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Manufaktur ?

FULFILL ORDER
Manufacturing Process
Manufacturing System
Motion and Time Study
Facilities Layout

RI 1321 Proses Manufaktur - Minggu 1

Definisi Manufaktur

Contoh Produk Manufaktur

Kata-kata manufaktur berasal dari bahasa latin (manus =


hand, factus =made)
y Definisi manufacturing oleh Random House
Websters College Dictionary:
y

The making of goods or wares by manual labor or by


machinery, esp. on a large scale.
y

Definisi dari National Science Foundations Workshop:


The creation and integration of informational and physical
processes to create economic wealth through the production of
artifacts. NSF 93-69.

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Manufaktur (Economic Perspective)

Manufaktur (Technology Perspective)

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Klasifikasi Industri Manufaktur (1)

Klasifikasi Industri Manufaktur (2)

Berdasarkan North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)


Food manufacturing,
Beverage & tobacco product
manufacturing,
Textile mills,
Wood production
manufacturing
Paper manufacturing
Petroleum and coal production
manufacturing
Chemical manufacturing
Plastic and rubber
product manufacturing
Non-metallic mineral
manufacturing
Primary metal
manufacturing

RI 1321 Proses Manufaktur - Minggu 1

Fabricated metal product


manufacturing
Machinery manufacturing
Computer and electronic
product manufacturing
Electrical equip, appliance &
component manufacturing
T
Transportation
equipment
manufacturing
Furniture and related product
manufacturing
Miscellaneous
manufacturing

Primary vs. secondary manufacturing


Primary manufacturing adalah industri yang menghasilkan produk berupa
material yang akan diolah lebih lanjut, seperti steel mills, textile mills,
plastics.
Secondary manufacturing industri yang menghasilkan komponen atau
produk fungsional.

Discrete manufacturing vs. continuous manufacturing


Discrete manufacturing adalah produsen komponen, part atau single
product, seperti gir, mobil, pesawat udara, dll.
Continuous manufacturing adalah produsen produk yang sifatnya
kontinu seperti karet, plastic, sheet metal working, dll.

Mechanical manufacturing, vs. electronics manufacturing


and chemical manufacturing
x Klasifikasi berdasarkan disiplin ilmu

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Klasifikasi Industri Manufaktur Berdasarkan


Standard ISIC 2 Digit

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Proses Vs System Manufaktur

RI 1321 Proses Manufaktur - Minggu 1

Hal--hal yang akan dipelajari


Hal

Jenis Material yang dipergunakan

y
Metals

Ferrous

Ceramics
and others

Plastics

Nonferrous

Thermoplastic

Steels

Aluminum

Polyethylene

Epoxy

Stainless
Steels

Copper

Polypropylene

Phenolic

Tool and
Die Steels

Magnesium

Nylon

Silicone

Cast Irons

Titanium

ABS

PVC

Composites

Common aspects of manufacturing


processes

Dimensioning and Tolerance, Engineering


Metrology, Design of Experiment, Process
Capability, Statistical Process Control, etc.

Oxides
Nitrides
Carbides
Glasses
Graphite
Diamond
RI 1321 Proses Manufaktur - Minggu 1

Mainly secondary, discrete, and mechanical


manufacturing processes
Casting, Forging, Rolling, Extrusion, Sheet
Metal Working, Machining, Non-traditional
Machining, Polymer Processing, Powder
M ll
/Si
i P
i off C
i
Metallurgy/Sintering,
Processing
Ceramics
and Composites, and Joining.

Polymer Matrix
Metal Matrix
Ceramic Matrix

Thermoset

10

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Manufacturing Process
y

1. Subtractive Process
Machining: Turning, milling, boring, grinding
Non-traditional machining: EDM, chemical
milling, waterjet, etc.
Micro-electronics processes: Primarily etching
type processes using either masks or beam
2. Additive Process
Rapid Prototyping Very flexible to part
shape;
h
usually
ll lilimited
it d iin material
t i l choices;
h i
slow
l
rates; fully automated
Advanced Composites Processes
Combination of additive and net shape
processes
Microelectronics Processes Physical and
chemical vapor deposition processes and
coating methods
Joining & Assembly Broad category includes
welding, adhesives, and mechanical assembly

Injection Moulding

3. Continuous Process
Pultrusion of composites
Metal Extrusion Net shape process
Plastic Extrusion
Czochralski Crystal Growth
Continuous Casting
4. Net shape Process
Types
Solids: Metal Forming, Powders, Others
Liquids: Casting, Injection Molding, Others
Mixtures: Infiltration, Viscoelastics, Others
Characteristics
Hard tooling
Solid forming very fast cycle time
Thermal processes slower and depend upon
cooling rate
Dimensional control is not as good as
machining

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Forging

Metal Casting

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15

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Sheet Metal Stamping

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Plastic Extrusion

17

Metal Extrusion

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Welding

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Blanking and Punching

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Milling

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Water Jet Machining

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Manufaktur Mengapa penting ?


y

Proses manufaktur adalah kegiatan inti dari sebuah perusahaan.

