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MANUAL

of
STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Load and Resistance


Factor Design
Third Edition

vi

Copyright 2001
by
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
ISBN 1-56424-051-7
All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof
must not be reproduced in any form without the
written permission of the publisher.
The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance
with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. While
it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be used or relied upon
for any specific application without competent professional examination and
verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional
engineer, designer, or architect. The publication of the material contained herein
is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the American
Institute of Steel Construction or of any other person named herein, that this
information is suitable for any general or particular use or of freedom from
infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this information
assumes all liability arising from such use.
Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes
developed by other bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such
material may be modified or amended from time to time subsequent to the
printing of this edition. The Institute bears no responsibility for such material other
than to refer to it and incorporate it by reference at the time of the initial
publication of this edition.
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing: November 2001

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

vii

PREFACE
rd

This 3 Edition LRFD Manual of Steel Construction is the twelfth major update of the
AISC Manual of Steel Construction, which was first published in 1927. With this revision,
member and connection design information has been condensed back into a single
volume. It has been reorganized and reformatted to provide practical and efficient access
to the information it contains, with a roadmap format to guide the user quickly to the
applicable specifications, codes and standards, as well as the applicable provisions in
those standards.
The following specifications, codes and standards are included in or with this Manual:

1999 LRFD Specification for Structural Steel Buildings


2000 LRFD Specification for Steel Hollow Structural Sections
2000 LRFD Specification for Single-Angle Members
2000 RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
2000 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges
AISC Shapes Database V3 CD

The following major improvements have been made in this revision:

Workable gages for flange fasteners have been reintroduced.


The revised T, k and k1 values for W-shapes and the 0.93 wall-thickness reduction
factor for HSS have been considered.
Guidance is provided on the new OSHA safety regulations, stability bracing
requirements and proper material specification.
New information is provided on design drawing information requirements, criteria
needed for connection design, mill, fabrication and erection tolerances, faade
issues, temperature effects and fire protection requirements with summaries of
common UL assemblies.
Shape information has been updated to the current series.
Coverage of round HSS has been added.
Dimensions and properties have been added for double channels back-to-back.
Tables of surface and box perimeter, weight/area-to-perimeter ratios and surface
areas have been expanded to cover all common structural shapes.
A new section on properly specifying materials, including shapes, plates, fasteners
and other products, has been added.
New information on corrosion protection and seismic design has been added.
A new section has been added with design aids for tension members, including
explicit consideration of net section requirements to ensure connectable member
selection.
Beam selection tables are included for selection based upon Ix, Zx, Iy, and Zy.
Beam charts (Mn vs. Lb) are plotted for both W-shapes and channels.
New floor plate deflection and bending design aids have been added.
Additional beam diagrams and formulas have been added.
A new section has been added with design aids for W-shape beam-columns.
New bolt length selection tables have been added.
Bolt entering and tightening clearances have been updated.
Bolting information has been updated for consistency with the 2000 RCSC
Specification.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

viii

Welding information, including the prequalified welded joint tables, has been
updated to for consistency with AWS D1.1-2000.
Information on prying action, Whitmore section and strength of coped beams has
been updated.
Selection tables for shear end-plate connections and single-plate connections have
been improved and expanded, including single-plate connections with up to 12
1
rows of bolts and up to 1 /8-in. diameter.
New information and examples for flexible moment connections has been added as
an update of Disques historic type 2 with wind moment connection design
approach.
Previous limitations on the use of moment end-plate connections have been
relaxed.
Information on the design of anchor rods has been updated, including a new table
of minimum dimensions for washers used with anchor rods.
Composite member tables have been updated to include coverage of both 4 ksi
and 5 ksi concrete.
A cross-reference between U.S. customary and Metric shapes series has been
included.

In addition, many other improvements have been made throughout this Manual.
By the AISC Committee on Manuals and Textbooks,
William A. Thornton, Chairman

Barry L. Barger, Vice Chairman

Charles J. Carter
Robert O. Disque
Marshall T. Ferrell
Lanny J. Flynn
Mark V. Holland
Bill R. Lindley II
Leonard R. Middleton
William C. Minchin
Thomas M. Murray

Charles R. Page
Davis G. Parsons II
David T. Ricker
Marc L. Sorenson
Scott T. Undershute
Gary C. Violette
Michael A. West
Heath E. Mitchell, Secretary

The Committee gratefully acknowledges the following people for their contributions to this
Manual: Abbas Aminmansour, Roger L. Brockenbrough, Jennifer R. Ceccotti, Harry A.
Cole, Richard A. DeVries, Guy J. Engebretson, Areti Gertos, Louis F. Geschwindner, Jr.,
John L. Harris III, Richard C. Kaehler, Suzanne W. Kaehler, Gerald F. Loberger, Jr.,
William T. Segui, Janet S. Tuegel, and Ramulu S. Vinnakota.

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PART 1
DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

STRUCTURAL PRODUCTS
W-, M-, S- and HP-Shapes
Channels
Angles

14

Structural Tees (WT-, MT- and ST-Shapes)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Hollow Structural Sections (HSS)


Steel Pipe

Double Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Double Channels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17
18

W-Shapes with Cap Channels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

S-Shapes with Cap Channels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Plate Products
Crane Rails

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Other Structural Products

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

STANDARD MILL PRACTICES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

Hot-Rolled Structural Shapes


Hollow Structural Sections
Steel Pipe

110

Plate Products

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

TABLES OF DESIGN DIMENSIONS, DETAILING DIMENSIONS AND AXIAL,


STRONG-AXIS FLEXURAL AND WEAK-AXIS FLEXURAL PROPERTIES

. . . . .

