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Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

www.elsevier.com/locate/chaos

Generalized extended tanh-function method and its application


Cheng-Lin Bai *, Hong Zhao
Physics Science and Information Engineering School, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, China
Accepted 11 April 2005

Communicated by Prof. M. Wadati

Abstract
In this paper, a new generalized extended tanh-function method is presented for constructing soliton-like, periodform solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). Compared with most of the existing tanh-function method,
extended tanh-function method, the modied extended tanh-function method and generalized hyperbolic-function
method, the proposed method is more powerful. By using this method, we not only can successfully recover the previously known formal solutions but also construct new and more general formal solutions for some NEEs. Make use of
the method, we study the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and obtain rich new families of the exact solutions, including the non-travelling wave and coecient functions soliton-like solutions, singular soliton-like solutions,
periodic form solutions.
2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Finding explicit solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) is one of the most important problems in mathematical physics. Various methods for obtaining exact solutions to NEEs have been proposed. Among these are the
inverse scattering method, Backlund transformation, Darboux transformation method, Hirota method. All these methods are described in Refs. [14]. In recent years, direct searching for exact solitary wave and soliton-like solutions to
NEEs becomes more and more attractive partly due to the availability of symbolic computation systems like Maple
or Mathematica, which enable us to perform the complex and tedious computation on computer [513]. One of the
most eective direct methods to construct solitary wave solutions of NEEs is the tanh-function method rst introduced
by Huibin and Kelin [14] and Maliet [15]. The method was later extended by Ma [7], Fan [8], Gao and Tian [5], Elwakil
et al. [6], Yan [12], Li et al. [10], and Bai [11]. On the other hand, Gao and Tian [16] presented a generalized hyperbolicfunction method by introducing coecient functions. As we know, when using the direct method, the choice of an
appropriate ansatz is of great importance. In this paper, by introducing a more general ansatz than the ansatz in the
above methods, we present a new generalized extended tanh-function method, which can be used to construct soliton-like and period-form solutions to NEEs. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a general theory
of the new generalized extended tanh-function method is described. In Section 3, we choose the (3 + 1)-dimensional
*

Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: lcced_bcl@hotmail.com, lcced_bcl@eyou.com (C.-L. Bai).

0960-0779/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2005.04.069

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

1027

potential-YTSF equation to illustrate our algorithm and obtain new families of the exact solutions, comprising the nontravelling wave and coecient functions soliton-like solutions, singular soliton-like solutions, as well as the periodic
form solutions. We conclude the paper in the last section.
2. General theory of the generalized extended tanh-function method
Here we rst describe the general theory of the new generalized extended tanh-function method. For a given NEEs
with independent variables x = (x0  t, x1, x2, . . ., xn) and dependent variables u, v
P x0  t; x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn ; u; v; uxi ; vxi ; uxi xj ; vxi xj ; . . . ; uxi1 xi2 ...xiN ; vxi1 xi2 ...xiN 0;

1a

Qx0  t; x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn ; u; v; uxi ; vxi ; uxi xj ; vxi xj ; . . . ; uxi1 xi2 ...xiN ; vxi1 xi2 ...xiN 0.

1b

We seek its solutions in the form


u A0 x

M
X

Ai x/i xx Bi x/i1 xx

q
l1 1 l2 /2 xx

i1

/i1 xx
C i x/i xx Di x q ;
l1 1 l2 /2 xx
q
N
X
v a0 x
aj x/j xx bj x/j1 xx l1 1 l2 /2 xx