Adanya kebutuhan terkait dengan Concurrent Enginnering

61% alumni Teknik Industri ITS (berdasarkan hasil tracer study 2005 yang
melibatkan 86 responden lulusan dalam 4 tahun terakhir) bekerja di bidang
manufaktur

Design for X: manufacture, assembly, environment, etc.

D i EEngineers,
i
P
d t Engineers,
E i
R
h and
d Development,
D l
t Manufacturing
M f t i
Design
Product
Research
Engineer, Planning, Safety, Materials, etc.
6% Dosen/Wiraswasta/Pegawai Pemerintah, dll.
33% Sektor Jasa Konsultan. Credit Company, Bank, dll
y

Di Amerika Serikat Industri menyumbangkan 20% GDP


Sektor Jasa : 70% U.S. GNP (retail, transportation, banking, education,
communication, insurance and government).
Pertanian, Konstruksi, dan lain-lain : 10%

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Bagaimana dengan peranan industri di Indonesia ?


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Proporsi pekerjaan Alumni TI ITS

6%
33%

61%

Manufaktur

Jasa

Dosen / Wiraswasta

Responden : 86 orang lulusan periode 2001-2004

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CIMOSA (PRODUK SEBAGAI


DASAR)

Sebuah industri manufaktur diawali/didorong oleh


keberadaan produk yang dihasilkan (dijual) & adanya siklus
hidup produk
y Industri manufaktur umumnya menghasilkan produk dalam
jumlah besar dan sebagian part (pembentuk produk) dapat
berasal dari perusahaan lain.
y Keputusan paling sederhana keputusan buat-beli
y

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CIMOSA (ARSITEKTUR BISNIS DALAM


MANUFAKTUR)
y

Apabila sebuah industri telah berjalan untuk menerima order,


melakukan produksi dan mengirimkan barang jadi kepada customer
maka kebutuhan pengaturan menjadi semakin bertambah dan
kompleks

Maturity

Pertumbuhan

Produk

Penurunan
Inovasi

Part 1

Part 2

... Part n

Keputusan buat beli


make or buy

Perkenalan

Part Beli

Part Buat

Part Hasil
Perakitan

Part Hasil
Forging

Part Hasil
Turning

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REALITAS DALAM MANUFAKTUR


MODERN

CIMOSA (STRATEGI BISNIS


MANUFAKTUR)
y

PENENTUAN ARAH STRATEGI


PROSES
MANAJERIAL

PROSES
PENDUKUNG

MANAJEMEN
PERUBAHAN

Pembuatan
Produk

Pemenuhan
Order

Support Product

MANAJEMEN
PERFORMA
Fulfill Order

Develop Product

Get Order

Menerima
Order

Produk
Penunjang

MANAJEMEN
SDM

KEUANGAN &
AKUNTANSI

MANAJEMEN
PEMELIHARAAN

TEKNOLOGI
INFORMASI

MENCIPTAKA
N DAYA
SAING

REALITAS TAMBAHAN
DALAM MANUFAKTUR MODERN

Contract manufacturing/Lisensi Perusahaan yang


memiliki spesialisasi untuk memproduksi produk
secara keseluruhan (tidak hanya part) dalam
ikatan kontrak dengan perusahaan lain
y Trend semakin pesatnya perkembangan sektor jasa
bagi pertumbuhan ekonomi
y Ekspetasi Kualitas Customer internal maupun
eksternal mengharapkan produk dengan kualitas
terbaik
y Kebutuhan efisiensi operasional Industri
manufaktur harus memiliki operasional yang
efisien terkait dengan persaingan global baik dari
segi harga maupun kualitas
y

MEMELIHARA
DAYA SAING

MANAJEMEN STRATEGI

MONITOR
LINGKUNGAN
EKSTERNAL

PROSES
OPERASIONAL

Globalisasi Beberapa negara berkembang telah


menjadi pemain utama dalam bidang manufaktur
(misal China, India, Mexico) made in China is
almost everywhere
y Outsource Internasional Part dan Produk yang
sebelumnya diproduksi di dalam negeri (dalam
perusahaan/anak perusahaan) diproduksi di
luar negeri zona internasional (Amerika, Jerman)
ataupun zona regional (misal Asia Tenggara, Timur
Tengah, Asia Timur)
y Outsoure Lokal Pemberdayaan/pemanfaatan
supplier lokal/dalam negeri untuk penyediaan part
dan layanan penunjang (misal pemeliharaan alat)