112

Table 1-1. W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112

Table 1-2. M-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

Table 1-3. S-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

Table 1-4. HP-Shapes


Table 1-5. C-Shapes

Table 1-6. MC-Shapes


Table 1-7. Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

132
134

Table 1-8. WT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140

Table 1-9. MT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

152

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DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

Table 1-10. ST-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

Table 1-11. Rectangular (and Square) HSS


Table 1-12. Round HSS
Table 1-13. Steel Pipe

154

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

174

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177

Table 1-14. Double Angles


Table 1-15. 2C-Shapes

Table 1-16. 2MC-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Table 1-17. W-Shapes with Cap Channels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

Table 1-18. S-Shapes with Cap Channels

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182

Table 1-19. Areas of Rectangular Plates and Bars

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 1-20. Weights of Rectangular Plates and Bars


Table 1-21. Areas and Weights of Round Bars

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

185
186

. . . . . . . .

187

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

187

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188

Table 1-22. AISI Standard Nomenclature for Flat-Rolled Carbon Steel


Table 1-23. Weights of Raised-Pattern Floor Plates
Table 1-24. Crane Rails

184

. . . . . .

189

Table 1-25. W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

189

Table 1-26. M-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194

Table 1-27. S-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

TABLES OF TORSIONAL AND FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL PROPERTIES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

Table 1-28. HP-Shapes


Table 1-29. C-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

198

Table 1-30. MC-Shapes


Table 1-31. Angles

Table 1-32. WT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1101

Table 1-33. MT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1106

Table 1-34. ST-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1107

Table 1-35. Double Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1108

TABLES OF SURFACE AREAS, BOX PERIMETERS AND AREAS


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1111

Table 1-36. W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1111

Table 1-37. M-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1116

Table 1-38. S-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1117

AND W /D AND A/P RATIOS

Table 1-39. HP-Shapes


Table 1-40. C-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1118

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1119

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1120

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1121

Table 1-41. MC-Shapes


Table 1-42. Angles

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Table 1-43. WT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1124

Table 1-44. MT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1129

Table 1-45. ST-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1130

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1131

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1138

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1141

Table 1-46. Rectangular (and Square) HSS


Table 1-47. Round HSS
Table 1-48. Steel Pipe

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1142

Table 1-50. LLBB Double Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1143

Table 1-51. SLBB Double Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1145

Table 1-49. Equal-Leg Double Angles .

Table 1-52. 2C-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 1-53. 2MC-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1149

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1149

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1151

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1152

Table 1-55. S-Shapes, M-Shapes, and Channels


Table 1-56. WT-, MT-, and ST-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1153

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1154

Table 1-57. Angles, Structural Size


Table 1-58. Angles, Bar Size

1148

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

STANDARD MILL PRACTICES SUMMARY TABLES


Table 1-54. W-Shapes and HP-Shapes

1147

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1156

Table 1-59. Rectangular (and Square) HSS


Table 1-60. Round HSS and Steel Pipe

Table 1-61. Rectangular Sheared Plates and Universal Mill Plates

. . . . . . . . . . .

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PART 2
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SCOPE

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APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS

. . . . . . . . . . . .

26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Additional Requirements for Single-Angle Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Additional Requirements for Bolted Joints with High-Strength Bolts


Additional Requirements for Welded Joints

27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

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27

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27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

Additional Requirements for Seismic Applications


Other AISC Reference Documents

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

Columns and Column Base Plates


Safety Cables .

Walking/Working Surfaces

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

Beams and Bracing .


Joists

Controlling Contractor

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210

Fall Protection
Lifts

26

. . . . . . . . .

Additional Requirements for Steel-to-Concrete Anchorage

OSHA REQUIREMENTS

25

. . . . . . . . . . .

Specifications, Codes and Standards for Structural Steel Buildings


Additional Requirements for HSS and Steel Pipe .

25

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210

FUNDAMENTALS OF LIMIT-STATES DESIGN


Loads, Load Factors and Load Combinations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

Serviceability .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

DESIGN BASIS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

Nominal Strengths, Resistance Factors and Design Strengths

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

Frame Analysis, Stability and Leaning Columns


Stability Bracing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

Approximate Method
Simple-Span Beams

Beam Ends Supported on Bearing Plates .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Beams and Girders Framing Continuously Over Columns

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

PROPERLY SPECIFYING MATERIALS


Availability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

M-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

Structural Shapes

S-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222

HP-Shapes
Channels
Angles

Structural Tees

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rectangular (and Square) HSS

222

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223

Round HSS
Steel Pipe

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222

Plate Products

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223

Structural Plates
Structural Bars

223

Raised-Pattern Floor Plates

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223

Sheet and Strip .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

227

Fastening Products

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

227

Conventional Bolts .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

Twist-Off-Type Tension-Control Bolt Assemblies


Nuts

227

Washers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

Compressible-Washer-Type Direct-Tension Indicators


Anchor Rods

Threaded Rods

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

Shear-Stud Connectors
Other Products

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

Steel Castings and Forgings


Crane Rails

229

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Forged Steel Structural Hardware


Filler Metal

228

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

CONTRACT DOCUMENT INFORMATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Drawings, Specifications and Other Contract Documents


Required Information

230

. . . . . . . . . . . .

230

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: MRM
PB067-P2

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 8, 2001

17:53

Char Count= 0

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

23

Information Required Only When Specified


Approvals Required

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

231

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

231

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

233

Establishing Criteria for Connections .


Simple Shear Connections
Moment Connections
Truss Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

Horizontal and Vertical Bracing Connections


Strut and Tie Connections
TOLERANCES

Mill Tolerances

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

Fabrication Tolerances
Erection Tolerances

Building Facade Tolerances

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

235

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

235

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

235

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

CAMBER, SWEEP AND STRAIGHTENING


Beam Camber and Sweep
Cold Bending
Hot Bending

234

Truss Camber

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

Straightening

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

FIRE PROTECTION AND ENGINEERING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

Conventional Fire-Resistant Design and Construction


Rated Assemblies

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

241

Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Assemblies


Restrained and Unrestrained Ratings

. . . . . . . . . .

