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Turbomachaninery Fluid Mechanics

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You are on page 1of 15

We obtain the general energy equation by combining the first law of

thermodynamics and the transport theorem. For a system, conservation

of energy can be written as,

Net rate of transfer of Rate of change of

W dE

Q

dt system

.(1)

Note: Heat and work are both energy. In general energy can be classified

in two groups

1. Mechanical energy

Work

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

2. Thermal energy

Heat

Internal Energy

- Chemical Energy

- Nuclear Energy

energies are associated with temperature, molecular structure and heat

transfer.

1

edm ed

Esys

sys

M sys

and

V2

eu

gz

2

.(2)

transport theorem

dN

d V dA

dt system t C

CS

To derive energy equation for a control volume, we set N=E and =e, then

dE

V

dA

dt system t C

CS

.(3)

Note that in deriving transport equation, the system and control volume

coincided at t = t0, hence we can write

Q W

system

Q W

control volume

.(4)

Q W

ed eV dA

t C

CS

.(5)

Q ? W ?

Control Volume

work done

by pressure

work done

against pressure

moving fluid

particles

work transmitted by a

rotating shaft

work might be done on or by the fluid inside the control volume as shown

in the figure above

1. Shaft Work ( W

s

shaft or a turbine output shaft that is cut by the control surface. This

work is done by shear stresses in the cut shaft, so it is somewhat similar

to shear work. Shaft work is sometimes called pump work or turbine

work if these devices are present.

2. Work Done on the Control Surface by Normal Stresses (Pressure

Work):

Pressure work is done by fluid pressure acting on the boundaries of the

control volume.

W F ds

Rate of the work

W

F ds

W lim

lim

F V

t 0 t

t 0 t

3

The rate of work done on an element of area dA of the control surface by

normal stress is given by

dF V nndA V

The total rate of work done on the entire surface by normal stresses is

given by (Since the work out across the boundaries of the control volume

is the negative of the work done on the control volume)

Wnormal nn dA V nnV dA

CS

Note:

CS

nn p

Hence,

Wnormal

pV dA

. (6)

CS

Shear work is done by shear stresses in the fluid acting on boundaries of

the control volume. Similar to normal work,

Wshear VdA

CS

dF dA

We often choose a control volume with control surfaces lying adjacent to

solid boundaries, and with control surfaces cutting through inlet and

outlet ports. Hence, the shear work can be expressed as two terms

Wshear

VdA

A( Solid

Surface)

VdA

A ( ports )

At solid surfaces V 0, so the first term is zero (for a fixed control volume)

The last term can be made zero by proper choice of control surfaces. If

we choose a control surface that cuts across each port perpendicular to

the flow, then dA is parallel to V and hence, is perpendicular to V.

Thus, for control surfaces perpendicular to V

V 0

and

Wshear 0

Q Ws

pV dA Wshear Wother t ed eV dA

CS

C

CS

where

V2

eu

gz

2

u p h

Substituting

pV dA pV dA

Q Ws Wshear Wother

ed e p eV dA

t C

CS

Note: W

shear is zero if there is no control surface that lies within a

moving fluid

Fluid is at rest at solid boundary. Shear stress

does no work

V

If the control surface is

perpendicular to the flow, shear

stress does no work,

moving fluid

300 K and P1 = 90 kPa to discharge conditions T2 = 390 K and P2 = 310 kPa.

The air in the inlet pipe has a uniform velocity profile. The air in the

discharge pipe has a parabolic velocity profile given by

r 2

u umax 1

R2

where R2 is the inside radius of the of the discharge pipe. Elevation changes

are negligible, and the internal energy change of the air is given by

u2 u1 Cv T2 T1

Assuming steady flow and negligible heat transfer, find the power required

to drive the compressor.

u

u1

with

Cv 720 j / kgK

T2=390 K

P2=310 kPa

R2=0.25 m

1

T1=300 K

P1=90 kPa

R1=0.25 m

Assumptions:

Elevation changes are negligible

Steady flow

Heat transfer is negligible

.

Wshaft

.

m=6 kg/sn

.

Ws=?

