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What is thyristor ?

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and Ptype material. They act as bi-stable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current
trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across
the device is not reversed).
For an 100kw generator, only 50kw of load is connected. Will the generator generate only
50kw or 100kw. If it generate 100kw what happens to rest of the 50kw. What happens if we
connect more than 100kw of load?
100 kw is the full load rating of the generator..... ..that means it can supply 100 kw without
exceeding in specified temperature limits .that doesnt mean that it wont be able to supply a load
more than 100 kw, it can but not for a longer period of time. after sometime the generator will
burn out. if a load of 50 kw is connected to generator the generator will generate only 50 kw &
not more than that. the generator will generate power only according to the requirement.
Why the supply frequency in INDIA is 50HZ ?
The reasons for power supply frequency in India to be 50 Hz and in US to be 60 HZ are:
The average annual temperature of India is greater than US
To generate power of that frequency it costs allot and the size of the alternator is huge and it
costs an incredible amount which we cant afford
As frequency increases eddy current and hysterises losses increases and hence power loss also
What is the power ratio between power in Star and Delta circuit?
When the windings of a 3-phase motor are connected in STAR:
The voltage applied to each winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the voltage applied
to the winding when it is connected directly across two incoming power service line phases in DELTA.
The current per winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the normal running current
taken when it is connected in DELTA. so, because of the Power Law V [in volts] x I [in amps] = P [in watts],
the total output power when the motor is connected in STAR is:
PS = (1 /.'/'3 VL) x (1 /.'/'3 ID) = 1/3 [one third] PD
where VL is the incoming supply's phase line voltage
ID is the line current drawn in DELTA
PS is the total power the motor can produce when running in STAR
PD is the total power it can produce when running in DELTA.
A further disadvantage when the motor is connected in STAR is that its total output torque is only 1/3 of the
total torque it can produce when running in DELTA.

What is the difference between earth and neutral?

Earthing: To connect the machinery body to ground by a conductor it is called earthing.
Ground: Ground is a one terminal, it having zero volts.
Neutral: The junction of 3phase. In balanced condition this voltage is zero.
What is a U.P.S

An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel

backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power
source, typically mains power, fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power
system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input
power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries or a flywheel. The on-battery
runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but
sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment.
At what condition a synchronous motor acts as a synchronous condenser?
When Synchronous Motor's field winding is 'Over Excited' it supplies the KVARs back to the
supply lines. This property is similar to the Capacitor or Condenser.
How is a 100 MVA transformer cooled?
100mva transformer is cooled by ofaf. Oil forced, air forced. You have pumps for circulating the
oil from the main tank to the radiators, and then fans to cool the radiator banks.
What is the instantaneous value of voltage in a 3-phase balanced star connected circuit?
For star connected system,
line voltage=phase voltage.
For delta connected system,
line voltage=phase voltage/(3)^1/2
What is the difference between regulator and stabilizer?
Regulator increase or decrease the current resistance will present inside the regulator. It
resists the current according to our applications.
Stabilizer controls the voltage. The voltage can be controlled by the stabilizer. It will give
the constant output voltage even in the varying input.
Whats happens when we give DC to a induction motor?
Of course it will not run..Bcoz an AC motor (sync or induction) needs rotating agnetic field
which is possible to get only if dc supply is rotating. Sync motor has arm on stator. So no
rotating field. And induction m/c runs on Electromagnetic induction principle which is not
possible with dc coz ckt. saturates in dc (similar to transformer). So there can be heavy heating
followed by damage;
Describe how energy is stored in an inductor on electronic level
when source is applied across inductor, the magnetic field/flux is produced and voltage is
induced as per faraday law of induction and energy is stored in magnetic field.

How do we select a cable for a machine as per standards? Is there is any standard to select
a cable as per voltage, or as per KVA and as per amps ratings?
Cable size depends upon current carrying capacity and voltage to withstand, to select cable size
we must have knowledge of load of machine and operating voltage
You want the appropriate cable size then just apply the frml P=V*I*Cos#
Where voltage = 0.240
Load is given and cos# lies between 0.8 to 0.9 you can easily get the ampere rating and choose
cable size.
Is it possible for a feedback surge to travel over a wireless connection? Would the answer
be different in a vacuum?
YES, it is possible for a feedback surge (i am not sure about the type of feedback either closed
loop or open loop) to travel over wireless . IN VACCUM it is possible only when we use
electromagnetic waves for signals and not possible in case of SONIC waves.
What is the voltage drop for 100kw motor if the length of the cable is 200m and what is the
cable size?
Full load current for 100Kw is near about 175A.
Let derating factor 0.65 then current is 270 Amp.
We can use 3.5core 150 sq mm XLPE Cable.
Now, Voltage drop for 200meter or 0.2Km for 150sq mm is (0.48X0.2X270)=25.92v/km/amps,
which is more than 10% so in this case we have to take 185sq mm XLPE Cable.
We have to maintain voltage drop in between 5%, so the cable size will be 3.5CX185 Sq mm
XLPE Cable.
What is the different between CGS system and MKS system?
The centimetergramsecond system (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric
system of physical units based on centimeter as the unit of length, gram as a unit of mass,
and second as a unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these
three base units, but there are several different ways of extending the CGS system to
cover electromagnetism.
The CGS system has been largely supplanted by the MKS system, based on meter, kilogram,
and second. MKS was in turn extended and replaced by the International System of Units (SI).
How to Simulate an Induction motor?
capacitor start
capacitor start run
shaded pole
reluctance start
3 phase
resistive load
auto transformer
star-delta starting