Serangkaian kebutuhan pengaturan industri manufaktur dapat


dikategorikan dalam level pendukung, operasional dan manajerial

PENDEKATAN DAN TEKNOLOGI


MANUFAKTUR MODERN
y
y
y
y
y
y
y

Otomasi otomasi peralatan daripada penambahan


tenaga kerja
Teknologi Material Handling karena manufaktur
umumnya melibatkan serangkaian aktivitas
Lantai Produksi integrasi dan koordinasi beberapa
stasiun kerja manual maupun otomatis
M f k Fleksibel
Fl k b l untukk berkompetisi
b k
d l
Manufaktur
dalam
kategori produk volume-rendah/varian-banyak
Program Kualitas untuk mencapai kualitas tinggi yang
dituntut oleh customer masa kini
CIM integrasi design, produksi, logistik dan fungsi
bisnis lainnya secara vertikal top to lower
management dan horizontal supplier to customer
Lean production aktivitas lebih dengan sumber daya
lebih sedikit

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DEFINISI SISTEM PRODUKSI


Serangkaian peralatan, prosedur, operator/people
untuk menyelesaikan seluruh operasi manufaktur
dalam sebuah perusahaan
Kategori:
y Fasilitas pabrik dan peralatan dalam fasilitas dan
bagaimana penataan fasilitas tersebut (plant layout)
y Sistem penunjang manufaktur serangkaian
prosedur yang dipergunakan perusahaan untuk
mengelolla produksi dan menyelesaikan
permasalahan logistik dan teknis dalam pemesanan
material, aliran kerja dalam pabrik, dan memastikan
bahwa produk memenuhi standar kualitas

FASILITAS SISTEM PRODUKSI


Fasilitas terdiri dari pabrik, mesin produksi, peralatan,
material handling, peralatan inspeksi, dan juga sistem
komputer yang mengendalikan operasi manufaktur
y Tata letak fasilitas cara pengaturan peralatan secara
fisik dalam sebuah pabrik dapat dikembangkan
untuk perangkat non-fisik misalnya software (virtual
layout)
y Sistem produksi pengkategorian/penggolongan
peralatan dan pekerja dalam pabrik
Lini produksi
Stasiun kerja tunggal dan pekerja/operator

SISTEM PRODUKSI
Sistem
Penunjang
Manufaktur
Sistem
Produksi

Fasilitas

SISTEM PRODUKSI
Terdapat 3 kategori dalam partisipasi human
operator dalam proses yang ada di sistem
produksi:
1. Sistem kerja manual seorang pekerja
melakukan satu atau lebih aktivitas kerja tanpa
alat bantu mekanik-elektrik, tetapi
menggunakan hand tools
2. Sistem mesin dan pekerja seorang pekerja
mengoperasikan peralatan yang menggunakan
sumber energi untuk pergerakannya
3. Sistem otomasi sebuah proses yang dilakukan
mesin tanpa partisipasi langsung dari operator

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SISTEM KERJA MANUAL

SISTEM MESIN & PEKERJA

Penggunaan
hand tools

Mesin
Pekerja

Pekerja

Unit pekerjaan
awal

Proses

Unit pekerjaan
selesai

Proses

Unit pekerjaan
selesai

SISTEM PENUNJANG MANUFAKTUR

SISTEM OTOMASI

Melibatkan siklus aktivitas pengolahan informasi


dengan empat fungsi sebagai berikut:

Pekerja datang
secara periodik
Mesin
otomatis

Unit pekerjaan
awal

Unit pekerjaan
awal

Unit pekerjaan
selesai

1. Fungsi bisnis pemasaran dan penjualan,


penerimaan order, akuntansi, customer billing
(tagihan)
2 Design
D
d k penelitian
l
d
b
2.
produk
dan pengembangan,
design engineering, pembuatan prototype
3. Perencanaan manufaktur perencanaan proses,
perencanaan produksi, MRP, perencanaan kapasitas
4. Pengendalian manufaktur kendali lantai produksi,
pengendalian persediaan, pengendalian kualitas

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SIKLUS PEMROSESAN INFORMASI


DALAM SISTEM PENUNJANG
MANUFAKTUR

Terdapat dua kategori otomasi dalam sistem


produksi:

