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CAS 210 Agreeing to Terms of the Audit Engagement (Acceptance and Continuance)

Objective
3. The objective of the auditor is to accept or continue an audit engagement only when it has
been agreed that:
(a)

The preconditions for an audit are present; and

(b)
There is a common understanding between the auditor and management and, where
appropriate, those charged with governance of the terms of the audit engagement.
Preconditions for an Audit
6.

In order to establish whether the preconditions for an audit are present, the auditor shall:

(a) Determine whether the financial reporting framework applied in the preparation of the
financial statements is acceptable; and
(b) Obtain the agreement of management that it acknowledges and understands its
responsibility:
(i) To prepare their financial statements in accordance with the applicable financial reporting
framework to ensure fair presentation
(ii) To have internal controls in place which management determines to be appropriate for
preparing the financial statements free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or
error; and
(iii) To give the auditor:
a. Access to all information that is relevant to the preparation of the financial statements such
as records, documentation etc;
b. Additional information that the auditor may request from management for the purpose of
the audit; and
c. Unrestricted access to persons within the entity from whom the auditor determines it
necessary to obtain audit evidence
Limitation on Scope Prior to Audit Engagement Acceptance
7. If management imposes a limitation on the scope of the auditor's work for a proposed audit
engagement such that the auditor believes the limitation will result in a disclaimer of an opinion
on the financial statements, the auditor shall not accept the audit engagement, unless required
by law or regulation to do so.
Other Factors Affecting Audit Engagement Acceptance
8. If the preconditions for an audit are not present, the auditor shall discuss the matter with
management.
Unless required by law or regulation to do so, the auditor shall not accept the proposed audit
engagement:

(a) If the auditor has determined that the financial reporting framework applied in the
preparation of the financial statements is unacceptable, except as provided in paragraph 19; or
(b)

If the agreement referred to in paragraph 6(b) has not been obtained.

19.
The auditor shall accept the audit engagement only if the following conditions are
present:
(a) Management agrees to provide additional disclosures in the financial statements required
to avoid the financial statements being misleading; and
(b)

The auditor can do the following:

(i)
Incorporate an Emphasis of Matter paragraph, drawing users' attention to the additional
disclosures and
(ii)
The auditor will not use such phrases as present fairly, in all material respects," or "give a
true and fair view" as an opinion for the presentation of the financial statements unless required
by law or regulation.
Agreement on Audit Engagement Terms
10.
The agreed terms of the audit engagement shall be recorded in an audit engagement
letter or other suitable form of written agreement and shall include
(a)

The objective and scope of the audit of the financial statements;

(b)

The responsibilities of the auditor;

(c)

The responsibilities of management;

(d) Identification of the applicable financial reporting framework for the preparation of the
financial statements;

Recurring Audits
13.
The auditor does not have to send a new audit engagement letter or other written
agreement each period. However, the following factors may make it appropriate to revise the
terms of the audit engagement or to remind the entity of existing terms:

Any indication that the entity misunderstands the objective and scope of the audit.

Any revised or special terms of the audit engagement.

A recent change of senior management.

A significant change in ownership. i.e. shareholders

A significant change in nature or size of the entity's business.

A change in the financial reporting framework adopted in the preparation of the financial
statements.

A change in other reporting requirements.

Acceptance of a Change in the Terms of the Audit Engagement


14. The auditor shall not agree to a change in the terms of the audit engagement where there
is no reasonable justification for doing so.
A30. A change in circumstances that affects the entity's requirements or a misunderstanding
concerning the nature of the service originally requested may be considered a reasonable basis
for requesting a change in the audit engagement.
A31. In contrast, a change may not be considered reasonable if it appears that the change
relates to information that is incorrect, incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. An example might
be where the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding
receivables and the entity asks for the audit engagement to be changed to a review
engagement to avoid a qualified opinion or a disclaimer of opinion.
15. If the auditor is requested to change the audit engagement to an engagement that
conveys a lower level of assurance, the auditor shall determine whether there is reasonable
justification for doing so.
A32.
An auditor who was engaged to perform an audit in accordance with CASs may need to
assess, in addition to the matters referred to in paragraphs any legal or contractual implications
of the change.
A33. If there is reasonable justification to change the audit engagement to a review or a
related service, the audit work performed to the date of change may be relevant to the changed
engagement; however, the work required to be performed and the report to be issued would be
appropriate to the revised engagement. In order to avoid confusing the reader, the report on the
related service would not include reference to:
(a)