When there is a sudden loss in the demand what happens to the transformer and
When there is a sudden loss of load, The Generator terminal voltage increases due to the fact that
the IX drop in the generator winding decreases. The EMF generated being the same the reduced
reactance loss leads to a sudden rise in generator voltage. But the AVR (Automatic Voltage
Regulator) will act instantly to bring this voltage to the set value by reducing the excitation.
There is practically no effect of this on the transformer barring the reduction in I2R (copper
Losses) and reduced IX drop
How do you measure the leakage current in a house wiring?
There are two ways for it. First one is to keep all lights and other domestic electric appliances
OFF for an hour and record the energy consumption in the energy meter. Calculate current from
it. Second way is by measuring the current in the house earth conductor as leakage current goes
to earth by using megger instrument
What are the technical reasons for soaking transformers for various times before allowing
them to pick load after a fault or maintenance outage or as a new installation.
The soaking process is to determine the sufficiency of the cooling oil for continuous operation
under thus and thus temperature and duty cycles.
If an outage occurs placing heavy load currents on a transformer it must be assured that it will
survive without exploding, melt-down, etc....
When we connect the capacitor Banks in Series with the circuit
The question is about connecting Capacitors in SERIES. Series connection is done for improving
STABILITY of the network and for transferring more power (by reducing the resultant
reactance) i.e. to improve the power transfer capability, but not for improving power factor.
Power factor will be improved by connecting capacitors in parallel to the load
Why is the transformer rated in KVA?
Both the losses of the transformer is independent of the power factor (cos phi), which means a
transformer would not make any change in the power factor, since both the losses viz copper
loss(depends on current) and iron loss(depends on voltage) are independent of power factor, that
is why a Transformers rating is not on kW, but on KVA
What is the function of a choke in tube light?
We need around 800 to 1000 volts to start ionization of the medium which is present between the
2 electrodes of the tube. Once the ionization starts the conductivity of medium increases and 110
volts is sufficient to sustain the emission of electrons from electrodes. So to produce such a high
voltage we are using choke. Once it starts to reduce the 230V to 110 volts we are using the same
How do you detect the exact location of a cable fault if its cable punctures
The most common method of detecting a puncture in a cable is by using MEGGER TEST.
When we increase load, current drawn from source also increases why?
Additional load is connected in parallel to the existing load. The parallel combination always
reduces the equivalent impedance. Hence the current is increases.
w=VI according to this when we increase the load (W),
Current ultimately an V is the constant at that moment.

What is the reason of power development in synchronous generator due to saliency ?

The power exp for syn. gen due to saliency is
P= (EV/Xd)sin& + v2/2[1/Xd-1/Xq]sin2&
The term after + is called reluctance power that means even though gen not starts it will posses
some power due its reluctance due to this in syn gen power is saliency
What is the purpose of calculating knee point voltage for Current transformers?
The main purpose of calculating the knee point voltage is to identify the core saturation
characteristics. This is mainly done on protection CT's.
What will happen if we apply dc volt across transformer?
The principle of transformer is depend on flux linkage. In DC, there is no linkage. So the primary
of transformer gets burn if the DC voltage level is higher than the transformer rating.
Is possible to increase the voltage without using transformer? Why?
1. CHOPER: It is said to be DC equivalent of AC transformer, so can be used to increase and
decrease voltage.
2. CLAMPING CIRCUIT: made with the help of diode and capacitor, voltage can be doubled or
3. Amplifier circuit (like common base NPN transistor): a few voltage signals can be amplified
to large voltage signal.
4. INDUCTOR COIL (choke coil of fluorescent light): It is used for providing high voltage
(1200v) across lamp so that gas inside gets ionized and cathode ray start passing through tube.
Why less loss occurs when we use DC supply than AC supply?
There are less loss occurs when we use DC supply than AC supply, because the frequency is zero
in DC, so no Inductance & Capacitance exists.
And there is no skin effect in the DC systems, so there is low resistance as compared to AC
Earth has the constant potential so we take it as reference. But in steo & touch voltage we
use to calculate
we are taking earth as reference it means its potential is not absolutely "ZERO" but
approximately it is zero .and the potential is not equal allover the earth it varies from place to
place so we measure at 30 m in to earth.
Why Transistors are not used as switching devices?
Transistors are mainly current driven while for switching are done at high frequency and high
voltage. Thus devices like SCR, IGBT, and MOSFET etc are used. Transistors are employed in
small ckts.
What is watt?
Electrical power is measured in watts. In an electrical system power (P) is equal to the voltage
multiplied by the current.