Desain
Produk
Pesanan dari
customer
Fungsi bisnis

Fasilitas
Sistem
Produks
i

Perencanaan
manufaktur

COMPUTER INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING
Aplikasi
komputer
potensial

Fasilitas:
Peralatan
Pabrik

Potensi
aplikasi
otomasi

Sistem
Produksi

1. Otomasi lantai produksi dalam pabrik


2 Komputerisasi
2.
K
t i i sistem
it
penunjang
j
manufaktur
f kt
y

Apabila kedua hal tersebut diintegrasikan


maka sistem akan disebut sebagai
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

Pengendalian
manufaktur

Sistem
penunjang
manufaktur

OTOMASI SISTEM PRODUKSI

Computer
Integrated
Manufacturing

KOMPONEN SISTEM MANUFAKTUR


OTOMATIS
Contoh:
y Peralatan permesinan otomatis
y Transfer lines
y Sistem perakitan otomatis
R b t iindustri
d t i yang melakukan
l k k operasii proses
y Robot
atau perakitan
y Material handling dan sistem penyimpanan
otomatis untuk mengintegrasikan operasi
manufaktur
y Sistem inspeksi otomatis (automatic inspection
systems ) untuk pengendalian kualitas

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SISTEM PENUNJANG MANUFAKTUR


TERKOMPUTERISASI
y

Tujuan:
Mengurangi upaya yang bersifat manual dan
clerical dalam design produk, perencanaan
manufaktur, perencanaan dan pengendalian
produksi dan fungsi bisnis lainnya
produksi,
Mengintegrasikan computer-aided design (CAD)
dengan computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
dalam kerangka CAD/CAM
CIM mengintegrasikan fungsi CAD/CAM ke
dalam fungsi bisnis perusahaan

PEKERJA MANUAL DALAM OPERASI


PABRIK
Terdapat kecenderungan untuk menggantikan
pekerja manual dengan sistem otomasi
y Pertimbangan apa memanfaatkan pekerja manual?
Beberapa negara memiliki tingkat upah rendah dan
otomasi sulit dijalankan
Aktivitas operasi secara teknologi terlalu sulit untuk
dibuat otomasi
Siklus hidup produk pendek
Produk khusus (customized) perlu fleksibilitas manusia
Mengikuti fluktuasi jumlah permintaan produk
Mengurangi resiko produk gagal/cacat

TENAGA KERJA MANUAL DALAM


SISTEM PRODUKSI
Apakah ada tempat bagi pekerja manual dalam
sistem produksi modern?
Jawabnya:YA
y

D l d
Dalam
dua aspek:
k
1. Pekerja manual dalam operasi pabrik
2. Pekerja dalam sistem penunjang manufaktur

PEKERJA DALAM SISTEM PENUNJANG


MANUFAKTUR
y
y

Perancang produk yang menghasilkan kreativitas


dalam pekerjaan design
Manufacturing engineer yang melakukan
Perancangan
g peralatan
p
dan mesin produksi
p
Perencanaan metode dan urutan produksi

y
y
y
y

Pemeliharaan peralatan
Pemrogramaan dan melakukan operasi komputer
Pekerjaan proyek teknik
Manajemen pabrik

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LINGKUP KAJIAN SISTEM


MANUFAKTUR

Motion and Time Study

Lingkup Kajian Sistem Manufaktur seharusnya

Termasuk
interaksi
dengan fungsi
bisnis lainnya
Sales &
Marketing
Accounting
Supplier
Sistem
Produksi

Level Enterprise

Groover

Sistem Penunjang
Manufaktur

Sistem
Penunjang
Manufaktur

Motion and time study can reduce and control costs, improve working
conditions and environment, and motivate people.

The basic purpose is to improve the work and to reduce waste.

Sistem Pengendalian
Kualitas

Level Factory

1. Motion analysis techniques


2. Time study techniques
3. Uses of time standards.

Sistem Manufaktur

Teknologi
Otomasi & Kendali

Teknologi
Material Handling

Manufacturing management and engineering students are being prepared


to design work stations, develop efficient and effective work methods,
establish time standards, balance assembly lines, estimate labor costs,
develop effective tooling, select proper equipment, and layout
manufacturing facilities.

However, the most important thing is to learn how to train production


workers in these skills and techniques so they can become motion and
time conscious.