The original audit engagement;

(b) Any procedures that may have been performed in the original audit engagement, except
where the audit engagement is changed to an engagement to undertake agreed-upon
procedures and thus reference to the procedures performed is a normal part of the report.
16. If auditor and management agree on changes then the changes should be recorded an
engagement letter or other suitable form of written agreement.
17. If the auditor is unable to agree to a change of the terms of the audit engagement and is
not permitted by management to continue the original audit engagement, the auditor shall:
(a) Withdraw from the audit engagement where withdrawal is possible under applicable law or
regulation; and
(b) Determine whether there is any obligation, either contractual or otherwise, to report the
circumstances to other parties, such as those charged with governance, owners or regulators.

CAS 450- Evaluation of Misstatements Identified during the Audit


Objective

3.

The objective of the auditor is to evaluate:

(a)

The effect of identified misstatements on the audit; and

(b)

The effect of uncorrected misstatements on the financial statements.

Definitions
4.

For purposes of the CASs, the following terms have the meanings attributed below:

(a) Misstatement A difference between the amount, classification, presentation, or


disclosure of a reported financial statement item and the amount, classification, presentation, or
disclosure that is required for the item to be in accordance with the applicable financial reporting
framework. Misstatements can arise from error or fraud.
(b) Uncorrected misstatements Misstatements that the auditor has accumulated during the
audit and that have not been corrected.
Requirements
Accumulation of Identified Misstatements
5. The auditor shall accumulate misstatements identified during the audit, other than those
that are clearly trivial. (Ref: Para. A2-A3)
A3. To assist the auditor in evaluating the effect of misstatements accumulated during the
audit and in communicating misstatements to management it may be useful to distinguish
between factual misstatements, judgmental misstatements and projected misstatements.

Factual misstatements are misstatements about which there is no doubt.

Judgmental misstatements are differences arising from the judgments of management


concerning accounting estimates that the auditor believes to be unreasonable, or the selection
or application of accounting policies that the auditor considers inappropriate.
Projected misstatements are the auditor's best estimate of misstatements in populations,
identified in audit samples to the entire populations from which the samples were drawn.

Consideration of Identified Misstatements as the Audit Progresses


6. The auditor shall determine whether the overall audit strategy and audit plan need to be
revised if:
(a) The identified misstatements may indicate that other misstatements may exist which when
aggregated with misstatements already accumulated during the audit, could be material; or
(Ref: Para. A4)
A4. A misstatement may not be an isolated occurrence. Evidence that other misstatements may
exist include, for example, where the auditor identifies that a misstatement arose from a breakdown
in internal control or from inappropriate assumptions or valuation methods that have been widely
applied by the entity

(b) The aggregate of misstatements accumulated during the audit approaches materiality
determined in accordance with CAS 320. (Ref: Para.A5)
A5. There may be a greater risk that possible undetected misstatements, when taken with the
aggregate of misstatements accumulated during the audit, could exceed materiality. Undetected
misstatements could exist because of the presence of sampling risk and non-sampling risk

7. If, at the auditor's request, management has examined a class of transactions, account
balances or disclosures and corrected the misstatements that were detected, the auditor shall
perform additional audit procedures to determine whether misstatements remain.
Communication and Correction of Misstatements
8. The auditor shall communicate on a timely basis all misstatements accumulated during the
audit with the appropriate level of management. The auditor shall request management to
correct those misstatements. (Ref: Para. A7-A9)
A7.

Timely communication is important as it enables management to evaluate whether the


items are misstatements, inform the auditor if it disagrees, and take action as
necessary. Ordinarily, the appropriate level of management is the one that has
responsibility and authority to evaluate the misstatements and to take the necessary
action.

A9.

The correction by management of all misstatements, including those communicated by


the auditor, enables management to maintain accurate accounting books and records
and reduces the risks of material misstatement of future financial statements because of
the cumulative effect of immaterial uncorrected misstatements related to prior periods.

