Time Period A, 3000 BCE-750 BCE (PART I) and Time Period A, Ancient World (PART III) 1) Paleolithic

Age - 40,000-8,000 BC - also known as Old Stone Age, Ice Age falls in here - hunter-gatherer societies - oldest chopping tools, use of fire - language - burial of dead, belief in afterlife 2) Neolithic Age - 8,000 to 3,000 BC - also known as New Stone Age - switch to agricultural societies - tools, pottery, crop, livestock, farmers, domestication - personal possessions, calendar - decline in women’s status, increase in warfare 3) hominids 1. homo erectus- 1.5 million y.o. - “upright man” - technology, possibly language 2. Cro-Magnon- 40,000 y.o. - language, tools 3. Neanderthals- 30,000-20,000 y.o. - religion - well-built - survived 170,000 years before vanishing 4. homo sapiens - “wise man” - larger brains 4) culture 5) Neolithic Revolution - also agricultural revolution - switch from food gathering to food producing -sparked by warmer temps - slash and burn farming and domestication 6) civilization - def: society characterized by practice of agriculture and settlement in towns 1. advanced cities 2. specialized workers 3. complex institutions 4. record keeping 5. improved technology 7) Bronze Age - when civilizations begin metal work w/ bronze, aprox 3300-1200 BC in the Middle East 8) Mesopotamia - home to Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonains, Assyrians - location: between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 9) Fertile Crescent - A region of the Middle East arching across the northern part of the Syrian Desert and extending from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The civilizations of Egypt, Phoenicia, Assyria, and Babylonia

developed in this area, which was also the site of numerous migrations and invasions. 10) Sumer - An ancient country of southern Mesopotamia in present-day southern Iraq. Archaeological evidence dates the beginnings of Sumer to the fifth millennium B.C. By 3000 a flourishing civilization existed, which gradually exerted power over the surrounding area and culminated in the Akkadian dynasty, founded c. 2340 by Sargon I. Sumer declined after 2000 and was later absorbed by Babylonia and Assyria. The Sumerians are believed to have invented the cuneiform system of writing. 11) zigguraut - pyramid-temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of an ancient Sumerian city-state 12) cuneiform 13) polytheism 14) cultural diffusion 15) Babylon - capital of the Amorites after they defeat Sumerians in 2000 BCE - on Euphrates River 16) Hammurabi’s Code 17) Egypt 18) pharoah 19) Old/Middle/New Kingdom Egypt - Old Kingdom: 3200-2180 BCE - Narmer unites Upper (South) and Lower (North, contains delta where Nile enters Mediterranean) - theocracy - pyramids built - better nature made Egyptians more optimistic than Fertile Crescent cultures; for instance, a belief in the afterlife (heaven/hell like concepts) - division of classes, but all planned burials - end of Old Kingdom: decline in pharoahs’ power - Middle Kingdom: 2040-1630 BCE - canal means better trade and transportation - new farmland - time of prosperity -Invaders Rule: 1650-1570 BCE - called “Hyskos”, from Palestine - New Kingdom: 1575-1086 BCE - brought on by Hebrew Migration to Egypt (Abraham) - focus on building an empire - 1472 BCE: Hatsheput declares self ruler and brings on prosperous rule; encourages trade over war - 1425 BCE: Thutmose the Empire Builder (Hatsheput’s stepson) invades Palestine and Syria, commands more land than ever before - leads to conflict w/ Hittites - 1285 BCE: Ramses II and Hittite king make treaty at Kaldesh - decline due to attacks from sea and land - Libyans rule Egypt from 950 730 BCE, adopt Egyptian life - Nubians (Kushites) overthrow Libyans - Assyrians overthrow Nubians 20) hieroglyphics 21) Phoenicia