In a synchronous motor armature current flows due to revolving flux which in turn rotates
the load, but in no load condition armature current is zero hence there is no revolving flux
then how motor rotates?
When syn. motor is at no load, armature draws current required for magnetization.
As supply having some freq. so field flux continues 2
Rotate at syn. speed.
In syn motor speeed is constant from no load 2 full load.
Does HVDC mode of transmission has an economic advantage over EHV-AC transmission.
It is having only 2 conductors, there will be less losses. It is economic only when the distance of
transmission is greater than the critical distance because the converter/inverter which is used is of
very high rating, which costs heavy. so for lesser distance the this converters losses will be high
which will not be economical.
Why we are using Sinusoidal wave in all electrical systems?
Reason 1 is the way power is generated. Due to the construction of generators, the default wave
form is sinusoidal. Secondly, the frequency of sine wave is a single definite value while other
wave forms are formed due to harmonics along with the fundamental sine wave and result in
wastage of power in heating and thus reduce equipment life / rating. Hence sinusoidal wave is
used for all electrical systems.
Why the generators are made such that they generate only sinusoidal wave?
Sine wave has more avg values than triangular or other waves
Sine wave is best suited for commercial generation purposes because it will have a single unique
frequency. If we generate a square wave (by using concentrated winding in alternator) the
problem of harmonics would arise.
What is the voltage that is supplied to the electric traction trains?
1) 25 Kv Ac system
2) 1500 V Dc system
above voltages are used depending on the system being used.
What is DIV? What does 100V/DIV or 50A/DIV mean?
Firstly DIV means division. Know 100V/DIV or 50A/DIV is usually the scales that are read on
the OSCILLISCOPE. so if you see a waveform and you have the scale set to 100v/DIV, it means
that if you read the peak of the waveform and its one square box, it means one division which
implies that your waveform has a peak value of 100v. Same goes with the 50A/DIV.
How to find the terminals in SCR? Also in BC327 transistor?
It is simple to find the terminals in the SCR and Transistor; Where the SCR is in Flat package
Transistor in metal can package. Also the pins are in a straight line in SCR but in the transistor it
is in half circle.

What is induction motor?

An induction or asynchronous motor is an AC motor in which all electromagnetic energy is
transferred by inductive coupling from a primary winding to a secondary winding, the two
windings being separated by an air gap. In three-phase induction motors, that are inherently selfstarting, energy transfer is usually from the stator to either a wound rotor or a short-circuited
squirrel cage rotor.
What is a Transducer?
In general, a transducer is a device for changing one form of energy into another. There are lots
of things that qualify as transducers under that definition. Just to cite a few examples, a
microphone converts the mechanical energy of sound into electrical energy. A speaker does the
opposite. An acoustic hydrophone converts the mechanical energy of sound in water or another
fluid into electrical energy.
What is the use of SCOTT connections?
Scott connection is a means of converting 3 phase supply into 2 phase supply or vice versa.
The angle between two phases is 90 degree.
It is employed with the help of transformers namely
1) Teaser transformer
2) Main transformer
What is the difference between P,PI,PID CONTROLLER?
The difference is shows the name itself
P-proportional control
PI- proportional with integral control
PID-proportional with integral and derivate control
The difference lies in the action of the controllers
pd-helps in achieving steady state conditions quickly.
Pi-helps in reducing steady state error
pid-helps in reducing steady state error and also getting steady state conditions quickly
What is Synchronous condenser?
A synchronous condenser is physically an electric generator/motor without a mechanical power
source. Electrically a synchronous condenser changes the timing between rise and fall of current
compared to voltage (phase angle). They also use stored energy to smooth small power
How much should be the insulation resistance value of a 5KW motor and 50KW motor?
Insulation resistance (IR) value of a motor does not depend upon rating (i.e. KW). It is depend
upon Voltage label in which it applied. There is a example: If V=415v then IR should be min.
1.415 Mohm And if V=6.6kv IR should be min. 7.6 Mohm
Why we cannot use the capacitive load?
Capacitive load means a load with leading power factor which is very rare in electrical
equipment. Though synchronous motor is used as a capacitive load.
What is the purpose of coupling capacitor?
To block or avoid the flow of D.C and to allow only A.C

What is the purpose of Q-point in transistor?