2a

j1

/j1 xx
cj x/j xx d j x q ;
l1 1 l2 /2 xx

2b

with
d/
R1 l2 /2 ;
dx

where R is a nonzero constant and lj = 1 (j = 1, 2). To determine u, v explicitly, we take the following four steps.
Step1. Determining M and N by balancing the highest nonlinear terms and the highest-order partial derivative terms
in the given NEEs.
Step2. Substituting Eqs.
(2) and (3) into the given NEEs (1), collecting all the terms with the same
order of /k and
k
2 12
k
2 12
k
/ l1 l1 l2 / , and setting the coecients of each order of / and / l1 l1 l2 / to zero, yields a set
of partial dierential equations with respect to A0, a0, R, Ai, Bi, Ci, Di, aj, bj, cj, dj (i = 1, 2, . . ., M; j = 1, 2, . . . N)
and x.
Step3. Solving the system of partial dierential equations obtained in Step 2 for A0, a0, R, Ai, Bi, Ci, Di, aj, bj, cj, dj
(i = 1, 2, . . ., M; j = 1, 2,. . ., N) and x.
Step4. As Eq. (3) possesses the general solution
8
tanhRx C 0 ; l2 1;
>
>
>
< cothRx C ; l 1;
0
2
/
4
>
l
tanRx

C
0 ;
>
2 1;
>
:
 cotRx C 0 ; l2 1;
substituting A0, a0, R, Ai, Bi, Ci, Di, aj, bj, cj, dj (i = 1, 2, . . ., M; j = 1, 2, . . ., N), x, and Eq. (4) into Eq. (2) to obtain the
soliton-like and period-form solutions of the NEEs in concern.
The algorithm is more powerful than the typical tanh method [5,7,9,14,15], extended tanh-function method [8,12],
the modied extended tanh-function method [6], and generalized hyperbolic-function method [16]. Firstly, compared
with the extended tanh-function method by Fan [8], the improved tanh-function method by Yan [12] as well as the modied extended tanh-function method by Elwakil et al. [6], the restriction on x(x) (x = (x0  t, x1, x2,. . ., xn)) as merely a
linear function of t, x1, x2,. . ., xn and the restriction on the coecients A0, a0, Ai, Bi, Ci, Di, aj, bj, cj, dj (i = 1, 2, . . ., M;
j = 1,2,. . .N) as constants are removed. Secondly, compared with the generalized hyperbolic-function method [16]
and generalized Riccati equation expansion method [10], we can not only recovered the exact solutions for a given

1028

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

NEEs which are superposition of dierent power of the sech x function, tanh x function or their combinations, but also
we can, with no extra eort, nd other new and more general types of solutions, such as singular soliton-like solutions,
periodic form solutions,
and combinations of these types of function. More importantly, we can add term

i1

j1

/
xx
Di x p
2

/
xx
and d j x p
2

l1 1l2 / xx

l1 1l2 / xx

in the new ansatz (2), so more types of solutions would be expected

for some equations.


In what follows we would like to apply the generalized extended tanh-function method to (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation to illustrate our algorithm which is more powerful than the typical tanh method and other
sophisticated tanh-function method.
Remark 1. In order to obtain the explicit solutions of the partial dierential equations derived in Step 2 and greatly
simplify the work, we often choose special function forms of A0, a0, Ai, Bi, Ci, Di, aj, bj, cj, dj (i = 1,2. . .M; j = 1, 2, . . ., N)
and x, on a trial and error basis. (as we do in Section 3).
Remark 2. In this paper, the tanh- and coth-type solutions are called soliton-like solutions, while the tan- and cot-type
solutions are called period-form solutions. Solitary wave solutions in which / is the linear combination of xi (i = 1,. . ., n)
and t are special soliton-like solutions.

3. New families of the exact solutions for (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation


Recently, Yu [17] extended BogoyavlenskiiSchif equation [18]
ut Uuuz 0;

Uu o2x 4u 2ux o1


x

to be the new (3 + 1)-dimensional NEE


4ut Uuuz x 3uyy 0;

Uu o2x 4u 2ux o1


x ;

which is called the (3 + 1)-dimensional YTSF equation. They gave a travelling solitary wave solution of (6). Recently
the Backlund transformation and some soliton-like solutions for the potential form of (5) were found (see Refs. [1821]
and references therein). As far as we know, nontravelling wave solutions of (6) were not studied. To conveniently consider (6), in this paper we will consider the potential form (u = wx) of (6) as follows:
4wxt wxxxz 4wx wxz 2wxx wz 3wyy 0.