Fasilitas

Proses manufaktur dan operasi perakitan

Sistem manufaktur terdiri dari seluruh komponen sistem produksi


berikut dengan fungsi interaksi dengan fungsi bisnis lainnya secara
keseluruhan secara vertikal dan horizontal

Motion study offers a great potential for savings in any area of


human effort. We can reduce the cost by combining elements of
one task with elements of another.

Motion study uses the principles of motion economy to develop


work stations that are friendly to the human body and efficient in
their operation.

Motion studyy must consider the operators


safetyy
p

Time study can reduce cost significantly well. Time standards are
goals to strive for. In organizations that operate without time
standards, 60% performance is typical.

Incentive systems can improve performance even further.

Incentive system performances average 120%, that is another


42% increase in performance:
120% - 85%
---------------------- = 42% performance increase.
85%
Manufacturing plants with no standards average 60% performance.
Manufacturing plants with time standards average 85% performance.
Manufacturing plants with incentive systems average 120% performance.

When time standards are set, performance improves to an average


of 85%. This is a 42% increase in performance:
85 % - 60 %
------------------ = 42% performance increase.
60%

If additional production output is required, dont buy more


machinery, dont add a second shift, and dont build a new plant.

Just establish a motion and time study program.

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Motion and time study is considered to be the backbone of industrial engineering,


industrial technology, and industrial management programs because the
information that time studies generate affects so many other areas, including the
following:
1. Cost estimating
2. Production and inventory control
3. Plant layout
4. Materials and processes
5. Quality
6 Safety
6.
S f

Motion study comes first before the setting of time standards. Motion study is a
detailed analysis of the work method in an effort to improve it.

Motion studies are used to

Motion study is for cost reduction, and time study is for cost
control. Motion study is the creative activity of motion and time
study.
y Motion study is design, while time study is measurement.
y

Flow diagrams
Multi activity charts
Operation charts
Flow process charts
Process charts
Operations analysis chart
Work station design
Motion economy
Flow patterns
Predetermined time standards system (PTSS).

1. Develop the best work method.


2. Develop motion consciousness on the part of all employees.
3. Develop economical and efficient tools, fixtures, & production aids.
4. Assist in the selection of new machines and equipment.
5. Train new employees in the preferred method.
6. Reduce effort and cost.

The techniques of time study start with the last motion study technique, which
shows the close relationship between motion study and time study. The
techniques of time study are:
1.Predetermined time standards system (PTSS)
2.Stopwatch time study
3.Standard data formula time standards
4.Work sampling time standards
5.Expert opinion and historical data time standards.

Macromotion Study
y

Any process can be studied by dividing it into process activity. Although


each activity is different, depending on the product, there are five
classes of activities that are included in all processes. Savings, may be
found in the process by reorganizing activities.

These activities found in every


of processes
are
y sequence
q
p

WHAT IS A MOTION STUDY?


y

Motion studies are performed to eliminate waste. Before any improvement in


quality or quantity of output, any study of operations time, any scheduling of
work or balancing of workload or any calculation of standard time, a study of
the current and proposed method is required.

Studies of overall factory flow or process, called macromotion studies, and then
additional studies of detail or operations, called micromotion studies, should be
completed for a project.

Motion studies were conducted by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth about a century
ago in a search for the one best way. It is important to note that such studies
seek to minimize and simplify manual efforts.

Once the importance of motion and time study is understood


and accepted, the techniques of motion and time study are
introduced.
introduced

Operations
Changes in the properties of the product
Transportations Changes in the location of the product
Inspection
Confirmation that change fits to specification
Delay Wait for start of operation, transportation, or inspection
Storage
Wait until needed

When the process is first studied, each activity is recorded and


arranged into one of the five classes. All observed activities are
recorded, and activities not done are not recorded. The purpose of
each activity should be studied.

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29/11/2011

WHAT IS A TIME
STANDARD?
y

Typically, the questions Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? must be
answered. Next, each event is observed in the following sequence:
Can the activity be eliminated? If not,
Can the activity be combined and done with another activity? If not,
Can the activity be rearranged so occur in the sequence at an easier time? If not.
Can the activity be simplified with shorter distances, mechanical assist, or reduced
complexity?

Micromotion Study

The definition of a time standard is the time required to produce


a product at a work station with the following three conditions:
(1) a qualified, well-trained operator,
(2) working at a normal pace,
(3) doing a specific task.

Once these questions are asked and the improvement sequence is defined, it is
necessary to draw a chart or diagram that shows the motion improvements.
Process Flow Plan
A plan-view plant layout with activities overlaid
Process Operations Chart The sequence of serial and parallel operations
Process Chart
All serial activities on a preprinted form
Flow Process Chart
All serial and parallel activities on a single page
Work Cell Load Chart
A plan view with repetitive operations
Route Sheet
A planning tool for scheduling operations

These three conditions are essential to the understanding of time


study.