242

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

244

Compatibility of Primer and Paint on Spray-Applied Fireproofing


Fire Engineering

239

Assessment of Fire Damage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

244

CORROSION PROTECTION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

248

RENOVATION AND RETROFIT OF EXISTING STRUCTURES


THERMAL EFFECTS

. . . . . . . . . . . .

248

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

248

Expansion and Contraction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Elevated-Temperature Service
Low-Temperature Service

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

250

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

250

FATIGUE AND FRACTURE CONTROL


Avoiding Brittle Fracture

248

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

250
250

P1: MRM
PB067-P2

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 8, 2001

17:53

Char Count= 0

24

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Avoiding Lamellar Tearing


SEISMIC DESIGN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

253

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254

Wind Applications and Low-Seismic Applications


High-Seismic Applications
PART 2 REFERENCES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

255

P1: GMV
PB067-P3

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 27, 2001

11:27

Char Count= 0

31

PART 3
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GROSS AREA, NET AREA AND EFFECTIVE AREA


Gross Area

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Effective Area

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TENSILE DESIGN STRENGTH

33
33
33
33
33

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

Yielding Limit State

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

Rupture Limit State

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

. . .

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Special Requirements for Heavy Shapes and Plates
Slenderness

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

Built-Up Tension Members


Pin-Connected Plates
Eyebars

Concentrated Forces
Fatigue

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

Serviceability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Example 3.1. W-Shape Tension Member Design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

310

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

311

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

313

Example 3.5. Round HSS Tension Member Design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

314

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

315

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

Example 3.7. Double-Angle Tension Member Design.


STEEL TENSION-MEMBER SELECTION TABLES
Table 3-1. W-Shapes

35

37

Example 3.4. Rectangular HSS Tension Member Design.

Example 3.6. Steel Pipe Tension Member Design.

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Example 3.2. Single-Angle Tension Member Design.


Example 3.3. WT-Shape Tension Member Design.

34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

Table 3-2. Single Angles


Table 3-3. WT-Shapes

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GMV
PB067-P3

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 27, 2001

11:27

32

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS

Table 3-4. Rectangular (and Square) HSS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

Table 3-5. Round HSS


Table 3-6. Steel Pipe

Char Count= 0

Table 3-7. Double Angles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

316

P1: GIG
PB067-P4

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 2, 2001

1:47

Char Count= 0

41

PART 4
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

. . . .

43

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

COMPACT, NON-COMPACT AND SLENDER-ELEMENT CROSS-SECTIONS


Determining the Width-Thickness Ratios of the Cross-Section

43

Width-Thickness Limits for Compact and Non-Compact Cross-Sections

. . . . . . . .

43

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Doubly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Singly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Effective Width Factor for Slender-Element Cross-Sections

Point-Symmetric and Unsymmetric Compression Members

44

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Stiffness Reduction Factor for Inelastic Buckling


Column Slenderness Parameter c

44

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EFFECTIVE LENGTH AND COLUMN SLENDERNESS


Physical and Effective Column Lengths

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

COMPRESSIVE DESIGN STRENGTH FOR COMPACT AND NON-COMPACT


CROSS-SECTIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Doubly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Singly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Point-Symmetric and Unsymmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

COMPRESSIVE DESIGN STRENGTH FOR SLENDER-ELEMENT


CROSS-SECTIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Doubly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Singly Symmetric Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

Point-Symmetric and Unsymmetric Compression Members


COMPOSITE COMPRESSION MEMBERS

. . .

46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Slenderness

Plastic Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

Built-Up Compression Members


Pin-Connected Plates

46

Tapered Compression Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

46

P1: GIG
PB067-P4

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 2, 2001

1:47

42

Serviceability

Char Count= 0

DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 4.1. W-shape compression member design (braced frame).

. . . . . . . . .

47
47
49

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

412

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

413

EXAMPLE 4.3. Single-angle compression member design.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

413

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

414

EXAMPLE 4.5. Rectangular HSS compression member design.


EXAMPLE 4.6. Steel pipe compression member design.

47

. . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 4.2. W-shape compression member design (moment frame).

EXAMPLE 4.4. WT-shape compression member design.

47

EXAMPLE 4.7. Double-angle compression member design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 4.8. Rectangular HSS filled with 5-ksi normal-weight concrete.

. . . . . .

414
415

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

416

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

416

Table 4-2. W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

416

Table 4-3. HP-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

416

STEEL COMPRESSION-MEMBER SELECTION TABLES


Table 4-1. Stiffness Reduction Factor

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

416

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

Table 4-4. Single Angles


Table 4-5. WT-Shapes

Table 4-6. Rectangular HSS .

417

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

Table 4-7. Round HSS


Table 4-8. Steel Pipe

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

417

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-9. Equal-Leg Double Angles


Table 4-10. LLBB Double Angles
Table 4-11. SLBB Double Angles .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

COMPOSITE COMPRESSION-MEMBER SELECTION TABLES

. . . . . . . . . . .

418
418

Table 4-12. Rectangular HSS Filled with 4-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-13. Rectangular HSS Filled with 5-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-14. Round HSS Filled with 4-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-15. Round HSS Filled with 5-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-16. Steel Pipe Filled with 4-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . . . . . .

418

Table 4-17. Steel Pipe Filled with 5-ksi Normal-Weight Concrete

. . . . . . . . . . . .