What is meaning by the SKIN effect in electrical circuits
Most of the current in a conductor flows through the outer surface of the conductor, this effect is
called SKIN Effect. This is because of the inductance, because the inner conductors will have
more flux (inductance) i.e. due to inner and outer conductors but where as the outer surface of
the conductor will have less flux (inductance) and we know current always tries to flow through
the low resistance path. So current will try to flow through the outer surface of the conductor.
Why are we employing star type transformer at transmission end and delta type
transformer at receiving end?
All distribution transformers have secondary winding star connected in order to have 4 wires.
In a star connection it is easy to detect a ground fault, whereas it is not in case of delta.
The delta winding in the transformer helps to circulate Zero sequence current generated due to
ground fault on the star connected side. Hence, the unbalance created on one side of the
transformer does not affect the other side. So, a circuit employing two transformers will
definitely have a star & a delta to get benefit of both ground fault detection and circulation of
What is difference between potentiometer and rheostat?
What is the value of reflection co-efficient of tranmission line having VSWR?
What is a DSM(Demand Side Management)?.
What is the main Electrical IS rules?.
IS rules is international standards rule adopted for any commissioning, erection or any work we
want to perform.
How much voltage is present in neutral resistance? And how much voltage is present in
earth resistance?
Actually there is no volt during normal condition. In case of any fault resistor will act as a low
resistance path because above mentioned components are high impedance components. so the
huge fault (volt) will be grounded and the equipment remains safe.
What is the resistance between neutral and earth?
You measure at a socket, you should measure well less than one ohm
What is Particle Swam Optimisation?
What is the effect of pole slipping in generator and how it will slip?
What is signal?
What is Gsm?
What about AMPS?
What EDGE?

What is GPRS?
What is Ciphering?
Difference between Noise and Attenuation?
Noise (as related to a radio signal I suppose) is an unwanted signal being processed by a receiver.
Attenuation is a loss of the intended signal before it gets to the receiver (usually due to such
things as distance, line of sight obstructions, etc.
Explain the operation of a transistor
what is the use of control panels in transmission systems?
control panels are used in substations ...
use is for monitoring of power system...
controlling of real and reactive power flow is also done from the control panel...
in case of occurrence of fault ct and pt has been sends the voltage and current rating to panels
and from there protective measure have been taken...
in short
monitoring controlling and protection are basic operations of control panels....
bcoz of that reason they are installed at every substations
What is the flyback convertor?
What do you mean by traction system, What type of traction system is used in electric
How snubber circuit works to protect switching devices?
What is the difference between AC choke (inductor) and DC choke (inductor), working and
design point of view?
A power-supply filter whose inductance is used to limit the flow of AC while allowing the flow
of DC. Chokes naturally maintain a more constant flow of current. Output voltages do not rise as
high as they would without this inductor in the circuit; neither does it drop as low when
compared to a capacitor input filter circuit. Chokes hold the variation of output voltage (ripple)
to a relatively small value.
Why secondary of open delta pt (two element pt) centre tap is earthed? What happen when
this earth is removed?
It is done to limit output voltage during fault or malfunction for safety reason. At normal
condition this earth connection don't have any function, it is useful only during the above-stated
Alternators are invariably star connected why?
Because it is a must that we earth the star (neutral) point at generating point for safety &
protection of equipment / system.
What is the difference between SSR drive& AC drive?
What will be change in programming when we use 5/3 solenoid in place of 5/2 in operating
of a cylinder?

What is isolation Transformer?

An isolation transformer is a transformer used to transfer electrical power from a source of
alternating (AC) power to some equipment or device while isolating the powered device from the
power source, usually for safety. Isolation transformers provide galvanic isolation and are used to
protect against electric shock, to suppress electrical noise in sensitive devices, or to transfer
power between two circuits which must not be connected. Isolation transformers block
transmission of DC signals from one circuit to the other, but allow AC signals to pass.
Why battery is connected in series?
To Increase the Votage.....
If we connected in series current remain same and only voltage will change.
In parallel current will be more and voltage remain same.
Why Transformer in KVA?
Both the losses of the transformer is independent of the power factor (cos phi), which means a
transformer would not make any change in the power factor, since both the losses viz copper loss
(depends on current) and iron loss (depends on voltage) are independent of power factor, that is
why a Transformers rating is not on kW, but on KVA
What is function of pump in DG?
why DG neutral is earth?
What is the principle of high speed direct drive motor ?
Can we load Power capacitors on DG sets?
What are the factors required for selection of transformer rating?
First u should know
1 The connected load of transformer or load factor
2 Highest connected load / motor in the transformer and its starting type
3, diversity factor
KVA demand
at 0.8 p.f =connected load x LF x DF
------------efficiency X p.f
Starting current of highest KW load takes 6 times of full load current. So we to check it whether
the transformer has the capability to feed the load or not during starting. Its the important thing
while considering trafo selection.
Why the frequency is 50 hz in india.can we use some other frequency.if so what is the range
and what will be the effect in present power system if we change the frequency as you
suggest ?
All above answers are correct in its place but we forget basic thing when we design any system
following parameters are to be taken into consideration
1.avrage temp.
2.avrage sea lavel
considering all these factors 50HZ frequency is most
economical system thats why we use 50Hz

