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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Introduction
War by its definition means armed hostility caused due to several
factors, all affecting and leaving its prints on all the nations involved
disturbing there national and cultural heritage. In this academic piece of
work we will come across many examples plainly showing how a war
can severely disrupt economic and social life of the societies exposed to
it.
And i have paid focus on tracing the unequal impact of war on food and
food culture of the societies which have been used as a ground for
warfare and armed rivalry.
This piece of work has got two aspects to it, first being the food for the
troops and second being the food for the society. The food culture is
practiced at its very basic just to meet the necessity of survival and the
food we are going to discuss includes no luxury.

All the data provided in this piece of work is a part of history and
historians agree to the facts mentioned and there are certain things that
have been excluded because of their explicit nature. And i do not insist
any one to switch to the cultures that were practiced during the wars as it
was because of the non availability of sources.

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

CIVIL WAR AND FOOD


Feeding the troops was the responsibility of the commissary department,
and both the union and confederacy had one. The job of this
organization was to purchase food for the armies, store it until it could
be used, and then supply the soldiers. It was difficult to supply so many
men in so many places and the north had a greater advantage in their
commissary system was already established at the outbreak of the war,
while the confederacy struggled for many years to obtain food and then
get it to their armies. Choices of what to give the troops were limited as
they did not have the conveniences to preserve food like we have today.
Meats were salted or smoked while other items such as fruits and
vegetables were dried or canned. They did not understand proper
nutrition so often there was a lack of certain foods necessary for good
health. Each side did what they could to provide the basics for the
soldiers to survive. Because it was so difficult to store for any length of
time, the food soldiers received during the civil war was not very fancy
and they did not get a great variety of items.

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

The daily allowance of food issued to soldiers was called rations.


Everything was given out uncooked so the soldiers were left up to their
own ingenuity to prepare their meals. Small groups would often gather
together to cook and share their rations and they called the group a
"mess", referring to each other as "messmates". Others prided
themselves in their individual taste and prepared their meals alone. If a
march was imminent, the men would cook everything at once and store
it in their haversack, a canvas bag made with a sling to hang over the
shoulder. Haversacks had a inner cloth bag that could be removed and
washed, though it did not prevent the bag from becoming a greasy, foulsmelling container after several weeks of use. The soldier's diet was very
simple- meat, coffee, sugar, and a dried biscuit called hardtack. Of all
the items soldiers received, it was this hard bread that they remembered
and joked about the most.

HARDTACK

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Hardtack was a biscuit made of flour with other simple ingredients,


and issued to union soldiers throughout the war. Hardtack crackers made
up a large portion of a soldier's daily ration. It was square or sometimes
rectangular in shape with small holes baked into it, similar to a large
soda cracker. Large factories in the north baked hundreds of hardtack
crackers every day, packed them in wooden crates and shipped them out
by wagon or rail. If the hardtack was received soon after leaving the
factory, they were quite tasty and satisfying. Usually, the hardtack did
not get to the soldiers until months after it had been made. By that time,
they were very hard, so hard that soldiers called them "tooth duller" and
"sheet iron crackers". Sometimes they were infested with small bugs the
soldiers called weevils, so they referred to the hardtack as "worm
castles" because of the many holes bored through the crackers by these
pests. The wooden crates were stacked outside of tents and warehouses
until it was time to issue them. Soldiers were usually allowed six to eight
crackers for a three-day ration. There were a number of ways to eat
them- plain or prepared with other ration items. Soldiers would crumble
them into coffee or soften them in water and fry the hardtack with some
bacon grease. One favorite soldier dish was salted pork fried with
hardtack crumbled into the mixture. Soldiers called this "skillygallee",
and it was a common and easily prepared meal.

