pressure

Pressure

May see some vibration resulting


from combustion

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

43

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine


Cylinder vibration: power
137
118
Fuel 213

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Ring noise

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

44

22

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: exhaust blowdown
137
118
Fuel 213

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Exhaust
Blowdown

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

45

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: air intake and scavenging
137
118

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Fuel 213

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

46

23

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: fuel intake
137
118

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Fuel 213

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

47

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: compression
137
118
Fuel 213

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Fuel Valve
Closure

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

48

24

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: ignition
137
118
Fuel 213

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Ignition 5-10
degrees BTDC

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

49

Sequence of events for a 2-stroke engine VT


Cylinder vibration: end of cycle
137
118

223 Intake
242 Exhaust
273

Pressure

Fuel 213

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
2 25
Angle (deg)

270

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

50

25

Sequence of events
for a 4 stroke engine

Pressure and vibration (PT/VT)


Pressure-Volume (PV)

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

51

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: top dead center
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Ignition has occurred


Flame front propagation has begun

Pressure

Mixture is superheated air and fuel

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

52

26

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: peak firing pressure
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Flame front propagation through cylinder


Pressure and temperature rise
Too fast, detonation
Pressure

Too slow, soft fire


su
re
P

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

53

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: power stroke
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

611

Pressure

Fuel 502

su
re
P

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

54

27

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: exhaust blowdown
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Exhaust gases leave through exhaust


valve port to exhaust header and
then to the turbocharger

Pressure

Blowdown

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

55

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: air intake
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Pressure

Exhaust valve
closure

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

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56

28

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: fuel intake
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Pressure

Intake valve
closure

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

57

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: compression and ignition
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Pressure

Fuel valve
closure

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

Intake

720

540
4

Compression

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

58

29

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PT/VT: end of cycle
417 Exhaust
565

137
Intake 300

Fuel 502

611

Pressure

Whats
this?

su
re
P

0
180

0
1
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Combustion

360
Crank Angle (deg)
Exhaust

720

540
4

Intake

Compression

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

59

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


VT: crosstalk (KVS 412)
K200 - E 9/10/1995 6:51:46 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

P1

672

-2
2

P2

192

-2
2

P3

432

-2
2

P4

72

-2
2

P5

0
-2
2

P6

552

312

This engine -2has solid lifters


0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

630

720

60

30

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: top dead center

0
0
3

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25
COMBUSTION

50

75

100

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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61

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: air intake

Fresh air enters cylinder

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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62

31

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: fuel intake & compression

Fuel intake starts BBDC


Turbulence stirs mixture

0
0
3

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25
COMBUSTION

50

75

100

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

63

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: ignition

Mixture is compressed and


superheated
Ignition occurs 10-20 deg BTDC

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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64

32

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: top dead center

Ignition has occurred


Flame front travel has begun

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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65

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: peak firing pressure

Flame travels through chamber


Heat is released, pressure rises
Peak occurs 15-20 deg ATDC
If pressure increase is
Too fast, detonation
Too slow, soft fire

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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66

33

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: power stroke

Combustion is complete
Pressure drives piston down
As volume increases, pressure decreases

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

67

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: bottom dead center

Exhaust valve opens just before BDC

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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68

34

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: exhaust

Pressure drops rapidly


(blowdown)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

COMBUSTION

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

69

Sequence of events for a 4-stroke engine


PV: end of cycle

0
0
3

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25
COMBUSTION

50

75

100

4 EXHAUST 1 INTAKE 2 COMPRESSION

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

70

35

Sequence of events
for a double acting
reciprocating compressor

Head End (HE) compression cycle (PV)


Crank End (CE) compression cycle (PV)
HE valve events
HE and CE pressure-time (PT)
HE and CE vibration-time (VT)

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2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

71

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE compression cycle
HE
Compression
Discharge

1-2

Pd

Clearance Volume

Pressure

HE
Discharge

2-3
Compression
Expansion
HE
Expansion

u
s
re
P

3-4

m
u
o
V
c
rn
a
le
C

Ps

Suction

Swept Volume

Volume

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

HE
Suction

4-1

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72

36

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


CE compression cycle
CE
Compression

Compression
Expansion

Clearance Volume

Pd

Pressure

1-2

Discharge

CE
Discharge

2-3

CE
Expansion

3-4

1
Ps

Suction

Swept Volume

CE
Suction

Volume

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

4-1

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

73

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE compression event
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)

Pd

Clearance Volume

Pressure

Suction
closed

AS
AP

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Ps and increasing to Pd.
Discharge valve opens when Pcyl
is greater than Pd (2).

1 Discharge

Ps

AP

closed

Volume

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

AD

Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

74

37

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE discharge event
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)

3 Discharge

Pd

Clearance Volume

Pressure

Suction
closed

AS
AP

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is above Pd and decreasing to Pd.
Discharge valves closes when Pcyl
equals Pd (3) at TDC.

1 Discharge

Ps

open

AP

Piston Stroke Volume


Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

Volume

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

75

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE expansion event
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)

3 Discharge

Pd

Clearance Volume

Pressure

Suction
closed

AS
AP

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Pd and decreasing to Ps.
Suction valve opens when Pcyl is
less than Ps (4).

Expansion

1 Discharge

Ps

AP

closed

AD

Piston Stroke Volume

Volume

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

76

38

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PV: HE suction event
Suction Line Pressure (Ps)

3 Discharge

Pd

Clearance Volume

Pressure

Suction
open

AS

Compression
Cylinder Pressure (Pcyl)
is below Ps and increasing to Ps.
Suction valve closes when Pcyl is
equal to Ps (1) at BDC.

Expansion

1 Discharge

Ps

AP

closed

Suction

AD

Piston Stroke Volume


Discharge Line Pressure (Pd)

Volume

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

77

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


Example: HE and CE PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
600

Pressure (psig)

550
500
450
400
350
300
250
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
75
Percent swept volume

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

78

39

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


PT: HE and CE
D

Discharge A
Pressure

CE PT
HE PT

Suction
Pressure 1

180

360

Crank Angle (Deg)

Head End: Expansion (A-B)


Crank End: Compression (1-2)

Suction (B-C)

Compression (C-D)

Discharge (D-A)

Discharge (2-3)

Expansion (3-4)

Suction (4-1)

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

79

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE valve vibration

HE Discharge

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

1 Suction valve opens


(depends on clearance volume)

4 Discharge valve opens


(typically the loudest)

2 Suction gas fills the cylinder.

5 High pressure gas is


discharged into discharge
line.

3 Suction valve is lowered gently


onto the seat at BDC closing
event is not always visible.
HE Suction

6 Discharge valve is gently


lowered onto the seat at
TDC not always visible.

180
360
Gas blowing noise is loudest at valve
opening and gradually diminishes as
gas velocity through the valve decreases.
GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

80

40

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


CE valve vibration

CE Discharge

CE Suction

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

180

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

81

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


HE and CE valve crosstalk

HE Discharge

CE Discharge

CE Suction

HE Suction

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

180

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

82

41

Sequence of events in a reciprocating compressor


Typical HE PT/VT signature
K200 - C cylinder 4 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 7
-------------- 4HD1 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 145 DGF
---------------- 4HD2 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 146 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 3.0
- 84 DGF
---------------

600

Pressure (psig)

550
500
450
400
350
300
250
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)


GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE
BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

83

Quick Recap
So far, weve talked about the normal

behavior of:
2-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
4-stroke, spark-ignited recip engine
double-acting, reciprocating compressor

Now we know what they are supposed to look

like, we can look at faults

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

84

42

Analyzing Engine Faults

Combustion
Mechanical

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

85

Engine faults we can monitor


Combustion Quality

Mechanical Condition

Unbalance

Leaking valves

Detonation

Leaking rings

Misfire

Valve train (cam, guides, lifters, linkage)

Pre-ignition

Worn, scored liner and piston

Excessive Emissions

Port/bridge wear

Operating Performance

Carbon in ports

Indicated horsepower

Wrist pin

Torque

Main bearings, crank pins

Efficiency

Ignition problems

Economic Performance

Turbocharger faults

Fuel cost

Oil Pump, water pump problems

Fuel consumption

Frame, foundation vibration

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

86

43

Combustion
Many of the problems we face with engines

are due to variable combustion


Engines do not fire the same way each cycle

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

87

Combustion
Chemical equation of combustion

Engines convert chemical energy to heat


Take a simple gas such as Methane (CH4)
Combine it with oxygen and start the reaction

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O


Produces carbon dioxide plus water vapor

and releases heat of about 1000 BTU/ft3 of


methane consumed

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

88

44

Combustion
If only it was that simple

Air is primarily O2 (23%) and N2 (77%)


Both are involved in the chemical reaction
The combustion process is neither complete

nor instantaneous
Many intermediate steps and reactions occur
This leads to other exhaust products such as
NOx, HC, CO and particulates (smoke)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

89

Combustion
Why is combustion so variable?

incomplete mixing in the cylinder


difficulty burning lean air/fuel mixtures
inconsistent air/fuel charge in each cycle
poor fuel quality
ignition faults
incorrect valve timing
varying ambient conditions

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

90

45

Combustion
Results of poor combustion

Firing in each becomes inconsistent, high

fires followed by low fires


Stress the engine thermally and mechanically
Reduce the life of engine components
Waste fuel
Increase emissions
This costs a great deal of money

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

91

Combustion
Typical faults

Unbalance
Dead cylinders
Early firing
Soft firing
Detonation
Pre-ignition

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

92

46

Engine balance
The manufacturer designed the engine to

handle specific cylinder pressures and


temperatures
Cylinders with high peak pressures develop
much greater mechanical and thermal stress
Engine balancing distributes this mechanical
and thermal stress across the engine to
maximize component life

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

93

Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (balanced HBA)
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800
700
P2
Pressure (psig)

600

P1

P4

P8

P5
P6

P3

+10%

P7

+2%

500

-2%
-10%

400
300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

94

47

Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (balanced HBA)
Unit2 4/15/2002 9:21:55 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

