PR Exam Tuesday 15th March

Definition of Public Relations – • The reciprocal creation of meaning (Ticehurst, 85) • Public relations are the management function concerned with communication. It includes understanding issues and analyzing public attitudes which may have an impact on an organization, and planning and implementing communication initiatives. Definition of Communication – • Human communication is the action of people talking, listening, seeing, feeling and reacting to each other, their experiences, and their environment. • Communication is the management of messages for the purpose of creating meaning. Exactly what the Theory of Consent is in both of its parts – 1. In modern democracy every organization from the National Government to the corner store survives ultimately by public consent. 2. Consent cannot exist in a communication vacuum. Without communication we wouldn’t know what it or they are – we cannot give consent unless we know what it or they are. How we give consent in society – • Consent through spending as we live in a consumer society • Consent through voting • Consent through volunteering • Consent through silence – “silence breeds consent” What is Encoding and Decoding – • The message must be in a language (encoding), that the receiver will understand (decoding) • The message must go through a channel that will effectively reach the receiver and deliver the desired message • T=It will also answer the question “whats in it for me”





Gruning Model of Communication –
MODELS PURPOSE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION One-way, Truth not essential, sender to receiver Not much, press clippings, based on who many people went PT BARNUM Sports, Theatre, Product Promotion, Music 15% No public consultation, Media Release only. Publicity one-way, Persuaded with Myth and promise PRESS AGENTRY Propaganda PUBLIC INFORMATION Dissemination of Information One-way, truth important. Sender to receiver. Little-Readability tests possibly, readership surveys (brochure) IVY LEE Government, Non-Profit Orgs, Structured Companies 50% TWO-WAY ASYMMETRIC Scientific Persuasion Two-way imbalanced. Truthful Feedback, Formative, Research, Evaluation of attitudes EDWARD BERNAYS Competitive Business TWO-WAY SYMMETRIC Mutual Understanding Two-way balanced, Truth essential Formative research, Evaluation of understanding



BERNAYS EDUCATORS Government, regulated business and modern flat structured companies 15% Great in theory, but doesn’t always work. It works for Banking and Solicitors.

20% More information given out then returned

Who used the Models, Who is Edward Burnays – • The nephew of Sigmund Freud • considered one of the fathers of the field of public relations • Bernays was one of the first to attempt to manipulate public opinion using the psychology of the subconscious • Bernays had a particular gift for the marketing strategy called the "tie-up" or "tiein" -- in which one venue or opportunity or occasion for promoting a consumer product, for example, radio advertising, is linked to another, say, newspaper advertising • self proclaimed ‘inventor’, in the early twenties, of the public relations profession • He was the first to apply his famous uncle’s ideas to convincing consumers to buy superfluous goods and services by connecting them, through communication and events, to their unconscious desires.

The 5 Criteria of a good Objective are – 1. The objective is not specific 2. The objective is measurable 3. It is achievable 4. It is relative 5. It is timely Explain the 10 Steps of PR Programming – 1. BACKGROUND – what you want to know and how you are going to know it 2. SITUATION ANALYSIS – strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats 3. OBJECTIVES – outcome & outputs 4. RESEARCH – developmental, attitudinal, evaluation 5. TARGET PUBLICS – primary, mediating and secondary audiences 6. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY 7. IMPLIMENTATION – media used = features and purpose 8. BUDGET – how much everything will cost 9. RESULTS – of implementation 10. EVALUATION – of objectives In the 4 Phase Model, What are the 4 Steps of General Theory – • Research & Understanding • Planning & Programming • Performing & Executing • Evaluation What are the Differences between Output and Outcome? Write the differences for a Particular Story – • Communication is an outcome – not an output or a series of outputs • Communication is achieved when an audience receives, understands, retains and acts on information • Objectives have to be results orientated, and need to have outcomes. The outcome should be a measurable change of opinion, attitude or behavior. • OUTCOME – what we want to have happen • OUTPUT – things we have to do to achieve the outcome (surveys, newsletters) • One output can have many outcomes. What are the differences for Primary and Mediating Publics, also Latent and Aware Publics – • PRIMARY – the main group we are targeting • MEDIATING – a public we communicate through to get your story heard by your primary audience (smh / radio / channel 9 news) • LATENT – are audiences that are waiting to be engaged • AWARE – are audiences that know but aren’t doing anything about it

ACTIVE – are in the know and are doing something about it.