According to our method described in Section 2, by balancing the highest nonlinear terms and the highest-order
partial derivative terms in Eq. (7), we obtain M = 1 or N = 1 in Eq. (2). Thus ansatz (2a) or (2b) becomes
q
wx; y; z; t A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t/px qy; z; t B1 y; z; t l1 1 l2 /2 px qy; z; t
D1 y; z; t
C 1 y; z; t/1 px qy; z; t q .
l1 1 l2 /2 px qy; z; t

Substituting Eqs.
(3) and (8) into Eq. (7), collecting coecients for all the terms with the same order of /k and
k
2 12
/ l1 l1 l2 / leads to a set of thirty-seven equations which can be solved by using Maple to get the solution. To
avoid the tediousness, we omit the over-determined system obtained and only give its solutions cases.
Case 1


2 dtd F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
A0 y; z; t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t 0;
9a
p
C 1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ; D1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; qy; z; t F 1 t;


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
;
A0 y; z; t
2p2
Z
2pC 2 y
C 1 C 2 F 1 t dt;
B1 y; z; t 0; C 1 y; z; t
Z3
2pC 4 y
C 3 C 4 F 1 t dt; qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;
D1 y; z; t
3
4p

dt

A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
9b

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

1029

where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, and Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 4) are
arbitrary functions of t.
Case 2


2 dtd F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;
A0 y; z; t
p
10a
C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; qy; z; t F 1 t;
A0 y; z; t

p 2 R2

o
oz


F 2 z; t l2 4 oto F 2 z; t
dz F 3 ty F 4 t;
2p

p
l1 l2
pR;
B1 y; z; t 
l1

C 1 y; z; t 0;

D1 y; z; t 0;

A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
10b

qy; z; t F 2 z; t;

 







1
d
d
d
d
2
F
F
F
F
4p
t
z

2p
t
z

4py
t
z

2py
t
z2  F 29 tz3
12
11
10
9
2p2
dt
dt
dt
dt


2
2
2
2
2
p l2 R yz  3F 10 tz F 9 t  3F 10 tz p pl2 R F 11 tz 2F 13 ty 2F 14 t ;
p
l1 l2
A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t 
pR; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t 0;
l1
qy; z; t F 9 tyz F 10 ty F 11 tz F 12 t;

A0 y; z; t


F 3 z; t y ozo F 4 z; t 4p oto F 3 z; t y oto F 4 z; t  3F 23 z; t
A0 y; z; t
dz
2p2
F 5 ty F 6 t;
p
l1 l2
pR; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t 0;
A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t 
l1
qy; z; t F 3 z; ty F 4 z; t;
Z

p3 l2 R2

oz


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
A0 y; z; t
2p2
Z
2pC 3 y
C 2 C 3 F 1 t dt; qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;
B1 y; z; t C 1 ; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t
3
!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
F
z
F
A0 y; z; t 2
4C 1 pz
F
t
y

6C
t
z

3p

t

C
F
ty

F
t
;
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
dt
3 dt
dt2
3C 1 p
4p

10c

10d

dt

10e

C 2 F 2 t C 1 C 2 y C 3
10f
A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y F 2 t; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t
;
C1

d

1 2 dt F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
qy; z; t
;
3
C1
where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 14) are arbitrary functions of t, and Fk(z, t) (k = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary functions of {z,t}.
Case 3


2 d F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
; A1 y; z; t 0; B1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;
A0 y; z; t dt
p
11a
C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; qy; z; t F 1 t;