Pressure Rise Rate (dp/d)

35

P2

P4

P8

P5

30
P3

25

P6

P1

20

P7

15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

95

Engine Balance
Cylinder pressures (unbalanced HLA)
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

700
2

600

7
8

Pressure (psig)

3
500

+10%
+2%
-2%
-10%

1
400

300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

96

48

Engine Balance
Pressure rise rate (unbalanced HLA)
C2B-E 6/6/2001 7:22:02 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

Pressure Rise Rate (dp/d)

20

Highly variable

3
15
8
4

10

5
6

5
0
-5
-10

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

97

Detonation
Detonation is rapid and uncontrolled combustion.
Detonation can lead to rapid failure due to high thermal and
mechanical stress.
Causes of detonation:
Mixture too rich
Clogged/dirty air intake (air inlet filters, aftercoolers or
blowers)
Incomplete scavenging
inconsistent fuel composition
Overloaded engine
Ignition timing too advanced
Highly loaded cylinders in an unbalanced engine are more
susceptible to detonation.
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

98

49

Detonation
Engine PT parade (Ajax DPC-720-LE-H-2)
K203 - E 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

600
550

Pressure (psig)

500

P3 Detonating
Cylinder

450
400 P1
350
300

P2

P4

+10%
+2%
-2%
-10%

250
200
150
100
50
0
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135 180 225 270


Crank Angle (deg)

315

360

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

99

Detonation
Multiple PT cycles for a power cylinder (P3)
K203 - E - P3 PT3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM

550
500

Detonation

Detonation

Detonation

450
400
350
Misfire

Misfire

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Samples

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

50

Soft Firing
Soft Firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder
rises too late (also called late firing).
The PFP is usually low and late.
Causes of soft fires:
incomplete scavenging
air/fuel ratio too lean causing slow flame front
air/fuel ratio too rich for proper combustion
late ignition timing
poor fuel composition

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

101

Soft Firing
Engine pressure signature comparisons
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800
700

P1R

Pressure (psig)

600
500

P3R

P5R

P4R

P3L

P1L

P2R

P4L
P5L

P2L

400
300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

102

51

Soft Firing
PT: comparison to normal (HBA)
20905-E Cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3

550

137

500

223 Intake

118

242 Exhaust
Fuel 213

450

273

400
Normal

Pressure (psig)

350
300
250
200

Soft (Late)
Fire

150
100
50
0
0
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180 225 270


Crank Angle (deg)

315

360

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

103

Soft Firing
PV: comparison to normal (HBA)
20905-E cylinder P8 7/14/1999 6:46:53 AM Period 3

550
500
450

Pressure (psig)

400
350
300

Normal

250
200
150
100
50
0

Soft (Late)
Fire
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
% swept volume

75

100

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

104

52

Soft Firing
Another example comparing engine PTs (CB QUAD)
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected

1000

Pressure (psig)

900
P3L

800

P4L

P4R
P1R

700

P5L

P2R

P3R

P5R

P6L

P6R

+2%
-2%
-10%

600
500

+10%

P2L

400
300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135
180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

105

Early Firing
Early firing occurs when the pressure in the cylinder
rises too early.
The PFP is usually high and close to TDC.
Causes of early firing:
air/fuel ratio too rich
early ignition timing
warm air temperature

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

106

53

Early Firing
engine pressure comparison
1A - E 5/22/1997 10:34:26 AM
All cylinders - In Bank Order

800
700 P1R
P3R

Pressure (psig)

600

P5R

P4R
500

P1L

P3L

P4L

P2R

P5L

P2L

400
300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

107

Dead Cylinders
Dead cylinders have no discernable
combustion.
Causes of dead cylinders:
ignition problem
improper air/fuel charge

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

108

54

Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of peak pressures (QUAD)
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - In Bank Order - CRC is corrected

1000

Pressure (psig)

900

P4L

P3L

800

P4R
P1R

700

P5L

P2R

P3R

P5R

P6L

P6R

+10%
+2%
-2%
-10%

600
500

P2L

400

P1L

300
200
100
0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135
180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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360

109

Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure shape & timing
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected

1000
900
800
Pressure (psig)

700
600
500

P2L soft fire

400
300

P1L
Dead Cylinder

200
100
0
-180

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

-135

-90

-45
0
45
Crank Angle (deg)

90

135

180

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110

55

Dead Cylinders
Cylinder comparisons of pressure rise rate
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM
All cylinders - To Center of Plot - CRC is corrected

35
30
Normal

Pressure Rise Rate (dP/d)

25
20

Other cylinders

15
10

P2L Soft Fire

5
0
-5
-10

P1L Dead Cylinder

-15
-20
-180

-135

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

-90

-45
0
45
90
Crank Angle (deg)

135

180

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111

Dead Cylinders
Pressure and pressure rise rate relationship
C402 - E Cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected

-103 EXHAUST PORT


-123 INTAKE PORT

1000
900

-125

100
119

-65 FUEL VALVE

Pressure (psig)

800
Normal PT

700
600
500
400

PT

300
200
100
0
-180

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

-135

-90

-45
0
45
Crank Angle (deg)

90

135

180

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112

56

Dead Cylinders
PV comparison to normal
C402 - E cylinder P1L 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Period 4
CRC is corrected

1000
900
800
700
600
Normal

500
400
300
200

Dead Cylinder

100
0
0
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
75
% swept volume

100

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113

Pre-ignition
Pre-ignition is the premature combustion of the air/fuel
mixture before the normal ignition event (autocombustion).
PFP may occur before TDC causing excessive force on
the piston, wrist pin, connecting rod and bearings.
The mechanical and thermal stress resulting from preignition can cause cracked heads, torched or seized
pistons.
Causes of pre-ignition
hot spots in the cylinder caused by ash or carbon
build up
hot spots created by detonation
early ignition timing is not normally considered preignition.
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114

57

Pre-ignition
PT comparison to normal
1000
900

-145

5E Cylinder P4 8/15/2002 4:39:48 PM Period 5


-130 Intake
130
-110 Exhaust
110
-77 Fuel

800

Pressure (psig)

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Normal

0
-180

-135

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

-90

-45

0
Angle (deg)

45

90

135

180

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115

Pre-ignition
PV showing 2 crank revolutions

Negative work

Positive work
Positive work

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116

58

Combustion
Analysis summary
Observation

Characteristics

Normal

All cylinder average PFPs fall within 10-15% of the engine

average PFP
Low cycle-to-cycle deviation in cylinder PFP
PFP angle consistent and at expected location
Similar exhaust temperatures among power cylinders

Unbalanced

Uneven average peak firing pressures


High deviation in PFP for cylinder
Uneven exhaust temperatures
Usually accompanied by higher NOx and HC

Detonation

Often audible
High PFP with early PFP angle
Very high pressure rise rate compared to other cylinders
Often develops a shock wave that is seen in the PT
Combustion may make more noise than normal

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117

Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation

Characteristics

Soft Firing

Type of misfire
Average PFP lower than normal
PFP angle later than normal
Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
May be followed by detonation
Increased exhaust temperature

Early Firing

PFP angle earlier than normal


Average PFP higher than normal
Higher pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
Lower exhaust temperature

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118

59

Combustion
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation

Characteristics

Dead Cylinder

Pre-ignition

Average PFP at running compression exhibits no cycle


variation, low PFP deviation
Maximum pressure = running compression pressure
Low pressure rise rate when compared to other cylinders (or
history)
Consumes horsepower
Wastes fuel ($100-$200/day/cyl)
Fuel in exhaust manifold is a backfire risk
Low exhaust temperature
Auto-combustion occurring before normal ignition
PFP angle may occur before TDC
Causes mechanical and thermal stress on piston, wrist pin,
connecting rod and bearings

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119

Combustion
PT for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
K203 - E Cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1
109

600

126
FUEL VALVE 206

251 EXHAUST VALVE


234 INTAKE VALVE
307

550
500

Pressure (psig)

450
400
Detonation

350
300
250
200
150

Soft (Late) Fire

100
50

Dead
Cylinder

0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
270
Crank Angle (deg)

315

360

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120

60

Combustion
PV for a dead cylinder, soft fire, and detonation
K203 - E cylinder P3 11/21/1996 2:13:03 PM Period 1

550
500
450

Pressure (psig)

400
350
300

Detonation

250
200
Soft (Late) Fire

150
100

Dead Cylinder

50
0
0

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
% swept volume

75

100

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121

Analyzing the mechanical


condition of engines

Valves
Liners
Rods and wrist pins
Rings
Ignition systems

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

122

61

Valve Train
Rocker Arm
Valve Lifter
Push Rod
Valve Springs

Valve Stem

Exhaust Port

Valve Seat
Cam Follower
Cam Lobe

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123

Valve Train
Common problems
Mechanical
Loose/worn rocker arm
Improper lifter clearance
Broken springs
Incorrect spring tension
Worn valve guide
Worn or mis-timed cam
Excessive cam gear lash

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Leakage
Burnt valves
Deposits on valve seat
Damaged seat
Bent valve stem

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124

62

Valve Train
Incorrect clearance

Lift

open and close at the


wrong time
Valve opening event
can be noisy the
clearance is taken up
on the leading edge of
the cam lobe
Can cause noisy valve
closure if the valve is
dropped onto the seat

Crank Angle

Valve opens
late & sharp

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Normal
Lift

Excessive
Lash

Vibration

May cause the valve to

Valve closes
early & drops
on seat

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125

Valve Train
Hydraulic lifters

Hydraulic lifters maintain correct valve timing

and minimize valve train wear over a wide


range of operating conditions
Oil pressure within the lifter maintains correct
clearances in the valve train
If the lifter collapses
The valve may open late and close early
The vibration pattern shows impacts at
opening and closure
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126

63

Valve Train
Excessive EV clearance (KVGR with solid lifters)
K1F - E 12/13/1994 11:19:43 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