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Some of the other items that soldiers received were salt pork, fresh or
salted beef, coffee, sugar, salt, vinegar, dried fruit and dried vegetables.
If the meat was poorly preserved, the soldiers would refer to it as "salt
horse". Sometimes they would receive fresh vegetables such as carrots,
onions, turnips and potatoes. Confederate soldiers did not have as much
variety in their rations as union soldiers did. They usually received
bacon and corn meal, tea, sugar or molasses, and fresh vegetables when
they were available. While union soldiers had their "skillygallee",
confederates had their own version of a quick dish on the march. Bacon
was cooked in a frying pan with some water and corn meal added to
make a thick, brown gravy similar in consistency to oatmeal. The
soldiers called it "coosh" and though it does not sound too appetizing, it
was a filling meal and easy to fix.

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

RATIONING DURING SECOND WORLD WAR


The second world war saw the disappearance from the shops of all but
the
necessities.
rationing of food and clothing was extensive. Issued in october 1939, the
ration book became familiar to every citizen during the war. The start of
rationing was postponed, owing it was said to a stop rationing!
Campaign by the, the daily express, from november 1939 until monday,
8th. January 1940. Rationing began on 8 january 1940. Each person was
allowed a specific amount of basic foods.
typical examples of the amounts allowed to
each person were:

Meat - between 1s. (5p) and 2s. (10p) a head a


week
bacon - 4 oz. (113 gm) to 8 oz. (227 gm) a week
tea - 2 oz. (57 gm) to 4 oz. (113 gm) a week
cheese 1 oz. (28 gm) to 8 oz. (227 gm) a
week
sugar - 8 oz. (227 gm) a week
On 1st december 1941 the ministry of food introduced the points
rationing scheme for items such as canned meat, fish and vegetables at
first. Later items such as rice, canned fruit, condensed milk, breakfast
cereals, biscuits and cornflakes were added. Everyone was given 16
points a month, later raised to twenty, to spend as wished at any shop
that had the items wanted.
there was an advertising song in a commercial film in 1943 which went:

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Somebodys
going
somebodys
going
somebodys
going
they wasted my life away.

to

be
to

to

be

sorry,
pay,
sorry

With a picture of a tablet of soap dissolving away down the sink because
it
had
been
left
in
water.
a 12-oz. (340 gm) packet of soap powder was half a months ration; one
could get only one egg every two months and powdered egg could be
bought on points. Fruit like bananas vanished altogether.
Clothes rationing on points began in june 1941 and a new kind of
clothing utility clothingwas introduced, using cheap materials and
the minimum amount of cloth.
There were even points for furniture, although they were given only if
someone was newly married, or had been bombed out, or were having a
baby.
Petrol was rationed so people stopped buying cars.
The things still rationed in 1948, three years after the war, were:

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Bacon and ham

2 oz. (57 gm) per person


a fortnight

Cheese

1 oz. (43 gm) a week

Butter/margarine

7 oz. (198 gm) a week

Cooking fats

2 oz. (57 gm) a week

Meat

1s. (5p) worth a week

Sugar

8 oz. (227 gm) a week

Tea

2 oz. (57 gm) a week

Chocolates
sweets

and 4 oz. (113 gm) a week

Eggs

No fixed ration: 1 egg for


each ration book when
available

Liquid milk

3 pints a week

Preserves

4 oz. (113 gm) a week

Points-rationed

4 points per week

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

foods

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Bread, soap, bananas, and potatoes were also rationed during this period.
In 1951 people could still buy only 10d. (4p) worth of meat each week.
Two new commodities were rationed after the war. Bread was rationed
from 1946 to 1948 and potatoes for a year from 1947. The points system
ended in 1950.
Rationing continued in this country for 14 years until 1954, when meat
was finally de-rationed.
Most of the men were in the forces this meant that women had to go out
to work, as well as doing the shopping, cooking and cleaning! This in
turn affected the household income and was the beginning of hard times
for
most
families...
But if the food was carefully shared and inspiringly cooked, it wasn't
that bad! A lot of families grew their own vegetables.