9. If management refuses to correct some or all of the misstatements, the auditor shall obtain
an explanation of management's reasons for not making the corrections and shall take that
understanding into account when evaluating whether the financial statements as a whole are
free from material misstatement.
Evaluating the Effect of Uncorrected Misstatements
10.

The auditor should look at materiality to see whether it applies to the entitys actual
financial results. (Ref: Para. A11-A12)

A11.

The auditor's determination of materiality is often based on estimates of the entity's


financial results, because the actual financial results may not yet be known. Therefore, it
may be necessary to revise materiality based on the actual financial results.

11.

The auditor decides whether uncorrected misstatements are material, individually or in


aggregate. In making this determination, the auditor looks at:

(a)

The size of the misstatements in relation to a particular class of transactions,


account balances or disclosures and the financial statements as a whole, and
the particular circumstances of their occurrence; and (Ref: Para. A13-A17, A19A20)

(b)

The effect of uncorrected misstatements related to prior periods relevant classes


of transactions, account balances or disclosures, and the financial statements as
a whole. (Ref: Para. A18)

Documentation
15.

The auditor shall include in the audit documentation: 5 (Ref: Para. A25)
(a)

Clearly trivial misstatements (paragraph 5);

(b)

All misstatements accumulated during the audit and whether they have been
corrected (paragraphs 5, 8 and 12); and

(c)

The auditor's conclusion as to whether uncorrected misstatements are material,


individually or in aggregate, and the basis for that conclusion (paragraph 11).

CAS 510 Initial Audit Engagement for Opening Balances


Objective
3. When starting the initial audit engagement, the auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate
audit evidence to see whether:
(a) Opening balances contain misstatements that materially affect the current period's
financial statements; and
(b) If appropriate accounting policies reflected in the opening balances have been
consistently applied in the current period's financial statements and if there are changes they
are appropriately accounted for and adequately presented and disclosed according to the
applicable financial reporting framework.
Definitions
4. For purposes of the CASs, the following terms have the meanings attributed below:
(a)

Initial audit engagement An engagement in which either:


(i)

Previous financial statements were not audited; or

(ii)

Previous financial statements were audited by a predecessor auditor.

(b)

Opening balances Those account balances that exist at the beginning of the
period. Opening balances also include matters requiring disclosure that existed
at the beginning of the period, such as contingencies and commitments.

(c)

Predecessor auditor The auditor from a different audit firm, who audited the
financial statements of an entity in the prior period and who has been replaced
by the current auditor.

Requirements
Audit Procedures
Opening Balances
5.

The auditor has to read the most recent financial statements, if any, and the predecessor
auditor's report if any, for information relevant to opening balances, including
disclosures.

6.

The auditor has to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to see whether the opening
balances contain misstatements that materially affect the current period's financial
statements: (Ref: Para. A1-A2)

7.

(a)

They must determine whether the prior period's closing balances have been
correctly brought forward to the current period or, when appropriate, have been
restated;

(b)

They must determine whether the opening balances reflect the application of
appropriate accounting policies

If the auditor finds that the opening balances contain misstatements that could materially
affect the current period's financial statements, the auditor must perform additional audit
procedures appropriate in the circumstances to determine the effect on the current
period's financial statements. If the auditor concludes that such misstatements exist in
the current period's financial statements, the auditor must communicate the
misstatements with the appropriate level of management and those charged with
governance.

Relevant Information in the Predecessor Auditor's Report


9.

If the prior period's financial statements were audited by a predecessor auditor and there
was a modification to the opinion, the auditor shall evaluate the change in opinion the
modification in assessing the risks of material misstatement in the current period's
financial statements

Audit Conclusions and Reporting


Opening Balances

10.

If the auditor could not find enough evidence for the opening balances, the auditor must
express a qualified opinion or disclaim an opinion on the financial statements

11.

If the auditor concludes that the opening balances contain a misstatement that materially
affects the current period's financial statements, and the effect of the misstatement is
not appropriately accounted for or not adequately presented or disclosed, the auditor
shall express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion.

Consistency of Accounting Policies


12.