P8

-2.5

-2.5

P9

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

P10

P4

P7

P3

0.0

P2

0.0
-2.5

P1

2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5
P

P6

90

180

P11

P12

P5

-2.5

270

360

450

540

630

720

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

630

720

127

Valve Train
Vibration comparison for a leaking EV (KVGR)
2.5

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

90

180

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

270

360

450

540

630

720 0

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

630

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

720

128

64

Valve Train
PT and PV: leaking exhaust valves (KVGR)
Intake 294

500

580

150

390 Exhaust

500

450
400

Pressure (psig)

2 low PFP

400

Normal

Normal

3 low expansion

350

350
300

High exhaust temp

300

250

250

200
150

1 low compression

450

200

150

100

100

50

50

3
0

0
0

45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720

Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
% swept volume

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75

100

129

Valve Train
Worn rocker arms (KVGR)
K1D - E 2/3/1997 10:52:37 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5

2.5

2.5

0.0

0.0

-2.5

-2.5
0

90

180

270

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

360

450

540

630

720

90

180

270

360

450

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

540

630

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

720

130

65

Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)
NO-4 - E 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2

-2

90

180

270

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

360

450

540

630

720 0

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

630

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

720

131

Valve Train
Worn cam gear (KVS)
NO-4 - E Cylinder P12 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM
161
INTAKE VALVE 325

1000

NO-4 - E Cylinder P6 2/28/1995 1:38:59 PM

410 EXHAUST VALVE


575
621

161
INTAKE VALVE 325

1000

410 EXHAUST VALVE


575
621

FUEL VALVE 536

900

900

800

800

700

700

- P6 VT4

600

500

- Scale 2.0

400

400

300

300

200

200

100

100

Pressure (psig)

Pressure (psig)

FUEL VALVE 536

600

500

45

90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)

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132

66

Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)
C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:

1F 0

-5

5F

-5

Hard closures

2F 0

-5

-5

3F 0

Leakage

-5

-5

4F 0

-5

6F

7F

8F

-5

45

90

135

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

180

225

270

315

3600

45

90

135

180

225

270

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

315

360

133

Valve Train
Leaking fuel valve (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 8 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 9
130
110

700

230 Intake
250 Exhaust
283

Fuel 213

--------------

- 8FV ULT

600

-- Scale 4.0

500

---------------

Pressure (psig)

Leak as
P rises

- 8 ULT
-- Scale 4.0

400

300

---------------

200

- 8 VT4
-- Scale 2.0
-

100

--------------

0
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Angle (deg)

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134

67

Valve Train
Analysis summary
Fault
Normal

Characteristics
Valve opening events are quiet or absent
Valve events are similar across the entire engine
Closing events are at expected crank angle, single

impact of short duration


No leakage occurs after valve closure

Worn rocker
bushing
Excessive
lifter
clearance

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

Multiple impact following normal valve closure


Excessive noise on opening or closure
Valve opens late and closes early
Impact noises on valve closure
Sometimes see impact on opening
Early closing exhaust valves may raise the PV toe

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135

Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)
Fault
Broken
valve spring
Worn valve
guide

Cam gear
faults

Characteristics
Impact noises on opening and closure
Valve may close late
Roughness seen in vibration pattern as valve opens

and closes
Valve may hang up in the guide and not close at the
correct time
May see gas leakage if valve does not seat properly
Impacts in the vibration as gear teeth pass each other
May cause excessive wear on the cam lobe leading to

rough vibration pattern


When troubleshooting, be prepared to move the

vibration transducer around

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136

68

Valve Train
Analysis summary (cont.)
Fault
Leaking
valves
Improper
valve
seating

Characteristics
Blowby pattern appears when pressure rises in the

cylinder
Multiple impacts on valve closure as valve finds the

seat
Look for differences in valve closure across the engine
Can be caused by beat-out seat, worn/broken/incorrect
spring, worn guide, loose rocker arm, bent valve stem
May see blowby pattern when pressure is high in the
cylinder

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137

Pistons, Rods, Rings and Liners

SOURCE: navsci.berkeley.edu/ ns10/piston.htm


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138

69

Piston slap
Piston slap occurs when the piston skirt

impacts the liner


Tends to occur after peak pressure when the
pressure is high and there are side forces on
the piston
Becomes more pronounced when the
clearance in the upper cylinder increases due
to ring wear

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139

Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
C2A-E 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Acceleration VTL:

0 5

-5

-5

0 6

-5

-5

0 7

-5

-5

0
-5

-5

45

90

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

135 180 225 270 315 360 0

45

90

135 180 225 270 315 360

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140

70

Piston Slap
Low frequency vibration showing piston slap (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 3 6/5/2001 8:23:09 AM Period 6
130
110

Pressure (psig)

700
Not always visible
in ultrasonic
600

Fuel 213

230 Intake
250 Exhaust
283

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135 180 225


Angle (deg)

270

315

-------------- 3FV ULT


-- Scale 20.0
----------------- 3 ULT
-- Scale 4.0
--------------- 3 VTL
-- Scale 6.0
--------------- 3 VT4
-- Scale 2.0
--------------360

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141

Piston Rods
Excessive wrist pin and connecting rod

bearing clearances produce impacts at load


reversal in the piston pin bushing
in 4-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near TDC
in 2-stroke engines, vibration spikes occur
near BDC

There is usually cycle-to-cycle variability in

the location of the vibration

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142

71

Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 2-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 2 stroke engine
250000

Gas force

Vibration occurs
around BDC
where load is minimal

200000

Total force

Force (lbs)

150000

Inertia
100000

50000

-50000
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

405

450

495

540

585

630

675

720

Degrees

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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143

Piston Rods
Wrist pin load for a 4-stroke engine
Wrist pin load in a 4 stroke engine
250000

Gas force
200000

Total force
Force (lbs)

150000

Vibration occurs
around TDC
where load reverses

Inertia

100000

50000

-50000
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

405

450

495

540

585

630

675

720

Degrees

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

144

72

Piston Rods
Excessive wrist pin clearance (KVS)
K200 - E Cylinder P6 1/16/1996 9:39:11 AM Period 6
137
INTAKE VALVE 300

417 EXHAUST VALVE


565
611

--------------

FUEL VALVE 502

700

600

Pressure (psig)

500

P6 VT4

400
- - Scale 2.0
300

200

100
0

-------------0

45

90

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

135 180

225

270 315 360 405 450


Angle (deg)

495

540 585

630

675 720

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145

Piston Rings
Worn or improperly loaded rings

The presence of gas passing noise when

cylinder pressures are high indicates blowby


Be careful though, it could be leakage around
rings or valves
A damaged liner will prevent rings from
sealing properly
Even moderate blowby may be sufficient to
cause a significant rise in the engine
crankcase pressure
Ring fouling prevents pressure from getting
behind the rings to load them properly

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146

73

Liners
Scuffing and scoring
Liner scuffing or scoring is often seen as symmetric

vibration spikes around TDC

For a 2-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point


twice in one cycle
For a 4-stroke engine, piston rings pass the same point
4 times in one cycle
Ring loading affects the degree that each event is seen

Wear is usually faster in the upper liner due to high

PFP
Crankcase pressure may increase due to blowby
resulting from the liner wear
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2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

147

Liners
Liner groove (KVS, P2, 10 rotations)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

P2 (MMM)

P2 (1)

P2 (Med 2)

P2 (3)

P2 (4)

P2 (5)

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

P2 (6)

P2 (7)

P2 (8)

P2 (9)

P2 (10)

-2

-2
0

90

180

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

270

360

450

540

630

720

90

180

270

360

450

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

540

630

720

148

74

Liners
Liner groove (KVS)
NO-6 - E Cylinder P2 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM Period 2
151

1000

403 EXHAUST VALVE


560

INTAKE VALVE 345

FUEL VALVE 504


900

Symmetric angle cursors


reveal liner groove

800

Pressure (psig)

-------------610

700

600

500

- - Scale 2.0

400

300

200

100

20
0

340

45

90

135

180

225

270

380

--------------

700

315 360 405


Angle (deg)

450

495

540

585

630

675

720

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


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2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

P2 VT4

149

Liners
Liner groove (KVS)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

Crosstalk from P1
exhaust blowdown

Crosstalk from P3 exhaust blowdown

P2 (MMM)

P2 (1)

P2 (Med 2)

P2 (3)

P2 (4)

P2 (5)

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

P2 (6)

P2 (7)

P2 (8)

P2 (9)

P2 (10)

-2

-2
0

90

180

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

270

360

450

540

630

720

90

180

270

360

450

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540

630

720

150

75

Liners
Crosstalk from exhaust event on P3 (KVS)
NO-6 - E 12/21/1995 8:14:16 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
2

P1 0

0 P7
422

-2
2

17

-2
2

P2 0

0 P8
662

-2
2

257

-2
2

P3 0

0 P9
182

-2
2

497

-2
2

P4 0

0P10
542

-2
2

137

-2
2

P5 0

0P11

Unphased cursor indicates


crosstalk from other cylinders

302

-2
2

617

-2
2

P6 0

0P12
377

62

-2
0

90

180

270

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

360

450

540

630

720 0

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

630

-2
720

151

Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

NO-6 - E 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM


Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

Chatter as loaded
rings pass over wear

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2
2

-2

-2

90

180

270

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

360

450

540

630 720 0

90

180

270

360

450

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540

630

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

720

152

76

Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-6 - E Cylinder P7 3/19/1996 1:28:36 PM Period 2
151

Pressure (psig)

1000

INTAKE VALVE 345

403 EXHAUST VALVE


560

FUEL VALVE 504

--------------

610

900

800

700

600

500

- - Scale 2.0

400

300

200

100

P7 VT4

-------------0

45

90

135

180 225

270

315

360

405

450

495

540

585

630

675

720

Angle (deg)
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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153

Liners
Liner wear confirmed by symmetric cursor (KVS)
NO-3 - E Cylinder P5 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM Period 2
161
INTAKE VALVE 325

Pressure (psig)

1000

410 EXHAUST VALVE


575

--------------

FUEL VALVE 536

621

900

800

700

- P5 VT4

600

500

- - Scale 2.0

400

300

Symmetric cursor indicates


the liner is worn.