Rationing in some ways was good. It meant everybody got their fair
share of what was available and for some poorer people it meant they
were getting more food during the war than before. People were better
educated about food as the government campaigned for the public to eat
more vegetables. They also provided cod liver oil and orange juice for
children.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Things like fish were never rationed, as they were virtually


unobtainable, and if they were for sale one would have to queue,
sometimes for hours with no promise of getting what you queued up for!
Before the war there was a survey done on the health of the nation which
showed that 1/4 of the nation was undernourished! It also showed:
1/2 working class women were in poor health
80% of under fives had some bone abnormality

90%
had
badly
formed
or
decayed
teeth
so as well as rationing the ministry of food had a chance to improve the
nations health. Pregnant and nursing women and babies got special
supplies of milk, cod liver oil and orange juice.

It was realized that certain foods were essential for the healthy growth of
babies and children, so when it came to "fair shares for everyone" it
meant that for certain foods - children came first!
Children had their own ration books (r.b.2) which contained coupons for
cod liver oil and orange juice. Their entitlement to other foods, such as
eggs and oranges, when available, was also increased.

KITCHEN GARDEN
The ministry of food encouraged the public to grow all their own
vegetables and to keep chickens for eggs and meat, so they didn't go
without, as farmers were growing other essentials like corn for bread and
feed for cows. They asked people to dig their gardens and get allotments
from the council to provide for their families. They called this 'dig for
victory.' they also introduced dr. Carrot' and 'potato pete' to encourage
people to eat what was available. It also motivated people to eat
healthily.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Carrots and potatoes are easily grown in gardens and most people did
this to avoid going without. The ministry of food also told the public that
carrots would help you see in the dark, which of course is useful in the
blackouts!

The rations of meat were hard on british cooks, who had to think of
inventive ways to present dull foods. The ministry of food tried to
encourage people to be more creative with their food to make it more
interesting. They commissioned a team of cooks to help with this and
also produced a radio show called," the kitchen front," this was a
godsend to many housewives across britain, of whom many were at their
wits end trying to stretch out the family ration over the week.
Housewives were advised to make chutneys and pickles to make food
taste better. They were making chutneys out of everything from onions
to rosehips

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Many recipes were thought up and sent in to magazines and newspapers


to help fellow housewives feed their families. Some were more unusual
than others, for example potato and chocolate pudding! Someone also
wrote in 'the times' that boiled sorrel (a type of plant that grows in the
wild) tasted of spinach! Anything like this will have been encouraged as
the government was keen to ensure nobody went hungry and that the
public made do with what they had.

Below is a sample of a menu from a world war two kitchen. This would
feed a family of five for a week on 5 shillings and sixpence per head. As
you
can
see
there
is
plenty
to
eat!
How many of these meals would you eat at home?

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FOOD DURING WAR

Sunday

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Porridge,
fried
Porridge,
Porridge,
potatoes
bread
Breakfast
dripping
and
marg.
and toast
bacon
And jam
scraps

Lunch

Rabbit
pot roast,
Baked
parsnips,
potato
Lentil
greens.
and
soup and
Steamed
marg.
bread
apple and
Milk
prune
pudding
pudding

Supper

Bubble
and
squeak,
bread
and
cheese,
beetroot

Bread,
marg.
Jam,
potato
scones

Minced
tripe,
potatoes,
greens.
Stewed
fruit

Friday

Porridge,
Porridge,
beef
Porridge,
bubble and
sausages dripping
squeak and
and fried and toast
fried bread
apple

Saturday
Porridge,
bread,
marg and
jam

Mince
Bread and
and
Peas
Bone and marg.
haricot
pudding,
vegetable Cheese,
pudding,
bread
soup with watercress
potatoes,
and
bread
and milk
greens,
marg.
pudding
piece of
fruit.
Fish
and Breast of
potato pie, mutton
Liver
haricot
stew,
hot-pot,
beans,
potatoes, greens,
bread and vegetables, jam tart
jam
jam tart

14

Bread and
marg.
Cheese,
celery

FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

As you can see the meat is stretched out with potatoes and oatmeal, both
of which are very cheap to buy and filling, which was the main thing as
nobody wanted to go hungry.

Below is a wartime recipe. It shows how inventive people had to be in


the kitchen!

