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IPMSM Drives

Tanvir Ahmed, Anupam Das, and Kalyan Kumar Halder

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Khulna University of Engineering and Technology

Khulna-9203, Bangladesh

Email: tanvir2362@gmail.com

AbstractThis paper presents a comparative study between

eld oriented control (FOC) and direct torque control (DTC),

two most popular control strategies for inverter fed interior

permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives. The

comparison is done in four switch three phase (FSTP) inverter

scheme instead of six switch three phase (SSTP) inverter scheme.

The FSTP inverter scheme is better than SSTP inverter scheme

because of the reduction in price, switching losses and the complexity of the control board. The comparison is based on various

conditions such as normal operating condition, sudden change

in load torque, speed reversal and change in stator resistance.

To validate the effectiveness of the drive systems, simulation is

carried out in MATLAB environment. The simulation results and

comparative study have been found quite satisfactory.

II.

simulation of the system. The dynamic model of the IPMSM

motor in the synchronously rotating d q reference frame can

be expressed as follows [11]:

over as the preferred solution for variable speed applications.

Considering high-performance motion control, eld oriented

control (FOC), or more recently direct torque control (DTC)

are used. The vector control philosophy started to be developed around 1970. Several types of vector control are possible: rotor-oriented, rotor-ux-oriented, stator-ux-oriented and

magnetizing-ux-oriented. On the other hand, the publication

of the DTC theory actually goes back to 1971. Recently, it

is being considered as an industrial alternative to the FOC

strategy. These control strategies are different on the operation

principle but their objectives are the same.

Now, which one gives better performance for FSTP inverter

fed IPMSM? This question has not been answered yet. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a comparative

study in order to reach a verdict on the superiority between

these two control strategies.

(1)

vq = Riq + pLq iq + r f + r Ld id

(2)

Te =

I NTRODUCTION

widely used because of their advantages such as rugged

construction, easy maintenance, high efciency, high power

factor, etc. Over the last few decades, several control systems

have been proposed for the PMSMs [1][5]. These PMSMs are

usually fed by SSTP inverters. However, they are relatively expensive because they need six switches and corresponding gate

drive circuits. Hence, the schemes using FSTP inverters have

been widely researched for cost reduction by the elimination

of power switches and additional circuits such as gate drives

[6][10].

vd = Rid + pLd id r Lq iq

switch three phase inverter, interior permanent magnet synchronous

motor, and robustness.

I.

3Pp

(f iq + (Ld Lq ) id iq )

2

(3)

as:

Te = Tl + Jm pm + Bm m

(4)

r = Pp m

(5)

Where,

vd and vq = the dq- axes stator voltages;

id and iq = the dq- axes stator currents;

Ld and Lq = the dq- axes inductances;

f = the permanent magnetic ux linkage;

R = the stator resistance;

r = the angular speed of rotor;

m = the mechanical speed of rotor;

Te = the electromagnetic torque;

Jm = the motor inertia;

Bm = the motor friction coefcient;

Pp = the number of pole pairs;

p=

d

dt .

AC Supply

d

s

d

d

d

s

d

Torque

Hysteresis

Controller

PI

/WD^D

Front-end Rectifier

Switching

Table

d

Flux Hysteresis

Controller

Fig. 1.

III.

Calculator

MODEL

phase system is obtained by connecting the phase c terminal

of the stator windings directly to the centre tap of the dc

link capacitors. The single phase ac supply is rectied by the

front-end rectier. The capacitors are used to level the output

dc voltage. The three phase voltages to the IPMSM can be

expressed as follows [12]:

Vdc

[4Sa 2Sb 1]

(6)

3

Vdc

[4Sb 2Sa 1]

Vb =

(7)

3

Vdc

[Sa Sb + 1]

(8)

Vc =

3

where Vdc is the maximum voltage across the dc link capacitors, Sa and Sb are the switching states (0 or 1) of upper

switches in the legs of phases a and b respectively.

Encoder

Fig. 2.

system is shown in Fig. 2. The basic idea of DTC for IPMSM

is to control the torque and ux linkage by selecting the voltage

space vectors properly, which is based on the relationship

between the lip frequency and torque. The voltage vector plane

of a four switch inverter fed system is divided into four sectors

as shown in Fig. 3. A voltage vector switching table for the

four switch inverter fed DTC system is tabulated in Table I.

TABLE I.

0

0

1

1

S1

V4

V3

V1

V2

S2

V1

V4

V2

V3

S3

V2

V1

V3

V4

s

s

s

s

s

^

^

^

^

s

s

Fig. 3.

composite and components of vector s can be obtained:

t

s (t) =

(Vs Rs Is ) dt

(10)

(Vs Rs Is ) dt

(11)

t

s (t) =

0

0

1

0

1

IPMSM

Va =

IV.

s = (s )2 + (s )2

S4

V3

V2

V4

V1

(12)

The basic principle of the DTC is to select proper voltage

using a pre-dened switching table. The selection is based on

the hysteresis control of the stator ux linkage and the torque.