- 1100 BCE: most powerful traders on Mediterranean after Crete’s decline - wealthy city states, not country - Byblos, Tyre, Sidon- lived in Palestine - 1st to venture beyond Strait of Gibraltar 22) Minoans -2000-1400 BCE: lived on Crete, dominated E. Mediterranean - Knossos= capital city - legend of King Minos as being a minotaur 23) Israel/Judah - Israel: Hebrew kingdom united under Saul, David, and Solomon - later splits into two- N. Israel and S. Judah - fought for next 200 years 24) monotheism 25) torah - Hebrew Bible Time Period B, 750 BCE-500 CE (PART I) but STILL Time Period A, Ancient World (PART III) 26) Babylonian Captivity - 738 BCE:Israel and Judah forced to pay tribute to Assyria 27) Nubia - located S. of first Nile cataract - ruled by Egyptians (2000-1000 BCE) and then Libyans (950-750 BCE) once the Egyptians fell - felt they were better suited to lead Egypt than Libyans - 750 BCE: Piankhi leads overthrow - unites Nile Valley - fall to Assyrians in 671 BCE, flee to Meroe 28) Meroe - had iron ore, rainfall that contributed to wealth - trade along Red Sea - prosperous for 4 centuries (250 BCE to 150 CE) then declines - defeated by Aksum - leaves Assyrians in control of Egypt 29) Assyria - from 850-650 BCE, defeated Syria, Palestine, Babylonia - warrior ppl from N. Mesopotamia - war mentality came from constant invasions - empire: E and N of Tigris to Egypt - capital at Nineveh est. by Sennacherib - large library - peak in 650 BCE - decline: 612 BCE, Medes, Chaldeans burn Nineveh - many, including Hebrews, rejoice 30) Nineveh - Assyrian capital est. by Sennacherib near Tigris River 31) Chaldeans -reestablish capital at Babylon - Neo-Babylonians - restored by Nebcuhadnezzar, famous hanging gardens - falls to Persians 33) Satrap

34) Zoroaster 35) Trojan War - 1200s BCE: 10 year war b/w Mycneans and Troy (Anatolia) - Paris (Trojan) kidnaps Helen 36) Myceneans 38) Greek Dark Age - Dorians Time Period B, 750 BCE to 500 CE (PART I) and Time Period B, Classical World (PART III) 32) Persia 37) Homer 39) polis 40) Persian Wars 41) phalanx 42) Delian League 43) Peloponessian War 44) Socrates/Plato/Aristole 45) Herodotus -first Greek historian - pioneers accurate event reporting 46) Thycidides - Greek, greatest historian of Classical Age 47) Greek playwrights - Aeschylus wrote Oresteia - Sophocles wrote Oedipus, Antigone - wrote over 100 total - Euripides wrote Medea -featured strong women - Aristrophanes wrote The Birsd, Lysistrata 48) Alexander the Great - Macedonian - 336 BC: destroys Thebes, makes survivors slaves - learned from Aristotle, admired Achilles from Homer’s Odyssey - 334 BC: invades Persia - meet at Granicus River, Macedonians victorious - meet later at Issus River, Alexander surprises Darius, wins - Macedonians now hold Anatolia - Darius offers Alexander Persia’s land W of the Euphrates - Alexander refuses, wanting all of Persia - 336 BC: goes to Egypt (Persian territory) - Egyptians crown him pharaoh -name Alexandria for him - Alexander assembles 250,000 men to return to Mesopotamia and defeat Darius - uses phalanx, Darius flees - burns Persepolis - other conquests: India (Hydaspes River), Babylon - dies a couple days after taking Babylon, age 32 49) Hellenistic - Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture to new places - Greek, Persian, Egyptian, Indian cultures blended - Koine: popular language in Hellenistic cities