If the auditor concludes that:


(a)

the current period's accounting policies are not consistently applied in relation to
opening balances in accordance with the applicable financial reporting
framework; or

(b)

a change in accounting policies is not appropriately accounted for or not


adequately presented or disclosed in accordance with the applicable financial
reporting framework,

the auditor shall express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion

CAS 530 Sampling

Objective
4.

The objective of audit sampling is to provide a reasonable basis so that the auditor can
draw conclusions about the population from which the sample is selected.

Definitions
(a)

Audit sampling (sampling) The application of audit procedures to less than 100% of
items within a population such that all sampling units have a chance of selection in order
to provide the auditor with a reasonable basis on which to draw conclusions about the
entire population.

(c)

Sampling risk The risk that the auditor's conclusion based on a sample may be different
from the conclusion if the entire population were subjected to the same audit procedure.
Sampling risk can lead to two types of erroneous conclusions:

(i)

In the case of a test of controls, that controls are more effective than they actually
are, or in the case of a test of details, that a material misstatement does not exist
when in fact it does. The auditor is primarily concerned with this type of
erroneous conclusion because it affects audit effectiveness and is more likely to
lead to an inappropriate audit opinion.

(ii)

In the case of a test of controls, that controls are less effective than they actually
are, or in the case of a test of details, that a material misstatement exists when in
fact it does not. This type of erroneous conclusion affects audit efficiency as it
would usually lead to additional work to establish that initial conclusions were
incorrect.

(d)

Non-sampling risk The risk that the auditor reaches an erroneous conclusion for
any reason not related to sampling risk. (Ref: Para. A1)

(g)

Statistical sampling An approach to sampling that has the following


characteristics:

(i)

Random selection of the sample items; and

(ii)

The use of probability theory to evaluate sample results, including measurement of


sampling risk.
A sampling approach that does not have characteristics (i) and (ii) is considered nonstatistical sampling.

(h)

Stratification The process of dividing a population into subpopulations, each of


which is a group of sampling units which have similar characteristics (often
monetary value).

(i)

Tolerable misstatement A monetary amount set by the auditor in respect of which the
auditor seeks to obtain an appropriate level of assurance that the monetary amount set
by the auditor is not exceeded by the actual misstatement in the population. (Ref:
Para. A3)Tolerable misstatement is the application of performance materiality, as defined
in CAS 320, 2 to a particular sampling procedure. Tolerable misstatement may be the same
amount or an amount lower than performance materiality.

(j)

Tolerable rate of deviation A rate of deviation from prescribed internal control procedures
set by the auditor in respect of which the auditor seeks to obtain an appropriate level
of assurance that the rate of deviation set by the auditor is not exceeded by the actual
rate of deviation in the population.

Requirements for Designing Audit Sample

6.

When designing an audit sample, the auditor shall consider the purpose of the audit
procedure and the characteristics of the population from which the sample will be
drawn.

7.

The auditor shall determine a sample size sufficient to reduce sampling risk to an
acceptably low level.

8.

The auditor shall select items for the sample in such a way that each sampling unit in the
population has a chance of selection.

Performing Audit Procedures (observation, inspection, recalculation, reperformance,


analytics, vouching, tracing).
9. The auditor shall perform audit procedures, appropriate to the purpose, on each sample
item selected.
10. If the audit procedure is not applicable to the selected item, the auditor shall perform the
procedure on a replacement item.
11. If the auditor is unable to apply the designed audit procedures, or suitable alternative
procedures, to a selected item, the auditor shall treat that item as a deviation from the
prescribed control, in the case of tests of controls, or a misstatement, in the case of tests of
details.
When you find Deviations and Misstatements
12. The auditor shall investigate the nature and cause of any deviations or misstatements and
evaluate their possible effect on the purpose of the audit procedure and on other areas of the
audit.
13. When the auditor considers a misstatement or deviation discovered in a sample to be an
anomaly, the auditor shall obtain a high degree of certainty that such misstatement or deviation
is not representative of the population. The auditor shall obtain this degree of certainty by
performing additional audit procedures to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that the
misstatement or deviation does not affect the remainder of the population.
Projecting Misstatements
14. For tests of details, the auditor shall project misstatements found in the sample to the
population.
Evaluating Results of Audit Sampling
15.