In the basic form the stator ux linkage is estimated with:

t

s (t) =

(Vs Rs Is ) dt + so

0

(9)

s = tan

s

s

(13)

Te =

3

Pp (s Is Is s )

2

(14)

AC Supply

PWM

Inverter

Rectifier

Ta Tb Tc

Encoder

Hysteresis

Controller

VI.

IPMSM

SIMULATION RESULTS

made in terms of speed, torque and current response. The static

and dynamic performances of the DTC and FOC schemes are

obtained by simulation performed in MATLAB.

Controller

Coordinate

Translator

Fig. 4.

Speed(rpm)

1600

1600

1400

1400

1200

1200

1000

reference speed

actual speed

800

600

200

1.0

1.5

2.0

0

0.0

2.5

d = f + Ld Id

d = Lq Iq

1.0

2.5

15

(15)

load torque

developed torque

2.0

2.5

(17)

5

0

-5

1.5

1.0

0.5

-10

-15

0.0

(18)

load torque

developed torque

2.0

Torque(N-m)

10

(16)

1.5

Time(sec)

(a)

Torque(N-m)

and

0.5

Time(sec)

rotating reference frame as follows:

d

id + Rs id s Lq iq

dt

d

vd = Lq iq + Rs iq s Ld id

dt

600

400

0.5

reference speed

actual speed

800

200

vd = Ld

1000

400

0

0.0

V.

Speed(rpm)

Speed Loop

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.0

0.0

2.5

0.5

1.0

Time(sec)

1.5

2.0

2.5

Time(sec)

(b)

15

current vector is generated in the axis in FOC.

generated motor torque is linearly proportional to

current, as the d-axis rotor ux is constant, the

torque per ampere can be achieved.

5

0

-5

-15

0.20

(21)

5

0

-5

-10

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

-15

0.20

0.25

0.21

Time(sec)

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

Time(sec)

(c)

0.6

0.4

0.4

Flux beta(wb)

0.6

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

0.2

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.6

(22)

ia

ib

ic

10

-10

based on eld orientation. Fig. 4 shows the complete block

diagram of FOC based IPMSM drive. Since the magnetic

ux generated from the PM rotor is xed in relation to the

rotor shaft position, the ux position in the coordinates can be

determines by the shaft position sensor. If id = 0, the d-axis

ux linkage d is xed. Since f is constant for an IPMSM,

the electromagnetic torque is then proportional to iq , which is

determined by the closed loop control.

3

Te = P f iq

2

Current(amp)

(20)

Flux beta(wb)

where m

dm

+ Bm m = T e T l

Jm

dt

dm

= m

dt

is the rotor angular displacement.

15

ia

ib

ic

10

Current(amp)

3

Pp [f iq + (Ld Lq ) id iq ]

(19)

2

The associated electromechanical equations are as follows:

Te =

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

-0.6

-0.6

0.6

Flux alpha(wb)

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Flux alpha(wb)

(d)

while the

Since the

the q-axis

maximum

Fig. 5. Comparison of DTC and FOC in terms of (a) speed response (b)

torque response, (c) three phase currents and (d) ux locus under normal

operating condition. Left side gures represent the curve for DTC and right

side gures represent curve for FOC.

2000

2000

1500

1500

reference speed

actual speed

500

1000

Speed(rpm)

Speed(rpm)

1000

0

-500

-1000

reference speed

actual speed

0

-500

-1500

-2000

-2000

Time(sec)

Time(sec)

(a)

30

load torque

developed torque

Torque(N-m)

10

0

-20

-30

load torque

developed torque

20

-10

Fig. 6(a) and (b) show the speed and torque responses under

load change condition, respectively. We investigated that when

load increases speed falls down from reference speed and then

automatically reaches the rated speed. We used 1.5 N-m as

reference torque and changed it to 2 N-m for simulating load

change condition. For DTC we changed the load at 0.5 sec and

it reached the reference speed at 1.2 sec. On the other hand,

for FOC we changed the torque at 1.5 sec and it reached the

reference speed very quickly.

500

-1000

-1500

Torque(N-m)

1500 rpm is shown Fig. 5(a). Speed response for DTC is

faster than FOC as it reaches the reference speed at 0.25

sec whereas that of FOC reaches at 0.8 sec. Fig. 5(b) shows

the developed torque that oscillates around the load torque

(=1.5 N-m) when the set speed is reached. It is noticed that

higher electromagnetic torque is generated during the motor

acceleration. From the gure it is clear that Torque response

of DTC is better than that of FOC. Fig. 5(c) shows the actual

3-phase currents for both control schemes. Current response of

DTC is quite acceptable for healthy motor operation though

FOC gives better response than DTC. Fig. 5(d) shows the

trajectory of the stator ux linkage. They are quite same for

both DTC and FOC and as far our expectation.

1

0

-1

-2

-3

Time(sec)

Time(sec)

(b)

Fig. 7. Comparison of DTC and FOC at speed reversal condition in terms

of (a) speed and (b) torque.

C. Speed Reversal Condition

Fig. 8(a) and (b) show the speed response curve and three

phase current response curve when the stator resistance is

increasing, respectively. From the simulation gure we can

see that there is no effect on speed or current response for an

increase in stator resistance.