419

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

419

PART 4 REFERENCES

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P5

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:26

Char Count= 0

51

PART 5
DESIGN OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GROSS AREA, NET AREA AND EFFECTIVE AREA

55
55

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

For Flexure
For Shear

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

COMPACT, NON-COMPACT AND SLENDER-ELEMENT CROSS-SECTIONS


(LOCAL BUCKLING)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Determining the Width-Thickness Ratios of the Cross-Section

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

55
55

. . . . . . . .

55

. . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Classification of Spans for Flexure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Consideration of Moment Gradient

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Width-Thickness Limits for Compact and Non-Compact Cross-Sections


UNBRACED LENGTH (LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING)

FLEXURAL DESIGN STRENGTH FOR STRONG-AXIS BENDING


Requirements for Braced, Compact Members

. . . . . . . . . .

57

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

Additional Requirements for Unbraced Length L b Greater Than L p

. . . . . . . . . . .

Additional Requirements for Cross-Sections with Non-Compact or Slender Flanges

. .

58

. . .

58

. . . . . . . . . . .

59

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

Additional Requirements for Cross-Sections with Non-Compact or Slender Webs


FLEXURAL DESIGN STRENGTH FOR WEAK-AXIS BENDING
SHEAR DESIGN STRENGTH

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

STEEL W-SHAPE BEAMS WITH COMPOSITE SLABS


Concrete Slab Effective Width
Shear Stud Connectors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

Flexural Design Strength for Positive Moment


Shored and Unshored Construction
Shear Design Strength

. . .

510

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Special Requirements for Heavy Shapes and Plates
Plastic Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

510

Web Openings
Plate Girders

58

Tapered Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

510

P1: GIG
PB067-P5

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:26

Char Count= 0

52

DESIGN OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS

Concentrated Forces

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

511

Ponding

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

511

Fatigue

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

511

Torsion

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

511

Serviceability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

511
512
512

EXAMPLE 5.1. W-shape flexural member design (design strength of compact shape
in strong-axis bending).

512

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 5.2. W-shape flexural member design (design strength of non-compact


shape in strong-axis bending).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

516

EXAMPLE 5.3. W-shape flexural member design (selection by moment of inertia


for strong-axis bending).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

520

EXAMPLE 5.4. W-shape flexural member design (selection using plots of b M p


vs. L b for strong-axis bending).

521

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 5.5. W-shape flexural member design (determination of maximum end


reaction for strong-axis bending).

521

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

523

. .

525

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

527

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

528

EXAMPLE 5.6. Composite W-shape flexural member design (unshored construction).


EXAMPLE 5.7. Composite W-shape flexural member design (shored construction).
EXAMPLE 5.8. Composite W-shape flexural member design (determination
of maximum end reaction for strong-axis bending). .
STEEL BEAM SELECTION TABLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

528

Table 5-2. W-Shapes Selection by Ix

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

529

Table 5-3. W-Shapes Selection by Z x

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

529

Table 5-1. Beam Bending Coefficient Cb

. . . . . . . . . . . .

529

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

530

Table 5-6. W-Shapes Selection by I y

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

530

Table 5-7. W-Shapes Selection by Z y

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

530

Table 5-4. W-Shapes Maximum Total Factored Uniform Load


Table 5-5. W-Shapes Plots of b Mnx vs. L b

Table 5-8. S-Shapes Maximum Factored Uniform Load

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

Table 5-9. C-Shapes Maximum Factored Uniform Load

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

Table 5-10. MC-Shapes Maximum Factored Uniform Load


Table 5-11. C- and MC-Shapes Plots of b Mnx vs. L b
Table 5-12. Floor Plates

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

531

COMPOSITE BEAM SELECTION TABLES .


Table 5-13. Shear Stud Connector Strength

531

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P5

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:26

Char Count= 0

DESIGN OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS

Table 5-14. Composite W-Shapes

53

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

532

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

532

Table 5-15. Lower-Bound Elastic Moments of Inertia


BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS

Table 5-16. Concentrated Load Equivalents

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

532

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

534

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

534

Table 5-17. Shears, Moments and Deflections .


PART 5 REFERENCES

531

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P6

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 28, 2001

14:45

Char Count= 0

61

PART 6
DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECT
TO COMBINED LOADING

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

. . . .

63

. . . . . .

63

COMPACT, NON-COMPACT AND SLENDER-ELEMENT CROSS-SECTIONS


MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED AXIAL TENSION AND FLEXURE

63

MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND FLEXURE

. .

63

MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED TORSION, FLEXURE, SHEAR


AND/OR AXIAL FORCE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

COMPOSITE MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION


AND FLEXURE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

64

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


DESIGN EXAMPLES

64

Example 6.1. W-shape subject to combined axial tension and flexure.

. . . . . . . . .

65

Example 6.2. W-shape subject to combined axial compression and flexure


(braced frame).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

Example 6.3. W-shape subject to combined axial compression and flexure


(moment frame).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

610

Example 6.4. W-shape member design (braced frame).


STEEL BEAM-COLUMN SELECTION TABLES

Table 6-1. Median Values of b, m and n for Beam-Columns

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

610

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

611

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

611

Table 6-2. W-Shapes: Values of b, m and n for Beam-Columns


PART 6 REFERENCE

68

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P7

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 31, 2001

14:34

Char Count= 0

71

PART 7
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOLTS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BOLTED JOINTS


Fastener Components

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Proper Selection of Bolt Length .