200
100

128

45

232

488

592

--------------

90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675 720
Angle (deg)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

154

77

Liners
Liner wear (KVS)
NO-3 - E 5/1/1995 8:06:19 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Vibration VT4:
1

P1

-1

-1

P2

-1

-1

P3

-1

-1

P4

-1

-1

P9

0 P11

-1

-1

P6

P8

0 P10

P5

P7

0 P12
-1

-1

90

180

270

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

360

450

540

630

720 0

90

180

270

360

450

540

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

630

720

155

Liners
Port bridge wear (HLA)
C2A-E 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM
Engine Cylinders: Phased Ultrasonic ULT:

10

10

-10
10

-10
10

-10
10

-10
10

-10
10

-10
10

-10

-10

45

90

135

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

180

225

270

315 360 0

45

90

135

180

225

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

270

315

360

156

78

Liners
Port bridge (HLA)
C2A-E Cylinder 4 10/10/2001 6:28:53 AM Period 6
130
110

700

Fuel 213

230 Intake
250 Exhaust
283

Excessive
ring noise
600

Pressure (psig)

500

400

300

200

100

0
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Angle (deg)

270

315

-------------- 4FV ULT


- - Scale 10.0
--------------- 4 ULT
- - Scale 10.0
--------------- 4 VT4
- - Scale 2.0
--------------

360

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

157

Ignition Systems
Provide the energy to begin the chain

reaction in the air/fuel mixture and consists


of
Power supply
Timing circuit
Distribution mechanism
Transformer
Spark plug

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158

79

Ignition Systems
Ignition Primaries
Zener
Gates

C402 - E Cylinder P1L 07/03/1997 8:07:43 AM

5.5
5.0

P4L
P1R

P5L
P4R

P2L
P5R

P3L
P2R

P6L
P3R

P1L
P6R

4.5

Voltage (V)

4.0
3.5

TDC

3.0

Voltages should
be similar

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)


2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

159

Ignition Systems
Ignition secondaries
Capacitor
Discharges

Secondary Voltage

Coil ring down

Plug Stops Firing

Arc Duration

Indication of
ionization voltage

Time (ms)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

160

80

Ignition Systems
Typical ignition secondary patterns
C402 - E 09/09/1998 12:02:53 PM

P5LR
(Med 1)

P4LL
(Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 5.9

Ignition timing angle = 5.7

P6LL
(Med 1)

P4LR
(Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 5.9

Ignition timing angle = 5.9

P6LR
(Med 1)

P5LL
(Med 1)
Ignition timing angle = 6.1

Ignition timing angle = 6.3


0
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5 0

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161

Ignition Faults
Timing

Advanced timing can cause


early combustion
early and increased PFP
detonation
lower exhaust temps
Retarded timing can cause
delayed combustion
late and low PFP
misfires/soft fires
higher exhaust temperatures
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

162

81

Ignition Faults
Typical spark plug problems

Excessive gap ionization voltage increases,

strong spark
Insufficient gap ionization voltage
decreases, weak spark
Fouling build up of contaminants decreases
gap and causes ionization voltage to
decrease
Plug wear or metal flaking increases gap
therefore increases ionization voltage

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

163

Ignition Faults
Cables

Corrosion build up reduces ionization voltage


Damaged or loose cables can cause ground

faults and arcing to cylinder head

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

164

82

Ignition Faults
Coils

Check for correct polarity


Look at coil ring down to assess coil winding

condition

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


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2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

165

Ignition Faults
Two bad coils plug did not fire
C402 - E 9/9/1998 12:02:53 PM Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)
0

P1LL

-250

Ignition timing angle = 5.5

P1RL

Ignition timing angle = 6.4

P1RR

Ignition timing angle = 5.4

P2RL

P1LR -250
0

P2LL

P2RR

Ignition timing angle = 5.5

-250
0

Ignition timing angle = 5.7

-250

P3RL

P3LR

Ignition timing angle = 5.6

-250
0

Ignition timing angle = 5.1

-250
0

P3LL

Ignition timing angle = 5.9

-250
0

-250
0

P2LR

Ignition timing angle = 5.7

-250

Ignition timing angle = 5.9

-250
0

Ignition timing angle = 5.9

-250

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

P3RR

Ignition timing angle = 5.4

-250

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166

83

Ignition Faults
Reversed coil
10JVGE-E 4/24/2001 7:34:26 AM

10JVGW-E 4/24/2001 10:55:35 AM

Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)

Secondary Ignition (Y Axis: mV -- X Axis: ms)

200
200
100

P1C 0

P1C -0

-100
-200
200
200
100

P2C 0

P2C -0

-100
-200

200

200
100

P3C 0

P3C -0

-100
-200

200

200
100

P4C 0

P4C -0

-100
-200
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

167

Analyzing Compressor Faults

What faults can we detect?


Characterizing the normal compressor
Identifying faults

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

168

84

Compressor faults we can detect


Valve condition

Cylinder and rod condition

suction valve leaks

ring leaks

discharge valve leaks

liner or piston wear

slamming

rider band wear

excessive lift

crosshead knocks

valve flutter

cylinder stretch

broken springs

main bearings

Performance

Auxiliary equipment

capacity

piping and vessels

horsepower

foundation and grout

excess rod load and lack of


reversal
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

169

Characterizing the machine


Analysts use all of these:
Operating data
Pressure and vibration versus time (PT/VT)
Pressure versus volume (PV)
Log P versus Log V
Historical data, maintenance logs
Population comparison
Calculation results
Normalized parameters

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

170

85

Characterizing the compressor


Normal PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

-------------- 4HD1 VT1


- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
--------------- 4HD2 VT1
- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
--------------

750
700

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
400
350
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

171

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE discharge valve: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

-------------- 4HD1 VT1


- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
--------------- 4HD2 VT1
- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
--------------

750
700

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
400
350
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

172

86

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE suction valve: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

-------------- 4HD1 VT1


- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
--------------- 4HD2 VT1
- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
--------------

750
700

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
400
350
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

173

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking Rings: PT/VT
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

-------------- 4HD1 VT1


- Scale 7.0
- 150 DGF
--------------- 4HD2 VT1
- Scale 8.3
- 152 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 7.9
- 91 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 8.7
- 91 DGF
--------------

750
700

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
400
350
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

174

87

Characterizing the compressor


Normal PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

Actual
PV

750
700

VEd

Pressure (psig)

650
600

Theoretical
PV

550
500
450

VEs
400
350
0

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
Percent swept volume

75

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

175

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE suction valve: PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
750
700

VEd

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
VEs
400
350
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

176

88

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE discharge valve: PV
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
750
700

VEd

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
VEs
400
350
0

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
Percent swept volume

75

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

177

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking rings
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800
750
700

Pressure (psig)

650
600
550
500
450
400
350
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

100

178

89

Characterizing the compressor


Normal LogP-LogV

Head End

K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM


HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.

ne = 1.26

nc = 1.26

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%


n ratio = 1.00

n ratio = 1.00
Crank End

End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%


nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

179

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE suction valve: LogP-LogV

Head End

K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM


HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.

ne = 1.35

nc = 1.10

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%


n ratio = 1.23

Normal n ratio = 1
n ratio = 1.00
Crank End

End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%


nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

180

90

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking HE discharge valve: LogP-LogV

Head End

K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM


HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.

ne = 1.35

nc = 1.23

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%


n ratio = 0.85

Normal n ratio = 1
n ratio = 1.00
Crank End

End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%


nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

181

Characterizing the compressor


Leaking rings: LogP-LogV

Head End

K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM


HE ratios calculated using geometry. CE ratios calculated using geometry.

ne = 1.26

nc = 1.26

End 4H Step 1 = 28.8%


n ratio = 1.00

n ratio = 1.00
Crank End

End 4C Step 1 = 31.2%


nc = 1.25

ne = 1.24

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

182

91

Characterizing the compressor


Flow balance
Flow balance is the ratio of suction capacity to

discharge capacity.
Flow Balance =

Suction Capacity
Disch arg e Capacity

Suction Capacity VEs


Disch arg e Capacity VEd

Ideally, this ratio should be 1.00.


Valve and ring leaks can change VEs and VEd and

cause flow balance to deviate from 1.00.


Flow balance is a Normalized Parameter because it
is relatively independent of operating conditions.
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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

183

Characterizing the compressor


Discharge temperature delta (DTD)
DTD is the difference between the actual and theoretical

discharge temperatures.
The actual discharge temperature is measured in the discharge
nozzle.
The theoretical discharge temperature is calculated from the gas
properties, Ts, Pd and Pd.
A high DTD indicates that the discharge gas is hotter than
expected.
This is often caused by friction as the gas passes through a
restriction such as a leaking valve or ring.