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
; A1 y; z; t 0;
2p2
Z
2pC 3 y
C 2 C 3 F 1 t dt;
B1 y; z; t C 1 ; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t
3
qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;
A0 y; z; t

4p

dt

11b

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C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

A0 y; z; t

!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
4C
pz
F
t
y

6C
t
z

3p

t

F
ty

F
t

;
F
z
F
1
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
dt2
dt
3 dt
3C 21 p

C 2 F 2 t C 1 C 2 y C 3
A1 y; z; t 0; B1 y; z; t C 1 y F 2 t; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t
;
C1

d

1 2 dt F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
;
qy; z; t
C1
3


Z
2p2 R2 ozo F 1 z; t l2 2 oto F 1 z; t
dz F 2 ty F 3 t; A1 y; z; t 0;
A0 y; z; t
p
B1 y; z; t 0;
A0 y; z; t

C 1 y; z; t 2pR;
4p3 l2 R2

o
oz

D1 y; z; t 0;

11d

qy; z; t F 1 z; t;


F 1 z; t y ozo F 2 z; t 4p oto F 1 z; t y oto F 2 z; t  3F 21 z; t
dz
2p2
11e

F 3 ty F 4 t;
A1 y; z; t 0;

11c

B1 y; z; t 0;

C 1 y; z; t 2pR;

D1 y; z; t 0;

qy; z; t F 1 z; ty F 2 z; t;

where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 4) are
arbitrary functions of t, and Fk(z, t) (k = 1, 2) are arbitrary functions of {z, t}.
Case 4


2 d F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
A0 y; z; t dt
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;
p
12a
C 1 y; z; t 2pR;

D1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ;

qy; z; t F 1 t;


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
A0 y; z; t
2p2
Z
2pC 3 y
C 2 C 3 F 1 t dt;
B1 y; z; t C 1 ; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t
3
4p

dt

12b

qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t
A0 y; z; t

!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
F
z
F
4C
pz
F
t
y

6C
t
z

3p

t

F
ty

F
t

;
1
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
dt
3 dt
dt2
3C 21 p

A1 y; z; t PRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y F 2 t; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t C 3 F 2 t C 1 C 3 y C 2 ;


1 2 dtd F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
qy; z; t
;
3
C1

12c

where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, and Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 5) are
arbitrary functions of t.
Case 5


2 d F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
; A1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; B1 y; z; t 0;
A0 y; z; t dt
p
13a
C 1 y; z; t 2pR;

D1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;

qy; z; t F 1 t;


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
;
2p2
Z
2pC 3 y
C 2 C 3 F 1 t dt; B1 y; z; t 0; C 1 y; z; t 2pR;
A1 y; z; t
3
A0 y; z; t

4p

dt

qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;

D1 y; z; t C 1 ;

13b

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

A0 y; z; t

1031

!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
4C
pz
F
t
y

6C
t
z

3p

t

C
F
ty

F
t
;
F
z
F
1
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
dt2
dt
3 dt
3C 21 p

C 2 F 2 t C 1 C 2 y C 3
; B1 y; z; t 0; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t F 2 t C 1 y;
C1

d

1 2 dt F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
qy; z; t
;
C1
3


Z
8p2 R2 ozo F 1 z; t l2 2 oto F 1 z; t
A0 y; z; t
dz F 2 ty F 3 t; A1 y; z; t 2l2 pR;
p

A1 y; z; t

B1 y; z; t 0;

C 1 y; z; t 2pR;

D1 y; z; t 0;

13c

13d

qy; z; t F 1 z; t;


Z
16p3 l2 R2 ozo F 1 z; t y ozo F 2 z; t 4p oto F 1 z; t y oto F 2 z; t  3F 21 z; t
dz
A0 y; z; t
2p2
F 3 ty F 4 t;
A1 y; z; t 2l2 pR; B1 y; z; t 0; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t 0; qy; z; t F 1 z; ty F 2 z; t;
13e
where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 5) are arbitrary functions of t, and Fk(z, t) (k = 1, 2) are arbitrary functions of {z, t}.
Case 6