The importance of time standards can be shown by the three


statistics 60%, 85%, and 120% performance.

The time standard is one of the most important pieces of


information produced in the manufacturing department. It is used
to develop answers for the following problems:

Considerable wasted motion and idle time can occur within an operation. This time
cant be found with macromotion studies because is usually within one process
operation.The improvement is gained from reducing the operation cycle time.

How would you answer the following questions


without time standards?

WHAT IS A TIME STANDARD? Continue..


Determining the number of machine tools to buy

How Many Machines Do We Need?

Determining the number of production people to employ

Determining manufacturing costs and selling prices

One of the first questions rose when setting up a new operation or


starting production on a new product is how many machines do we
need? The answer depends on two pieces of information:

Scheduling the machines, operations, and people to do the job and deliver on
time

a. How many pieces do we need to manufacture per shift?


b. How much time does it take to make one part? (Time standard)

Determining the assembly line balance, determining the conveyor belt speed,
l di th
k cells
ll with
ith the
th correctt amountt off work,
k and
d balancing
b l
i the
th work
k
loading
the work
cells
Determine individual worker performance and identifying operations that are
having problems so the problems can be corrected
Paying incentive wages for outstanding team or individual performance
Evaluating cost reduction ideas and picking the most economical method based
on cost analysis, not opinion

EXAMPLE
1. The marketing department wants us to make 2,000 wagons per 8-hour shift.
2. It takes us 0.400 minutes to form the wagon body on a press.
3. There are 480 minutes per shift (8 hours/shift x 60 minutes/hr).
4. - 50 minutes downtime per shift (breaks, clean-up, etc.)
5. There are 430 minutes per shift available @ 100%.
6. @ 75% performance (based on history) (0.75 x 430 = 322.5).
7. There are 322.5 effective minutes left to produce 2,000 units.

Evaluating new equipment purchases to justify their expense


Developing operation personnel budgets to measure management performance.

8.

322.5
---------------- = 0.161 minutes per unit, or 6.21 parts per minute.
2,000 units

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29/11/2011

Time standard = 0.400 minutes/unit


----------------------------------------------------- = 2.48 machines
Plant rate = 0.161 minutes/unit
y

How Many people should we hire?

The 0.161 minutes per unit is plant rate. Every operation in the
plant must produce a part every 0.161 minutes; therefore, how
many machines do we need for this operation?

This operation requires 2.48 machines. If other operations are


required for this kind of machine, we would add all the machine
requirements together and round up to the next whole number.

Look at the operations chart shown in Figure 4-1.

From a study of this chart, we find the time standard (or every
operation required to fabricate each part of the product and each
assembly operation required to assemble and pack the finished
product.

In the operation shown here (casting the handle), the 05 indicates the
operation number. Usually, 05 is the first operation of each part. The
500 is the pieces per hour standard. This operator should produce
500 pieces per hour. The 2.0 is the hours required to produce 1,000
pieces. At 500 pieces per hour, it would take us 2 hours to make
1,000. How many people would be required to cast 2,000 handles
per shift?

In this example, we would buy three machines. (Never round


down on your own.You will be building a bottleneck in your
plant.)

Not many people, departments, or plants work at 100% performance.


How many hours would be required if we work at the rate of 60%, 85%, or
120%?
4 hours
----------- = 6.66 hours;
60%

4 hours
------------- = 4.7 hours;
85%

4 hours
-------------- = 3.33 hours.
120%

Look again it use operations chart shown in Figure 4-1. Note the total
138.94 hours at the bottom right side. The operations chart includes every
operation required to fabricate, paint, inspect, assemble, and pack out a
product.The total hours is the total time required to make 1,000 finished
products.

In our water valve factory, we need 138.94 hours at 100% to produce 1,000
water valves. If this is a new product, we could expect 75% performance
during the first year of production.Therefore,
138.94 hours per 1,000
---------------------------------- = 185 hours/1,000
75% performance

where 75% = 0.75

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Frame Work for Facilities


Planning
y

The marketing department has forecasted sales of 2,500 water


valves per day. How many people are needed to make water valves?
185 hours/1,000 X 2.5 (1,000) = 463 hours/day needed.
463 / 8 = 57.87 which is equal to 58 people.

Management will be judged by how well it performs to this goal.


y If less than 2,500 units are produced per day with the 58 people,
management will be over budget, and that is not good.
y

If it produces more than 2,500 units per day, management is judged


as being good at managing, and the managers are promotable.