Washer Requirements
Bolted Parts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73
73
73
73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

Pretensioned Joints

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

Slip-Critical Joints

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

PROPER SPECIFICATION OF JOINT TYPE


Snug-Tightened Joints

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Shear

Tension

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Combined Shear and Tension

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes


Slip Resistance

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

ECCENTRICALLY LOADED BOLT GROUPS


Eccentricity in the Plane of the Faying Surface
Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method
Elastic Method

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

711

Eccentricity Normal to the Plane of the Faying Surface


Case INeutral Axis Not at Center of Gravity
Case IINeutral Axis at Center of Gravity

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Placement of Bolt Groups

. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712
712

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712

Bolts in Combination with Welds or Rivets


Galvanizing High-Strength Bolts
Reuse of Bolts

75

Fatigue Applications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Entering and Tightening Clearances

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

712
712

P1: GIG
PB067-P7

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 31, 2001

14:34

Char Count= 0

72

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOLTS

Fully Threaded ASTM A325 Bolts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712

ASTM A307 Bolts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

712

ASTM A449 Bolts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

713

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 7.1. Eccentrically loaded bolt groups (IC method).

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

713

. . . . . . . . . . .

714

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

715

EXAMPLE 7.2. Eccentrically loaded bolt groups (elastic method).


DESIGN TABLES

713

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

715

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

715

Table 7-1. Dimensions of High-Strength Fasteners


Table 7-2. Bolt Length Selection

Table 7-3. Entering and Tightening Clearances

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

715

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

715

Table 7-4. Threading Dimensions for High-Strength and Non-High-Strength Bolts


Table 7-5. Weights of High-Strength Fasteners

Table 7-6. Dimensions of Non-High-Strength Bolts and Nuts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tables 7-10 and 7-11. Design Shear Strength of Bolts

716

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

716

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

716

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

716

Tables 7-12 and 7-13. Design Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes

Tables 7-15 and 7-16. Design Resistance to Slip

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tables 7-17 through 7-24. Coefficients C for Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Groups
PART 7 REFERENCES

715

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Tables 7-7, 7-8 and 7-9. Weights of Non-High-Strength Fasteners

Table 7-14. Design Tensile Strength of Bolts

715

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

716
716
717

P1: GMV
PB067-P8

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 30, 2001

14:37

Char Count= 0

81

PART 8
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR WELDS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDED JOINTS


Filler Metals

83

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)


Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Thermal Cutting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Air-Arc Gouging

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Electroslag Welding (ESW) and Electrogas Welding (EGW)

Inspection

Visual Testing (VT)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Penetrant Testing (PT)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Magnetic-Particle Testing (MT)


Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

Groove Welds
Fillet Welds

85

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PROPER SPECIFICATION OF JOINT TYPE

Effective Area

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Radiographic Testing (RT)

Selection of Weld Type

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

Plug and Slot Welds


Design Strength

ECCENTRICALLY LOADED WELD GROUPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

Eccentricity in the Plane of the Faying Surface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

810

Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method


Elastic Method

Eccentricity Normal to the Plane of the Faying Surface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

811

P1: GMV
PB067-P8

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 30, 2001

14:37

Char Count= 0

82

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR WELDS

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

. . .

811

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

812

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

812

Special Requirements for Heavy Shapes and Plates


Placement of Weld Groups

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

813

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

813

Welds in Combination with Bolts or Rivets


Fatigue

One-Sided Fillet Welds

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

814

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

814

Welding Considerations and Appurtenances


Clearance Requirements

813

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

814

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

816

Corner Clips

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

816

Backing Bars

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

816

Minimum Shelf Dimensions for Fillet Welds


Beam Copes and Weld Access Holes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

817

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

818

Spacer Bars
Weld Tabs
Tack Welds

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lamellar Tearing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Prior Qualification of Welding Procedures


Painting Welded Connections
DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 8.1. Eccentrically loaded weld groups (IC method).

. . . . . . . . . . . .

818
820
820
821
821

. . . . . . . . . .

822

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

823

EXAMPLE 8.2. Eccentrically loaded weld groups (elastic method).


DESIGN TABLES

818

Table 8-1. ASTM Requirements for Properties Affecting Weldability of Steels

823

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

823

Table 8-4. Electrode Strength Coefficient C1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

824

. . . . .

825

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

826

Tables 8-5 through 8-12. Coefficients C for Eccentrically Loaded Weld Groups
PART 8 REFERENCES

823

. . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 8-2. Condensed AWS Specifications for SMAW Electrodes


Table 8-3. Prequalified Welded Joints

. . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GGE
PB067-P9

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 30, 2001

14:11

Char Count= 0

91

PART 9
DESIGN OF CONNECTION ELEMENTS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

GROSS AREA, NET AREA AND WHITMORE SECTION


Gross Area
Net Area

93

Whitmore Section (Effective Width)


YIELDING LIMIT STATES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

Connection Elements Subject to Shear

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

Connection Elements Subject to Tension

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Connection Elements Subject to Flexure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Coped Beams

RUPTURE LIMIT STATES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Elements Subject to Shear

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Elements Subject to Block Shear Rupture

95
95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

Connection Elements Subject to Tension

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

Connection Elements Subject to Flexure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

Beams and Girders with Bolt Holes in the Tension Flange


Coped Beams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

Connection Element Rupture Strength at Welds


BUCKLING LIMIT STATES
Compression Buckling

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

Lateral-Torsional Buckling
Local Buckling
Coped Beams

BEARING LIMIT STATES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steel-on-Steel Bearing Strength (Other Than at Bolt Holes)


Bearing Strength on Concrete or Masonry

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99
99
99

. . .

910

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

910

OTHER SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Prying Action

99

Rotational Ductility

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

912

P1: GGE
PB067-P9

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 30, 2001

14:11

Char Count= 0

92

DESIGN OF CONNECTION ELEMENTS

Concentrated Forces

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

914

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

914

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

914

Local Web Yielding at Beam Ends


Web Crippling at Beam Ends
Shims and Fillers

Copes, Blocks and Cuts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Forged Steel Structural Hardware

916

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

916

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Turnbuckles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sleeve Nuts .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

916
916
917

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

917

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

917

Recessed-Pin Nuts
Cotter Pins

914

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Web Reinforcement of Coped Beams

Clevises

913

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 9.1. Beam end coped at the top flange only.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

917

. . . . . . . . . . . .

920

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

921

EXAMPLE 9.2. Beam end coped at the top and bottom flanges.
DESIGN TABLES

917

Table 9-1. Reduction in Area for Holes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

921

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

921

Tables 9-3 and 9-4. Block Shear Rupture

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

922

Table 9-5. Beam End Bearing Constants

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

922

Table 9-2. Section Modulus of Coped W-Shapes

PART 9 REFERENCES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

922

P1: LKP
PB067-P10

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:37

Char Count= 0

101

PART 10
DESIGN OF SIMPLE SHEAR CONNECTIONS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FORCE TRANSFER

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105

Two-Sided Connections

One-Sided Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

108

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

108

Accessibility in Column Webs


Field-Welded Connections
Riding the Fillet

DOUBLE-ANGLE CONNECTIONS
Design Strength

107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONSTRUCTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
Double Connections

105

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

COMPARING CONNECTION ALTERNATIVES

Seated Connections

105

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recommended Angle Length and Thickness


Shop and Field Practices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 10.1. All-bolted double-angle connection (beam-to-girder web).

. . . .

108
108
109
1010
1012

EXAMPLE 10.2. All-bolted double-angle connection (beam-to-column flange).

. .

1014

EXAMPLE 10.3. Bolted/welded double-angle connection (beam-to-girder web).

. .

1015

EXAMPLE 10.4. Bolted/welded double-angle connection (beam-to-column flange).

1015

EXAMPLE 10.5. All-welded double-angle connection (beam-to-column flange).

. .

1016

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1016

Table 10-1. All-Bolted Double-Angle Connections

Table 10-2. Bolted/Welded Double-Angle Connections

1017

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1018

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1055

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1055

Table 10-3. All-Welded Double-Angle Connections


SHEAR END-PLATE CONNECTIONS
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1055

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1055

Recommended End-Plate Dimensions and Thickness


Shop and Field Practices

EXAMPLE 10.6. Shear end-plate connection (beam to girder web).


Table 10-4. Bolted/Welded Shear End-Plate Connections

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

1056
1058

P1: LKP
PB067-P10

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:37

Char Count= 0

102

DESIGN OF SIMPLE SHEAR CONNECTIONS

UNSTIFFENED SEATED CONNECTIONS


Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1092

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1093

Shop and Field Practices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 10.7. All-bolted unstiffened seated connection (beam-to-column web).

1093
1094

EXAMPLE 10.8. Bolted/welded unstiffened seated connection


(beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1098

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1098

Table 10-5. All-Bolted Unstiffened Seated Connections


Bolted/Welded Unstiffened Seated Connections

Table 10-6. All-Welded Unstiffened Seated Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1098

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10102

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10103

STIFFENED SEATED CONNECTIONS


Design Checks

1096

Shop and Field Practices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10104

EXAMPLE 10.9. Stiffened seated connection (beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . .

10104

EXAMPLE 10.10. Stiffened seated connection (beam-to-column web).

. . . . . . .

10106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10107

Table 10-7. All-Bolted Stiffened Seated Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10107

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10112

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10112

Table 10-8. Bolted/Welded Stiffened Seated Connections


SINGLE-PLATE CONNECTIONS
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10113

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10113

Recommended Plate Length and Thickness


Shop and Field Practices

EXAMPLE 10.11. Single-plate connection (beam-to-column flange). .


EXAMPLE 10.12. Single-plate connection (beam-to-girder web).

. . . . . . . . .

10114
10114

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10116

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10133

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10133

Table 10-9. Bolted/Welded Single-Plate Connections


SINGLE-ANGLE CONNECTIONS
Design Checks

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10133

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10133

Recommended Angle Length and Thickness


Shop and Field Practices

EXAMPLE 10.13. All-bolted single-angle connection (beam-to-girder web).

. . . .

10133

EXAMPLE 10.14. Bolted/welded single-angle connection (beam-to-column flange). 10137


Table 10-10. All-Bolted Single-Angle Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 10-11. Bolted/Welded Single-Angle Connections


TEE CONNECTIONS
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10138
10138

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10142

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10142

Recommended Tee Length and Flange and Web Thicknesses


Shop and Field Practices

. . . . . . . . . . . .

10143

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10143

EXAMPLE 10.15. All-bolted tee connection (beam-to-column flange).


AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

. . . . . . .

10143

P1: LKP
PB067-P10

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 3, 2001

13:37

Char Count= 0

DESIGN OF SIMPLE SHEAR CONNECTIONS

103

EXAMPLE 10.16. Bolted/welded tee connection (beam-to-column flange).


SHEAR SPLICES

. . . .

10147

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10149

EXAMPLE 10.17. All-bolted single-plate shear splice.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 10.18. Bolted/welded single-plate shear splice.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

10155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10155

Simple Shear Connections at Stiffened Column-Web Locations


Eccentric Effect of Extended Gages

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10156
10156
10156

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10160

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10160

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10160

Alternative Treatment of Eccentric Moment


Double Connections

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column-Web Supports
Girder-Web Supports

10153

. . . . . .

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SIMPLE SHEAR CONNECTIONS


Simple Shear Connections Subject to Axial Forces

10151

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10161

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10161

Supported Beams of Different Nominal Depths


Supported Beams Offset Laterally

Beams Offset From Column Centerline

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10161

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10161

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10164

Framing to the Column Web

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10167

Connections for Raised Beams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10167

Framing to the Column Flange from the Strong Axis


Framing to Column Flange from the Weak Axis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10171

Skewed Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10172

Sloped Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10183

Canted Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10185

Non-Rectangular Simple Shear Connections

Inclines in Two or More Directions (Hip and Valley Framing)

. . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 10.19. All-bolted double-angle connections (beams-to-girder web).