We can change the freqency e.g in USA it is 60 HZ but at the power plant all the machines
design would be
changed as speed of generator is given as
Ns = 120 * f / P
where p is no of poles of machines and we would have to
change the design of all electrical application to new
Consider a 415v/200v step down transformer.can we use use it as step up transformer by
giving 200v in secondary and taking output from primary?
What is the maximum generating voltage in India?
How power cable & control cable can be differentiating from each other?
We have one ups its neutral is not earthed. Its one distribution MCB has a earth fault .but
we can not put off any MCB. So how to find out that in which circuit is earthed without
isolating the breaker?
It is a diagrammatic representation of power system components by using their symbols. From
this diagram we know the values of voltage, impedance in per unit values with the reference of
one of the equipment present in that diagram.
What is the meaning of rms value?
What is derating factor in Cable ? How we minimise this?
How we can calculate the transformer size?
How VFD(variable frequency) drive is used as a energy saver....?
What is effect of unbalanced load -- say R 15A, Y 25A, B ?
If i want to build 230kv substation what are the equipments to be installed?
If you want to install 230kv substation you need to have following equipments....
3.Lighting arresters
5.Transformer for stepping the voltage down
6.Circuit Breakers
9.Control Panels
How power saving takes place through VFD?
How to write program by ladder logic in case of PLC operation?
What is surge suppressor?

How to find transformer is in normal position? Whether its in charged condition or not?
Except humming sound?
How to find motor contactor rating and bimetalic relay rating? Of 30kw motor which will
operate on star-delta starter?
How to calculate the capacitor range for load for pf improvement? Example for 65 hp load
how to calculate capacitor range?
As all us know that the capacitor panel is connected to improve the power factor when it is
PF is low. Whether we can connect the capacitor panel on D.G. side? If it is yes why?
Why voltage drop will occur in 3 phase line?
Voltage drop especially in 3 phase system is due to low power factor. Low power factor leads to
increase in I2r losses which in turn increase the regulation. As regulation increases voltage drop
occurs which directly affects the efficiency of generation and increase in stress of transmission
line.Thats why KEB people who are responsible for maintaining required voltage put fine if we
maintain low power factor. Corona and skin effect are negligible.
How a generator is positioned in a hydroelectric power plant?
What is the generating voltage of a power station consided generally?
How to control the generator output voltage? What r the condition should satisfy for
What is inrush current in transformer?
Why making capacity is more than breaking capacity?
Making capacity is the max fault current it can carry during closing of breaker, e.g. you are
closing a breaker on fault. The making capacity is always higher because it is expressed in peak
value not rms, and also because of the DC offset, voltage and PF while closing.
What is cathodic protection in Tank,and product pipelines?
Can you give main difference between ELCB And RCCB?
What is GD2(kg-m2) for Sq. Cage ind. Motor?
What is the difference between earthed and unearthed cable
Unearthed cables have more insulation strength as compared to earthed cable. When fault occur
phase to ground voltage is root 3 times the normal phase to ground voltage. So if we used
earthed cable it may be chances of insulation puncture. So unearthed cable are used. Such types
of cable are used in 6.6 KV systems where resistance type earthing is used.