DTD = Td,actual Td,theoretical


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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

184

92

Characterizing the compressor


Normal valve cap temperatures
K200 - C Cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM

Discharge

175

Usually less
than Td

Temperature (F)

150

Usually warmer
than Ts

125
100

Suction
75
50
25
0

S2

S1

D2
D1
Head End (Stage# 1)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

S2

S1
D2
Crank End (Stage# 1)

GMRC 2003 GAS MACHINERY CONFERENCE


SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

D1

185

Compressor Faults

Pressure Leaks

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

186

93

Pressure Leaks
Sources of leaks and analysis tools
Analysis tools
PV card
Vibration patterns
Temperatures
Flow Balance
LogP-LogV

Examples
Suction valves
Discharge valves
Packing
Rings

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

187

Pressure Leaks
CE suction valve leak: PT/VT
1250
-------------- -------------- -------------- ---------------------------

1200

3CD4 ULT
- Scale 30.0
126 DGF

1150

1100

Pressure (psig)

1050

3CD3 ULT
- Scale 30.0
148 DGF

1000

950

900

3CS2 ULT
- Scale 30.0
86 DGF

850

800

750

3CS1 ULT
- Scale 30.0
78 DGF

700

650

600
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)


2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

188

94

Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PT/VT
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7
-------------- 4HD3 VT1
- Scale 8.0
- 95 DGF
--------------- 4HD4 VT1
- Scale 8.0
- 94 DGF
--------------- 4HS1 VT1
- Scale 8.0
- 61 DGF
--------------- 4HS2 VT1
- Scale 8.0
- 73 DGF
--------------

1000

Pressure (psig)

950
900
850
800
750
700
650
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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360

189

Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: PV
Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 7
1000

Pressure (psig)

950
900
850

HE PT
HE
theoretical
PT

800
750
700
650
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

190

95

Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: LogP-LogV

Crank End

Head End

Unit1-C cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM

nc = 0.73

ne = 1.14
End 4H Step 9 = 61.1%
n ratio = 1.55

n ratio = 1.02
End 4C Step 9 = 66.3%
nc = 1.34
ne = 1.36

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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191

Pressure Leaks
HE Suction valve leak: Valve Cap Temps
High
temperature

Unit1-C Cylinder 4 1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM

100
90

Discharge

80
Temperature (F)

70
60
Suction

50
40
30
20
10
0

S1

S2

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

D3
D4
Head End (Stage# 1)

S1

S2
D3
Crank End (Stage# 1)

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D4

192

96

Pressure Leaks
HE suction valve leak: Health Report
Compressor Health Report
Unit Name:
Location:

Unit1-C
Pipeline 1

Model:
UnitMfr:

Mechanical Efficiency, %
Overall Efficiency, %

95
85

Atmospheric Pressure, psia


Load Step
DTS, Discharge Temperature, F
TORQ, Torque, %

14.0
9
86
89

Clr
Cyl Stg Set
(%)
End

Pressure
Ps
Pd
(psig)

Rod ConRod
Diam Length
(ins)
(ins)

Bore
(ins)

HBA
CLARK

Date:
Serial No.:

Marker Correction Angle, deg 156.0


Stroke, (ins)
17.000
Speed, RPM
SPDW, Suction Pressure, psi
STS, Suction Temperature, F
Temp.
Ts
Td

1/22/2002 8:35:12 AM
302

Periods Collected (PT)


296
722
41

Specific Gravity
DPDW, Discharge Pressure, psi
TAMB, Ambient Temperature, F

Calc. Indicated Suction Disch.


Dis T
Comp. Capacity Power Loss Loss Flow Delta
Ratio (mmscfd) (ihp)
(ihp) Balance (F)
(ihp)

11
0.554
946
46

Rod
Load
(%)

SVE DVE
(%) (%)

1H

61 10.500

N/A 45.000

710

939

54F

81F

1.32

14.79

181.9

-0.4

12.6

0.96

-10

41C

74

61

1C

67 10.500 3.000 45.000

712

953

54F

81F

1.33

15.56

185.9

-1.7

2.5

0.99

-12

33T

84

67

2H

61 10.500

N/A 45.000

719

941

53F

81F

1.30

15.18

182.7

5.3

11.8

0.98

-7

40C

75

62

2C

67 10.500 3.000 45.000

715

957

53F

81F

1.33

15.62

187.3

2.5

-1.7

0.97

-11

33T

84

69

3H

61 10.500

N/A 45.000

723

940

53F

81F

1.29

15.57

193.6

11.6

15.7

0.97

-6

40C

76

64

3C

67 10.500 3.000 45.000

726

948

53F

81F

1.30

15.16

182.2

13.5

6.5

0.99

-6

32T

80

65

4H

61 10.500

N/A 45.000

724

929

52F

88F

1.28

13.16

185.6

13.4

15.6

1.34

39C

85

54

4C

67 10.500 3.000 45.000

727

952
@ 296
@ 296
@ 300
@ 296

52F

88F

1.30

16.13

194.6

12.6

6.3

1.01

33T

86

70

Rated Power, (bhp)


Derated Power, (bhp)
Percent Torque Load, %
Compressor Efficiency, %

1760
1739
90
92

@ 300
@ 296
%
%

Total Indicated Power, (ihp)


Gas Power, (ghp)
Auxiliary Power, (bhp)
Compressor Total Power, (bhp)

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

1494
1573
0
1573

RPM
RPM
RPM
RPM

RPM
RPM

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193

Pressure Leaks
Leaking rings
C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM

C-140 cylinder 4 07/26/2002 11:55:03 AM

End 4H Step 4 = 27.5%

Head End

1800

1600
1500
1400

1200
1100
1000
0

nc = 1.45
ne = 1.48
n ratio = 1.02

End 4C Step 4 = 30.0%

1300

Crank End

Pressure (psig)

1700

25

50

75

Percent swept volume


Minor ring leak in a hydrogen

compressor.
Iron oxide was coming through the
pipeline wearing the rings down.
Filters were installed in the suction inlet
to solve the problem.
2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

nc = 1.51

n ratio = 0.86

ne = 1.30

100

The bulging beyond the expansion

and compression lines indicates a


minor ring leak.

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194

97

Pressure Leaks
Severely leaking rings
PV curve for a severe ring leak

Log P - Log V plot for a severe ring leak

1000

Head End

End 2H Step 1 = 115.9%


n ratio = 2.57
ne = 4.17

nc = 1.62

900

850

End 2C Step 1 = 116.5%


n ratio = 1.95
Crank End

Pressure (psig)

950

800

nc = 1.73

ne = 3.37

750

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
75
Percent swept volume

100

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195

Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary
Observation

Typical characteristics

Suction valve leak

Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve

is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.


Flow balance > 1.05
n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
Elevated discharge temperature delta. Elevated valve cap temperature.
Rounded discharge toe on the PV. Discharge toe pressure drops.
Cylinder end capacity drops
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical

Discharge valve
leak

Gas passing vibration pattern when the differential pressure across the valve

is high. Vibration leak pattern is highest in the leaking valve.


Flow balance < 0.97
n ratio for LogP-LogV < 0.98
Rounded suction toe on the PV
Suction toe pressure rises
Abnormal discharge temperature delta and valve cap temperature.

Expansion through the discharge valve may actually lower the valve cap and
discharge temperature.
Cylinder end capacity drops
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV above theoretical
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196

98

Pressure Leaks
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation

Typical characteristics

Packing leak

All packing leaks a small amount. Excessive leakage looks similar to a

leaking suction valve.


Leakage pattern in crank end valves. Move the vibration sensor closer to the

packing to confirm.
Packing temperature increases. Check packing vent flow rate if so equipped.
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV below theoretical
Gas passing vibration pattern near crank end when the pressure in the crank

end is higher than atmospheric.


Flow balance > 1.05
n ratio for LogP-LogV > 1.03
Gas passing vibration pattern in all valves when the differential pressure

Ring leak

across the rings is high.


Flow balance generally increases.
Rounded suction and discharge toes on the PV
Suction toe pressure rises and discharge toe pressure falls.
Increase in discharge temperature delta.
Expansion and compression lines on PT and PV do not follow the ideal gas

law: PVn=constant.

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197

Compressor Faults

Valve Dynamics

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198

99

Valve Dynamics
Some causes of valve failures

Mechanical wear and fatigue


Foreign material in the gas stream
Abnormal action of the valve elements
Excessive valve lift for the application
Multiple opening and closing, valve flutter
Slamming
Resonance and pressure pulsations
Corrosive gases
Liquids in the gas
Deposits on the sealing elements and springs

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199

Valve Dynamics
Approach to analysis
Compare vibration patterns and look for differences
check history
check similar valves
Valve opening event is usually larger than closing

event
Valve closure is usually quiet. The sealing element is
lowered onto seat by the springs as the gas velocity
drops near TDC and BDC
Monitor valve loss since it represents wasted energy

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200

100

Compressor Analysis: valve slamming (poppet)


Unit2-C cylinder 1 6/5/2001 10:02:42 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 7
Channel Resonance is corrected
-------------1CD3 VT1
- Scale 5.0
106 DGF

950
900

--------------

Pressure (psig)

Unit2-C cylinder 1 1/3/2001 7:55:21 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 2


850Channel Resonance is corrected
--------------

800

950

--------------

1CD3 VT1
- Scale 5.0
84 DGF

750

900

1CD4 VT1
- Scale 5.0
105 DGF

1CS1 VT1
- Scale 5.0
73 DGF

--------------

Pressure (psig)

650

800

750

--------------

1CD4 VT1
- Scale 5.0
86 DGF

700

850

1CS2 VT1
- Scale 5.0
73 DGF

--------------

45

90

135

--------------

1CS1 VT1
- Scale 5.0
180
225
52 DGF270
Crank Angle (deg)

315

360

--------------

700

1CS2 VT1
- Scale 5.0
52 DGF

650

0 DYNALCO
45 CONTROLS
90
2003

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135
180
225 ENGINE
270
315
360
SHORT COURSE:
BASIC
& COMPRESSOR
ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES
Crank Angle (deg)

201

Valve Dynamics
Multiple opening events
RTC10002 - C cylinder 2 8/6/1992 11:27:32 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
200

-------------- 2HD3 VT1


- Scale 2.0
- 172 DGF
--------------- 2HD4 VT1
- Scale 2.0
- 177 DGF
--------------- 2HS1 VT1
- Scale 2.0
- 86 DGF
--------------- 2HS2 VT1
- Scale 2.0
- 85 DGF
--------------

175

Pressure (psig)

150

125

100

75

50

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)


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202

101

Valve Dynamics
Flutter
JC1A cylinder 5 1/29/2001 10:18:56 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 6
2250
-------------- 5CD2 ULT
- Scale 10.0
- 183 DGF

2000

Pressure (psig)

1750

--------------- 5CS1 ULT


- Scale 10.0
- 85 DGF
--------------

1500

1250

1000

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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360

203

Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary
Observation

Typical characteristics

Hard opening
Hard closure
Late closure
Broken springs

May be caused by stiction on the seal or backguard. Stiction occurs when

Early closure

Excessive spring tension.

the force required to start motion is greater than the force required to
sustain it.
If slamming occurs at both opening and closing, it is likely that the springs
are too light or that they have been weakened or broken due to excessive
cycling.
High lift valves such as poppet valves may take some time to close. If
closure is too late the drag of the gas in the wrong direction may slam the
valve closed.
Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to increase suddenly
causing hard closure.
Pulsation may cause the pressure differential to decrease suddenly

causing early closure.