- Greek dialect - from Greek word for “common” 50) Alexandria - city named by Egyptians for Alexander the Great - main attraction= museum and library 51) republic 52) patricians 53) plebians 54) Twelve Tables 55) Punic Wars - 3 wars b/w Rome and Carthage (former Phonecian colony on N. African coast) 1. 264 BC- fight for control of Sicily and W. Mediterranean, Rome wins - lasts 23 years 2. 2-- BC- Carthagians led by Hannibal thru Spain, across France, over Alps - lasts over 10 years - 50,000 infantry, 9,000 calvary, 60 elephants - lost over ½ - 216 BC- greatest Carthage victory: Cannae - still, Romans keep Rome 3. 2--BC- Scipio leads Romans to match Carthage’s Hannibal - 202 BC: Romans defeat Hannibal at Zama (n. Carthage) - set city on fire, take 50,00 as slaves - significance of Punic Wars: victories give Rome control of Mediterranean 56) Hannibal - see above - Carthigian general in 2nd and 3rd Punic Wars 57) Gracchi - brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Grachus - redistribute land by dividing estates, public works - gain influence using mob violence - both patricians but worked for plebians - assassinated, considered traitors to class 58) Julius Caesar 59) Cleopatra 60) Augustus Caesar 61) Pax Romana 62) Marcus Aurelius - ruled from 161 CE to 180 CE - last of “Five Good Emperors of Republic” - fought with Asia, Parthian, and Germanic Tribes 63) Paul (6.3) - apostle with great influence - former enemy of Christianity, never had met Jesus - had vision of Jesus traveling to Syria and spent rest of life spreading Jesus’ teachings - Pax Romana and common languages (Gr.+ Lat.) made travel/spread easy 64) diaspora - 132 CE: disposal of Jews from Jerusalem by Roman invasion 67) Diocletian (6.4) - 284 CE: becomes Roman emperor - limited personal freedom - restores order in empire and increases strength - 2x Roman army

- controls inflation by fixing price of goods - claims descent from Roman gods *- most significant reform: divides empire in 2 because it was too hard to control - keeps Greek-speaking East: Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt - co-ruler appointed for Latin-speaking West: Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain - East wealthier, had the bigger trading cities - 305 CE: Diocletian retires due to health - 311 CE: Civil War- 4 rulers competing for power 68) Constantine - 312 CE: gains control of Western portion of Roman empire - 324 CE: gets Eastern portion too - 330 CE: moves capital from Rome to Byzantium - crossroads b/w East and West - renamed Constantinople 69) Theodosius - 378-395: rules both Eastern and Western Empires - last person to rule both together 70) Atilla the Hun - 444: unites Huns (various Germanic people) - plundered 70 cities in East w/ force of 100,000 - fail to scale Constantinople - 452: attempt to attack West, including Rome, but Atilla dies in 453 - Huns not a threat, Germanic tribes still are 71) Greco- Roman Culture (6.5) 72) Virgil 73) Tacitus - Roman historian that presented facts accurately - wrote Annals and Histories - about Nero Time Period C (PART I) and Post Classical World (PART III) 74) Byzantium (11.1) - refers to entire Eastern empire after city named Constantinople 75) Justinian - 527: Justinian becomes Emperor of Eastern Empire - 533: recovers N. Africa under Belisarius - 535: seizes Rome from Ostrogroths, didn’t hold - until 541, Rome changed hands 16 times - armies won Italy, Spain - empire equivalent to Casear’s - Byzantine empire ruled with absolute power 76) Code of Justinian - four works composed by panel of legal experts appointed by Justinian 1. Code- 5,000 Roman laws that applied to Byzantine Empire 2. Digest- quoted/summarized Rome’s greatest legal thinkers 3. Institutes- textbook about laws 4. Novellae (New Law)- legislation passed after 534 77) Hagia Sophia - Christian church Justinian built - means “holy wisdom” in Greek - public building program

