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Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

ideas, questions and skills)

Learning goals
(Based on National
Curriculum for England,
GCSE or IB Diploma
statements)

Thinkers

Number of periods

3.1 Thermal Physics


About this topic (key

Reflective

Thermal physics deftly demonstrates the links between the macroscopic measurements
essential to many scientific models with the microscopic properties that underlie these
models.

Describe temperature change in terms of internal energy

Use the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales and convert between them

Year

12

Describe phase change in terms of molecular behaviour


Sketch and interpret phase change graphs

Assessment

Assumed prior learning


(Refer to topics covered in
previous years)

Apply the calorimetric techniques of specific heat capacity or specific latent heat experimentally

Calculate energy changes involving specific heat capacity and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization

Baby bottle steriliser project


Key definitions spot test
End of topic test
Temperature and heat (thermal energy) are covered in KS3 Science. Students will be familiar with the kinetic theory of matter and
the basic properties of solids, liquids and gases.

Evaluation of prior
learning

Sense perceptions of temperature (session 1).

Links to ToK

ToK and Physics Sense perception


Observation through sense perception plays a key role in making measurements. Does sense perception play different roles in
different areas of knowledge?
When does modelling of ideal situations become good enough to count as knowledge?

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Thinkers

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Session: 1

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Think about how our senses sometimes deceive


us.
Understand the difference between heat energy,
internal energy and temperature.

Differentiation
possibilities
Language for
learning

Caring

Sense perception, temperature and heat

Learning objectives

Higher order
thinking skills
questions

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Learning activities and products


Activity sheet ToK and Physics Sense perception
Students learn about their perception of hot and cold,
temperature and temperature scales using images and a
practical activity. They produce a word document of their
ideas.

Inquirers

Reflective

Number of periods:

Thinkers

Resources
1 bucket of hot water from tap (45 degs), iced water
and water at room temperature.

Explain why your hand feels cold when you touch a metal chair and feels warm when you touch a wooded table, despite the fact that both
objects are at the same temperature.
Create your own temperature scale.

By outcome
Hot, cold, temperature.

Notes

Session: 2

A model for temperature and thermal energy

Learning objectives
Understanding:

Learning activities and products


Class discussion what is the difference between heat

Number of periods:
Resources
PhET states of matter simulation

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Session: 2

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

A model for temperature and thermal energy

Molecular theory of solids, liquids and


gases

Temperature and absolute temperature

Internal energy

Phase change

(energy) and temperature using a basic model of


molecules gaining energy (pupil modelling).

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Number of periods:

Thinkers

1 Joule energy cards

PhET states of matter simulation Describe phase


changes and sketch phase change graphs discuss
specific and latent heat.

Applications and skills:


Describing temperature change in terms
of internal energy

Using Kelvin and Celsius temperature


scales and converting between them

Describing phase change in terms of


molecular behaviour

Sketching and interpreting phase


change graphs

Higher order
thinking skills
questions
Differentiation
possibilities

Explain the difference in behaviour between particles in a substance that is undergoing a temperature increase and particles in a substance that
is undergoing a change of state.

By outcome

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Thinkers

Language for
learning

Thermal energy, temperature, internal energy, Celsius, Kelvin,

Notes

Evidence through experimentation: Scientists from the 17th and 18th centuries were working without the knowledge of atomic structure and
sometimes developed theories that were later found to be incorrect, such as phlogiston and perpetual motion capabilities. Our current
understanding relies on statistical mechanics providing a basis for our use and understanding of energy transfer in science. (1.8)
Temperature (explanation) a scalar quantity that gives an indication of how hot or cold a body is. Example of hand on cold metal and hot
poker.
Temperature (definition) - (measured in Kelvin) is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance.
Thermal (heat) energy the kinetic energy of particles that make up matter. The more thermal energy an object has the hotter it is.
Thermal equilibrium Two objects placed in thermal contact will eventually end up with the same temperature provided there is no additional
source of thermal energy. Thermal energy will flow from the hot object to the cold object until they reach thermal equilibrium.
Comparison of temperature scales (for interest only!) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Comparison_of_temperature_scales
Conversions
Celsius Kelvin add 273
Kelvin Celsius subtract 273
Internal energy = the total energy of all the molecules (KE & PE) in a substance. Heating a substance (giving it more thermal energy) increases
its internal energy.
The thermal energy is divided between the molecules of the substance. The molecules possess this internal energy as PE and random KE.
KE = translational (moving) + rotational + vibrational energy
PE = energy due to bonds between molecules + energy due to intermolecular forces.
A gas has more PE than a liquid. A liquid has more PE than a solid.

