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You are on page 1of 32

with LectureTools by going to:

https://my.lecturetools.com/l/103511

Answer your first participation question:

Have you tried LearnSmart yet?

a) Yes

b) Not yet, but its on my to-do list!

c) What is LearnSmart?

If you are answering by SMS, dont

worry about the link, just text in your

answer by sending '427017 A,B,etc' to

(613) 699-8734

1

both mass and

volume

characteristics

that give each

substance a

unique identity

Chemistry is

The study of matter, its properties, the changes that

matter undergoes, and the energy associated with

these changes.

the ability to do

work

2

A property that:

a change in

composition

Can be reversed by

temperature changes

Does involve a

change in

composition

Is not simply

reversed by

temperature changes

3

Slowly turns

green when

exposed to air.

Malleable

Dissolves in

liquid ammonia.

Can be melted

Forms a brown

gas when added

to nitric acid.

4

Chemical changes

a) are easily reversed by altering the temperature of the

system.

b) always produce substances different from the

starting materials.

c) are accompanied by changes in the total mass of the

substances involved.

d) provide the only valid basis for identification of a

substance.

To text in your answer, send '427012 A,B,etc' to (613)

699-8734

Observation

Hypothesis

Experiment

(Test

Hypothesis)

Model

(Theory)

Experiment

(Test

Theory)

Established

Theory

8

10

Quantity with

desired units

Quantity with

given units

Conversion

Factor

11

Gimli Glider

(1983)

(22,300 kg) to volume required.

Conversion factor needed: 0.803 kg/L

Conversion factor used: 1.77 lb/L

12

13

ribosomes. Assuming ribosomes are spherical, what is the volume

(in dm3 and L) of a ribosome whose average diameter is 21.4 nm.

14

Weight:

is variable

depends on the local gravitational field

that is acting on an object.

Mass:

is constant

depends on the object's quantity of matter

Measured relative to a standard

15

a rate of 1.5 drops per second. If a drop of solution weighs 65 mg,

on average, how many kilograms are delivered in 8.0 h?

16

- A physical property

- Depends on pressure,

temperature

mass

density =

volume

17

galena is 7.5 g/cm3, what is the mass (in kilograms) of this

piece of galena?

18

15.6 mm on a side and has a mass of

10.25 g. What is the density of

aluminum in g/cm3?

a) 2.70 x 10-3 g/cm3

b) 0.657 g/cm3

c) 2.70 g/cm3

d) 6.57 g/cm3

e) 5.35 g/cm3

19

To text in your answer, send '427013 A,B,etc' to (613) 699-8734

Centigrade scale

SI unit

oC

Kelvin

T (in oC) = T (in K) - 273.15

20

- the rightmost (last) digit is the uncertain digit

What are these 2 thermometer readings?

21

3 Cases

1) If the number has a decimal point in it:

- all digits in the number are significant except any

zeros used only to position the decimal point

e.g. 5400.

54.00

0.00540

2) If there is no decimal point in the number:

- zeros at the end of the number are not significant

e.g. 5400

3) The number is an exact number.

- These are values with no uncertainty

e.g. Conversion factors, trial numbers, counted items

22

digits, and re-write the number in scientific notation:

a) 850 oC

b) 1400. mL

c) .00000051 g

d) 13 pennies

23

that it is guaranteed to contain the specified volume to

within 0.1 mL. How many significant figures should you

use to record the volume contained in the flask?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) The measurement would be

an exact number because a

volumetric flask is used.

A,B,etc' to (613) 699-8734

24

The answer contains the same number of significant

figures as there are in the measurement with the

fewest significant figures.

Rounds to:

2.2 x 3.7845 = 8.32590

3.76 4.236 = 0.8876298

(2.27 x 7.324) 3.3 = 5.0380

25

The answer has the same number of decimal places as

there are in the measurement with the fewest decimal

places.

For example:

16.06 mL

+ 1.2344 mL

2.06 mL

1.1 mL

26

The answer has the same number of significant figures

after the decimal place as there are in the number whose

logarithm was taken.

For example: log(31.376) = 1.49659757

10-4.8 = 0.0000158489.

27

If the digit

removed is:

number is:

<5

Unchanged

3.62

>5

Increased by 1

3.66

= 5 or

= 5 followed

by zero(s)

Unchanged if <5

Increased by 1 if >5

= 5 followed

by non-zero

numbers

Example

3.45

3.65

3.53

Increased by 1

3.58

28

mathematical operation, but carry through one or two

extra significant digits.

Note: the 5 is repeating

For example: 25.65 mL + 37.4 mL

! 1 min $

73.55 s #

&

" 60 s %

=51.4 mL

Another example:

The result of (3.8621 x 1.5630) - 5.98 is properly written as:

a) 0.06

b) 0.056

c) 0.0565

d) 0.05646

e) 0.056462

29

30

measurements in a

series are to each

other

measurement is

to the actual

value.

experimental measurement:

are either all higher or

all lower than the

actual value.

are both higher and

lower than the actual

31

value.

ACCURATE

SYSTEMATIC

RANDOM

ACCURATE

SYSTEMATIC

32

Recommended Exercises:

1.44, 1.48, 1.58, 1.66, 1.76, 1.82, 1.86

Note:

1st DGD

tomorrow on

dimensional

analysis

33

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