ZM NOTLARDA

mechanical energy or shaft work. A turbine is installed in a dam as shown

in the figure. Water is permitted to flow through a passage way to the

turbine after which the water drains downstream. For the data given in the

figure, determine the power available to the turbine when the discharge at

the outlet is 30 m3/s.

Assumptions:

Steady flow

Incompressible flow

No heat transfer

Internal energy change can be neglected

ZM NOTLARDA

Usually, the uniform flow assumption is only an approximation and we

use average velocities and property values to calculate flow of energy at

various inlet and outlet planes. For accurate calculations, we must

carefully define the averages so that they truly represent associated

energy flows. In most cases, appropriate average values of u, p, and z

are readily apparent because these properties are often closely uniform

across the section.

Average Velocity is defined as

V dA

A

Since velocity is usually nonuniform, representing the kinetic energy flux

in terms of uniform velocity slightly more complicated.

V2

Ek

V dA

2

A

2

V

VA

Since velocity is not uniform, E k

2

1 3

2 V dA

1 3

V A

2

The true kinetic energy flux across a plane is

Ek V13 A

2

For flow in a circular pipe, ranges from 2 for fully developed laminar

flow to about 1.05 for fully developed turbulent flow.

Laminar flow

2.0

Turbulent flow

1.0

10

Energy Equation for a Flow in a Pipe

Assumptions

1. No shaft work

2. Incompressible flow

3. Steady flow

4. Internal energy and

pressure are uniform at cross

sections 1 and 2

Q W s W shear Wother

e

V

dA

t

C

CS

0

0

0

0

V2

eu

gz

2

p2 p1

V22

V12

u 2 u1 m

Qm

m g z 2 z1

V2 dA2

V1dA1

2

2

A2

A2

Note: At cross-sections 1 and 2 velocity profiles are nonuniform. However,

integrals in the above equation can be expressed in terms of average

velocity and kinetic energy correction factor, i.e.

A2

V2

V2

V2

V dA

V A

m

2

2

2

Therefore,

2

V2 2

p

p

V

2

1

1

Q m u2 u1 m

m g z2 z1 m 2

1

2

2

11

2

2

p1

p2

u2 u1 Q

V

V

1

2

1

z1

2

z2

2

2

g

gm

Q

m

thermodynamics),

gh f u2 u1 q

Here hf represents the loss of potential to perform useful work. It shows us

that the internal energy (and hence temperature) of an incompressible

fluid can be increased by two ways: heat transfer to the fluid and friction.

Only one effect can cause an internal energy decrease; namely heat

transfer from fluid, as ghf cannot be negative.

2

2

p1

p2

V

V

1

2

1

z1

2

z2 h f

g

g

2

2

EXTENDED

BERNOULLI

EQUATION

12

Example:

ad

here

An incompressible viscous

fluid flows between two

horizontal parallel plates as

shown. The plates are

spaced 0.5 cm apart and are

very wide perpendicular to

page. Flow is laminar and

velocity profile at any cross

section is given by,

2

Y 2 P y

u

1

2 L Y

= 850 kg/m3

average mechanical energy loss hf between the pressure gages. Then

show that mechanical energy loss also satisfies the equations

2

y d

gh f CV

m

where

Re

and

2

L V

gh f Re

Y 2

V Y

13

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

If the flow in a pipe is laminar, the fluid moves along smooth streamlines.

If the flow is turbulent, a rather violent mixing of the fluid occurs, and the

fluid velocity at a point varies randomly with time.

The difference between laminar and turbulent flows were classified by

Osborne Reynolds in 1883. Reynolds performed a series of experiments.

Pipe-flow transition experiment. (a) laminar flow. (b) High ReD, turbulent

flow. (c) Spark photograph of turbulent flow condition. (After O.

Reynolds, an experimental investigation of the circumstances which

determine whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous and of

the law of resistance in parallel channels, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., London,

A174:935982, 1883)

14

Reynolds experiments showed that the nature of the pipe flow depends

on the Reynolds number,

Re

V d

The flow in a constant area duct or pipe is said to be fully developed if the

shape of the velocity profile is the same at all cross sections.

Le

d

f (Re)

Le

d

0.06 Re

Le

d

laminar flow

15

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