The auditor shall evaluate:

(a)

The results of the sample; and (Ref: Para. A21-A22)

(b)

Whether the use of audit sampling has provided a reasonable basis for conclusions about
the population that has been tested. (Ref: Para.A23)

A23.

If the auditor concludes that audit sampling has not provided a reasonable basis for
conclusions about the population that has been tested, the auditor may:
Request management to investigate misstatements that have been identified and
the potential for further misstatements and to make any necessary adjustments;

Tailor the nature, timing and extent of those further audit procedures to best achieve
the required assurance. For example, in the case of tests of controls, the auditor
might extend the sample size, test an alternative control or modify related
substantive procedures.
CAS 550- Related Parties

Definitions
10.

For purposes of the CASs, the following terms have the meanings attributed below:
(b)

Related party A party that is either: (Ref: Para. A4-A7)


a.

A person or other entity that has control or significant influence,


directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, over
the reporting entity;

b.

Another entity over which the reporting entity has control or


significant influence, directly or indirectly through one or more
intermediaries; or

c.

Another entity that is under common control with the reporting


entity through having:
i.

Common controlling ownership;

ii.

Owners who are close family members; or

iii.

Common key management.

Objectives
9. The objectives of the auditor are:
(a)
To obtain an understanding of related party relationships and transactions
sufficient to be able:
(i) To recognize fraud risk factors,
(ii) To conclude whether the financial statements
a. Achieve fair presentation (for fair presentation frameworks); or
b. Are not misleading (for compliance frameworks); and
(b)
To obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that related party relationships and
transactions have been appropriately identified, accounted for and disclosed in
the financial statements in accordance with the framework.

Risk Assessment Procedures and Related Activities


Understanding the Entity's Related Party Relationships and Transactions

13.

14.

The auditor shall interview management regarding:


(a)

Who the related parties are and any changes from the prior period

(b)

The nature of the relationships between the entity and these related parties; and

(c)

Whether the entity entered into any transactions with these related parties during
the period and, if so, the type and purpose of the transactions.

The auditor shall interview management and others within the entity, to obtain an
understanding of the controls, if any, that management has established to: (Ref:
Para. A15-A20)
(a)

Identify, account for, and disclose related party relationships and transactions in
accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework;

(b)

That authorize and approve significant transactions and arrangements with


related parties; and (Ref: Para. A21)

(c)

Authorize and approve significant transactions and arrangements outside the


normal course of business.

Maintaining Alertness for Related Party Information When Reviewing Records or Documents
15.

During the audit, the auditor shall remain alert, when inspecting records or documents,
for arrangements or other information that may indicate the existence of related party
relationships or transactions that management has not previously identified or disclosed
to the auditor

In particular, the auditor shall inspect the following for indications of the existence of related
party relationships or transactions that management has not previously identified or
disclosed to the auditor:

16.

(a)

Bank and legal confirmations obtained as part of the auditor's procedures;

(b)

Minutes of meetings of shareholders and of those charged with governance

If the auditor identifies significant transactions outside the entity's normal course of
business when performing the audit procedures required by paragraph 15 or through
other audit procedures, then the auditor should ask management about:
(a)

The nature of these transactions

(b)

Whether related parties could be involved.

A24.

A25.

Obtaining further information on significant transactions outside the entity's normal


course of business allows the auditor to evaluate whether fraud risk factors, if any, are
present
Examples of transactions outside the entity's normal course of business may include:
Complex equity transactions, such as corporate restructurings or acquisitions.
Transactions with offshore entities in jurisdictions with weak corporate laws.
The leasing of premises or the rendering of management services by the entity to
another party if no consideration is exchanged.
Sales transactions with unusually large discounts or returns.
Transactions with circular arrangements, for example, sales with a commitment to
repurchase.
Transactions under contracts whose terms are changed before expiry.

Finding and Analyzing the Risks of Material Misstatement Associated with Related Party
Relationships and Transactions
18.

The auditor has to assess the risks of material misstatement associated with related
party relationships and transactions and determine whether any of those risks are
significant risks. To determine this, the auditor must treat the identified significant related
party transactions outside the entity's normal course of business as giving rise to
significant risks.