What are the difference between C-Curve and D-Curve for MCB's.
How to select a CT
The selection of CT depends on the current ratings of relays those are used in the protecting
circuitry and also depends on accuracy that circuitry requires.
How to select a circuit breaker
Mainly The CB is selected on the basis of Voltage capacity of the system and the currents to be
interrupted. Also selection depends on whether it is indoor application or Outdoor.
What r the advantage of selecting micro controller type tripping of circuit breaker than
relay type tripping?
What is the meaning of BUS?
BUS as name indicates is nothing but the carrier of current.
In step down transformer (415/200V), mistakenly secondary side is connected to 415V for
some hours, what would be result of this condition?
The secondary side is rating of 200v,if you considering loop the net current flowing throw
winding increases hence losses also increases and winding over heated, if it so on for hours
winding insulation may failed. And another one is core is nearer to low winding, due to high
voltage core losses and core insulation between laminations also failed.
What is the difference between negative dc voltage and positive dc voltage because some
circuit uses -24,-5,-12,- 15,volt dc
If any lead acid battery is having low or high sp.gravity then what will be effect of battery
and why?
In Aero plane what circuitry or method use for earthing?
All the negative wires are routed and connected to the outer metallic surface/sheets of the Plane
and the positive wires connected to the instrument. It is called one wire system.
What is the diff. between two phase & three phase supply?
Three phase supply means RYB AND NEUTRAL 4 WIRE SYSTEM (phase to phase voltage is
415V and phase to neutral is 230V)
Two phase supply RY OR YB and neutral.
What is the reason for balance of voltage in magnetic balance test?
How can we measure and monitor critical performance parameters of Diesel Generator
Sets, both electrical and engine ?
How can you prove that in CE configuration a transistor has 180 degree phase shifted
output ?
What do you mean by 1 ton in AC`s?
Procedure for conducting vector group test on power transformers.why it is conducted?

How to increase the specific gravity of DG batteries?

What is mean CT Saturation? How to calculate?
There are 2 Flip_Flop with logic between them. Given Clock to Q delay, logic prop. Delay,
set up and hold times specify maximum clock frequency of system. What happens if second
output fed back to first input. Any changes? What happens with timing if second output is
fed back to logic between the flops?
What is difference between start imitation and start interlock for 3 phase motor
protection ?
Why for transformer protection we protect transformer from 3rd harmonics and 5th
harmonics and what is the reason of generating these harmonics in electrical system?
Whats the difference between Induction motor and servo motor?
An induction motor has high inertia and servo motor has a very low inertia. Hence servo motors
are used in applications where instant and accurate positioning of load is reqd.
How to calculate the size of the conductor for particular load
The size (cross sectional area) of the conductor for a particular load not only depends upon the
current drawn by the load (nature of the load), it also depends upon nature (resistivity) of the
conductor material (i.e.; whether the conductor material is made of copper, silver or any other
material). It also depends upon the external physical and environmental conditions.
Why heat produced at junction of two different conductors. What care should be taken to
minimize it
Generally different conductors are having different electron density. if current flows from high
electron density conductor to low density conductor heat will be produced at the junction due to
sudden change in electron density. To avoid this two conductors to be junction should have
minimum difference in electron density. In some other cases contact resistance causes heat if
they are not tightly held together.
How much %age of corona losses increases if frequency is increased to 25%?
Corona loss is directly proportional to frequency so when frequency increases and other
parameters remain constant then it changes only in proportion of frequency so increase in corona
loss by 25%.
What happen when ac power transmitted in unity power factor?
If it is made possible to deliver AC power with unity power factor, it would be most economical
for the company as there would be minimum line losses. Total current would be active only
contributing for watts. The system stability will however be poor, as there will be no cussion for
variation in load. Be disconnection of a large load, the system will go over voltage and over
frequency before the mechanical system of the connected generators respond to decrease the load
of the turbines. Similarly if a large load is at once connected to the system, there will be
instantaneous mismatch between inflow and outflow of power. This will cause the system to go
under voltage and under frequency before the mechanical system responds. If power factor is
less than unity, in both of the above cases, the surge will be absorbed by the inductive cussion
(just like a flywheel in mechanical system) and the system would be more stable.
So we can say power factor adjustment is a compromise between economy and the stability of
the system.
What is the difference between the electrical and electronics

What is the meaning of TRI Vector meter?

The power triangle is sum of (kW, kVAR, kVA) and the meter which gives readings all of the
above variables is called TRI vector meter.
You can see the TRI vector meter installed below the distribution transformer.
What is IGBT?Where it is used? What is the difference between IGBT and Thyristor?
When a square wave is applied to primary of a transformer then what will be output wave
form of secondary
What is bandpass of a transformer?
Resistance of a conductor in a close electrical ckt is practically zero why?
Why C.T secondary are rated 5A generally
Its basically depends on the circuitry, whether you are using it as a metering CT or a Protection
CT. For metering purpose generally 5A CT is used, because the VA drop occurred in the cable
between CT and the metering instrument doesn't much harmful for the system.
But for protection purpose 1A CT is recommended, because if the distance between the CT and
the protection relay is very large, the VA drop occurred in the cable can give reduced current
reading to the instrument and this will be a thread to the machine.
Draw waveform of capacitor or inductor in a d.c ckt(during transient) with zero resistance
with it(in series or parallel)also neglect resistance of wire
What is the significance of per unit impedance ?
Significance of per unit impedance is reducing the complexity of calculation. Zp.u=actual
impedance/base impedance
What is the function of commutator in dc motor?
In case of delta/delta transformer if the one phase is blown out then what will be secondary
line voltage?
This condition arises open delta condition it comes into picture when one of the transformer has
some repair work in this case the output power would be 58% of original power voltage and
current can be calculated as we do for delta condition
What is linear motor?
What is the difference between ONLINE UPS and OFFLINE UPS?
On line UPS means Supply will come from batteries on line and charging also on line.
In OFF line UPS supply will come from batteries when main line supply fails. Batteries will
charge on line.
Why electric shock due to dc is dangerous than that of ac?
Low frequency (50 - 60 Hz) AC currents can be more dangerous than similar levels of DC
current since the alternating fluctuations can cause the heart to lose coordination, inducing
ventricular fibrillation, which then rapidly leads to death. High voltage DC power can be more
dangerous than AC, however, since it tends to cause muscles to lock in position, stopping the
victim from releasing the energized conductor once grasped.

