## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Bohr Atomic Structure

**From Classical Physics
**

Classical physics inability to explain atomic structure

๏ ๏

Unable to explain emission spectra Unable to explain blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect

**Thomson’s atomic model
**

๏

If an electron (-ve) is stationary, it will be pulled towards the nucleus (+ve).

**Rutherford’s atomic model
**

๏

If an electron is continuously orbiting the nucleus, it will emit light (energy). Soon, electron will lose its energy; and will be pulled towards the nucleus.

Rydberg suggested a complete equation for the other lines outside the visible light (infra red, ultra violet) region:

WHERE NINITIAL CAN TAKE VALUES OF N: 1, 2, 3, 4, …. AND NFINAL : N+1, N+2, N+3 …….

**COMPLETE HYDROGEN LINE SPECTRUM
**

n1 1 2 3 4 5 n2 2,3,4, ……. 3,4,5, ……. 4,5,6, ……. 5,6,7, ……. 6,7, ………. SERIES Lymann Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund

Bohr

Bohr’s Postulate

By combining CLASSICAL and QUANTUM theories and based on Planck’s hypothesis and information on atomic spectrum, Bohr postulated on the hydrogen atom:

1. The electron moves in circular orbit around the nucleus. 2. The electron has only a ﬁxed set of allowed orbits called stationary states. The electron in the allowed orbits have unique values. As long as an electron remains in a given orbit, its energy is constant and no energy is emitted. Allowed values for the electron is called the angular momentum are quantised in multiple values of h/2π. 3. An electron can pass only from one allowed orbit to another. During such transitions, ﬁxed discrete quantities of energy (quanta) are involved – either absorbed or emitted.

Bohr Atomic Model

๏

**Predict permissible radii of orbits for hydrogen atom
**

๏ rn ๏ ๏

= n2a0

where n = 1, 2, 3, …. Bohr radius, a0 = 0.53 A (53 pm)

Ionization of Hydrogen

๏

Calculate the energy absorbed and released when excited or light emission. The change in energy when electron changes orbit;

๏ ๏

∆E is negative when energy/light is emitted Calculate ionization energy

Ionization of Hydrogen

๏ ๏

Calculate ionisation energy

Explain the line spectrum of hydrogen according to Planck equation

๏

If,

๏

Then,

**Inadequacies of Bohr Model
**

๏

Only applicable to hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions (He+, Li2+, Be3+… ) Unable to explain emission spectra of atoms and ions with multi–electrons No fundamental basis for the postulate of quantized angular momentum

๏

๏

**New Quantum Mechanics
**

๏ ๏

Several failures in Bohr model Need: quantisation of energy for system initially fulﬁlled by Newtonian mechanics Need: a new approach to resolve the wave-particle conﬂict Need: to introduce the concept of quantisation of energy using acceptable basis

๏ ๏

**Wave-Particle Duality
**

๏ ๏ ๏

Einstein (1905) suggested that light has a particle-like properties as embodied in photons (photoelectric effect). In dispersion of light by prism….. Using the following: … (by Planck) … (by Einstein)

๏

de Broglie (1924) apply the concept and suggested the waveparticle duality with the equation:

**Every object in momentum (p) will possess a wavelength (λ)
**

Mass (kg) 9 x 10-31 7 x 10-27 0.1 velocity (m s-1) 1 x 105 1000 20 λ (10-12 m) 7000 90 3 x 10-22

Particle Electron (gas) He atom (gas) Base ball

๏

Wavelengths for macroscopic particles are difﬁcult to measure – too small The wave property/nature of electron was proven in an experiment involving diffraction of electron (1927)

๏

X-RAY DIFFRACTION [WAVE]

ELECTRON DIFFRACTION [PARTICLE]

**Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
**

๏

For a macroscopic particle (bullet, golf ball), its location and speed can be determined simultaneously For a microscopic and subatomic particle like electron, its location and momentum cannot be determined with light; because light are photons which will collide with the electron, displacing its position and altering its momentum

๏

**Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
**

๏

Uncertainty in position is: in momentum is:

๏Uncertainty

**The resultant uncertainty in momentum and location is:
**

๏

approximately: or more speciﬁcally:

๏

**Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
**

๏

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that “...it is impossible to know both the exact position and the exact velocity of an object at the same time”. However, the effect is tiny and so is only noticeable on a subatomic scale.

๏

- dsfgdsfuploaded bySam Jones
- Physics 2 Formula sheetuploaded byJames Krirk
- Chapter28 Solutions 001uploaded byReeja Mathew
- Chem Revieweruploaded byapi-19965132
- 1 - History of Atomic Theoryuploaded byஏம்மனுஎல்லெ செலேச்டினோ
- Lecture 2 atom.pptuploaded bykhoiirul achmad
- Soluciones 7uploaded byLuis Gutierrez Melgarejo
- atompaperuploaded byapi-297916982
- How Atoms Workuploaded byLheidaniel MMM.
- The Nature of Magnetism Kaganov MIRuploaded bystreetba
- Modern Physicsuploaded byUangi In
- 149926999-02-Atomic-Structure-1-35uploaded byAnita Verma
- 7 Vol 10 No 1uploaded byAshutosh Singh
- student work samples explaineduploaded byapi-280439402
- 3 Background You Need to Knowuploaded byhp2020
- Quantum Theoryuploaded bystreakerstreet
- Physics NET model Question Paperuploaded byVibhav Kumar
- 01590480uploaded byParticle Beam Physics Lab
- Level Orbitaluploaded byRizwan Haniff
- 23.1 Uniform Electric Fields-cie Ial Physics-qpuploaded byyerzhan_orazayev
- LAB Flame Testuploaded bymichaelababixx3
- model question paper class XII cbse pysicsuploaded byPradyumn
- Atomic Answersuploaded byterrygoh6972
- G485 5.1.2 Magnetic Fields Auploaded byviyas07
- MRI Lecture Notesuploaded byArungoud Poshala
- tifr 2012uploaded byAman Deep
- heidiprotocolreviseduploaded byapi-302772510
- Development of Flash-ADC/FPGA for gamma spectroscopy using NaI(Tl) 3inchx3inchuploaded byKen Bui
- L2-sj250_lecture1_2012uploaded bydead_knight
- 110969uploaded bypipul36

- P1200 Tutorial 1uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES1200 L02 Atom Structure Classical Theories Student02uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES2324 Introduction to Aromatic Compounds-Studentuploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES3329 2 Induced Approximation-Studentuploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES1200 L03 Electronic Structure of Atoms QM Student01uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES1200 L03 Electronic Structure of Atoms QM Student02uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES3329 2 Approximation Student 01uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES2324 L03 Naphthene Reactions Student Activityuploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES1200 L02 Atom Structure Classical Theories Student01uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES2324 L03 Naphthene Reactions Student 2uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES2324 L01 Petrochemistry Introduction Studentuploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES2324 L02 Naphthene Introduction and Properties Student 2uploaded byhairul_tajuddin
- SCES1200 L01 Introduction to Matteruploaded byhairul_tajuddin

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading