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Republics and Factions

Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed. Cato No. 3

History has shown that the republican form of government works best in small
areas, where the citizens are similar in wealth and values. Those people are more
likely to have the civic virtues necessary for working towards the common good of
their area. These United States cover a vast amount of territory, and includes very
diverse people with many different interests. They will not be able to agree on what
is necessary for the good of all states.
Federalists: Fed. No. 10
History has shown that small republics are destroyed by the self-serving interests of
a few, rather than all working towards the common good. An organized central
government with checks and balances and with power divided between the federal
and state governments will work. This form of government will make it difficult for
special interest groups to pursue their objectives against the will of the people.
Power of the Federal Government
Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed. Centinel No. 1
Under the Constitution as written, too much power is given to the federal
government, and too much power is taken away from the states. TheSupremacy
Clause makes all federal laws superior to the laws of each state, opening the door to
the destruction of state sovereignty.
Federalists: Fed. No. 51
The federal government will have more power under the new Constitution than it
did under the Articles of Confederation; however, those powers are limited. The
only tasks the federal government may address are those that affect the nation as a
whole, such as defense, trade, and currency. A strong central government is
necessary in order to complete those tasks. The Constitution will protect the
governments of the individual states.
The Elastic Clause
Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed No. 46
The Necessary and Proper Clause is too vague, and can be interpreted in too many
ways. This clause gives too much power to the federal government there are

many dangers of the federal government using this clause to gain more power over
the states and individuals. There must be a list clearly defining the powers of the
federal government, in order to place clear limits upon it.
Federalists: Fed. No. 44
The Necessary and Proper Clause is needed, so that the federal government is able
to address the tasks for which it is responsible.
The Executive Branch
Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed. No. 67
The Constitution provides the Executive branch of the federal government with too
much power, enabling it to potentially become a form of monarchy.
Federalists: Fed. No. 69
The Executive branch of the federal government needs to be strong, so that it can
perform its duties. The federal government is divided into three branches, with
checks and balances, so that no one branch can overpower the others.
Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed. No. 9
A free and republic government must have the active involvement of the people it
represents. The seat of the federal government is too far away from the majority of
the people, which prevents them from being active participants. This can lead to
Federalists: Fed. No. 47
The federal government will be effective and fair in protecting the rights of the
states and of the people, thus earning their trust. The limits imposed upon the
federal government through the separation of powers and checks and balances will
prevent it from becoming tyrannical.
Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists: Anti-Fed. No. 84

There is no list of rights held by the people and states in the Constitution. Such a
list is necessary to protect the people from abuses by the federal government.
Federalists: Fed. No. 84
There is no need for a list of rights guaranteed to the individual and the states. The
powers of the federal government are limited, and to include such a listing would
suggest that the individual can only expect to have those rights listed protected.