1600

1600

1600

1400

1400

1400

1200

1200

800

reference speed

actual speed

600

1000

800

reference speed

actual speed

600

800

600

400

400

200

200

200

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0

0.0

2.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

0

0.0

2.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

20

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

15

ia

ib

ic

2.0

1.5

1.0

ia

ib

ic

10

Current(amp)

Current(amp)

10

Torque(N-m)

Torque(N-m)

0.5

Time(sec)

load torque

developed torque

2.5

-5

0

0.0

2.5

Time(sec)

3.0

load torque

developed torque

600

(a)

15

800

200

0.5

(a)

10

1000

400

Time(sec)

Time(sec)

reference speed

actual speed

1200

1000

400

0

0.0

1400

Speed(rpm)

1000

1600

reference speed

actual speed

1200

Speed(rpm)

Speed(rpm)

Speed(rpm)

Fig. 7(a) and (b) show speed curve and the torque response

under speed reversal condition respectively. By analyzing these

gures we can see that DTC shows slightly better speed and

torque response than FOC under speed reversal condition.

5

0

-5

-10

-10

0.5

-15

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Time(sec)

-10

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Time(sec)

-20

0.20

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

-15

0.20

0.25

Time(sec)

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

Time(sec)

(b)

(b)

Fig. 6. Comparison of DTC and FOC at the variation of load torque in terms

of (a) speed and (b) torque.

Fig. 8. Comparison of DTC and FOC for step change of stator resistance in

terms of (a) speed and (b) current.

VII.

C ONCLUSION

schemes for FSTP inverter fed IPMSM drives has been investigated by simulation with a view to distinguishing their

respective advantages and disadvantages. A detailed model for

IPMSM drive system with DTC and FOC has been developed

and operations have been studied using two current control

schemes. A speed controller has been designed successfully for

closed loop operation of the IPMSM drives system so that the

motor runs at the reference speed. Robustness is present in both

FOC and DTC schemes. Parameter sensitivity is large in FOC

scheme, on the other hand it is average in DTC scheme. DTC

reduces the speed response time, whereas FOC gives better

current response. On different conditions, both the schemes

showed very similar simulation output. So, we can conclude

that it is hard to comprehend the superiority between DTC and

FOC.

VIII.

APPENDIX

Parameter Name

Number of pole pairs, Pp

Stator Resistance, Rs

Permanent Magnet Flux Linkage, f

Flux Density, Bm

Moment of Inertia, Jm

Rated Voltage, Vdc

d-axis inductance, Ld

q-axis inductance, Lq

Rated speed, m

Parameter Value

2

1.93 ohm

0.311

0.001 Wb/m2

0.003

300V

0.0244H

0.07957H

1500 rpm

R EFERENCES

[1]

permanent magnet synchronous machine, IEEE Trans. on Industry

Applications, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 987997, Nov./Dec. 1988.

direct torque controllers for permanent magnet synchronous motors,

Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 114120, Apr. 2006.

[3] M. N. Uddin and M. A. Rahman, Fuzzy logic based speed control of

an IPM synchronous motor drive, Journal of Advanced Computational

Intelligence, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 212219, Dec. 2000.

[4] K. K. Halder, N. K. Roy, and B. C. Ghosh, Position sensorless control

for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor SVM drive with

ANN based stator ux estimator, International Journal of Computer

and Electrical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 475480, Jun. 2010.

[5] F. F. M. El-Sonsy, Robust tracking control based on intelligent slidingmode model-following position controllers for PMSM servo drives,

Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 159173, Apr. 2007.

[6] C. B. Jacobina, E. R. C. da Silva, A. M. N. Lima, and R. L. A. Ribeiro,

Vector and scalar control of a four switch three phase inverter, in

Industry Applications Conference, 1995. Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting,

IAS 95., Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE, 1995, vol. 3, pp. 2422

2429.

[7] F. Blaabjerg, D. O. Neacsu, and J. K. Pedersen, Adaptive SVM to

compensate DC-link voltage ripple for four-switch, three-phase voltage

source inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp.

743751, Jul. 1999.

[8] M. N. Uddin, T. S. Radwan, and M. A. Rahman, Performance analysis

of a 4-switch, 3-phase inverter based cost effective IPM motor drives,

in Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering,

2004.

[9] M. B. R. Correa, C. B. Jacobina, E. R. C. da Silva, and A. M. N. Lima,

A general PWM strategy for four-switch three-phase inverters, IEEE

Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 16181627, Nov. 2006.

[10] J. Klima, Analytical investigation of an induction motor fed from fourswitch VSI with a new space vector modulation strategy, IEEE Trans.

Energy Conversion, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 832838, Dec. 2006.

[11] D. Y. Ohm, J.W. Brown, and V. B. Chava, Modeling and parameter

characterization of permanent magnet synchronous motors, in Annual

Symposium of Incremental Motion Control Systems and Devices, 1995.

[12] K. K. Halder, M. J. Islam, M. A. Raq, and B. C. Ghosh, Vector

control of a cost effective FSTP inverter fed synchronous reluctance

motor drive based on recurrent neural network, Pacic Journal of

Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2026, Nov. 2011.

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