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Thinkers

Melting thermal energy is used to break intermolecular bonds thus increasing the potential energy of the substance.
Freezing the potential energy of the substance is transferred to thermal energy as the molecules bond together.
Boiling liquid turns to gas at one specific temperature (the boiling point), and happens throughout the liquid (hence the formation of bubbles in
boiling water).
Evaporation Liquid turns to gas at a temperature below the boiling point. Faster, more energetic molecules on the surface of the liquid escape
from the liquid causing the average KE of the liquid to decrease. Evaporation causes cooling of the liquid left behind.

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Session: 3

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Understanding:

Learning activities and products


Baby bottle steriliser learning by investigation

Specific heat capacity

Phase change

Specific latent heat

Resources
3.1 Baby bottle steriliser investigation sheet
Apparatus for the following experiments:

3.1 practical - Latent Heat of Vaporisation


3.1 practical - Specific heat capacity - Electrical
Method

Applications and skills:


Applying the calorimetric techniques of
specific heat capacity or specific latent
heat experimentally

Thinkers

Number of periods:

Specific heat capacity and latent heat

Learning objectives

Reflective

Calculating energy changes involving


specific heat capacity and specific latent
heat of fusion and vaporization

Higher order
thinking skills
questions

Design and conduct an investigation to find the useful power output of a microwave oven.

Differentiation
possibilities

Different sources of information and example questions..

Language for
learning

Specific heat capacity, Specific latent heat, phase change, internal energy, temperature, calorimeter.

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Notes

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Thermal (heat) capacity (C) the amount of energy required to raise an objects temperature by 1 Kelvin.
C = Q / T
Q = heat energy T = temp change
Specific heat capacity (c) the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 Kelvin.
c = heat energy given to substance / mass x change in temperature
c = Q / m T
Q = heat energy m = mass T = temp change
Heating substance gains thermal energy as its molecules gain KE.
Cooling substance loses thermal energy as its molecules lose KE
Specific latent heat the amount of thermal energy absorbed or released per kg of substance during a change of state.
Latent heat of vaporisation liquid to gas or gas to liquid
Latent heat of fusion solid to liquid or liquid to solid
L = thermal energy absorbed or released / mass
L = Q / m

Thinkers

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Session: 4

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Caring

Applying calorimetric techniques

Learning objectives
Understanding:

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Specific heat capacity

Learning activities and products

Thinkers

Resources

Circus of practical activities designed to develop thorough


understanding of calorimetric techniques.

2 x 250ml beakers, hot water & thermometer.


3.1 practical - Latent Heat of Fusion by method of
mixtures

Phase change

Specific latent heat

3.1 practical - Specific heat capacity of lead shot

Reflective

Number of periods:

Example calculation and demo of mixing water at different


temperatures.

Applications and skills:


Applying the calorimetric techniques of
specific heat capacity or specific latent
heat experimentally

Inquirers

3.1 practical - Specific heat capacity of lead shot

3.1 practical - Latent Heat of Fusion by method of mixtures

Calculating energy changes involving


specific heat capacity and specific latent
heat of fusion and vaporization

Higher order
thinking skills
questions

200g of water at 40C is mixed with 100g of water at 20C. Estimate the final temperature of the water.

Differentiation
possibilities

By outcome

Language for
learning

Specific heat capacity, Specific latent heat, phase change, internal energy, temperature, calorimeter.

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Notes

Risk-takers

See session 3 notes

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Thinkers

Physics

Scheme of work

Topic 3.1 Thermal Physics (SL)


Open-minded

Session: 5

Risk-takers

Knowledgeable

Communicators
Balanced
Principled

IB practice questions and topic test

Learning objectives
Topic objectives from sessions 2 to 5

Learning activities and products


3-1 IB questions - heat loss and sweating
3-1 IB questions - SHC data analysis
Topic 3.1 test

Higher order
thinking skills
questions
Differentiation
possibilities

By outcome

Language for
learning

See sessions 1 to 5

Notes

See sessions 1 to 5

Caring

Inquirers

Reflective

Number of periods:
Resources
Question sheets on blog

Thinkers