Mock duck

450g
2
1/2
1/2
100g
25g
4
brown sauce

red
large
tsp
tsp
rice

lentils
onions
sage
sweet
mashed

or
pints

herbs
potatoes
fat
stock

Wash the lentils. Mince and fry the onions lightly, add the lentils and 4
pints of stock, bring to the boil and simmer until lentils are soft. Add the
potatoes or rice, sage and herbs and season well. Shape as much like a
duck as you can manage and place on a greased baking sheet and bake in
a hot oven until brown. Baste often. Serve on a hot dish with brown
sauce poured round. The lentils will absorb the stock; if they get too dry
add more stock.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Cooking time 2 hours, serves 4-6 people.

Making most of the ingredients


A new food culture
The basic need of food for survival and shortage in the resources to meet
the demand of the society gave origin to a whole new food culture which
was based on the basic principle that are given below;
Maximum utilization of resources available
This principle gave a whole new meaning to people to meet the scarcity
of resources, they started using the left over, and at that point of time
people started using wild edible plants and introduced a huge variety of
ingredients which were never earlier consumed or appreciated as a part
of meal.
Government and several other organization found this principle a
solution to the scarcity of food, soon they started promoting this practice
and advertized in newspaper to make more people aware about it.
Many of their articles and advertisements suggested ways to cook food
and use leftover in a way to make sure that nothing edible goes for
waste.
The ministry of london issued many articles named as food facts in
times express.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

One of their article titled food facts- delicious dishes from left over
bread! in this article they have suggested 3 ways to use the crust;
Bake crusts in the oven till dry and crisp, crush them in fine crumbs with
the rolling pin. Use it to coat the food for frying.
Use crust to thicken a thin soup, when soup is quite hot put in crust cut
into small pieces and boil up together. Beat with a fork, to blend with
soup.
Soak crust in cold water and leave till soft, squeeze very dry and return
to the basin, beat with fork to make a smooth mixture. Useful for making
stuffings and puddings.
There is another article titled making most of the fish. which talks
about the tips of cooking a fish and ways to serve it to make sure that the
fish taste good and the variety of finished product is increased with the
same limited amount of sources. And there are articles which talks about
saving fat as those days the supply of fat was at its lowest, so they
published many recipes in there articles which requires less fat and they
gave tips how to reuse fat.
There was an interesting article published close to christmas which was
titled festive touches for christmas. which goes on like this isnt going
to be an easy christmas, but it can be cheerful one. Yes, you can make
icing without icing sugar. Yes, you can still serve very luscious cream.
Yes you can still give the children an attractive pastry sweet that uses
very less sugar. They laid emphasis on using such containers which can
preserve and take care of the food for longer period of time.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

PACKAGING
Packaging for defence supplies has always remained a specialized
activity all over the world. Though defence employs the same materials,
equipment and methods as used in the case of normal commercial
packaging where consumer plays an important role, functional
Requirements under defence use are more specific and stringent than
those under commercial conditions. Hence, military packaging has
remained different, historically, due to the conditions of usage, modes of
transportation and storage. The package design and the nature of
material required are governed by the degree of protection and shelf-life
requirements, which vary with types of products, environmental
conditions and mode of handling. Defence forces operate under extreme
climatic conditions, such as very long term storage, multiple types of
handling and multiple means of transport including animal and manback transport. In civilian sector, the levels of handling, storage and
transportation under commercial conditions are normally known, and
therefore, the protection required is predictable. Packaging for defence
must be able to stand the rigorous transport and remain intact under
varying storage conditions for required shelf-life.

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FOOD DURING WAR

BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

The processed food used/required by armed forces are dehydrated food,


semi-processed food and ready-to-eat processed food. Packaging of
these foods is discussed here.