[Q. Lee, IIE Solution, 1997]


Layout or space planning involves five levels from the global maps of site location to
engineering drawing tools and workstations

Level 1: Global site location


Level 2: Supra-space plan
Level 3: Macro-space plan
Level 4: Micro-space plan
Level 5: Sub-micro-space plan
66

LEVEL 1: Global site location


The firm decide where to locate facilities
and determine their missions
z The most strategic impact
z Major
j considerations: labor rates,, tax break,,
labor skill and attitudes, supporting services,
politics,etc.
z Appropriate planning results in facilities
optimized for the markets and located near
the most important resources
z

67

68

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LEVEL 2: SupraSupra-space plan


Site planning, including number, size,
location of buildings, as well as roads,
water, gas, and rail
z Involve
I l a series
i off drawing
d
i showing
h i
past, present and future configurations
z Planning still has long-term and far
reaching consequences
z

69

70

LEVEL 3: MacroMacro-space plan


A macro-layout, plans each building,
structure, or sub-unit of the site
z The designers define and locate operating
departments and determine overall material
flow
z Easier to correct than site level decisions
z A poorly planned facility can bring high
handling cost, confusion, and inflexibility
z

71

72

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Level 4: MicroMicro-space plan


Department or cell layout
z Location of specific equipment is determined
z Emphasis shifts from gross material flow to
personall space and
d communication
z Socio-technical considerations dominate
z

73

74

LEVEL 5: SubSub-micro
micro--space plan
z
z
z
z
z

Workstation design
Workstations are designed for efficiency,
effectiveness, and safety
T l ji and
d fixture
fi
Tools-jig
Location of materials
Appropriate material handling aids

75

76

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Facilities Planning
[Tompkins, et.al. 2003]
Facilities planning is a complex and broad subject that
cuts across several specialized disciplines (civil,
electrical, industrial, mechanical, etc)
x
x
x
x

new hospital
assembly department
existing warehouse
baggage department of an airport.

Facilities planning determines how an activitys tangible


fixed assets best support achieving the activitys
objective.

Facilities Planning Hierarchy


It is important to realize that the term facilities
planning is not synonyms with facilities location,
facilities design, facilities layout, or plant layout.
Facilities
Planning

Facilities
Design

Facilities location - placement with respect to


customer, suppliers, and other facilities with
which it interfaces.
Influences of Plant location :

Proximity to raw material


Markets
Transportation systems
Economic development programs (financial
incentives)

79

Layout Design

Handling Systems
Design

77

Facilities Location

Facility
y System
y
Design

Facilities
Location

78

Facilities Design
Facilities design consists of the facility systems, the
layout, and the handling system
Facility system structural systems, the atmospheric systems,
the enclosure system, the lighting/electrical/communication
systems, the life safety system and the sanitation system.
Layout
of aall equ
equipment,
ayout consists
co s sts o
p e t, machinery,
ac e y, and
a furnishings
u s gs
within the building envelope.
Handling system consists of the mechanisms needed to
satisfy the required facility interactions.
Material handling is very important to the facility design
activity. The choice of material handling equipment will
greatly effect the appropriateness of the facility design.

80

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Table 1.1: Planning Horizon Associated with


Production Analysis

Facilities Planning
z

Facilities planning involves making strategic


decisions concerning the tangible fixed assets used
in the production process.
The difference in the pplanningg horizon for each of
the different levels of analysis used in the
production process listed in Table 1.1.

Planning Horizon

Facilities Planning

Months-Years

Product Design
g and Process Planningg

Weeks-Months

Production Planning

Hours-Weeks

Production control

Minutes-Hours

Quality control

Seconds-Minutes

Machine-level real-time control

81

Motivation Behind Facility Planning


1. One of the most effective methods for increasing
plant productivity and reducing cost is to reduce or
eliminate all activities that are unnecessary or
wasteful. A facilities design should accomplish this
goal in terms of material handling, personnel and
equipment
i
utilization,
ili i reduced
d d iinventories,
i and
d
increased quality.
2. Employee health and safety
3. Energy conservation
4. Community considerations, fire protection, security,
and the ADA of 1989
83

Level of Analysis

Months-Years

82

Objectives of Facilities Planning

Improve customer satisfaction by being easy to do


business with, conforming to customer promises, and
responding to customer needs.
z Increase return on assets (ROA) by maximizing inventory
turns, minimizing obsolete inventory, maximizing
employee participation, and maximizing continuous
improvement.
z Maximize speed for quick customer response.
z Reduced costs and grow the supply chain profitability
z Integrate the supply chain through partnership and
communication.
z