2 d F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
A0 y; z; t dt
; A1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;
p
14a
C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t 0; qy; z; t F 1 t;


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
;
2p2
Z
2pC 3 y
C 2 C 3 F 1 t dt; B1 y; z; t C 1 ; C 1 y; z; t 2pR;
A1 y; z; t
3
qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;
A0 y; z; t

4p

dt

D1 y; z; t 0;

14b

!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
F 3 t z 3p  z
F 2 t C 1 F 4 ty F 5 t
F 2 t y 6C 1
;
A0 y; z; t 2 4C 1 pz
dt
3 dt
dt2
3C 1 p
C 2 F 2 t C 1 C 2 y C 3
14c
; B1 y; z; t C 1 y F 2 t; C 1 y; z; t 2pR; D1 y; z; t 0;
C

d
1
1 2 dt F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
qy; z; t
;
C1
3
where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, and Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 5) are
arbitrary functions of t.
Case 7


2 dtd F 1 t z pF 2 ty F 3 t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y C 2 ;
A0 y; z; t
p
15a
C 1 y; z; t C 3 y C 4 ; D1 y; z; t 0; qy; z; t F 1 t;
A1 y; z; t

!!
 2




2
1
d
2 d
2 d
2
4C 1 pz
F 2 t y 6C 1
;
A0 y; z; t 2
F 3 t z 3p  z
F 2 t C 1 F 4 ty F 5 t
dt2
dt
3 dt
3C 1 p
A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t C 1 y F 2 t;


1 2 dtd F 2 t py 3C 1 F 3 t
;
qy; z; t
3
C1

C 1 y; z; t C 1 C 3 y C 2 C 3 F 2 t;

D1 y; z; t 0;

15b

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C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035


F 1 t yz 4zp dtd F 2 t  3F 21 tz 2p2 F 3 ty F 4 t
; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
2p2
B1 y; z; t C 2 ; C 1 y; z; t C 1 ; D1 y; z; t 0; qy; z; t F 1 ty F 2 t;
A0 y; z; t

4p

dt


F 1 z; t l2 4 oto F 1 z; t
dz F 2 ty F 3 t; A1 y; z; t pRl2 ;
2p
p
l1 l2 pR
; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t 0; qy; z; t F 1 z; t;
B1 y; z; t 
l1
A0 y; z; t

p2 R2

oz


F 1 z; t y ozo F 2 z; t 4p oto F 1 z; t y oto F 2 z; t  3F 21 z; t
A0 y; z; t
dz
2p2
F 3 ty F 4 t;
p
l1 l2 pR
A1 y; z; t pRl2 ; B1 y; z; t 
; C 1 y; z; t 0; D1 y; z; t 0;
l1
qy; z; t F 1 z; ty F 2 z; t;
Z

15c

p3 l2 R2

15d

oz

15e

where lj = 1 (j = 1, 2), p, R are nonzero constants, Ci (i = 1, . . ., 4) are arbitrary constants, Fj(t) (j = 1, . . ., 5) are arbitrary functions of t, and Fk(z, t) (k = 1, 2) are arbitrary functions of {z, t}. So, combining Eq. (8) along with cases of
solutions of the over-determined system, we can obtain the following soliton-like solutions and period-form solutions
of Eq. (7):
Case 1-solutions:
w11 A0 y; z; t pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0 C 1 y; z; t coth Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

16a

w12 A0 y; z; t pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0 C 1 y; z; t tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t sinh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

16b

w13 A0 y; z; t  pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0 C 1 y; z; t cot Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t cos Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

16c

w14 A0 y; z; t pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  C 1 y; z; t tan Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t sin Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