Dehydrated

food

Dehydration is a traditional method for preservation of food in which the


residual moisture content of the food is lowered to a safe level to prevent
chemical and micro-biological spoilage. Dehydration is achieved by a
number of processes, ranging from simple hot air drying to highly
sophisticated foam - mat and freeze drying technologies. The packaging
requirements of the end products consequently vary according to the
type of technology employed.
Dehydrated products represent a concentrated biochemical system prone
to deterioration by many mechanisms. The limiting factors that affect
useful storage life of these products are temperature, moisture and
oxygen, either acting independently or in combination. Since, high
humidity tends to affect crispness of these products, moisture absorption
should be prevented. Based on the residual moisture content, dehydrated
products are grouped as:
1. Low moisture content dehydrated products
2. Medium moisture content dehydrated products, and
3. High moisture content dehydrated products

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BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

First category products have residual moisture content of 1-3% with low
equilibrium relative humidity of 18-20%. Second category products have
residual moisture content of 3-8% with equilibrium relative humidity of
20-50%. High moisture content dehydrated products have higher
equilibrium relative humidity of 60-65%. Defence food supply includes
products belonging to all the three categories.
As packaging has different faces, the requirements of packaging are
different for different types of food materials, to select the optimum
package for dehydrated products, it is required to know the critical
nature of dehydrated food products. The critical factors of dehydrated
food products are given in table 1.
Table 1
Critical factors of dehydrated food products
Factors effect
Sensitive to moisture swell and shrinkage due to high and low moisture
Respectively causes spoilage
Sensitive to oxygen oxidation causes rancidity and odor
Sensitive to light causes darkness to the product and light accelerates
Oxidative spoilage
Sensitive to aroma causes odor picking from packaging materials
Fragile prone to mechanical damage
Sensitive to insects high transmission of water vapour encourages the
growth from the insects.
A package for dehydrated food must possess the following attributes:
Compatibility is the key point to ascertain the food grade behaviour

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AHUJA
C1035

High tensile strength, resistance to shock and vibration, light weight and
low price
Chemical inertness
Moisture proof
It should be functionally adequate, which can offer complete protection
till consumed by the military
It should be pilfer-proof against substitution and adulteration
Packaging materials must be clean and kept under hygienic conditions to
prevent contamination
Of material with foreign matter. Oxygen and moisture accelerates
chemical decomposition of
Dehydrated food products. Thus, packaging requires special care in both
the dehydrated
Techniques/process as well as selection of packaging materials.

Packaging of hot air dried products


These products are generally dried vegetables, cereals and some ready
mixes. The moisture content of the product is below 8% and does not
require the use of very high barrier packaging materials. A single
structure polypropylene (pp) of not less than 75 thickness, laminate
Consisting of metalized polyester (pet) of not less than 12 thickness
and a heat sealable
Layer of low density polyethylene (ldpe) of 75 thickness (pet/ldpe) are
generally suitable for a shelf-life of more than 6 months.

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BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Better quality can be achieved by a triple layer laminate of paper/12


aluminium foil. However, the cost of the multilayer material is much
higher.

Packaging of freeze dried products and vacuum / gas


packaging
Freeze dried products like pre-cooked mutton chunks have a fragile
structure and a very low moisture content of less than 2%. Over and
above, these products are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation leading to
off-flavour and rancidity. These products, therefore, demand a very high
degree of protection against moisture absorption, oxygen and
mechanical damage. It has been found that aluminium foil laminates
with foil thickness less than 30 are not suitable, as the number of pinholes increase with decrease in foil thickness. Hence, for freeze dried
products requiring inert gas or vacuum packaging, laminates having al
foil thickness of more than 30 are essential. For inert gas packaging,
multi-layer plastic film materials with better barrier against the diffusion
of inert gases are required. Gases like nitrogen and carbon dioxide are
flushed independently or in combination into package to control /
modify the internal atmosphere. Therefore, generally materials like
polyester with low density polyethylene as sealant layer (pet/ldpe) are
used to
Retain the inert gas inside the package so as to maintain the quality
throughout the storage life. The same is true for food with high fat
contents like whole milk powder and egg powder for which hermetically
sealed al foil laminates or tinplate containers are used.

Retort processed foods

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BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Retort processing is the most acceptable form of food preservation. It


represents a unique combination of package, process and product
technologies with potential, functional, quality and economic benefits.
Retort processed food or in-pack processed food are ready to eat food
products which require just warming in a microwave oven/water bath at
the time of consumption. The retort pouch is the flexible laminated food
package that can withstand thermal (retort) processing. It has the
advantage of combining shelf stability of canned food with texture and
nutritive value of frozen food. Flexible retortable pouches are popular
Because of their light weight, thin geometrical profile and flexible
nature. The soldiers themselves, during combat operations, can easily
carry these packages.