84

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Objectives of Facilities Planning


z Support

the organizations vision through improved


material handling, material control, and good
housekeeping.
z Effectively utilize people, equipment, space, and energy.
z Maximize return on investment (ROI) on all capital
expenditures
dit
z Be adaptable and promote ease of maintenance.
z Provide for employee safety and job satisfaction.
z Provide flexibility to adapt to changing conditions

Significance of Facility Design


z

85

Facilities Planning Process


By applying the engineering design approach,
a systematic approach can be developed
z

Define the problem


Define (or redefine) the objective of the facility
Specify the primary and support activities to be
performed in accomplishing the objective
Analyze the problem
Determine the interrelationships among all
activities
Determine the space requirements for all activities
Generate alternative facilities plans
87

Material handling costs:


30-75% of a products cost (Sule 1991)
20-50% of a manufacturing companys
operating budget (Tompkins & White, 1994)

Optimal Layout Design can reduce


production costs

86

Facilities Planning Process


z
z
z

Evaluate the alternatives


Evaluate alternative facilities plans
Select the preferred design
plan
Select a facilities p
Implement the design
Implement the facilities plan
Maintain and adapt the facilities plan
Redefine the objective of the facility

88

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Developing Facilities Planning Strategies


Product
development and
design decisions

Production
Planning &
Inventory Control

Processing &
M t i l
Material
Requirements

Layout & Material


Handling

Human Resources &


Finance

Size &
Design

#&
Location

Space &
Flow
Storage,
movement,
protection &
control of
material

Sources of Information For


Manufacturing Facilities Design
All the information that is used must come
from different sources.
z The larger the company is,
is the less data
actually produced by the facility designer.
z Some companies have several subdepartments within manufacturing/industrial
engineering. But, in smaller organizations you
are responsible for producing the information.
z

89

Sources Of Information For


Manufacturing Facilities Design
z

Marketing

Product design
g

Management policy

90

Marketing
z Selling price
z Volume, how many can we sell?
z Seasonality,
Seasonality summer or winter product
z Replacement parts, older products

91

92

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Product Design
z

Management Policy

Product design

blueprints
bill of material (part list)
x indented BOM
x buyouts/fabricate

assembly
bl d
drawings
i
x Part and assembly drawings are especially helpful in
visualization of how parts will fit together

model shop samples (prototypes)

Relationship between FD and product design is


important
93

Types of Layout Problems


z

Service systems layout problems

Manufacturing layout problems

Warehouse layout problems

Nontraditional layout problems

Management policy - refers to the upper-level


employees

inventory policy (Just in Time, Kanban,WIP)


lean thinking
investment policy (ROI)
startup schedule
make or buy decision (new or old facility, capital
investment, and mission)
feasibility studies (what product or process
proposal is the most profitable for the company

94

Service Systems Layout Problems


z Examples: layouts of the tables, kitchen, and cocktail
lounge in licensed restaurant; an insurance office;
runway at an airport; emergency facilities in a
hospital and town; public library
T develop
d l service systems layout,
l
d
z To
designers
must
know the number of entities or facilities that are to
be located, the area that will likely be occupied by
each, the interaction between facilities, and special
layout restrictions for any facility or pair of facilities
z General office structures: 1) Closed, 2) Semiclosed,
3) Open, and 4) Semiopen

95

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29/11/2011

Service Systems Layout Problems

Manufacturing layout problems


z Layout design is an important task when a
manufacturing systems is redesign, expanded, or
designed for the first time
z The layout problems involves determining the
l
h
k
location
off machines,
workstations,
rest areas,
inspection stations, clean rooms, heat treatment
station, supervisor or manager offices, tool cribs,
and other facilities to achieve these five objectives:
Minimize cost of transportation between
facilities

Service Systems Layout Problems

Manufacturing layout problems


Minimize cost of transportation between facilities
Facilitate the traffic flow
Increase employee morale
Minimize the risk of injury
j y to ppersonnel and
damage to property
Provide for supervision and face-to-face
communication

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29/11/2011

Manufacturing layout problems

Warehouse layout problems


z A good warehouse layout should use
available storage space effectively to
minimize storage and material handling cost
z Some factors to be considered in
warehouse design are shape and size of
aisles, height of the warehouse, location and
orientation of the docking area, types of
racks to be used for storages, and the level
of automation involved in the storage and
retrieval of commodities

101

Warehouse layout problems

RI-1504/PF/SEW/2004/#1

103

26