. .

10187
10188

EXAMPLE 10.20. Offset all-bolted double angle connections (beam-to-girder web). 10191
.

10192

. . . . .

10193

EXAMPLE 10.21. Offset unstiffened seated connection (beam-to-column flange).


EXAMPLE 10.22. Offset single-plate connection (beam-to-column web).

EXAMPLE 10.23. Offset unstiffened seated connection (beam-to-column web).

. .

10195

EXAMPLE 10.24. Skewed double-bent-plate connection (beam-to-girder web).

. .

10198

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10201

PART 10 REFERENCES

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P11

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 26, 2001

10:12

Char Count= 0

111

PART 11
DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE MOMENT CONNECTIONS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD DETERMINATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

113
113

FLANGE-ANGLE FLEXIBLE MOMENT CONNECTIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

FLANGE-PLATED FLEXIBLE MOMENT CONNECTIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118

DESIGN EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 11.1. Flange-angle flexible moment connections.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

118

EXAMPLE 11.2. Flange-plated flexible moment connection.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1113

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1117

PART 11 REFERENCES

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GMV
PB067-12

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 27, 2001

16:51

Char Count= 0

121

PART 12
DESIGN OF FULLY RESTRAINED (FR)
MOMENT CONNECTIONS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FR MOMENT CONNECTIONS
Load Determination
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Temporary Support During Erection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124
124

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

Extended End-Plate FR Moment Connections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1210

Shop and Field Practices

Four-Bolt Unstiffened Extended End-Plate Design


Eight-Bolt Stiffened Extended End-Plate Design
FR MOMENT SPLICES

123

125

Directly Welded Flange FR Moment Connections

Design Assumptions

123

. . . . . . . . . .

Welding Considerations For Fully Restrained Moment Connections


Flange-Plated FR Moment Connections

123

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1210

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1212

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location of Moment Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1213
1213

Force Transfer in Moment Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1213

Flange-Plated FR Moment Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1214

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1215

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1217

Directly Welded Flange FR Moment Splices


Extended End-Plate FR Moment Splices
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FR Moment Connections to Column-Web Supports


Recommended Details

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ductility Considerations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FR Moment Connections Across Girder Supports


Top Flange Connection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1217
1218
1218
1222
1223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1223

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1223

Bottom Flange Connection


Web Connection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1217

DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1224

EXAMPLE 12.1. Bolted flange-plated FR moment connection


(beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

1224

P1: GMV
PB067-12

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 27, 2001

122

16:51

Char Count= 0

DESIGN OF FULLY RESTRAINED (FR) MOMENT CONNECTIONS

EXAMPLE 12.2. Welded flange-plated FR moment connection


(beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1228

EXAMPLE 12.3. Directly welded flange FR moment connection


(beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1231

EXAMPLE 12.4. Four-bolt unstiffened extended end-plate FR moment connection


(beam-to-column flange).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1231

EXAMPLE 12.5. Eight-bolt stiffened extended end-plate FR moment connection


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1235

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1238

(beam-to-column flange).
PART 12 REFERENCES

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: MRM
PB067-13

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 27, 2001

17:28

Char Count= 0

131

PART 13
DESIGN OF BRACING CONNECTIONS
AND TRUSS CONNECTIONS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BRACING CONNECTIONS
Diagonal Bracing Members

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

Force Transfer in Diagonal Bracing Connections


The Uniform Force Method

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

Special Case 1, Modified Working Point Location

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Special Case 3, No Gusset-to-Column Web Connection

136

. . . . . . .

136

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139

Special Case 2, Minimizing Shear in the Beam-to-Column Connection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1311

Analysis of Existing Diagonal Bracing Connections


Design Strength

133

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1311

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1311

TRUSS CONNECTIONS
Members in Trusses

Minimum Connection Strength


Panel-Point Connections
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shop and Field Practices


Support Connections
Design Checks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shop and Field Practices


Truss Chord Splices
DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1313
1313
1314
1314
1314
1314
1316

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1317

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1317

EXAMPLE 13.1. Bracing connection design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1317

EXAMPLE 13.2. Bracing connection design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1332

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1338

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1341

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1348

EXAMPLE 13.3. Truss panel-point connection design.


EXAMPLE 13.4. Truss support connection design.
PART 13 REFERENCES

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: MRM/SPH
PB067-14

P2: MRM/UKS

QC: MRM/UKS

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

T1: MRM

August 30, 2001

15:48

Char Count= 0

141

PART 14
DESIGN OF BEAM BEARING PLATES, COLUMN BASE
PLATES, ANCHOR RODS AND COLUMN SPLICES

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BEAM BEARING PLATES


Force Transfer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recommended Bearing-Plate Dimensions and Thickness


Design Strength

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

144

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

144

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

145

Finishing Requirements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grouting and Leveling

146

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146

Holes for Anchor Rods and Grouting

. . . . . .

148

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

COLUMN BASE PLATES FOR AXIAL TENSION, SHEAR OR MOMENT


ANCHOR RODS

143
143

Recommended Base-Plate Dimensions and Thickness


Design Strength

143

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

COLUMN BASE PLATES FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION


Force Transfer

143

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

Washer Requirements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1410

Hooked Anchor Rods

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1410

Minimum Edge Distance and Embedment Length

Headed or Threaded and Nutted Anchor Rods

1410

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1410

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1411

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1412

Fit-Up of Column Splices


Lifting Devices

1410

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Anchor-Rod Nut Installation


COLUMN SPLICES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1413

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1414

Column Alignment and Stability During Erection


Force Transfer in Column Splices
Flange-Plated Column Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Directly Welded Flange Column Splices


Butt-Plated Column Splices
DESIGN EXAMPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 14.1. Beam bearing plate design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1417
1417
1417
1417

. . . . . . . . . .