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204

102

Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation

Typical characteristics

Flutter

Occurs when the valve plate oscillates between the seat and the guard. It

occurs because the flow of gas through the valve is insufficient to lift the
plate fully off the guard. On the vibration pattern, you will see multiple
opening and closing impacts.
Very heavy oscillation usually indicates that the springs are too stiff. Light
oscillation usually indicates that the lift is too high. Valve flutter may also
be present if there is excessive pulsation in the suction or discharge lines.
To correct the problem, reduce the valve lift and/or spring tension;
minimize pressure pulsation.
Multiple opening

If valve lift is too great, the gas velocity will not be sufficient to keep the

valve open. The valve will then open and close multiple times. To correct
the problem, reduce valve lift to increase the pressure drop across the
valve.
Pulsations may cause the pressure differential across the ring to decrease
and increase to the point that the valves close and reopen.
Heavy springs may cause the valve to close early. The cylinder pressure
may cause the valve to reopen late in the stroke.

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205

Valve Dynamics
Analysis summary (cont.)
Observation

Typical characteristics

Excessive loss

Valve and passage loss calculated from the PV > 10% (rule of thumb)
Gas passing vibration patterns when the valve is open caused by high

velocity.
Valve lift or flow area insufficient.
Some of the sealing elements in the valve may be stuck reducing the

effective flow area.


PT and PV curve appears rounded during the suction or discharge phase.

Mechanical vibration

Mechanical vibration during the suction or discharge phase can be caused

when plates or poppets hang up due to stiction or worn guides.

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206

103

Compressor Faults

Losses

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207

Compressor Losses
Calculating HP

It takes work to transport gas through a pipe


That work is the area inside the PV curve
The rate of doing work is horsepower
If we plot the PV card as pressure (psi) versus

volume (% stroke), we can use:

PLAN
IHP =
33,000

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

where:
P : Area inside the PV card
L : Stroke length
A : Area of the piston
N : cycles per minute (RPM)

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208

104

Compressor Losses
Pressure drop
The actual indicated power consumed compressing

gas is always somewhat larger than the theoretical


IHP
The main power difference is due to pressure drops
as the gas flows through the suction piping, suction
valves, discharge valves, and discharge piping.
To overcome these losses, the cylinder pressure
must drop below the suction pressure pressure
during the effective suction stroke and rise above the
discharge pressure during the effective discharge
stroke.

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209

Compressor Losses
No-loss IHP
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

Actual
PV

750
700

Theoretical
PV

Pressure (psig)

650
600

No-loss indicated
power (IHP).

550

Minimum IHP
required to move
the gas

500
450
400
350
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

210

105

Compressor Losses
Total IHP
K200 - C cylinder 4 8/29/1996 10:52:08 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 8
800

Total discharge
loss, IHP

750
700

Pressure (psig)

650

Total indicated
power (IHP),
including losses.

600
550

Total suction
loss, IHP

Actually required
to move the gas.

500
450
400
350
0

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

211

Compressor Losses
Magnitude of losses

Factors affecting the magnitude of losses are:

valve design
suction and discharge pressure
suction and discharge temperature
compressor speed
gas composition
suction and discharge piping design
compressor passage design

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212

106

Pulsation
Pressure waves caused by the suction and discharge

events in the compressor ends


Can cause vibration in piping
Vibration may be extreme if the pulsation coincides
with:

the acoustic resonance frequency of the piping


the mechanical natural frequency of the piping

Affects compressor performance


when valves open and close
volumetric efficiency (capacity)
HP consumed moving gas
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213

Pulsation
Nozzle Pressure Trace
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM
Channel Resonance is corrected

Pressure in
discharge
nozzle

850

Pressure (psig)

800
750
700

Pressure in
suction
nozzle

650
600
550
500
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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---------------- 1HD1 VT1


-- Scale 2.0
-- 91 DGF
------------------ 1HD2 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
--- 92 DGF
------------------ 1HD3 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
--- 91 DGF
------------------ 1HS1 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
-- 76 DGF
------------------ 1HS2 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
-- 50 DGF
------------------ 1HS3 VT1
-- Scale 2.0
74 DGF
----------------

360

214

107

Pulsation
Total HE Power
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

Pressure (psig)

750

700

Total HE Indicated Power = 514 IHP


650

600

550

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

215

Pulsation
No-loss HE Power
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

Pressure (psig)

750

700

No-loss IHP
650

600

550

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

216

108

Pulsation
Total losses
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

Pressure (psig)

750

Total Discharge loss = 104 IHP, or 20%


700

650

Total Suction loss = -11 IHP, or -3%

600

550

25

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

217

Pulsation
Valve and Passage loss
RTC21000 - C cylinder 1 4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM HE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
850

800

Pressure (psig)

750

Discharge valve and passage loss = 24 IHP


700

650

Suction valve and passage loss = 31 IHP

600

550

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

25

50
Percent swept volume

75

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100

218

109

Pulsation
Effect on HP
Compressor Horsepower And Capacity Report
Unit Name:
Location:

RTC21000 - C
FLL

Load Step:

Cyl
End

Model:
Unit Mfr:

TCV10
DRESSER RAND

Date:
Serial No.:

Valve & Pass; Loss Total Loss


Calculated Capacity
Clearance Indicated Brake Total; Loss
(ihp)
(mmscfd)
Flow
(%)
(ihp)
% of Swept Power Power
(ihp) (bhp)
SVE*
DVE** Balance
Suction Disch. Suction Disch. Suction Disch.
Volume

Stage:

4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM

bhp/mmscfd
Calc.

Theor.

New Stage

1H

158

514

541

-10.67 103.52

30.56

23.79

-2.08

20.13

32.00

35.05

0.913

16.9

14.0

1C

92

565

595

14.04

58.39

42.59

30.47

2.48

10.33

39.82

38.49

1.035

15.5

14.6

3H

132

546

575

29.33

28.31

36.02

32.57

5.37

5.18

37.00

35.27

1.049

16.3

15.5

3C

87

587

618

28.89

58.15

31.82

17.08

4.92

9.91

40.93

38.80

1.055

15.9

14.1

5H

127

609

641

27.22

101.62

32.76

38.29

4.47

16.70

36.86

38.90

0.948

17.4

14.1

5C

94

592

623

33.22

51.00

33.20

28.36

5.61

8.61

40.72

38.98

1.044

16.0

14.6

3413

3593

206.95 170.57

3.58

11.75

227.34

225.49

16.3

14.5

Stage Totals:

122.04 400.99

Auxiliary Power
Compressor Total Power
This is equivalent to
Rated driver load to
Current torque level is

61
3654
3632
4200
86.4

bhp at
330 RPM
bhp and 225.49 mmscfd at 332
bhp and 224.14 mmscfd at 330
bhp at
330 RPM
% of rated load at rated speed.

RPM
RPM

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219

Horsepower
Cost of horsepower loss
Engine And Compressor Economic Condition Report
Unit Name:
Location:

RTC21000 - C
FLL

Load Step:
Percent Load:

Model:
Unit Mfr:

TCV10
DRESSER RAND

Date:
Serial No.:

4/28/1994 8:18:32 AM

3
86.4 %

UNIT COSTS
Fuel Cost:
Brake Power from the load:
Cost of Each BHP:

1673.37
3654.50
0.46

$/day
bhp
$/bhp-day

8675.17
7434.80

BTU/BHP - hr
BTU/BHP - hr

1240.36
239.26
7282.35
87388.25

BTU/BHP - hr
$/day
$/month
$/year

ENGINE COSTS
Percent of Fuel Cost
Actual Fuel Consumption:
Predicted Fuel Consumption:
Deviation From Predicted:
Cost of Deviation:

14.3

COMPRESSOR COST OF LOSSES


Total Losses
Valve and Passage Losses:
Pulsation Losses:
Gas Recirculation Losses:

397.38
153.18
0.78

Total Compressor Cost:

bhp
bhp
mmscfd

Adjusted Losses (Note 7) Estimated Cost of Losses


377.51
145.52

bhp
bhp

Percent of Fuel Cost

$/day
$/day
$/day

10.3
4.0
0.4

%
%
%

245.46
7471.32
89655.86

$/day
$/month
$/year

14.7

484.72
14753.67
177044.11

$/day
$/month
$/year

172.86
66.63
5.97

TOTAL DEVIATION FROM PREDICTED

Percent of Fuel Cost


29.0
%

Unit running 365.25 days per year

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

220

110

Compressor Rod Load

Why do we care about rod load?


What are the forces acting on the rod?

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

221

Compressor Rods
Compressor piston rods bear all the force that is

applied to the gas


The manufacturer of the rods will specify the
maximum allowable rod load
Depending on the rod material and design, the rod
can bear in excess of 200,000 lbf
The crosshead pin must also bear these forces
Improper rod load can cause:

excessive wear in the crosshead bushing and pin


failure of the crosshead bushing
stress on the piston, piston nut, and other load bearing
components

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222

111

Compressor Rods
Forces
Gas force - exerted by pressure on both sides of the

piston
Inertial force - exerted by the mass and acceleration

of the reciprocating components


Total force = Gas force + Inertial force
Compressor rods should alternate from tension to
compression in each cycle. This is important for
lubrication of the crosshead pin and bushing
API 618 (June 1995) says:

the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of


crank angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed
load shall be at least 3 percent of the actual combined load in
the opposite direction.