78) patriarch - leading bishop of East - 398-404: Chrysostom from Constantinople 79) Cyrillic alphabet - many Slavic languages written in this, including Russia 80) Muslim Empire (10.1) 81) Sunni/Shia/Sufi - Sunni: majority, believe that caliph should be a follower of Muhammad’s example, but does not need to be directly related - did not resist Umayyads - Shia- minority, believe that caliph must be a direct descendant of Muhammad - opposed Umayyad caliph - believe Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law should’ve been successor - Sufi- reject luxurious way of life displayed by Umayyads and instead choose to lead a life of poverty and spiritual devotion 82) caliph - means “successor” or “deputy” - head of state - 632: 1st caliph= Abu Bakr, close friend of Muhamad 83) Umayyads - came into power as caliphate after Uthman murdered - Ali, Muhammad’s cousin, was natural choice but was assassinated - caliphs no longer elected - move capital to Damascus - away from Mecca, made controlling territories easier - abandoned simple life of previous caliphs and lived in luxury, surround selves w/ non-Muslim rulers - leads to fundamental division in Muslim community 84) Abbasids - 750: rebel group that overthrows the Umayyads, murder whole family - one prince escapes and est. Muslim state in S. Spain (al-Andalus) - 762: move capital to Baghdad - develop strong bureaucracy to control affairs - lasts until 1258 85) al-Andalus - Muslim state in S. Spain established by escaped Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman 86) House of Wisdom (10.2) - 800s: Caliph al-Ma’mum opens HoW in Baghdad - combination library, academy, and translation center 87) Averroes - also known as Ibn Rushd - born in Cordoba, Spain - master of Islamic philosophy, theology, Malki law, music theory, logic, etc. 88) Seljuks - migrating Turks group that converted to Islam and migrated into weakened Abbasid Empire - 1055: capture Baghdad from Persians - 1071: Battle of Manzikert- Turks defeat Byzantine defenders - by 1081: occupy most of Anatolia 89) Franks/Goths/Anglo-Saxons (13.1) - Franks: Germanic people originating from Roman province of Gaul - lead by Clovis, who brings Christianity - 496: battle where Clovis appeals to God, Franks win, soldiers ask to be baptized - 511: united into a single kingdom by Clovis

- Goths: - Anglo-Saxons: 90) romance languages - languages based in Latin 91) secular - worldly (non-denominational) 92) Clovis - see Franks - extends rule to modern France - Merovingian king - stereotypical “barbarian” 93) Charles Martel - first of Carolingian kings, where the mayors were more powerful than the kings - 715-741: rules, extends Franks’ reign - known as Charles the Hammer - 732: defeats Spain at Battle of Tours 94) Charlemagne - grandson of Charles Martel (son of Pepin the Short) - 758-814: rules - constantly fought wars-> war was honorable and kept the $ coming in - determined to convert people to Christianity, especially Saxons - limits power of nobility - great defender of Church; receives papal favors - saves Pope Leo II from Lombards and, in return, is crowned Augustus, emperor of the Roman Empire 95) Carolingians - Charles Martel, Pepin the Short, Charlemagne (Charles the Great) - rule from 751 to 987 96) Vikings (13.2) - invaders from Scandanavia - Germanic people, also called Northmen or Norsemen - had large warships - went to W. Europe, Russia, Constantinople, across N. Atlantic 97) Feudalism - system of governing and landholding based on rights and obligations - lord gives land in exchange for protection - depended on control of land 98) Manorialism - economic arrangement resting on rights and obligations between lord and serfs - lord gives serfs housing, serfs work lord’s land 99) fief - land granted by lord in exchange for protection/other services (feudalism) 100) vassal - person receiving fief (not lord) (feudalism) 101) lord/knight/serf - lord owns land first - vassal has land - knights serve vassals in exchange for fiefs - serfs work on land, what they produce is given to lord 102) tithe - church tax owed by medieval peasant families - 1/10 of families’ income