Cereals, grains, pulses/milled products


Defence purchases considerable quantities of rice, pulses and milled
products like flour etc. These products are highly susceptible to insect
attack, which is also governed by their moisture content levels. In order
to minimise the chances of infestation, upper limit of (maximum)
moisture content in these products is specified, which also prevents the
chances of fungal attack and formation of aflatoxins. Maximum
moisture content in milled products is specified at 12% while in pulses
and rice it is specified at 11% and 13% respectively. These commodities
are packed in jute bags.

Packaging of fats, oils and fatty food

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BY PAWANDEEP

AHUJA
C1035

Packaging of fats and fatty products pose a variety of problems. In


addition to the fundamental requirement of adequate barrier against the
ingress of o2, the packaging materials must possess sufficient
mechanical properties, especially seal strength. Since free flowing oil is
likely to contaminate sealing surfaces, resulting in a poor quality of seal,
it is essential that either the sealing surfaces are kept absolutely free
from any traces of oil, or coated with an ionomer, which ensures proper
sealing. Pickle is one of the common items of food supply to defence
forces. Normally, it is packed and marketed in glass bottles and/or blow
moulded plastic containers. However, the requirement of pickle for
ration is very meager. Hence, pickle has to be packed in flexible
packaging materials. The main problem associated with pickle
packaging is penetration of oil through sealed surfaces.

Other products
peanut candy: it is an energy intensive product, normally found in the
rations of armed forces. It is rich in proteins and carbohydrates and is
prone to moisture absorption, rancidity development and insect attack.
Hence, packaging material such as paper/12 aluminium foil/low
density polyethylene is used for peanut candy to achieve the desirable
shelf-life of
Six months.
bread: bread is issued to naval troops as a breakfast item. The main
constraint with bread is, the very short shelf-life due to mould attack. To
overcome this problem, a fungistatic wrapper has been developed, which
extends the shelf-life of bread to about 20 days.
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C1035

Future needs
Packaging materials have extensively contributed to the preservation and
distribution in civil sector as well as for defence needs. To make the
combat systems for the armed forces more effective and efficient,
continous efforts are needed to make the packaging material lighter but
strudy, and to be unaffected by environmental deterioration. The move is
to replace heavy materials like metal with lighter materials like plastics
having comparable functional properties. Plastics based packages such
as pouches, containers, trays, sacks etc. Are not only lighter in weight
but are also hygienic and rust proof and therefore are ideal materials for
packaging for the armed forces.

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C1035

Summary

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AHUJA
C1035

Method

Effect on microbial growth


or survival

Refrigeration or

Low temperature to retard


growth

Freezing

Low temperature and


reduction of water activity
to
prevent
microbial
growth

Drying, curing and conserving

Reduction in water activity


sufficient to delay or
prevent microbial growth

Low
oxygen
tension
Vacuum and oxygen free modified atmosphere inhibits strict aerobes and
packaging
delay growth of facultative
anaerobes

Specific inhibition of some


Carbon dioxide enriched modified atmosphere
micro-organisms
by
packaging
carbon dioxide

Reduction
of
the
intracellular ph of microorganisms

Addition of weak acids

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AHUJA
C1035

Lactic fermentation

Reduction of ph value in
situ by microbial action
and sometimes additional
inhibition by the lactic and
acetic acids formed and by
other microbial products.
(e.g. Ethanol)

Sugar preservation

Cooking in high sucrose


concentration creating too
high osmotic pressure for
most microbial survival.