Responding to the Risks of Material Misstatement Associated with Related Party


Relationships and Transactions
20.

These audit procedures shall include those required by paragraphs 21-24. (Ref:
Para. A31-A34)

Identification of Previously Unidentified or Undisclosed Related Parties or Significant


Related Party Transactions
22.

If the auditor identifies related parties or significant related party transactions that
management has not previously identified or disclosed to the auditor, the auditor shall:
(a)

Promptly communicate the relevant information to the other members of the


engagement team; (Ref: Para. A35)

(b)

Where the applicable financial reporting framework establishes related party


requirements:
(i)

Request management to identify all transactions with the newly identified


related parties for the auditor's further evaluation; and

(ii)

Inquire as to why the entity's controls failed to identify or disclose the


related party relationships or transactions;

(c)

Perform appropriate substantive audit procedures to newly identified related


parties or significant related party transactions; (Ref: Para. A36)

(d)

Reconsider the risk that others may exist and perform additional audit procedures
as necessary

(e)

If the non-disclosure by management appears intentional (and, therefore,


indicative of a risk of material misstatement due to fraud), evaluate the
implications for the audit. (Ref: Para. A37)

Identified Significant Related Party Transactions outside the Entity's Normal Course of
Business
23.

For identified significant related party transactions outside the entity's normal course of
business, the auditor shall:
(a)

Inspect the underlying contracts or agreements, if any, and evaluate whether:


(i)

The business rationale (or lack thereof) suggests that they may have been
entered into to engage in fraudulent financial reporting or to conceal
misappropriation of assets; 11 (Ref: Para. A38-A39)

(ii)

The terms of the transactions are consistent with management's


explanations; and

(iii) The transactions have been appropriately accounted for and disclosed in
accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework; and
(b)

Obtain audit evidence that the transactions have been appropriately authorized
and approved. (Ref: Para. A40-A41)

Assertions That Related Party Transactions Were Conducted on Terms Equivalent to Those
Prevailing in an Arm's Length Transaction
24.

If management has made an assertion in the financial statements to the effect that a
related party transaction was conducted on terms equivalent to those prevailing in an
arm's length transaction, the auditor shall obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence
about the assertion. (Ref: Para.A42-A45)

CAS 560- Subsequent Events


Subsequent Events

2.

Financial statements may be affected by certain events that occur after the date of the
financial statements. Financial reporting frameworks ordinarily identify two types of
events:
(a)

Those that provide evidence of conditions that existed at the date of the financial
statements; and

(b)

Those that provide evidence of conditions that arose after the date of the financial
statements.

Objectives
4.

The objectives of the auditor are:


(a)

To obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence whether the events occurring


between the date of the financial statements and the date of the auditor's report
are appropriately disclosed in the financial statements in accordance with the
applicable financial reporting framework; and

(b)

To respond appropriately to facts that become known to the auditor after the date
of the auditor's report, that, had they been known to the auditor at that date, may
have caused the auditor to amend the auditor's report.

Requirements
Procedures for Events Occurring between the Date of the Financial Statements and the
Date of the Auditor's Report
6.

The auditor shall perform audit procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate audit
evidence that all events occurring between the date of the financial statements and the
date of the auditor's report that require adjustment of, or disclosure in, the financial
statements have been identified.
The auditor is not, however, expected to perform additional audit procedures on matters
to which previously applied audit procedures have provided satisfactory conclusions.

7.

When performing the audit procedures the auditor shall take into account the auditor's
risk assessment in determining the nature and extent of such audit procedures, which
shall include the following: (Ref: Para. A7-A8)
(a)

Understand the procedures management has in place to ensure that subsequent


events are identified.

(b)

Ask management whether any subsequent events have occurred that could affect
the financial statements. (Ref: Para. A9)

8.

(c)

Reviewing the reading minutes, if any, of the meetings of the entity's owners,
management and those charged with governance that have been held after the
date of the financial statements.

(d)

Reading the entity's latest subsequent interim financial statements, if any.

If the procedures performed above help the auditor identify events that require adjustment
of, or disclosure in, the financial statements, the auditor shall determine whether each
such event is appropriately reflected in those financial statements in accordance with
the applicable financial reporting framework.