16d

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), C1(y, z, t), D1(y, z, t) and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (9a) and (9b).
Case 2-solutions:
p
w21 A0 y; z; t pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sech Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
17a
l1
p
w22 A0 y; z; t pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; tcschRpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t sinh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
17b
l1
p
w23 A0 y; z; t  pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sec Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cos Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
17c
l1
p
w24 A0 y; z; t pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t csc Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t sin Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
17d
l1

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

1033

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), B1(y, z, t), D1(y, z, t) and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (10a)(10f).
Case 3-solutions:
p
w31 A0 y; z; t  l1 B1 y; z; t sech Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w32 A0 y; z; t  l1 B1 y; z; t csch Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t sinh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w33 A0 y; z; t  l1 B1 y; z; t sec Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cos Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w34 A0 y; z; t  l1 B1 y; z; t csc Rpx qy; z; t c0  2pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t sin Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

18a

18b

18c

18d

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), B1(y, z, t), D1(y, z, t) and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (11a)(11e).
Case 4-solutions:
p
w41 A0 y; z; t pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sech Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
2pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0  p D1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w42 A0 y; z; t pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t csch Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
2pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0  p D1 y; z; t sinh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w43 A0 y; z; t  pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sec Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
2pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  p D1 y; z; t cos Rpx qy; z; t c0 ; l2 1;
l1
p
w44 A0 y; z; t pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t csc Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 2pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0  p D1 y; z; t sin Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

19a

19b

19c

19d

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), B1(y, z, t), D1(y, z, t) and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (12a)(12c).
Case 5-solutions:
w51 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0
1
 p D1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

20a

w52 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t coth Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t sinh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

20b

w53 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t tan Rpx qy; z; t c0 2pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t cos Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

20c

w54 A0 y; z; t  A1 y; z; t cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  2pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0


1
 p D1 y; z; t sin Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;
l1

l2 1;

20d

1034

C.-L. Bai, H. Zhao / Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 27 (2006) 10261035

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), A1(y, z, t), D1 (y, z, t) and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (13a)(13e).
Case 6-solutions:
p
w61 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sech Rpx qy; z; t c0
2pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;

21a

2pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;

21b

p
w62 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t coth Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t cosh Rpx qy; z; t c0
p
w63 A0 y; z; t A1 y; z; t tan Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sec Rpx qy; z; t c0
2pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;

21c

 2pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;

21d

p
w64 A0 y; z; t  A1 y; z; t cot Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t csc Rpx qy; z; t c0

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), A1(y, z, t), B1(y, z, t), and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (14a)(14c).
Case 7-solutions:
p
w71 A0 y; z; t pR tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sech Rpx qy; z; t c0
C 1 y; z; t coth Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;
p
w72 A0 y; z; t pR coth Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; tcschRpx qy; z; t c0

22a

C 1 y; z; t tanh Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

22b

l2 1;
p
w73 A0 y; z; t  pR tan Rpx qy; z; t c0  l1 B1 y; z; t sec Rpx qy; z; t c0
C 1 y; z; t cot Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

l2 1;
p
l1 B1 y; z; t csc Rpx qy; z; t c0

22c

l2 1;

22d

w74 A0 y; z; t pR cot Rpx qy; z; t c0 


 C 1 y; z; t tan Rpx qy; z; t c0 ;

where R, p are arbitrary nonzero constants, c0 is an arbitrary constant, l1 = 1, and A0(y, z, t), B1(y, z, t), C1(y, z, t), and
q(y, z, t) are determined by Eq. (15a)(15e).

4. Conclusions
In summary, new soliton-like solutions and period-form solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation are obtained by using a new generalized extended tanh-function method. The physical interest of the above solutions lies in the fact that they describe certain soliton-like surface waves. From the resulting (16)(22), we know that
because of the entrance of the arbitrary functions, the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation possesses quite
abundant localized soliton structures. The method can also be easily extended to other NEEs and is sucient to seek
more new solitary wave solutions of NEEs.

Acknowledgement
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Natural Science Foundation
of Shandong Province in China.

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