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Information system development:

A change process taken with respect to object systems in a set of environments by a


development group using tools and an organized collection of techniques collectively
referred to as a method to achieve or maintain some objectives
Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence
the development, use, and application of information technology in the organizations.
A series of methodologies and processes can be used to develop and use an
information system. Many developers now use an engineering approach such as
the system development life cycle (SDLC), which is a systematic procedure of
developing an information system through stages that occur in sequence. An
information system can be developed in the organization or outsourced.
Geographic information systems, land information systems, and disaster information
systems are examples of emerging information systems, but they can be broadly
considered as spatial information systems. System development is done in stages
which include:

Problem recognition and specification


Information gathering
Requirements specification for the new system
System design
System construction
System implementation
Review and maintenance.

Stages of Information system Development:


1.
Analysis:
This is a very important part in the development of an Information System and
involves looking at an organisation or system (such as a nursery school) and finding
out how information is being handled at the moment.
If there is no computer system then the first task will be to look at existing manual
systems.
It is possible to find out about existing systems in a number of ways:
Talking to the people who work with the system.
Questionnaires to existing users.
Observing how people use the system.
Reading existing manuals.
If the aim is to improve an existing computer system the methods of analysis
previously mentioned are still important.
The analysis phase often includes a feasibility study. At the end of this phase a
decision needs to be made as to what software to use.

2. Feasibility Study:
The aim of a feasibility study is to see whether it is possible to develop a system at a
reasonable cost. At the end of the feasibility study a decision is taken whether to
proceed or not. A feasibility study contains the general requirements of the proposed
system.
The study might identify the following general requirements for the system:
To be simple and easy to use.
To store all relevant details of the members.
To produce membership lists, membership cards and mailing labels.
To produce posters, flyers and similar material advertising the nursery.
3. System Design:
System analysis describes WHAT a system should do to meet the information needs
of users. System design specifies HOW the system will accomplish this objective. The
designing of the system refers to the technical specification that will be implied in
constructing the system. The output of the system analysis phase is the input to the
system design phase.
The System design should stress on the following three activities.
User interface
Data design, and
Process design
4. Construction and Testing:
Once the system specifications are understood, the system is physically created. The
required programs are coded, debugged, and documented. The system should be
tested with some test data to ensure its accuracy and reliability. In fact, construction
of the system takes place on the basis of the system design specifications.
5. Implementation:
The system implementation stage involves hardware and software acquisition, site
preparation, user training and installation of the system. Then testing of the system,
involving all components and procedures should be done. It must be realized that
implementation may be the most crucial phase of system.
6. Maintenance:
System maintenance involves the monitoring, evaluating and modifying of a system
to make desirable or necessary improvements. In other words, maintenance includes
enhancements, modifications or any change from the original specifications.