103) chivalry (13.3) - set of ideals that demands a knight serves 3 masters 1. feudal lord 2. heavenly Lord 3. chosen lord - protect weak and poor - most failed to meet this, not treating poor well - loyal, brave, courageous 104) troubadour - traveling poet-musicians at castles and courts in Europe 105) clergy (13.4) - church members, all under authority of Pope in Rome 106) canon law - Church law - all medieval Christians, kings, and peasants subject to law 107) Holy Roman Empire - originally the German-Italian created by Otto - remained strongest European state until 1100 108) Investiture - ceremony in which kings/nobles appointed church officials - church sought to reform -1075: Pope Gregory VII banned 109) Concordat of Worms - 1122: compromise between Church representative and HRE emperor - terms: Church alone can appoint bishop, emperor can veto appointement 110) Frederick I - 1152: German princes see need for strong ruler, elect Frederick I - first to use term HRE - dominated German princes, but left disorder when ever he was gone - like Otto, invaded Italy multiple times - angered pope, who formed Lombard League - 1176: LL and Frederick face off at Battle of Legnano - LL wins, Frederick and Pope make peace - 1190: Frederick drowns, empire left in disorder 111) simony (14.1) - the selling of positions in the Church by bishops 112) Urban II - issues call for “holy war” aka Crusade - 1093: sparked after Byzantine emperor Alexius Commenus sends appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders - Turks threatened capital, Constantinople 113) Crusades - goals: Pope wants to help defend Constantinople from Muslims; Pope wants to reclaim Palestine; also wants to reunite Christendom which split into East/West branches in 1054; opportunity to get rid of quarreling kings; merchants profit by making cash loans to finance journey 1. First Crusade: 1097- attempt to capture Jerusalem - Crusaders (mostly French) had no strategy/knowledge of Holy Land, couldn’t agree on leader - July 1099: besiege Jerusalem for 1 month+ with force of 12,000 (1/4 of original) - capture land from Edessa in North to Jerusalem in South; vulnerable - 1144: Edessa reconquered by Turks 2. Second Crusade: 1187- attempt to recapture Edessa, fail 3. Third Crusade: 1192- attempt to recapture Jerusalem - lead by Phillip II (Augustus) of France, Frederick I (Barbossa) of German empire, Richard the

Lion Hearted of England - only Richard makes it - reaches agreement w/ Muslim leader Saladin - Jerusalem remain Muslim but unarmed Christian pilgrims can visit holy places 114) Saladin - Muslim leader during Crusaders - Kurdish warrior, brilliant 115) Richard II - aka Richard the Lion Hearted - English king who led Third Crusade 116) Ferdinand and Isabella - king and queen of Spain - started Inquisition, Christian 117) Reconquista - 1400s: effort to drive Muslims out of Spain (from al-Andalus state) - 1492: Granada, last Muslim area, falls 118) Inquisition - court held by Church to suppress heresy - inquisitors suspected Jewish/Muslim converts of heresy - 1492: all practicing Jews and Muslims expelled from Spain 119) guilds (14.2) - an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic/social conditions of its members - kept prices up, provided security in trading and reduced losses 120) Commercial Revolution - expansion of trade and business due to increased availability of goods and new ways of doing business in Europe 121) vernacular 122) Dante 123) Chaucer 124) Aquinas - mid 1200s: argues most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument - wrote Summa Theologicae - influenced by Aristotle, combined Greek and Christian ideas - known as a scholastic 125) William the Conqueror (14.3) - duke of Normandy (region of France conquered by Vikings) - claimed English crown and invaded England w/ Norman army - rival= Harold Godwinson, Anglo-Saxon who also claimed throne - 1066: Anglo-Saxons and Normans fight at Battle of Hastings - Normans win, William claims all of England as his personal property - unified control of lands by granting land to 200 Norman lords who swore him oaths of loyalty - centralized England’s government 126) common law - rulings of England’s royal judges that formed a unified body of law 127) Henry II - English king, descendant of William the Conqueror - adds to holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine - gets Aquitaine - 1154-1189: rules - strengthens royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to all parts of land every year 128) Magna Carta

