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anything that has


both mass and
volume

characteristics
that give each
substance a
unique identity

Chemistry is
The study of matter, its properties, the changes that
matter undergoes, and the energy associated with
these changes.

the ability to do
work
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A property that:

Does not involve


a change in
composition
Can be reversed by
temperature changes

Does involve a
change in
composition
Is not simply
reversed by
temperature changes
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Slowly turns
green when
exposed to air.

Malleable

Dissolves in
liquid ammonia.

Can be melted

Forms a brown
gas when added
to nitric acid.
4

Select the TRUE statement.


Chemical changes
a) are easily reversed by altering the temperature of the
system.
b) always produce substances different from the
starting materials.
c) are accompanied by changes in the total mass of the
substances involved.
d) provide the only valid basis for identification of a
substance.
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699-8734

Observation

Hypothesis

Experiment
(Test
Hypothesis)

Model
(Theory)

Experiment
(Test
Theory)

Established
Theory
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Converts a value from one unit to another in

Quantity with
desired units

Quantity with
given units

Conversion
Factor

For example, how many cm is in 12 m?

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Gimli Glider
(1983)

Fuel loading was miscalculated converting mass of fuel required


(22,300 kg) to volume required.
Conversion factor needed: 0.803 kg/L
Conversion factor used: 1.77 lb/L

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Within a cell, proteins are synthesized on particles called


ribosomes. Assuming ribosomes are spherical, what is the volume
(in dm3 and L) of a ribosome whose average diameter is 21.4 nm.

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Weight:
is variable
depends on the local gravitational field
that is acting on an object.
Mass:
is constant
depends on the object's quantity of matter
Measured relative to a standard

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An intravenous nutrient solution is delivered to a hospital patient at


a rate of 1.5 drops per second. If a drop of solution weighs 65 mg,
on average, how many kilograms are delivered in 8.0 h?

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- A physical property
- Depends on pressure,
temperature

mass
density =
volume

Can density explain this?

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A piece of galena has a volume of 4.6 cm3. If the density of


galena is 7.5 g/cm3, what is the mass (in kilograms) of this
piece of galena?

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A small cube of aluminum measures


15.6 mm on a side and has a mass of
10.25 g. What is the density of
aluminum in g/cm3?
a) 2.70 x 10-3 g/cm3
b) 0.657 g/cm3
c) 2.70 g/cm3
d) 6.57 g/cm3
e) 5.35 g/cm3

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Centigrade scale

SI unit

oC

Kelvin

T (in K) = T (in oC) + 273.15


T (in oC) = T (in K) - 273.15

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All measurements have uncertainty


- the rightmost (last) digit is the uncertain digit
What are these 2 thermometer readings?

Which reading is more accurate?


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3 Cases
1) If the number has a decimal point in it:
- all digits in the number are significant except any
zeros used only to position the decimal point
e.g. 5400.
54.00
0.00540
2) If there is no decimal point in the number:
- zeros at the end of the number are not significant
e.g. 5400
3) The number is an exact number.
- These are values with no uncertainty
e.g. Conversion factors, trial numbers, counted items

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For the following numbers, write the number of significant


digits, and re-write the number in scientific notation:
a) 850 oC
b) 1400. mL

c) .00000051 g
d) 13 pennies

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The specifications for a 100 mL volumetric flask state


that it is guaranteed to contain the specified volume to
within 0.1 mL. How many significant figures should you
use to record the volume contained in the flask?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) The measurement would be
an exact number because a
volumetric flask is used.

To text in your answer, send '427014


A,B,etc' to (613) 699-8734

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Multiplication and Division:


The answer contains the same number of significant
figures as there are in the measurement with the
fewest significant figures.
Rounds to:
2.2 x 3.7845 = 8.32590
3.76 4.236 = 0.8876298
(2.27 x 7.324) 3.3 = 5.0380

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Addition and Subtraction:


The answer has the same number of decimal places as
there are in the measurement with the fewest decimal
places.
For example:
16.06 mL
+ 1.2344 mL

2.06 mL
1.1 mL

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Natural (ln) and base 10 (log) logarithms


The answer has the same number of significant figures
after the decimal place as there are in the number whose
logarithm was taken.
For example: log(31.376) = 1.49659757
10-4.8 = 0.0000158489.

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If the digit
removed is:

Then the preceeding


number is:

<5

Unchanged

3.62

>5

Increased by 1

3.66

= 5 or
= 5 followed
by zero(s)

Unchanged if <5
Increased by 1 if >5

= 5 followed
by non-zero
numbers

Example

3.45
3.65
3.53

Increased by 1
3.58
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In calculations use the rounding rules for each type of


mathematical operation, but carry through one or two
extra significant digits.
Note: the 5 is repeating
For example: 25.65 mL + 37.4 mL

! 1 min $
73.55 s #
&
" 60 s %

=63.05 mL/73.55 s (1 min/60 s)


=51.4 mL

Another example:
The result of (3.8621 x 1.5630) - 5.98 is properly written as:
a) 0.06

b) 0.056

c) 0.0565

d) 0.05646

e) 0.056462

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how close the


measurements in a
series are to each
other

how close each


measurement is
to the actual
value.

There are 2 types of error that can be seen in an


experimental measurement:

produces values that


are either all higher or
all lower than the
actual value.

produces values that


are both higher and
lower than the actual
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value.

Which results are accurate?

ACCURATE

SYSTEMATIC

RANDOM

ACCURATE

SYSTEMATIC

Which results suffer from systematic error? Random error?

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Finish LearnSmart Module 1


Recommended Exercises:
1.44, 1.48, 1.58, 1.66, 1.76, 1.82, 1.86
Note:
1st DGD
tomorrow on
dimensional
analysis

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