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energy Notes Sheet

stochemetric-no excess air, excess air, depletion of air


Complete cumbustion-CO2 & H2O hydrocarbons
?write a balanced stochemetric reaction for complete combustion of hexane (C6H14)
?write balanced EQ and determine AF ratio w/ 40% excess air =1.4%theoretical
?determine dew point of H2O vapor in products
?mass flow rate of air ?rate of heat transfer? what changes with 100% excess air O2 N2 less power

1 m fuel=

2 AF=

[ ]
kg
kmol

mair N airmair 4.7629


=
=
mfuel
mfuel
m fuel

3
C 6 H 14 + ( O2 +3.76 N 2 ) C O 2 + H 2O+3.76 N 2 look at fuel find amount of CH

4
C 6 H 14 +9.5 ( O2+ 3.76 N 2 ) 6 C O2 +7 H 2 O+9.53.76 N 2 balance C O2H 2 O
4a
C 6 H 14 +13.3 ( O 2+3.76 N 2 ) 6 C O2+ 7 H 2 O+ 3.8O 2 +50 N 2 40 execess air wit h hexane

5 ( O2 +3.76 N 2 ) used find balanced equation


6 is mutiplied by t h e percent of air exess , depletion,t h eoretical
T DP=T sat @ Pv temperature dew point isobaric (constant pressure)
T WB temperature wet bulb adiabatic
T DB=outside air

Pv =Pm

N H 2O
N H2O
7
=101.3 kpa
=Pm
sat table A4 find dew point
Nm
6 +7+3.8+50
N C O + N H O+ N O + N N

( )

) (

C8 H 18+ 12.5 ( O2+3.76 N 2 ) 8C O2+ 9 H 2 O+ 47 N 2 balance for octane


C8 H 18+ 18.75 ( O 2+3.76 N 2 ) 8C O2+ 9 H 2 O+6.25 O2+70.5 N 2 balance 50 exess airfor octane

AF ( m
) fuel =m
air
q= N P ( hf + hh ) P N R ( h f +hh ) R if negative exot h ermic gives off heat

A F act ual
A F t h eo

Pv Nv
Nv
=
=
Ptot N tot N v + N dryair

Pv
N dryair
P tot
N v=
P
1 v
Ptot

?combustion of gases fuel w/ moist air?dew point temp of H2O in product

72 C H 4 3 C O2 9 H 2 12 N 2 2 O2

.72C H 4 +.09 H 2+.14 N 2+.02 O2 +.03C O2+ ath ( O2 +3.76 N 2 ) ? C O2+ ? H 2 O+? N 2 a th=N air of vapor air
Pv =P gT at saturationtemp
DB

C H 4 +2 O2 C O2 +2 H 2 O stoch combustionmethane C H 4
C H 4 +2 O 2 +7.52 N 2 C O2+2 H 2 O+7.52 N 2 stoch combustionmethane C H 4 balanced with air
C H 4 +3 O 2 +11.28 N 2 C O2 +2 H 2 O+11.28 N 2 +O 2 stoch combustionmethane C H 4 balanced 50 %exess
C H 4 +1.8 O2 +6.76 N 2 .9 C O2+ 1.8 H 2 O+6.76 N 2 +.1C +.4 H methane C H 4 balanced 10 %difficiency

q =m f Q HV comb (1f Qloss )

mf =

m(1f ex )
AF+1

m=

PV
Ra T

All EXACT equations should match of with Psychometric Chart

specific humidity

sat =

.622( P gT
PP gT

WB

relative humidity

Pv =P gT at saturationtemp
DB

WB

P=Pa + P v

c p( T WBT DB ) + sat(hfgT ) kg water vapor mv


=
=
h gT hf T
kg dry air
ma

WB

DB

WB

hdry air =c pT DB + hgT

DB

v DA=

P
( .622+ )P gT

DB

RaT DB
PPv

PV =ZN Ru T
avacadr o' s =6.0231026

[ kmol
]

mass fraction mm = mi mf =
i=1

Mole fraction N m = N i y i=
i=1

k
mi
mf i=1
mm i=1

k
Ni
y i=1
N m i=1

massmole fractions are related mf =


i

average molar mass of mixture M m =

gas consta nt R air =

mi
NM
M
= i i = yi i
mm N m M m
Mm

mm mi N i M i k
=
=
= y i M i
Nm
Nm
Nm
i=1

Ru
kJ
Ru =8.31447
M air
kmolK

][

kPam
kmolK

M air =? 28+? 32 percentagesof consituents of air mutiplied by the individual molar mass
GibbsDalton law : si =s i ,2si , 1Ri ln

Pi , 2
T
P
c p , i ln i , 2 R i ln i ,2
Pi , 1
Ti,1
Pi ,1

T 2 P 2 K K1
C pm
isenetropic relationship =
K=
R =R air =C pmC vm
T1 P1
C vm m

Qout =H RH P enthalpy of RX h L =H P H R

LHV H 2 O vapor q out

HHV =LHV + m
liquidh fg

Pi ,1= y i , 1 Pm , 1 Pi ,2 = y i ,2 Pm ,2