Ethanol preservation

Steeping or cooking in
ethanol produces toxic
inhibition of microbes.
Can be combined with
sugar preservation

Emulsification

Compartmentalisation and
nutrient limitation within
the aqueous droplets in
water-in-oil
emulsion
foods

Addition of preservatives such as nitrite or Inhibition


of
specific
sulphite ions
groups of micro-organisms
Delivery of heat sufficient
to inactivate target microorganisms to the desired
extent

Pasteurization

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AHUJA
C1035

Mess kit

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FOOD DURING WAR

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AHUJA
C1035

a civilian mess kit, which


may serve from one person to a family of eight, is a collection of
common kitchen wares designed to be lightweight and easy to store.
Such kits are typically constructed from aluminum, though enameled
steel is also common, and some items (such as cutlery or plates) may be
made of plastic. Kits usually come with either folding handles or a
detachable handle which can be used with other cookware.

Kits vary in size depending on how many people they are designed to
serve and under what circumstances. A kit designed to serve a family
traveling to a camp site by vehicle includes items of about the same size
and weight as their domestic counterparts, but a kit for individual
backpacking trips is much more compact the items are smaller,
lighter, and serve several purposes (a pot lid might double as a pan or
skillet, for example). Items for backpacking may also be constructed of
more expensive materials, such as titanium, to further save weight.

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FOOD DURING WAR

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AHUJA
C1035

Mess kits of almost any type may also include, or be complemented by,
sierra cups (also known as sierra mugs). These are compact drinking or
eating vessels, usually no more than four inches wide and two inches
deep. They are conical in shape, wider at the top, and typically
constructed of stamped aluminum or stainless steel, with a looped wire
handle. They may also be constructed of plastic, though this is less
common, as sierra cups may also be used directly over a heat source for
cooking. Their size varies remarkably little from manufacturer to
manufacturer. This, in combination with their conical shape, allows them
to be nested inside one another to save space.

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FOOD DURING WAR

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AHUJA
C1035

Food not bombs is a loose-knit group of independent collectives, serving


free vegan and vegetarian food to others. Food not bombs' ideology is
that myriad corporate and government priorities are skewed to allow
hunger to persist in the midst of abundance. To demonstrate this (and to
reduce costs), a large amount of the food served by the group is surplus
food from grocery stores, bakeries and markets that would otherwise go
to waste. This group exhibits a form of franchise activism.

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FOOD DURING WAR

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AHUJA
C1035

Food not bombs is an all volunteer global movement that shares free
vegetarian meals in protest to war and poverty. Each chapter collects
surplus food that would otherwise go to waste from grocery stores,
bakeries and markets, sometimes incorporating dumpster diving, then
prepares it into community meals which are served for free to anyone
who is hungry. The central beliefs of the group are:
If governments and corporations around the world spent as much time
and energy on feeding people as they do on war, no one would go
hungry.
There is enough food in the world to feed everyone, but so much of it
goes to waste needlessly, as a direct result of capitalism and militarism.
Vegan food is both healthy and nonviolent.

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FOOD DURING WAR

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AHUJA
C1035

Conclusion
The unequal impact of a war

The adverse effects of war are compounded in a democracy. War allows


government to take control of large swathes of the economy, control that
is only rarely relinquished afterwards. So that if a war begins with an
economically sound government, there is very little likelihood of it
ending with one, or regaining one for a considerable period afterwards.
War affects every economy in different manner based on the availability
of resources, for example if an economy or on shorter scale a society has
got enough resources to meet the scarcity caused during a war then it
leads to the rationing and free distribution of basic amenities including
food by the government or the controlling organisation and when a
developing or an underdeveloped economy faces the scarcity of
resources during a war at that point of time the need to survive leads to
the substitution and the sacrifice of goodness and its replaced with lower
quality products.
All these impacts of war on the society started a new food culture by
itself, which can be said as making most of the ingredients available.
which is based on the principle of maximum utilization of resources and
substantial growth.

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Bibliography
Http://www.times express.com.london-archives
Http://www.foodnotbombs.com.net
Http://www.civil war.com.food.net
Http://www.the kitchen front.com
Http://www.thegreatconservatives.com-articles by martin hutchinson.
Http://www.living archieve.com
Http://militaryfood.com
Food processing technology - principles and practice
Modern food packaging, packaging requirements of food for defence,
712-717

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