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Basic Theory
Stage of the development process that began the animal after gametogenesis is
fertilization. The process to bring the two kinds of gametes and while keeping the diploid
number of chromosomes as the parent tiller fixed. Marriage process in mammals involves
typical sexual behavior is controlled by sex hormones. In addition, sex hormones also
affect the reproductive cycle in female animals. Females generally be receptive to the male
animals at the time of being on stage / estrus period. Once it is known that female mice are
at a stage / period of estrus, the female mice reared in a cage with a male mice mating to
occur. Pregnant female mice were separated from female mice and maintained until
delivery. Female fertility was observed based on the number of implantations and number
of tillers (Adnan, 2014).
The entry of sperm into the ovum is called fertilization. Upon entering the
spermatozoa, ova so successfully growing so new people. Also called fertilization. The
fertilized ovum is called a zygote. Those words mean paired or associated. Derived from
both sides pairs events chromosome gametes, namely the male or the female or patroclin
and matroclin. Each gamete contains 1N chromosomes called haploid. After fertilization
the zygote is composed 2N of cells called diploid. Zygote also experienced growth
embryologis (Yatim, 2000).
Fertilization in various animal species can be distinguished based on the venue,
namely external fertilization, and internal fertilization. External fertilization is is
fertilization takes place outside the body parent. Type of fertilization is often found in
aquatic animals, among others, various types of fish, frogs and so on. Internal fertilization
is that fertilization takes place inside the body parent. Usually animals with internal
fertilization took place produce a mature egg in the amount of limited one reproductive
cycle, and typically ranges only 1-15 pieces. In animals which lasted external fertilization,
the number of mature eggs produced in one spawning times ranging from hundreds to
hundreds of thousands of pieces. This fact is associated with a variety of environmental
risk experienced by gametes after it is released from its parent body among others, changes
in the physical environment, chemical, and various another factors biological as likely to
predation by predators (Adnan, 2014).
External fertilization species generally produce a lot of zygotes, but comparisons survive
and thrive more often very few in number. Internal fertilization usually produce fewer
zygotes, but it is commonly offset by greater protection to the embryo and maintenance
and greater oversight over the child by the parent main types of protection include resistant
eggshells, development of the embryo in the mother's reproductive tract, and maintenance
of eggs and offspring by parent (Campbell, 2012).
According to theory by Adnan (2013) that fertilisation has several functions that are:

1. The transmission of genes of paternal and maternal to offspring,

2. Inducing cell eggs to develop further,
3. Result in the occurrence of syngami, namely the melting properties of the
paternal and maternal genetic,
4. Maintaining the condition diploiditas a particular species of kind,
5. Genetically sexing.
According to theory by Adnan (2014) that basically fertilization is not a single process, but
rather a series of processes involving both gametes. Fertilization consists of several stages:
1. Contact and recognition between sperm with ovum,
2. Set the entry of sperm into the egg,
3. The union of genetic material between ova and spermatozoa,
4. The metabolic activation of the egg to start the development.

II. Purpose
As for the purpose of practice on this chance that:
1. To know and have skills in mating mice.
2. Having a better understanding of the process of fertilization in mammals.
III. Methods of experiment
A. Time and Place
Day/date : Tuesday, December 23th 2014
: 17:00 pm
: Biology Laboratory third east floor at FMIPA UNM
B. Tools and Material
a. Tools
Cage of mice
Surgary tools
Surgary board
Feed of mice
b. Materials
Male mice and female mice (Mus musculus)
C. Work procedures
1. Mated mice
a. Maintaining a moderate estrous mice with male mice in a cage, so that the mice
can copulation.
b. Checking the vaginal plug on the morning of female mice indicates that the mice
had been married.
c. Considering the weight of mice that had been pregnant every day, to ensure that
the mice had undergone a process of pregnancy.
d. Giving food and water in the form of pellets drink in moderation, and replace
husks periodically to maintain a sanitary environment.
2. Fertilisation female mice observation
a. Deadly female mice that had been pregnant mice on the appointed day.
Observing the number of live and dead fetuses, implantation of a corpus luteum
and again allowed to give birth naturally.
b. For the observation of the number of live fetuses and corpus is to dissect mice
that had been turned off on the abdomen, so that the uterus looks.

c. Counting the number of fetuses in the uterus and record the number for each

horn uterus.
Touching the fetus to determine whether the fetus is dead or alive.
Opening the uterus and record / look for implantation resorption.
Calculate amount of each uterine horn.
Taking both the mouse ovary and corpus luteum to calculate amount of each

h. To calculate number of tillers is by counting the number of children born in the
mice allowed to deliver naturally and record data obtained.