Why the generating voltage in India is 11kv or why is it be transmitted as multiples of 11?
1. When an alternator generates voltage, its rms value is given by 4.4*f*$*t, where $ is value of
total flux per pole. So we can see all the voltages are made inevitably multiple of this value (1.1,
which is the form factor of ac wave). Also it provides us the best economic construction of step
up and step down transformers.
2. We always use a multiple of 1.11 bcoz for a pure sine wave the FORM FACTOR is the ratio of
rms value of oltage
or current with the avg. value of voltage or current and for pure sine wave rms value of current is
Imax/root '2' and avg. value is 2Imax/pie. and which comes out to be 1.11 so we cant have a
combination of other then a multiple of 1.11.
How to calculate no. Of earthing pits and their diamensions? No. Of lightning arrester rods
which are required to protect a building of 35 mtr?
In India which type of PLCC is used?
Synchronous motor is three phase motor, but its not self starting .why?
The essential requirement for starting a synchronous machine is that in the initial stages the
rotor( which houses d.c excited field windings) must be rotated at the synchronous
speed(determined using(120*f)/p where'f'is the supply frequency and 'p' is the no. of poles) so
that the rotor poles may lock on to the stator rotating poles( created by three phase balanced
excitation given to the stator armature windings) following which the rotor will rotate
synchronously with stator field at that speed. Hence without the use of an external prime mover
in the beginning, the syn. motor cannot self start....
Why the current leads voltage in the case of a capacitor?
Because capacitor opposes change in voltage and allows the current to flow whereas in inductor
current lags because it opposes the change in current
What is cogging and crawling?
When rotor bars are made to run parallel with stator, the torque rises & falls correspondingly
causing more pulsations. This is termed as cogging in other words magnetic locking. This is
reduced by making the rotor bars run at an angle to the stator i.e. crawling in order to make the
torque uniform.
Crawling on the other hand signifies running of motor at almost one seventh of the rated speed
due to interference of seventh harmonics.
How to select earthing conductor size of any motor/panel etc?
The ground wire size is determined from the current carrying capacity of the motor feeders.
Use IS 3043
earthing cond. size in sq mm S = A * sqrt(t)/k
A = fault current in amps
k = factor given in IS
What is difference between AC VVVF drive & Dc VVVF drive explain their working

Capacitor is load free component but why ampere meter shows current when capacitor
bank breaker is closed?
As we know that Electrical is having two type of load, Active and Reactive. Capacitor is a
reactive load, which is not considering as a load, & its factor is Isin@. Meter is design based on
Current RMS value. Because of it, Meter is showing the current RMS value.
When birds sit on transmission lines or current wires doesn't get shock?
Shocks are caused when an electric current is able to pass through a person/creature, as it goes
from a conductor connected to (or touching) a power terminal, and returns to the power source
via its return terminal. A crow can sit on a wire, and provided it doesn't touch anything else, there
is nowhere for a current to go. Even so, as the line voltage for AC power goes from + to - and
back again many times a second, the crow can "store" a certain amount of charge due to its
capacitance. The capacitance is quite low, so these alternating currents through its legs are very
small. Nevertheless, many birds can feel this current and they don't like it.
Its true that if birds touch the single one line (phase or neutral) than they don't get electrical
shock... if birds touch 2 lines than the circuit is closed and they get electrical shock.. so if a
human touch single one line (phase) then he doesn't get shock if he is in the air (not touching standing on the ground. if he is standing on the ground then touching the line (phase) he will get
a shock because the ground on what we standing is like line (ground bed - like neutral). and in
the most of electric lines the neutral is grounded... so that means that human who touch the line
closes the circuit between phase and neutral...
What is the difference b/w winding insulation class and winding temperature class?
Is it possible for a feedback surge to travel over a wireless connection?
YES, it is possible for a feedback surge (i am not sure about the type of feedback either closed
loop or open loop) to travel over wireless . IN VACCUM it is possible only when we use
electromagnetic waves for signals and not possible in case of SONIC waves.
What is a DLC? Explain the advantage of DLC over PLC?
What are the tests to be taken on a transformer and generator?
For transformer these are the fallowing test should be taken
1) Insulation resistance test
2) Vector group test
3) Transformer oil Break down voltage test
4) Magnetic current & Ratio test
5) Magnetic balance test
6) High Voltage test
7) Transformer winding resistance test
8) PI Value test
9) SC test
10) OC test
On Generator
1- Insulation Resistance & Polarization Index
2- Hi Pot
3- Short Circuit Test
4- Power Factor Tip up test
5- Partial Discharges Test
6- El Cid Test (electromagnetic core imperfection detection)