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223

Compressor Rods
Gas force
Gas ForceCE = PCE AreaCE

PCE = CE cylinder pressure

2
2
AreaCE =
piston diameter (piston rod diameter )
4

[(

Gas ForceHE = PHE AreaHE

PHE = HE cylinder pressure

2
2
AreaHE =
piston diameter ( tailrod diameter )
4

[(

Compression
(PHE AreaHE ) > (PCE AreaCE )

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

]
Tension
(PHE AreaHE ) < (PCE AreaCE )

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224

112

Compressor Rods
Gas force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000

600
50000
40000

550

30000

10000
0

-10000

500
Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

20000

450

Zero Rodload

400

-20000
-30000

350

-40000

Gas force

300
-50000
-60000

Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000


250
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

360

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225

high mass piston and rod


assemblies
high speed compressors
low compression
ratio services
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90

180

270

360

90

180

270

360

90

180

270

360

Velocity

x (instantaneous acceleration)
Differentiate piston displacement (top
graph) with respect to time to derive the
velocity (middle), then the differential of
velocity with respect to time gives
acceleration (bottom)
Rod load due to inertia takes the form of the
acceleration curve
Inertial forces are more significant in:

Acceleration

Inertial Force = (mass of recip components)

Displacement

Compressor Rods
Inertial force

Crankshaft Angle (degrees)

SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

226

113

Compressor Rods
Inertial force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000

600
50000
40000

550

30000

10000
0

-10000

500
Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

20000

450

Zero Rodload

400

-20000
350

-30000

Inertia
-40000
300
-50000
Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000

-60000

250
0

45

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

227

Compressor Rods
Total rod load force
K200 - C cylinder 1 9/23/1998 9:52:15 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 9
60000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000

600
50000
40000

550

30000

10000
0

-10000

500
Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

20000

450

Zero Rodload

400

-20000
-30000

350
Inertia

-40000

Gas force

300
-50000
-60000

Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000

Total

250
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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SHORT COURSE: BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

360

228

114

Compressor Rods
Tension only
301C - C cylinder 4 7/17/1997 8:23:05 AM HE Period 5, CE Period 6
75000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 75000

1000

Rod is in
tension
throughout the
cycle

900
50000

25000

700

Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

800

600

Zero Rodload

500
400

-25000

300
Inertia

-50000

Gas force
Total

200
100

-75000

Maximum Rodload Compression: 75000


0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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360

229

Compressor Rods
Compression only
RTC13003 - C cylinder 2 11/9/1992 8:08:46 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
50000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 50000


1100

40000

Rod Load (lbs)

20000
10000
0
-10000

Rod is in
compression
throughout
the cycle

1050
1000
Pressure (psig)

30000

950
900
Zero Rodload
850

Unloaded CE
-20000

800

-30000

750

-40000

700

Inertia
Gas force
Maximum Rodload Compression: 50000

-50000

Total

650
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

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315

360

230

115

Compressor Rods
Crosshead pin knock
RTC13002 - C cylinder 3 12/4/1991 7:43:52 AM HE Period 1, CE Period 1
60000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 60000

1100

-------------Knocks near rod


reversal points

50000
1050

30000

1000

20000

950

Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

40000

10000
0
-10000

- 3T VT1
-

900
Zero Rodload

- Scale 0.5

850
800

-20000

-30000

750

-40000

700

Inertia
-50000

Gas force

650

Maximum Rodload Compression: 60000

Total
--------------

-60000
0

45

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90

135

180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

360

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231

Compressor Rods
Excess load
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000 -------------1XH
VTL
- Scale
5.0
Zero Rodload -------------1XA
VT1
- Scale
1.0
Inertia
Gas force
Total
Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000 --------------

350
10000
300

Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

5000
250

200

-5000
150
-10000
100
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135
180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

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360

232

116

Compressor Rods
Crosshead knock
C-47 cylinder 1 07/26/2001 7:24:05 AM HE Period 9, CE Period 1
Channel Resonance is corrected
350
10000
300

Pressure (psig)

Rod Load (lbs)

5000
250

200

-5000

Crosshead
Knock

150
-10000

Maximum Rodload Tension: 11000 -------------1XH


VTL
- Scale
5.0
Zero Rodload -------------1XA
VT1
- Scale
1.0
Inertia
Gas force
Total
Maximum Rodload Compression: 11000 --------------

100
0

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

45

90

135
180
225
Crank Angle (deg)

270

315

360

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233

Compressor Rods
Analysis summary
Observation

Typical characteristics

Rod load is above


limit

The crosshead pin, crosshead, piston, linkages and rod are stressed above

the manufacturers specified limit.


Adjust the loading on the compressor.
Change the line pressures.

Insufficient rod
load reversal

API 618 (June 1995) says:

Knock at reversal

Check the low frequency vibration reading types. Look for knocks when the

the duration of this reversal shall not be less than 15 degrees of crank
angle, and the magnitude of the peak combined reversed load shall be at
least 3 percent of the actual combined load in the opposite direction.
Unloading crank end suction valves can lead to insufficient reversal.
Adjust the loading on the compressor.

rod load changes from tension to compression and vice versa.

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234

117

Compressor Rod Motion

What is rod motion?


How is rod motion measured?
Analysis tools

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BASIC ENGINE & COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

235

Rod Motion
Why is it important?
Ideally, rods should have translational recip motion

only
Motion is more complex due to:

imperfect alignment
flexibility of the rod

Analysis of rod motion is often used to identify:


cylinder alignment problems
rider band wear
cylinder liner wear
wear in the crosshead shoes

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236

118

Rod Motion
Cylinder rod runout and history (at 240 degrees)
2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR Top Probe Rod Motion 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM
3.5

Current

3.0
Rod Motion (mil)

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
-0.0
-0.5

Previous

-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
0

45

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2

90

6/26/2001

135
180
225
270
315
Rod Motion History at 240 degrees for the Top Probe.

9/18/2001

11/27/2001

2/21/2002

6/4/2002

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360

237

Rod Motion
Rod runout
Probe Overlay Runout (mil) Top Probe and Bottom

2 ROD RODOUT cylinder 2-RR 6/4/2002 9:48:02 AM


5
4

Bottom probe
sees rod
rising

Top and bottom


probes see
similar motion
(rod movement)

3
2

Top and bottom


probes indicate
opposite motion
(rod wear)

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4

Top probe
sees rod
dropping

-5
-6
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Crank Angle (deg)

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238

119

Rod Motion
Analysis summary
Observation

Typical characteristics

Trend of rod motion over


time drops

Check for signs of rider band and liner wear.


Examine the PV and LogP-LogV for signs of ring leakage.
It is possible that the crosshead shoes are wearing out. Check

shoes and crosshead lubrication.


The top and bottom probes
follow a W path from 0 to
360 degrees.

The probes see the rod dropping most at 90 and 270 degrees

The top and bottom probes


form a V shape from 0 to
360 degrees

The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the crank end.

The top and bottom probes


form an inverted V shape
from 0 to 360 degrees

The liner is tapered, with most wear occurring in the head end.

Patterns for top and bottom


probes separate on the rod
runout plot. Top drops and
bottom rises.

The rod is worn where the separation occurs. If this is around BDC,

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appearing to rise at TDC and BDC. The most common type of liner
wear has a barrel shape, more in the center than at the ends.
Check for excessive packing wear.
Check cylinder alignment.
Check for excessive packing wear.
Check cylinder alignment.

check the rod for wear near the packing.

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239

Frame Faults

Main bearings and crank pins

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240

120

Main and crank bearings


Behavior

Journals should ride on an oil film in the

bearing
There should be no metal-to-metal contact
We can often hear impact-type vibration if
the journal hits the bearing
the bearing shell is loose

Sometimes you can even feel it on the frame


This vibration can be detected with an

analyzer
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241

Main and crank bearings


Some causes of abnormal bearing wear
Poor alignment

Insufficient oil

on startup
while running
Fatigue
detonation
overload
non-uniform dynamic loading
Contaminated oil
particles
water

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main bearings
bent conrod
Improper installation
excessive or insufficient
clearance
damaged bearing or journal
Cavitation in the oil
Improper oil viscosity
Fretting while stationary

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242

121

Main and crank bearings


Measurements
It is difficult to get good data from main and crank

bearings:

The transmission path is long


There is a great deal of noise from other sources
Difficult to distinguish main and crank bearing vibration

Measurement location
Shortest transmission path is near frame cross
members
Measurement types
Low frequency phased acceleration
Unphased (free running) velocity

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243

Main and crank bearings


Phased, low frequency vibration
UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM
Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4:

0.5

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5

-1.0
1.0

-1.0
1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5

Look for vibration like these that


are not caused by crosstalk

UNIT #4-EBRG5 (Med 7)

UNIT #4-EBRG2 (Med 1)

1.0

0.5

-1.0
1.0

-1.0
1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

0.0

-0.5

-0.5

-1.0

UNIT #4-EBRG6 (Med 10)

UNIT #4-EBRG3 (Med 1)

UNIT #4-E 7/17/2002 10:51:55 AM


Engine Vibration: Phased Vibration VT4:

UNIT #4-EBRG4 (Med 4)

UNIT #4-EBRG1 (Med 3)

1.0

-1.0

90

180

270

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360

450

540

630

720

90

180

270

360

450

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540

630

720

244

122

Main and crank bearings


Analysis summary
Observation

Typical characteristics

Low frequency vibration


shows mechanical knocktype vibration

Vibration is strongest near the source move the transducer around

2003 DYNALCO CONTROLS

to find it. This will also help eliminate crosstalk from some other
component.
Always check oil analysis data. Look for babbitt material and dirt
that might contribute to wear.