1420

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1424

EXAMPLE 14.2. Column base plate design for axial compression.


PART 14 REFERENCES

1415

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GGE
PB067-P15

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 31, 2001

10:59

Char Count= 0

151

PART 15
DESIGN OF HANGER CONNECTIONS, BRACKET
PLATES AND CRANE-RAIL CONNECTIONS

SCOPE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

153

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

154

HANGER CONNECTIONS
BRACKET PLATES

153

CRANE-RAIL CONNECTIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155

Bolted Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155

Welded Splices

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156

Hook Bolt Fastenings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156

Rail Clip Fastenings .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

156

Rail Clamp Fastenings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

157

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

157

Patented Rail Clip Fastenings


DESIGN EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 15.1. Hanger connection design.


EXAMPLE 15.2. Bolted bracket plate design.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXAMPLE 15.3. Welded bracket plate design.


DESIGN TABLES

157
1513

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1515

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1517

Table 15-1. Preliminary Hanger Connection Selection Table .


Table 15-2. Net Elastic Section Modulus Snet

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FORGED STEEL STRUCTURAL HARDWARE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 15-3. Dimensions and Weights of Clevises

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1517
1517
1517
1517

. . . . . . . . .

1517

Table 15-5. Dimensions and Weights of Turnbuckles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1517

Table 15-6. Dimensions and Weights of Sleeve Nuts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1518

Table 15-4. Clevis Numbers Compatible with Various Rods and Pins

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1518

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1518

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1518

Table 15-7. Dimensions and Weights of Recessed-Pin Nuts


Table 15-8. Dimensions and Weights of Cotter Pins
PART 15 REFERENCE

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
toc

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 2, 2001

4:50

Char Count= 0

161

PART 16
SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES

LRFD SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS,


DECEMBER 27, 1999
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1-i
16.1iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1v

Symbols

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1xv

Glossary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1xxiii

Table of Contents

Specification

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.11

Commentary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1163

References .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.1279

LRFD SPECIFICATION FOR STEEL HOLLOW STRUCTURAL SECTIONS,


NOVEMBER 10, 2000
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table of Contents
Symbols

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.2i
16.2iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.2vii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.2xi

Specification

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.21

Commentary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.223

References .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.249

LRFD SPECIFICATION FOR SINGLE-ANGLE MEMBERS,


NOVEMBER 10, 2000
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.3i
16.3iii

Specification

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.31

Commentary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.39

References .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.319

SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL JOINTS USING ASTM A325 OR A490 BOLTS,


JUNE 23, 2000
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.4i
16.4iii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.4v

Symbols

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.4vii

Glossary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.4ix

Table of Contents

Specification and Commentary


References .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

16.41
16.475

P1: GIG
toc

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

September 2, 2001

4:50

162

Char Count= 0

SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES

CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE FOR STEEL BUILDINGS AND BRIDGES,


MARCH 7, 2000
Preface

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table of Contents
Glossary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Specification and Commentary

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16.5i
16.5iii
16.5vi
16.5ix
16.51

Notes:
The above documents are available for free download in *.pdf format at www.aisc.org. While
not included in this Manual, the AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings,
April 15, 1997 and Seismic Provisions Supplement No. 2, November 10, 2000 are available
for free download in *.pdf format at www.aisc.org. Information about AISC Certification of
steel fabricators and steel erectors is available at www.aisc.org/quality.html.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P17

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 28, 2001

17:41

Char Count= 0

171

PART 17
MISCELLANEOUS DATA AND
MATHEMATICAL INFORMATION

SI EQUIVALENTS OF STANDARD U.S. SHAPE PROFILES


Table 17-1. W-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

175

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

176

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177

Table 17-2. M-, S- and HP-Shapes


Table 17-3. Channels
Table 17-4. Angles

Table 17-5. WT-Shapes

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1710

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1711

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1715

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1717

Table 17-6. MT- and ST-Shapes


Table 17-7. Rectangular HSS
Table 17-8. Round HSS
Table 17-9. Steel Pipe

178

MISCELLANEOUS DATA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 17-10. Wire and Sheet Metal Gages


Table 17-11. Coefficients of Expansion

1718

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1718

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1719

Table 17-12. Weights and Specific Gravities

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1720

Table 17-13. Weights of Building Materials

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1722

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1723

Table 17-14. U.S. Weights and Measures

SI UNITS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

1724

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1724

Table 17-17. Derived SI Units for Steel Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 17-18. Summary of SI Conversion Factors

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1724
1724

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1725

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1725

Table 17-19. SI Equivalents of Fractions of an Inch


Table 17-20. SI Bolt Designation

1724

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 17-15. Base SI Units for Steel Design


Table 17-16. SI Prefixes for Steel Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 17-21. SI Steel Yield Stresses

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1726

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1727

Table 17-22. SI (Metric) Weights and Measures


Table 17-23. SI Conversion Factors

1725

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

P1: GIG
PB067-P17

AISC-Sample (LRFD)

August 28, 2001

172

17:41

Char Count= 0

MISCELLANEOUS DATA AND MATHEMATICAL INFORMATION

GEOMETRIC AND TRIGONOMETRIC DATA


Bracing Formulas

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1729

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1729

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1730

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1731

Properties of Parabola and Ellipse


Properties of the Circle

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1732

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1739

Properties of Geometric Sections


Trigonometric Formulas

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION