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How mass media and propaganda is and was

used for controlling our society


Nazi Propaganda:
1. Before the Nazis came into power, huge amounts were spent in promoting the party in
newspapers, magazines, etc .
2. Slogans were repeated again and again in various mediums to win public support.
3. Jews were forbidden from working at newspaper companies or even reading newspapers.
4. The Nazis made a list of the books that promoted ideas opposite to that of the Nazis, and
raided bookstores across the countries to burn those books. These books included some
by Jewish Writers (Nazi Propaganda and Censorship,
http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007677)
5. Newspapers were largely Anti-Semitic, and often accused Jews of various crimes. For
example, Der Strumer, a Nazi Propaganda Newspaper, accused Jews of kidnapping
young children because "Jews need the blood of a Christian child, maybe, to mix in with
their Matzah.". (The Jewish Ritual Murder, Der Sturmer, http://derstuermer.org/ritualmurder.htm)
6. In all forms of Media, the Jews were portrayed as lazy and greedy, compared to the
hardworking German People.
7. All books had to be approved by Goebbells Ministry of Propaganda. Anti-Semitic books
were published and promoted, and schoolbooks were rewritten to promote Nazi
Propaganda.
8. In Textbooks, it was shown how crowded Germany had become, and also showed how
costs for the disabled were much higher than that of those who are healthy (Lynn H.
Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web, p.76). Maths, Physics
and Chemistry problems were concentrated on military applications (Lynn H. Nicholas,
Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web, p.77)
Despite the great decrease in birth rate, the German people, with a
population density of 133.5 per square kilometer, remains a crowded people.
Other peoples with a much smaller population density still have large colonial
holdings that can accept their surplus population.
We must demand the return of our colonies not only for reasons of honor
and equality, but also for economic reasons and to provide space for

emigration. Germany today does not have the ability to meet its needs for
food and raw materials from its own holdings, as do the major colonial
powers. Colonies are not an expression of imperialist thinking for the
German nation, no outward sign of power and assertion, but rather they are a
necessity of life. A higher level of humanity depends not on the state,
but on the race that creates that state. (Adolf Hitler). (Excerpts from Nazi
Geography Textbook, http://research.calvin.edu/german-propagandaarchive/textbk02.htm)

9. The Nazis also used Radio to a great extent. When Hitler gave speeches, it was broadcast
all over the country. Restaurants and Pubs were expected to have Radios on when Hitler
gave speeches, and in some cities, there were Public Speakers for everyone to listen.
Radios were also sold on the cheap, so that more people had access to radios. ( Randall
L. Bytwerk . Landmark Speeches of National Socialism. (Texas A&M University Press,
2008). p. 7)
10. Large rallies were organized, with band marches and Banners. In these rallies, Hitler gave
powerful and moving speeches, appealing to the patriotism of the Germans.
Images: (i)

(ii)

11. When rumors spread that the Nazis were planning on killing all Jews, the Nazis permitted
the Red Cross to visit Theresienstadt, a concentration camp. But Theresienstadt was only
a stop on the way to a real extermination camp, where the Nazis planned to kill the Jews.
Shops and Cafes were erected to create the impression that the Jews were living in
relative comfort, which could not be farther from the truth.
12. The depiction was so successful, that the Nazis even made a film on how the Jews lived
in comfort at Theresienstadt. After the film was released, the Nazis killed everyone
involved in making the film, to keep the whole operation a secret. (Theresienstadt: Red
Cross Visit, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007463)

Allied Propaganda:
1. The US produced lots of posters, which promoted a positive message among Americans.
These posters were to create a sense of patriotism in Americans. (Robert Heide and
John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era,
p.36)

2. Piggybacking on the War Effort, many companies made advertisements around the War,
and saw their sales skyrocket. For example: Lucy Strike claimed that the change in color
in its packaging was to save bronze for the war. Coca Cola, in its advertisements depicted
members of the armed forces drinking its drink. (Robert Heide and John Gilman,
Home Front America: Popular Culture of the World War II Era p 128-9)

3. Comics played a part in the spreading Allied Propaganda. Superheroes were shown to
battle Axis Spies (Robert Heide and John Gilman, Home Front America: Popular
Culture of the World War II Era p 84).
High-ranking German Officials, such as Adolf Hitler, were depicted as children having
temper tantrums (Race and Racism in Marvel Comics,
http://marvel.wikia.com/Race_and_Racism_in_Marvel_Comics)
After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour, many comics depicted the Japanese as
barbarians. Americans were portrayed as superior to the Japanese. Japanese were
depicted with yellow skin, buck-toothed and very small eyes.
Images: (i)

(ii)

(iii)

4. Slogans such as n Kill Japs, kill Japs, kill more Japs and Remember Pearl
Harborkeep em dying. were used to create a feeling of enmity against the
Japanese.

5. The US had entire fleets of Airplanes dedicated to dropping Pamphlets to


spread messages to people in locations where they were either afraid or
could not listen to the radio. The fact that the US was so productive that it
could divert Airplanes for these mundane jobs, weakened enemy morale.
(Anthony Rhodes, Propaganda: The art of persuasion: World War II, p. 146.)

6. Radio was used to a great extent, with radio addresses by Roosevelt being extremely
popular.
7. Animated Cartoons, which were earlier reserved only for children, now was used to
promote Allied Propaganda, improve morale, training and further poke fun at the enemy.
8. To make more people join the War Effort, propagandists conveyed messages such that the
person viewing the propaganda media, would feel guilty or feel that he/she will

personally lose if he/she doesnt contribute (Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the
Riveter: Class, Gender and Propaganda during World War II, p.126)

Japanese Propaganda WW2


1. Japanese Propaganda revolved around opposing Western Cultural Dominance, and
offered a different way of life to that of the Western Side of the world.
2. Slogans such as "National Unity" and "One Hundred Million With One Spirit"
were used extensively.

3. The Film Law of 1939 banned films that focused on certain topics and social issues and
instead supported films which instilled unity among the people of Japan and elevated
National Consciousness (James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History p.441)
4. Japanese Films were showed not only in Japan but also in other conquered Asian
Countries. These films showed Japan as the savior against the Western Way of life. It
portrayed American people as overly-indulgent, greedy and lazy (Brcak, N., & Pavia, J.
R., Racism in japanese and U.S. wartime propaganda.Historian 56(4), 671.)

5. Spy Films became more popular once an all out war was declared. Costume Films were
also released, to fill the people with a sense of Nation Pride. (Desser, D. "From the
opium war to the pacific war: Japanese propaganda films of world war II."
p.32-48)

6. Films revolved around the ideas of loyalty to the Emperor and self-sacrifice for the
greater good, as these ideas formed a core part of Japanese Culture.
7. Magazines were filled with stories of heroism, and magazines often explained the reason
of the war was the Westerns desire to rule the world.
8. Cartoons were extensively used to improve morale, instill a sense of patriotism and create
a sense of hatred for the enemy (Haruko Taya Cook and Theodore F. Cook, Japan At
War: An Oral History, p.96)

9. In Japan, Kamishibai (Paper-Plays), where the performer uses picture scrolls to narrate
the story, was very popular. These plays played upon Japanese Ideals such as Patriotism,
service to the Nation, and instructional messages. ("Die for Japan: Wartime
Propaganda Kamishibai (paper plays; )",

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFavUjEYc7Y)
10. Similar to the Nazis, Japanese Propaganda included rewritted Propagandist textbooks.
Control over education was tight, with regular inspection by officers.

These textbooks taught that the Japanese were not only the most superior race, but also
that Japan was the only splendid nation (Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the
Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army, p.173)

Israel Palestine Propaganda War:


(a)

Israel
1. Former generals describe the Hamas in the worst way possible, swinging the
public opinion in favor of Israel
2. Israel Media avoids displaying any content that could make people sympathize
with Palestine (Propaganda War, http://www.economist.com/news/middle-eastand-africa/21612240-both-sides-consume-fantasy-news-propaganda-war)
Examples:

3.

(i)

An Radio Presenter cut off a Palestinian he was interviewing, when the


Palestinan started discussing about death tolls

(ii)

BTselem, a human rights group, was stopped from putting up


advertisements asking to reveal the names of Palestinian
Children who died in the struggle

Israel has many social-media accounts on all major Social Networking


sites, where it spreads biased news with the sole reason to shift the
public opinion in favor of the Israelis. (Israelis and Hamas clash on Social

Media, Harriet Sherwood, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/16/israelhamas-clash-social-media)

Examples:

(i)

The IDF has posted several infographics, with some showing how
the Hamas use Palestinian Homes as military command centres
and weapon-storage facilities

(ii)