What are the 4 levels of Australian Media – • Public media – ABC / SBS / Community (tax payers & sometimes advertising) • Commercial media – Radio / TV / Print (media as a business) • Cable / pay TV – Foxtel / Austar / Tarbs • Internet & online media What are the 2 Basic Rules for Internal Communication – • All members of a specific internal public need to get the same message • All members must get the message at the same time (or access to it) List 5 Important Rules for Writing a Media Release – • Always include a meaningful title • Always end your media release with a line or ENDS • Always include a quote from a relevant person • Use short, succinct paragraphs of no more then 5 lines • Limit your release to no more then 2 pages and it must be 1.5 spaced • Use pyramid inverted method – hard news to soft news List the 12 Rules of Journalism – 1. Localism 2. Celebrities and Sports stars 3. Politicians 4. Tall Poppies 5. The struggle 6. Children 7. Pets and Animals 8. Royals 9. Money 10. Sex 11. The unusual 12. Crisis & Disaster List the Types and Methods (advantages + disadvantages) of VNR’s – • VNR Scripted – contains a scripted journalistic voice-over • VNR Compile – a simple collection of video footage and interview grabs • Disadvantages – your story may not be used, media may edit and info will be lost. Why use a Media Distribution Company (list downsides) – • Constructs the media list • Ensures that the journalists get the story at the same time • Comes with a media net credibility

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Large distribution quickly Disadvantages – expensive to get the media monitor, loss of control over who gets the story.

What is Embargo and why would you use it – • The embargo means the use of the media Release is restricted until the time and date specified on the written material. • These should only be used when there is a specific and justified reason such as a legal matter with a pending court decision What is the difference between PR and Marketing – • PR is in the business of building relationships • Marketing is in the business of making money. The main elements are product, price, distribution, and promotion. Crisis Management (read – It took just one Spark pg 133), what are the lessons – 1. Give out the facts, don’t be tempted to place the blame else where 2. Understand the differing demand of the media – different deadlines, types of programs. Give each outlet what it needs at the time it needs the information. 3. Control the flow of information, and always be available 4. Never say “no comment”, it’s the kiss of death 5. Have a spokesperson ready and trained to step into the breach, this means having 2 just in case. Always use the same person in front of the media. 6. Make sure the spokesperson has all the facts not just a sanitized version 7. To ensure a spokesperson has all the facts make sure they are from the management team which assesses the incoming flow of information 8. Always wrap up an issue, whether in a one-on-one phone interview for radio or news conference. Don’t let issues drift into the public arena 9. Always release an end point for the public, which signifies an end to the crisis. What are Hugh Mackays’ 10 Laws of Communication – 1. It’s not what our message does to the listener, but what the listener does with our message, that determines our success as communicators. 2. Listeners generally interpret messages in ways which make them feel comfortable and secure. 3. When peoples attitudes are attacked head-on, they are likely to defend those attitudes, and in the process, to reinforce them. 4. People pay most attention to messages which are relevant to their own circumstances and point of view. 5. People who feel insecure in a relationship are unlikely to be good listeners. 6. People are more likely to listen to us if we listen to them. 7. People are more likely to change in response to a combination of new experiences and communication then in response to communication alone. 8. People are more likely to support a change which affects them if they are consulted before the change is made.

9. The message in what is said will be interpreted in the light on HOW, WHEN and WHERE and by WHOM it is said. 10. Lack of self-knowledge and unwillingness to resolve our own internal conflicts make it harder for us to communicate with other people.

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