7- Retaining Ring Test (Ultrasonic)

8- Recurrent Surge Oscillation Test on Rotor (RSO)
9- Low Resistance Test
10- AC Leakage Test
Do you know how to measure the earth resistance? If so explain it
Actually the Earth resistance is measured using "earth resistance meter". In previous answers
some said that using megger, but megger is used only for high resistance measurement i.e., in
Mega ohms but when considering upon earth resistance it should not exceed 1ohm so earth
resistance meter is required.
In this meter there will be four terminals (E, P1, P2, P3) in which E and P1 will be shorted and
connected to the grid or electrode and P2 and P3 are reference electrodes which will be kept on
the earth surface on two different locations for taking the reference resistances of the earth.
The meter shows the resistance of the earth. But it is necessary that it should be below 1ohm.
What is the make of breakers, transformers, generators? What are their capacities and
What are the starting currents of different motors and also what are the running currents,
and idle currents
Always a motor takes starting current is high(5 or 6 times full load current).
At starting E=0,
So I=V/R
I is max.
At running, E has some value. So I decrease.
Why a starter is used for a motor?
Starter used to reduce the starting current of the motor and to safe the motor winding in the high
starting current. Different type of starter used to the motor. i.e. 3 point starter,4 point starter used
to d.c and a.c motors.
Do you know how to joint the H.T and L.T Cables?
How you take care of a motor from over loading and what are the different overloading
ratings of different motors?
Use overload circuit breaker to protect it, thermal overload protects your motor against
overloading or/and over thermal switch mount it on the motor stator.
Do you know the faults occurs generally in motors and how to rectify them
1. over load tripping - Reset OL relay.
2. Ball bearing failure - To be identifying by heavy noise and off ton tripping & Over heat Change bearing.
3. Monthly once cleans the body of the motor. Cooling will be better.
4. Winding problem. - Check by megger of multi meter. Rewinding to be done.
5. Over load relay itself problem some times.

Do you know the overhauling of a motor?

Overhauling means re-conditioning. Dismantling the complete motor, checking for any damage
or wornout parts replacing the damage or wornout parts (bearings, carbon brushes, end covers etc
if required) and assembling it.
This is done to increase the life of the motor.
Do you know the alignment of a motor?
If we hold a shaft of motor and try to rotate it if it will easily rotate without any sound, problem
then it is ok and if it not then it needs a little adjustment on both of its side
What accessories required to give the motor with given circuits and do you know the
ratings of those accessories
Do you know how to connect a motor of different H.Ps?
Do you know how to maintain a generator, if so what are those maintenances?
How do you maintain the batteries for generators, what is the daily maintenance of a
How do you maintain the earthing resistance?
By pouring water, charcoal and salt when ever you find that earthing is increasing.
What should be the earthing resistance of an industrial substation and also what should be
the house hold earthing resistance?
For 1 kv to 33 KV The earthing Resistance Should be less than 0.5 ohm.
For Domestic Purpose it should less than 2 ohm
Upto 1 Kv It should be in between 1 to 2 ohm
for EHV it should be less than 0.01 ohm
What is the rating of your substation and what are the different types of substations
What are the different protection systems used to protect the transformer internally and
T/f protection includes:
Buccholz relay
Oil and winding temperature relay
Pressure relief valve
Restricted earth fault protection
Differential protection
T/f earthing
What are the different ratings of the fuse units for different distributions at your
What are the different protection systems takes place on control panel board?

What is meant by H.R.C fuse?

In electrical system fuse acts as protection device and depending on application different type of
fuse is to select. Out of these different type of fuses HRC is also one of the type and it stands for
High Rupturing Capacity. This type of fuses normally used where some delay is acceptable for
protecting the system.
Is your generator is automated or manual if so do you know the circuits?
How do you connect the capacitors on polyphase circuits?
What is the power factor you maintain at ur organization?
What is the max demand on your transformer and your company
What is the rating of your capacitor bank at your company.