# Photoelectric Effect

Einstein and Photon

Photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from matter upon the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, such as UV radiation or X-rays.

Photoelectric Effect
๏ ๏

A light beam has energy characteristic to its wavelength. An electron absorbs energy (photon) which is more than the minimum needed to remove it from the solid surface. Increasing the intensity of the light beam does not change the energy of the photons, only their number, and thus the energy of the emitted electrons does not depend on the intensity of the incoming light.

What Einstein Said?

Einstein (1905) suggested that light contains discrete particles called photons. The energy of the light was proportional to its frequency. Kinetic energy of the photoelectron can be compared from the experiment as work function. Ee= βν - Φ Ee: Ionization energy v : Frequency of the light Φ: Work function β: unknown to determine

Electrons can absorb energy from photons following an "all or nothing" principle. All energy from one photon must be absorbed to liberate one electron from atomic binding, or the energy is re-emitted. If absorbed, some of the energy is used to liberate the electron from the atom; the rest contributes to the electron's kinetic (moving) energy as a free particle. The slope (β) ﬁtted with h…!!!
NOW, THEY RECOGNIZE H AND SUGGESTING ITS AS “UNIVERSAL CONSTANT”

Example Problems 03-1
(A) The inability of classical theory to explain the spectral

density distribution of a blackbody was called the ultraviolet catastrophe. Why is this name appropriate?

(B) In experiment photoelectric, potassium surface has work

function, 2.26 eV when exposed to incident light at 300 nm. What is the kinetic energy and speed of the ejected electrons.
NA = 6.02205 X 1023 MOL-1 E = 1.60219 X 10-19 C M = 9.10953 X 10-31 KG H = 6.62618 X 10-34 J S C = 2.99792 X 108 MS-1

What is Photon?
๏ ๏

Photon: particles of electromagnetic radiation Discrete spectra represent as atoms or molecules generating a photon of energy, hv Each photon has a “hv” energy Any energy produced has certain number of photons E = Nhv E : photon energy N : number of photons h : Planck’s constant v : frequency of the radiation

๏ ๏ ๏

REMEMBER! E = P (WATT) X T (S)

Example Problems 03-2
(A) Derive an equation to present the number of protons emitted

in term of wavelength, power of light, and time exposure.
(B) How many protons emitted by a 100 W yellow lamp at 560

nm in 1.0 s? Assume that the irradiation is 100% efﬁciency.
(C) Now, we change the radiation to infrared at 1000 nm for 0.1 s.

The power of the monochromatic infrared is 1 mW. Calculate the number of protons emitted.

Wave-Like Behavior
From de-Broglie to Davisson-Germer Experiment

de-Broglie Relation

1924, de-Broglie suggested that any particles including photons, travelling with a momentum, p High liner momentum of a particle has a short wavelength, and vice versa. λ = h/p λ : wavelength h : Planck’s constant p : momentum of a particle

WHAT’S SO IMPORTANT OF THIS HYPOTHESIS?

Diffraction of Electron Beam