- most celebrated document in English history, “Great Charter” - English nobles force King John to sign - guarantees basic political rights (to nobles at first, later everyone) 129) Parliament - two burgesses (citizens of wealth and property) and two knights from each borough to serve on legislative body - 1295: model parliament- knights, burgesses, bishops, lords 130) Hugh Capet - first of Capetian dynasty (rule from 987-1328) - succeeded last member of Carolingian family as King of France - weak ruler, but geographically favored - center: Paris 131) Philip Augustus (Philip II) - one of most powerful Capetians - 1180-1223: rules - earned name Augustus because he greatly increased France’s territory -1204: seizes Normandy from King John (Eng.) - by end of reign, 3x land - stronger central government, est. bailiffs to collect taxes 132) Philip IV - 1285-1314: rules - pope refused priests to pay Philip IV taxes, Philip disputes pope’s right to hold church affairs in kingdom 133) Estates-General - Church leaders= 1st Estate - Great lords= 2nd Estate - Commoners, Landowners, Merchants invited by Philip IV= 3rd Estate - all participate in council called Estates-General - increased royal power of nobility - key role in overthrowing French monarchy in French Revolution 134) Avignon/Babylonian Captivity (14.4) - Clement V moved from Rome to Avignon - Pope would live there for the next 69 years - weakened church, two popes 135) Great Schism - split b/w Church b/w Rome (Italian pope) and Avignon (French pope) 136) John Wycliffe - English, preached that Jesus was true head of Church - offended by wealth and worldliness of clergy - taught that Bible, not Church, was true authority - English translation of New Testament 137) Jan Hus - Bohemian professor - taught that Bible was higher than Pope 138) Slavs - absorbed Greek Byzantine ways in 9th century - Slavic and Greek traditions formed Russia 139) Ivan III - challenged Mongol rule as Prince of Moscow - takes name czar - intends to make Russia “Third Rome” 140) Mongols

- ruled in Russia after attacking Kiev in 1240 - empire name is “Khanate of the Golden Horde” - khanate means kingdom - horde means camp 141) czar - means Caesar, Russian version 142) Black Death - bubonic plague - killed 1/3 of Europe’s population - began in Asia - trade declined, prices rose - Jews blamed - Church lost prestige Time Period D, 1350-1650 CE (PART I) and Time Period C, Post Classical World (PART III) 143) Hundred Years War - 1337-1453: war b/w English and France - marks end of medieval Europe - cause: last Capetian king dies w/o successor, England’s Edward III (grandson of Phlip IV) claims right to French throne - French win, drive English out of France - new warfare due to longbow 144) Joan of Arc - 1429: felt moved by God to rescue France from English conquerors -believed Charles VII should be king of France - lead battle near Orleans 145) Venice/Genoa - Italian merchant trading states 146) Indian Ocean Trade * AFRICA INTERLUDE * 147) Sahara - desert in NW Africa 148) animism - religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life - animists believe spirits present in animals, plants, and other natural forces, and also take the form of their ancestors 149) griot - West African storytellers - kept history and literature alive orally 150) Nok - W. Africa’s earliest known culture - lived in m. Nigeria b/w 500 BCE and 200 CE - 1st W. Africans to smelt iron - used for tools and weapons 151) Djenne-Djeno - discovered in 1977 - located on tributary of Niger River - oldest artifact= 250 BCE - post 1400 CE: city abandoned

- height: had 50,000 residents 152) Bantu -people who originally lived in the savanna S. of the Sahara (m. SE Nigeria) - migrated out, going through the Kalahari and Namib deserts - a Bantu language is the 1st of nearly 1/3 of all Africans 153) Aksum - located S. of Kush on a rugged plateau on the Red Sea (m. Eritrea and Ethiopia) - Aksum conquered the Kush in Egypt (who had conquered the Assyrians) - area referred to as “Horn of Africa” - Arab traders est. trading settlements - origin myth: founding dates back to King Solomon (Israel) and the Queen of Sheba (S. Arabia) - 710 CE: cut off by Islamic invaders, decline 154) stateless societies - no centralized power - balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control - ex: Ibo people of S. Nigeria 155) patrilineal/matrilineal - patrilineal society- trace ancestors thru father - matrilineal- trace ancestors thru mother - wealth inherited from mom’s side 156) Almoravid - 1000s: founded by Muslim reformers, strict brotherhood - members came from Berber group living in W. Sahara (m. Mauritania) - followers of Ibn Yasin -1076: overrun Ghana - capture part of S. Spain, called Moors 157) Almohads - mid 1100s: other Berber Muslim reformers who seized power from Almoravids - began as movement in Atlas Mountains of Morocco - led by Abd al-Mumin - Marrakech is capital - control from Marrakech to Tripol and Tunis on Mediterranean - lasts just over 100 years 158) Ghana - 700 CE: Ghana a wealthy kingdom due to taxes - rulers taxed gold and salt - taxed Arab and Berber traders going thru land - rulers eventually converted to Islam 159) Mali - 1235: kingdom of Mali emerges - Mali’s wealth due to gold - new gold, weak Ghana, and trade routes shifting eastward lead to rise 160) Sundiata - Mali’s first great leader - came to power by crushing unpopular leader - became mansa (emperor) - period of peace/prosperity 161) Mansa Musa -1312-1332: rules Mali - Muslim - skilled military leader, controls gold-salt trade - empire expands