It posted several tweets about the missiles being fired from Gaza, and used
the trending Hashtags #WorldCup and #GERvsARG, and asked its
followers to retweet these tweets, to get maximum reach

4. Israel also has recruited hundreds of students to spread its message on social
media. These students are Israels online presence, and engage in social
interactions with the sole mission of spreading Israels message and views.
((Israelis and Hamas clash on Social Media, Harriet Sherwood,
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/16/israel-hamas-clash-social-media)
5. Many students also have Facebook Pages and websites such as
israelunderfire.com which post in multiple languages to maximize reach.
(b)

Hamas Palestine

1. The Hamas too maintain an array of Social Media accounts to promote Hamas
Propaganda in various languages (Israelis and Hamas clash on Social Media, Harriet
Sherwood, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/16/israel-hamas-clash-socialmedia)
2. It sends mass-emails (saying things like we will destroy you) to Israelis to intimidate
them. (Propaganda War, http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-andafrica/21612240-both-sides-consume-fantasy-news-propaganda-war)
3. Many TV Channels are now tuned in to the Hamas Satellites, which praise Islamic Jihad,
and also show footage depicting invading Palestinians as brave, while Israelis supposedly
cower in fear
4. Hamas also have hacked into several of Israels TV Channels to warn the Israeli Public of
its military power
5. Hamas also has a trending Hashtag #GazaUnderAttack to gain public support.

Modern day information manipulation in


media
(a) North Korea
1. North Korean Media depicts North Koreans as the purest of races,
and the US to be a force of evil (Myers, 2010, p. 135)

2. North Korea originally depicted South Korea as a poverty stricken


land, but even with tight control, too much information had
reached North Korea. North Korea had to admit that South
Koreas citizens were living in comfort. (Myers , 2010, p. 152)

3. The North Korean Government didnt admit that there was a


famine, and just revealed that it was a food shortage, and
spread false information that North Korea was doing much better
than the world.

4. North Korea uses posters to instill a feeling of patriotism within


North Koreans. Posters were also used to deliver messages
opposite that of what was really happening, and posters were
made such that Kim Jong Uns family identity is inseparable from
that of North Korea. (Check Out These Twisted North Korean
Propaganda Posters, http://www.businessinsider.com/kim-jong-il-kimjong-un-north-korea-propoganda-2011-12?IR=T)

5. Posters also showed people what to wear for every occasion


(Gallery Show for North Korean Propaganda,
http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainmen
t/visual_arts/article3863801.ece)

6. The North Korean Film Industry is run by the Government, and


makes films which portrays North Korean Life as glorious, and
portrays Western Civilization as evil.

7. Communication of North Korea with the outside world is


extremely limited, leading to North Korea spreading untruths.
Examples:

(i)

The Chosun Libo originally reported that Kim Chol was


executed for drinking during a period of mourning, and
the news hit all the major outlets. It was only later
realized that the news was untrue. (Was a North Korean
General Really Executed by Mortar Fire?,
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/10/31/was_a_nort
h_korean_general_really_executed_by_mortar_fire?page=0,1)

8. Uriminzokkiri is a North Korean News Website delivering propaganda


news from North Koreas Central News Agency. It offers news in various
languages, including Korean, Russian, English, etc,

9. Propaganda Leaflets were dropped into South Korea, delivering


messages that North Korea was superior to South Korea. (North
Korea drops Propaganda Leaflets over border,
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/northkorea/958
0747/North-Korea-drops-propaganda-leaflets-over-border.html)

(b) Russia Ukraine Propaganda


1. Russia has spread several myths to shift the opinion of the
public.

(c)

(i)

Crimea and Ukraine were claimed to be Russian, when in


reality not even 50% of the people there were Russian.

(ii)

Russia claimed that from the time since the Kiev


Government was overthrown, Eastern Ukranians were
asking for Russian Protection from the new Government.
But in reality, only 8% preferred military protection from
Russia

(iii)

Russia claims that the troops in Ukraines Donbas Region


are separatists, while in reality the so called separatists
were comprised largely of Russian Soldiers. This deception
allowed Russia to claim to the Media that it had no
involvement in the conflict

USA NSA Propaganda


(i)

The NSA fed false propaganda information to Journalists, to


sway the publics opinion in favor of the NSA

(ii)

The NSA wanted the journalists to write articles that created a


notion of fear amongst the public against whistleblowers

(iii)

Major publications published articles claiming that


whistleblowing incidents could lead to deaths.