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245

Conventional vibration

Some concepts
Applications

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246

123

Conventional Vibration
Some concepts
Vibration is the response of a machine, structure,

piping, fluid or gas to an excitation


Excitation is the disturbance (dynamic force) that

causes motion in the machine

Imbalance of a rotor

Response is the motion of the system caused by the

application of all combined excitations

Vibration that you feel

To really understand vibration, you must understand:


What the dynamic forcing functions are
What is responding to the force
How to measure the response
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247

Conventional Vibration
Free-running, non-phased data
Vibration is recorded independent of crankshaft

position
Returns

Overall vibration level


Spectrum showing frequency components

Common applications:
Structural vibration
Supports, foundations
Turbochargers
Oil and water pumps
Pressure pulsation
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248

124

Conventional Vibration
Overall level
We can use a single number to indicate how

much vibration is present


We call this the overall vibration level
Our industry typically uses the following units:

Displacement: mil (peak-peak)


Velocity: ips (peak)
Acceleration: g (peak)

SINUSOIDAL MOTION
UPPER

We use guidelines to

evaluate overall
vibration severity

RMS
NEUTRAL

PEAK PEAK
TO
PEAK

LOWER

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249

Conventional Vibration
Spectrum

We can get a sense of the level of vibration

by looking at the overall level


But - to understand vibration, we need to
know what frequencies are in it
All periodic time domain signals can be
represented as the sum of a set of sine
waves
The frequency domain plot, or spectrum, tells
us about these components

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250

125

Conventional Vibration
Acceleration, velocity and displacement
Type

Useful frequency
range

Applications

Displacement

up to 30Hz
(1800 CPM)

Mechanical looseness
Imbalance
Misalignment
Oil film bearing faults

30Hz (1800 CPM)


to 2 kHz (120 kCPM)

Velocity

Imbalance
Misalignment
Vane/blade passing
Oil film bearing faults
Rolling element bearing faults
Pulsation, acoustics

Acceleration

1 kHz (60 kCPM)


and higher

Vane/blade passing
Early rolling element bearing wear detection
Gear faults

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251

Frame Faults

Frame vibration

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252

126

Frame vibration
Behavior
In relative terms, reciprocating machinery has high

mass and runs at slow speed


Forcing functions:

Mass imbalance
Misaligned bearings
Dynamic loading from the engine and compressor
Mechanical looseness (bolts, clearance)

Response is increased when stiffness is low


Foundation or supports are weak
These responses occur at low frequencies therefore

we are normally interested in displacement


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253

Frame and piping vibration


Trend of frame vibration: broken anchor bolts
9
8

Horizontal displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p
High

7
6

Broken anchor
bolts discovered

5
4

Vertical displacement,
oil pump end, mil-p-p

High

3
2

High

1
0

After repair

Axial displacement, oil


pump end, mil-p-p

Low
Low

-1
1994

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1995

1996

1997

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1998

254

127

Frame vibration
Overall levels

100,000

Shaft Speed (RPM)

10,000

100

1,000

Low Speed Nomograph

100

The overall level

10

VE
RY
RO
UG
RO
H
UG
HT
H
LY
RO
FA
UG
I
H
GO R
OD
VE
RY
GO
SM
OD
OO
VE
TH
RY
EX
SM
TR
O
EM
OT
EL
YS H
MO
OT
H

SL
IG

0.1

.62
8I
N/
SE
.31
C
4I
N/
SE
.15
C
7I
N/
SE
.07
C
85
IN
/S
.03
EC
92
IN
/S
.01
EC
96
IN
/
SE
.00
C
98
IN
/S
.00
EC
49
IN
/S
EC

0.01

0.001

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Vibration Velocity (inches/sec - peak)

Displacement (mils pk-pk)

can be easily
compared with
norms to determine
vibration severity
For frame vibration
this is usually
enough

255

Frame and piping vibration


Spectrum: Typical frame vibration (IR 412 KVGB)
K102P-V Testpoint OPEV 7/27/2001 6:54:52 AM
2.00
1C

1.75

2C

mil (pseudo-pk-pk)

1.50

3C

4C

5C

6C

Peak At Frequency
2.185 at 322.5
0.293 at 645.0
0.119 at 487.5
0.081 at 2595.2
0.044 at 975.1
0.044 at 2272.6
0.044 at 1297.6
0.032 at 1132.6
0.032 at 1942.6
0.032 at 810.1

Watch for
increases in the
overall level and in
low orders of run
speed

1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
324.091

Testpoint
: OPEV VIB
No. Of Lines
: 400
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc
Overall
:
2.200
7C
8C
Trap Overall
: 2.200 9C

Engine speed is
324 RPM. This is
the first order of
run speed.

0.25
0.00
0
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500

1000

1500
cpm

2000

2500

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256

128

Frame Vibration
Analysis summary
Observation

Troubleshooting

Vibration (displacement) readings


indicate vertical motion on the outer
end of the cylinder

Check the cylinder supports for loose bolts or cracked base. Depending

Vibration (displacement) indicate axial


motion on the outer end of the
cylinder

Some cylinder motion is normal (< 5mils).

Excessive vibration (displacement) on


the base of the frame

Check anchor bolt torque. Look for cracks in the concrete base.

on the mass of the cylinder and speed of crankshaft, the displacement


should be below 5 mils.
If axial cylinder motion is excessive or increases, check that distance piece

and cylinder bolts are tight.


Check condition of grout that supports the frame.
Eliminate standing oil since it acts as a hydraulic wedge in cracks and

reduces friction on the chocks


Check cylinder alignment and piston runout to ensure that components are

all running true.


Fundamental spectrum component is at one-times run speed.

Excessive piping vibration detected


visually or using displacement
readings

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Check piping supports.


Review vibration spectra to identify frequency components. Perform a

bump test to measure the mechanical natural frequency of the piping.


Determine if the vibration is a result of exciting the MNF.
Measure pressure spectra in the piping to determine if the forcing function
is pulsation or mechanical imbalance.

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Auxiliary Equipment

Turbocharger/Blower

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129

Turbocharger/blower vibration
Behavior
There may be many forcing functions present

Structural faults

Shaft faults

Oil film bearing (1x-5x RPM)


Rolling element bearing (10x RPM)

Gear faults

Mass imbalance (1x-5x RPM)


Misaligned rotor (1x-5x RPM)

Bearing faults

Mechanical looseness (1x-5x engine speed)

Gear mesh frequency (1x-3x GMF)


GMF = #teeth x RPM

We are likely to use a


combination of displacement,
velocity and acceleration
readings to measure the
response to each of these
forcing functions

Vane faults

Vane passing frequency (1x-3x VP)


VP = # vanes x RPM

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Turbocharger
Normal velocity spectrum (Elliot on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM

1X

0.30

ips (pseudo-pk)

Turbo speed

15277.696

0.35

2X

Peak At Frequency
0.050 at 1050.0
0.040 at 900.0
0.033 at 2475.0
0.029 at 1950.0
0.026 at 3525.0
0.025 at 1425.0
0.020 at 375.0
0.015 at 1575.0
0.013 at 2100.0
0.012 at 3150.0

0.25

Small
component at
1X. Slight at
2X and 3X run
speed

0.20

0.15

Testpoint
: PWRH IPP
No. Of Lines
: 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc3X
Overall
: N/A
Trap Overall
: 0.140

0.10

0.05

0.00
0

5000

10000

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15000

20000

25000

30000
cpm

35000

40000

45000

50000

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260

130

Turbocharger
Normal acceleration spectrum (Elliot on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 3/10/2003 11:10:17 AM
2.5
15.278

1X

g (pseudo-pk)

2.0

2X

Turbo speed

3X

4X

5X

6X

7X

8X 9X

Testpoint
: PWRH GP
No. Of Lines
: 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall
: N/A
Trap Overall
: 1.500

10X

Peak At Frequency
0.566 at 109875.0
0.306 at 94875.0
0.260 at 102750.0
0.250 at 97875.0
0.247 at 96750.0
0.208 at 108000.0
0.208 at 118500.0
0.191 at 105750.0
0.188 at 106500.0
0.146 at 85500.0

1.5

1.0

Components at
1X, 2X and 3X
are very small

0.5

This is probably exhaust


turbulence exciting resonance
frequencies in the structure and
transducer

0.0
0

50

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100

150
kcpm

200

250

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Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliot turbo on KVR 512)
206-T Testpoint PWRH 7/2/2003 3:09:23 PM
6.0

Turbo speed

16.083

5.5

1X

5.0

2X

3X

4X

5X

6X

7X

8X

9X

10X

Peak At Frequency
4.612 at 31875.0
4.418 at 8250.0
4.362 at 40125.0
1.917 at 56250.0
1.806 at 16125.0
1.167 at 49125.0
0.889 at 24000.0
0.861 at 38625.0
0.834 at 48000.0
0.667 at 30750.0

4.5
4.0
g (pseudo-pk)

Testpoint
: PWRH GP
No. Of Lines
: 800
No. Of Averages : 4
Calc Overall
: N/A
Trap Overall
: 11.900

3.5
3.0
2.5

Increased audible noise,


high overall vibration level

2.0
1.5

Harmonic and subharmonic


components appear with
elevated spectrum floor

1.0
0.5
0.0
0

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50

100

150

kcpm

200

250

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131

Turbocharger
Rotor Rub (Elliot turbo on KVR 512)

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263

Turbochargers and blowers


Analysis summary
Observation

Troubleshooting

Displacement readings from the


turbocharger frame increase

Check the turbocharger supports for weakness or loose bolts. If

Velocity or acceleration spectra


show increased components at
around shaft speed

Oil whirl can occur in oil film (hydrodynamic) bearings. This

Velocity or acceleration spectra


show increased components at
low orders of run speed

Increases vibration at several low orders of shaft speed often

Velocity or acceleration spectra


show elevated vibration at gear
mesh frequencies

On blowers, vibration data is recorded near bearings where the

Vibration from rolling element


bearings follows the
characteristic wear phases

Rolling element bearings usually pass through a sequence of

the unit is mounted high off the floor, lower stiffness may
worsen the response.
phenomenon appears near order of shaft speed.

indicates rotor instability, looseness or rub.

vibration energy from gears is transmitted. When gear teeth nolonger mesh properly, they generate vibration at gear mesh
frequency.
phases before failure. These can be described as:
Early

high frequency vibration


of bearing natural frequencies
Excitation of rolling element faults
Elevated vibration at shaft orders
Excitation

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Engine/Compressor Analysis
Some final thoughts
In this whirlwind tour of analysis weve:
characterized the normal behavior of engines and
compressors
listed common failure modes
provided examples of many of them
discussed the physical behavior behind them
This is a well developed subject:
many analysis techniques
various ways of getting the data
community of analysts that can provide support

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133