IV. Observation Result and Discussion

A. Observation result

Mice at-9 pregnancy day
1 Embryo
2 Fetus

Mice at-11th pregnancy day
1 Fetus
2 Uterus

Mice at-16 pregnancy day
1 Left kidney
2 Ovarium
3 Fetus
4 Uterus



Mice at-18 pregnancy day
1 Left kidney
2 Fetus
3 Uterus


Data Analytical
a. Fetus 13th days
1) Implantation percentage
2) Percentage of death fetus
b. Fetus 17th days

x 100 =80

x 100 =66,67

1) Implantation percentage

x 100 =100

2) Percentage of death fetus

x 100 =0

B. Discussion
Based on the observation at Mus musculus fertilization, we observe the
process of mating males and females by putting them in one place so that they can
mate. After a few days in the female animal vaginal swabs which means there are
males and females have undergone marriage. Females will be pregnant and this weight
will be calculated on a daily basis. Body weight of pregnant female mice continued to
grow. This is caused by the development of the embryo in the uterus of mice. This

success occurs because female mice were in a state of estrus which accelerates the
process of pregnancy.
1. Fetus 13th days
In mice dissected at day 13th, there are 9 fetuses lie in the mouse uterus.
On the right and left uterine respectively each fetus, but there are 4 dead fetus in the
uterus right. And showed that the percentage of live fetuses were 80% and fetus death
is 66.67%. Based on the weight of female mice, on the second day of losing weight.
This is due probably due to early pregnancy.
2. Fetus 17th days
In mice there are only 2 fetuses were all alive with a percentage of
100%. In these mice the formation of organs already apparent, only the lining of the
eye that is not yet open. Another case in mice that weight during early pregnancy has
Some practical work, we did experience a failure, because the other groups
keep the mice turned out to be immature mice. Therefore, the reproductive organs
have not progressed so as not to have been possible fertilization. Our group decided to
buy a new House mouse. Mice that we buy are House mouse males. For our mice are
mice are all females. We find it difficult to determine the existence of a causal
explanation of the vaginal apusan apusan vagina we obtain very minimal so we had
trouble when determining whether apusan cunt has been seen or not so we don't know
if our female mice maintained had been pregnant or not. Before we do the next
weighing, we keep the mice die, so that at the time that the mice are dissected is
teaching mice belong to other groups. While teaching there was only one female mice
were dissected. Unfortunately has not been dissected female mice showed a
development of a foetus so that it cannot be known the foetus was dead, alive, or
direabsorpsi. The data analysis results of observation can also be done.
According to theory (Adnan, 2014), fertilization occurs in mice is internal
fertilization. Fertilisai which occurred in female mice that were in estrus period will
produce a zygote. Phase estrus in mice can be observed by looking at the vulva mice
reddish and swollen. While pregnant mice can be identified by the formation of
vaginal plugs in mice. Animals where fertilization takes place internally, traveling
sperm outside the body does not take place. In mammals, sperm delivered to the
female genital tract via specialized genitals highly specialized so-called penis. Sperm
that have entered the female genital tract further forward on his way to the venue for
fertilization. Fertilization can occur in the anterior portion vallopi tube and can also
take place in the posterior tube vallopi.
V. Closing
A. Conclusion

The conclusion that we can take from this observation are:

1. Vaginal smear is a marker that the mice had experienced marriage.
2. In early pregnancy mice lost weight and then increased due to the development of
the fetus.
B. Suggestion
Observations in order to run smoothly each assistant should accompany each group to
observation didnt wrong

Adnan. 2014. Guide Book of Animal Development. Makassar: State University of Makassar.
Jhon,W.1991.Kimball,Biologi Jilid 2 Edisi ke 5.Maulang sari.1991.
Kimball, John W. 1993. Biologi Edisi Kelima Jilid II. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Surjono,Wieh Wiati.2001.Perkembangan hewan.Uniersitas Terbuka.2001.

Complete report of Basic Biology with the tittle Fertilization. Which made by:
: Ahmad Setiawan Jarigau
Reg. Num (ID)
: 1314442005
: ICP A Biology
: III (Three)
After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator, so the report accepted
Makassar, January 8th 2015
Assistant Coordinator


Anggra Alfian

Paewa Panennungi

ID : 101404007

ID : 1214441027

Lecture of Responsibility

Drs. Adnan, M.S