- roughly 2x size of Ghana - governs by using provinces and appointing governors - Timbuktu: intellectual center 162) Ibn Battuta - 1352: traveler who comes to Timbuktu/Mali - traveled for 27 years throughout Islamic world 163) Songhai - 1400s: Mali in decline, Songhai break away to the east - extend territory to bend in Niger River near Gao - Gao is capital - controlled trade routes 164) Hausa - a group of people named after language they spoke - 1000-1200: emerge in savanna East of Mali and Songhai - Zazzau- S. most state; slave trade - all Hausa city-states had similar government 165) Yoruba - all spoke common language - originally small city-states on S. edge of Savanna of m. Benin - Yoruba kings considered divine - regarded King of Ife as highest spirtual authority - Ife and Oyo= largest city-states 166) Benin - S and W of Ife, near Niger River Delta -1200s: first kings - based on divine descent claims - 1400s: Euware makes Benin a powerful city state with army - grand palace 167) Swahili - language= Arabic blended with Bantu - cities founded by Muslim Arab and Persian traders - major cities are Mombasa (cloth) and Malindi (iron tools) 168) Great Zimbabwe - city in SE Africa est. by the Shona people - important trade city b/w Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers - 1450: abandoned for unknown reasons 169) Mutapa - 1480s: had conquered Zimbabwe except eastern portion - claimed control of Zambezi and the Indian Ocean coast - 1500s: Portugese try to conquer * OUT OF AFRICA* 170) Renaissance 171) patron 172) perspective 173) Machiavelli 174) Vittoria Colonna -1492-1547 - born of noble family - exchanged sonnets with Michaelangelo, helped Castilogne publish The Courtier - poems express personal emotions

175) humanism 176) Medicis 177) Leo/Michaelangelo/Raphael 178) Durer/Brugel - Durer= German - Brugel= Flemish 179) Petrarch 180) Erasmus 181) Christine de Pizan -highly educated woman - wrote in French, often about the objections men had to educating women - book, The Book of the City of Ladies 182) Shakespeare 183) Gutenberg 184) indulgence 185) Reformation 186) Matin Luther 187) Henry VII 188) Act of Supremacy - 1534: Parliament approves vote to legalize Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine 189) Anglican Church 190) Elizabeth I 191) John Calvin 192) Presbyterian 193) Anabaptist 194) Counter-Reformation 195) Council of Trent - Catholic response to reformation 196) Prince Henry the Navigator - son of Portugal’s king - 1415: conquers Ceuta (Muslim city) in N. Africa - saw wealth beyond Europe 197) Bartholomeu Dias 198) Vasco da Gama - Portugese - 1498: reaches India 199) Treaty of Tordesillas - 1494: Spain and Portugal sign to honor Line of Demarcation - LoD: W of line= Spain’s (Americas), E of line= Portugal’s 200) Dutch East India Co. 201) Columbus 202) Magellan 203) Cortes 204) Pizzaro 205) Atahualpa 206) Mestizo 207) Encomienda 208) New France 209) Jamestown 210) Pilgrims 211) Puritans 212) New Netherlands