The auditor may inquire as to the current status of items that were accounted for on the basis
of preliminary or inconclusive data and may make specific inquiries about the following
matters:
Whether new commitments, borrowings or guarantees have been entered into.
Whether sales or acquisitions of assets have occurred or are planned.
Whether there have been increases in capital or issuance of debt instruments, such
as the issue of new shares or debentures, or an agreement to merge or liquidate
has been made or is planned.
Whether any assets have been appropriated by government or destroyed, for
example, by fire or flood.
Whether there have been any developments regarding contingencies.
Whether any unusual accounting adjustments have been made or are
contemplated.
Whether any events have occurred or are likely to occur that will bring into question
the appropriateness of accounting policies used in the financial statements, as
would be the case, for example, if such events call into question the validity of
the going concern assumption.
Whether any events have occurred that are relevant to the measurement of
estimates or provisions made in the financial statements.
Whether any events have occurred that are relevant to the recoverability of assets.

Written Representations
9.

The auditor shall request management and, where appropriate, those charged with
governance to provide a written representation that all events occurring subsequent to
the date of the financial statements and for which the applicable financial reporting
framework requires adjustment or disclosure have been adjusted or disclosed.

Facts Which Become Known to the Auditor after the Date of the Auditor's Report but
before the Date the Financial Statements Are Issued
10.

The auditor has no obligation to perform any audit procedures regarding the financial
statements after the date of the auditor's report. However, if, after the date of the

auditor's report but before the date the financial statements are issued, a fact becomes
known to the auditor that if it was known to the auditor at the date of the auditor's report,
may have caused the auditor to amend the auditor's report, the auditor shall: (Ref:
Para. A11)

11.

(a)

Discuss the matter with management

(b)

Determine whether the financial statements need amendment; and, if so,

(c)

Inquire how management intends to address the matter in the financial


statements.

If management amends the financial statements, the auditor shall:


(a)

Carry out the audit procedures necessary in the circumstances on the


amendment.

(b)

Unless the circumstances in paragraph 12 apply:


(i)

Extend the same audit procedures referred to in paragraphs 6 and 7 to the


date of the new auditor's report; and

(ii)

Provide a new auditor's report on the amended financial statements.

Facts Which Become Known to the Auditor after the Financial Statements Have Been
Issued
14.

15.

After the financial statements have been issued, the auditor has no obligation to perform
any audit procedures regarding such financial statements. However, if, after the
financial statements have been issued, a fact becomes known to the auditor that if it
had been known to the auditor at the date of the auditor's report, may have caused the
auditor to amend the auditor's report, the auditor shall:
(a)

Discuss the matter with management

(b)

Determine whether the financial statements need amendment; and, if so,

(c)

Inquire how management intends to address the matter in the financial


statements.

If management amends the financial statements, the auditor shall: (Ref: Para. A17)
(a)

Carry out the audit procedures necessary in the circumstances on the


amendment.

(b)

Review the steps taken by management to ensure that anyone in receipt of the
previously issued financial statements together with the auditor's report is
informed of the situation.

(c)

Unless the circumstances in paragraph 12 apply:


(i)

Extend the audit procedures referred to in paragraphs 6 and 7 to the date


of the new auditor's report, and date the new auditor's report no earlier
than the date of approval of the amended financial statements; and

(ii)

Provide a new auditor's report on the amended financial statements.

16.

The auditor shall include in the new or amended auditor's report an Emphasis of Matter
paragraph or Other Matter paragraph referring to a note to the financial statements that
more extensively discusses the reason for the amendment of the previously issued
financial statements and to the earlier report provided by the auditor.

17.

If management does not take the necessary steps to ensure that anyone in receipt of the
previously issued financial statements is informed of the situation and does not amend
the financial statements in circumstances where the auditor believes they need to be
amended, the auditor shall notify management and, unless all of those charged with
governance are involved in managing the entity, 6 those charged with governance, that
the auditor will seek to prevent future reliance on the auditor's report. If, despite such
notification, management or those charged with governance do not take these
necessary steps, the auditor shall take appropriate action to seek to prevent reliance on
the auditor's report. (Ref: Para. A18