213) French and Indian War 214) smallpox 215) Atlantic Slave Trade 216) triangle trade 217) Columbian exchange 218) inflation 219) capitalism 220) mercantilism 221) balance of trade - sell more goods than buy 222) joint stock co. 223) Ottomans -1300-1326: Muslim state in Anatolia led by Osman - among first to use cannons - leader=sultan - acted wisely towards conquered people - Muslims had to serve, Non-Muslims had to pay a tax 224) sultan - Ottoman leader - 1st to declare self sultan= Orkhan I, Osman’s son - means “overlord” or “one with power” 225) Tamerlane - Timur the Lane - halts Ottoman expansion - burned Baghdad - 1402: defeats Ottomans at Battle of Ankara 226) Conquest of Constantinople - lead by Mehmed II, most dramtic feat in Ottoman history - 1453: launches attack on Constantinople - opened Constantinople to new citizens of all backgrounds 227) Suleyman the Magnificent - Ottoman Empire reaches peak under this lawyer - 1521: conquers European city of Belgrade - dominates Mediterranean - 1526: advances into Hungary and Austria - creates workable social structure 228) Janissaries - elite force of 30,000 soldiers trained to be loyal to the sultan only - conquered people who had been educated, converted to Islam, and trained as soldiers 229) shah - ancient title of Persian king - 1499: adopted by Safavid boy Isma’il after conquering m. Iran 230) Shah Abbas - aka. Abbas the Great - 1587: takes throne and helps to create Golden Age - drew best of Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds - reformed military and civilian life - reformed government - showed his nation was accepting of other cultures, brought in best Europeans 231) Esfahan - capital Shah Abbas establishes - full of art

232) absolutism 233) divine right 234) Philip II - inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and American colonies - defends Catholicism - 1580: seizes Portugese empire 235) Spanish Armada - ship fleet launched to punish Queen Elizabeth and Protestant England 236) Baroque 237) El Greco 238) Velazquez 239) Cervantes - 1605: writes Don Quixote 240) inflation 241) Dutch revolt 242) Rembrandt 243) Vermeer - Dutch Artist, light and dark 244) Henry IV - 1st King of Bourbon dynasty in France - 1589: converts from Protestantism to Catholicism - 1610: stabbed by religious fanatic 245) Edict of Nantes - 1598: Henry IV’s declaration of religious toleration 246) Richelieu - true ruler during Louis XIII’s reign 247) skepticism 248) Descartes 249) Montaigne 249) Louis XIV 250) Versailles 251) intendants - government agents under Louis XIV who collected taxes and administered justice 252) Colbert 253) War of the Spanish Succession -1701-1714: countries align to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones - ended by Treaty of Utrecht 254) Thirty Years’ War - 1618-1635: Protestant Bohemians revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers 255) Peace of Westphalia - ends 30 Years’ War - weakens Spain and Austria - strengthens France - makes German princes independent of HRE - ends religious wars in Europe 256) Hapsburgs - Ferdinand - Catholic 257) Hohenzollerns - Prussia’s ruling family - Frederick William, 1640 258) Maria Theresa

- Austria’s ruler 259) Junkers - Prussia’s landowning nobility - resisted Frederick’s growing power 260) Frederick the Great - Frederick II, William’s son - followed dad’s military policies; softened laws 261) War of the Austrian Succession - 1748: fight for Silesia between Austria and Prussia - Prussia wins 262) Seven Years War -1756-1763: Austria and France ally, Prussia and Britain ally (switch) - British come out ahead - did not change European territory 263) Ivan IV - Ivan the Terrible - 1553: Russia 264) boyars - Russia’s land-owning nobility 265) Peter the Great - 1696: westernizes Russia 266) Westernization 267) Charles I - 1625: James I dies, Charles is king - fights Parliament, forced to sign Petition of the Right - unpopular 268) English Civil War - 1642-1649: loyal to Charles (Cavaliers/Royalists) vs. those loyal to Parliament/Cromwell (Roundheads) 269) Oliver Cromwell - leads against Charles - strict Puritan beliefs 270) Commonwealth - republican form of government established by Cromwell 271) Restoration - 1660: rule of Charles II - restores England after Charles I, Cromwell 272) Charles II - passes habeas corpus- monarch cannot simply put people in jail for opposing ruler - shows that king is not above law 273) Glorious Revolution -1688: non-violent overthrow of overtly Catholic King James II - James violated English law - led by William and Mary (Netherlands, Protestant) and Parliament 274) habeas corpus 275) cabinet 276) constitutional monarchy

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