You are on page 1of 3

Impacts of High-voltage Shunt Reactor on 750kV

Line Losses
Li Yang1, Liu Wenying1

Zheng Jingjing2

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,


North China Electric Power University,
Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China

Electric Power Research Institute of Gan Su,


Lan Zhou, Gan Su, 730000, China

AbstractFor the problem of neglecting the shunt reactor active


power loss in calculation of line losses, this paper includes the
shunt reactor losses in line loss and derives the calculation mode
of line loss that includes the shunt reactor loss. According to the
new model, the paper analyzes the influences of high-voltage
shunt reactor on 750 kV line losses and verifies it through the
emulation. The guidance of reducing the 750kV line loss is
proposed at last.
Keywords- high-voltage shunt reactor; active power loss;
750kV transmission line; operation mode

I.

INTRODUCTION

According to the Northwest Power Network development


plan, the interconnection between Northwest Power Network
and Xinjiang power grid started commissioning in late
October, 2010. The Northwest Power Network has formed
750kV main grid which connects five provinces power grid. As
the vast Northwest, many transmission lines are longer than
200km, so the problem of reactive power and voltage
controlling is outstanding. In order to solve reactive power
balance and over-voltage problem, the high-pressure shunt
reactors are installed in 750kV line [1-7]. Because the reactor is
made of metal wire and it will consume large amounts of active
power when it was put into operation. And the resistance in
750kV line consumes little active power losses. Compared with
the power network up to 500kV, the high-voltage shunt
reactors have greater impacts on line loss in the 750kV voltage
level. So the impacts of high-voltage shunt reactor on 750kV
line losses have important significance.
II.

THE ACTIVE POWER LOSS OF THE HIGH-VOLTAGE


SHUNT REACTOR

A. The improved model includs the active power loss of the


shunt reactor
Before doing research on the impacts of high-voltage shunt
reactor on 750 kV line losses, the active power loss of the shunt
reactor should be determined at first. In 750kV lines, the wiring
diagram of shunt reactor was shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1. The wiring diagram of shunt reactor

Usually the model only considers the compensated


reactance of the shunt reactor, and neglects the active power
losses in reactors metal wire. In electric power grid losses
computing guideline, the calculation formula of shunt reactors
active power loss is:

U jf
PL =3PK

UN

(1)

PL is the active power loss of shunt reactor, PK is the


active power loss of one-phase reactor in the case of rated
voltage and 75, U jf is the operating voltage of the shunt
reactor, and U N is the rated voltage of the shunt reactor. To
calculate the loss, the shunt reactor model was improved and
shown in Fig.2.

Figure 2. The improved shunt reactor model with the active power loss

Z represents the impedance of the transmitting line, GL


represents the conductance in shunt reactor that consumes
active power, -jBL represents the part that consumes the
reactive power in the form of susceptance in shunt reactor. So
the active power loss of GL is the active power loss of the
reactor. According to the improved model and formula (1), the
following formula can be drawn:

GL = 3PK U N

(2)

The rated voltage and rated active losses is stipulated in the


JB/T 10779-2007 750KV oil-immersed shunt reactor technical
parameters. So from the formula (2), the conductance of the
750kV shunt reactor can be calculated. After calculating the
value of the conductance, the actual active power losses of
shunt reactor in the improved model is:

978-1-4577-0547-2/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

PL =GU jf 2

(3)

From the formula (3), it can be seen that the active power
loss of the shunt reactor is proportional to the square of line
voltage, and has no direct relationship with the transmission
power in lines. When the reactor in operation, the active power
consumption is inevitable, the higher the voltage level of the
reactor is, the greater the active power loss is.
B. The impacts of shunt reactor on line active power loss
After improving the model of shunt reactor as Fig.2, the
conductance of shunt reactor could be calculated by formula
(2). So the active power loss of shunt reactor in actual
operation could be calculated according to the formula (3). It is
supposed that there is a high-voltage shunt reactor at the end of
the 750kV line. The voltage and power are shown in Fig.3.
P + jQ

U jfmin =
When the
value of

P2 + Q2
RZ
G

(6)

U jfmin is calculate as formula (6), the minimum

P is 2 GRZ ( P 2 + Q 2 ) , at this time U jfmin is

only the minimum value in theory, but in power system, line


operating voltage must be in the allowed voltage range.
III.

SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXAMPLE

The simulation uses the Power System Analysis Software


Package version 6.28 developed by China Electric Power
Research Institute, and flow calculation package is based on
Gansu Power Grid five typically operation mode data in 2011.
According to the high-voltage reactor parameters in GB/T
23753-2009 and JB/T 10779-2007 [9-10], the conductance of the
reactor can be calculated. Then the conductance should be
converted to normalized value and put into the simulation
package.

U jf

Figure 3. The voltage and power of 750kV line

The total loss of line and shunt reactor is [8]:


2
2
P = PZ + PL = P + Q
RZ + GU jf 2
2

U jf

(4)

P is the total active power loss of the line and the shunt
reactor, PZ is the active power loss of the 750kV line, P and
Q represent active power and the reactive power of the
transmission line respectively, and RZ is the resistance of the
750kV line.

A. The relationship between the loss of 750kV shunt reactor


and the operating voltage
In the simulation, selecting the shunt reactor of the single
line from Pingliang to Qianxian in west to east cross-section,
the high-voltage shunt reactor at the end of the Qianxian is
called Qianxian K1. Under the five typically operation mode in
2011, the relationship between the active power loss of K1 and
line operating voltage is shown in Table 1.
TABLE I.

Shunt
reactor

Operation
mode

Qianxian
K1

Winter
heavy load
Winter
light load
Early in
this year
Summer
heavy load
Summer
light load

By the formula (4) and under the circumstances that the


power of the transmission line is constant, when the operating
voltage is high, PZ is smaller and PL is greater relatively,
however, when the operating voltage is low,

PZ is greater

and PL is smaller relatively. Therefore, it is necessary to find


out the operating voltage that makes the minimum total loss of
the line and the shunt reactor.
When the power of the transmission line is constant, the
formula can be deduced as follow by the formula (4):

2 GRZ ( P 2 + Q 2 )

(5)

According to the formula (5), the voltage could be


calculated as follow:

U jf

PL

kV

MW

778.24

1.28

781.72

1.29

776.13

1.27

775.80

1.27

793.71

1.33

PL
U jf 2
S
2.11E06
2.11E06
2.11E06
2.11E06
2.11E06

From table 1, it can be seen that the operating voltage and


the active power losses are different in five operation mode, but
the value of

P2 + Q2
RZ + GU jf 2
P =
U jf 2

THE ACTIVE POWER LOSS AND VOLTAGE OF SHUNT


REACTOR

PL U jf 2 is a constant, that is the conductance

of the shunt reactor. So from the data in Table 1, it can be


concluded that the active power loss of the shunt reactor is
proportional to the square of line voltage, and the
proportionality coefficient is the conductance G in the
improved model of the shunt reactor.

B. The influence of line operating voltage on shunt reactors


active power loss
We select the single line from Pingliang to Qianxian at the
2011 winter heavy load operation mode. The length of the line
is 173km, the resistance of the line is 2.23516 ohms, and the
conductance of the shunt reactor is 2.11 10-6 S. At this
operation mode, the power of this transmission line is 742.484
+ j218.263MVA. According to the formula (6), the value of
U jfmin is calculated as 892.481kV. However, in actual
operation, the operating voltage of 750kV line can not exceed
825kV. So in the allowed voltage range, the suitable voltage
that makes the total loss of the line and the shunt reactor
minimum is 825kV. The following table lists the losses of line
and shunt reactor when the transmission power of the line is
742.484 + j218.263 MVA and the operating voltage is
different.
TABLE II.

THE LOSS OF THE SHUNT REACTOR AND THE LINE


UNDER DIFFERENT VOLTAGE,

Voltage(kV)

Line
loss(MW)

Shunt reactor
loss(MW)

Total
loss(MW)

750

2.38

1.19

3.57

775

2.23

1.27

3.50

800

2.09

1.35

3.44

825

1.97

1.44

3.40

From the data in Table 2, it can be seen that the higher the
operating voltage is, the smaller the line loss is, and the larger
the shunt reactor loss is. As the voltage increases, the total loss
is decreasing. When the operating voltage is 825kV, the total
loss is the smallest. It is the same with the theoretical
conclusions.
However, the operation voltage can not reach 825 kV in
actual operation. The power system is prone to voltage limit
violation and cause accidents. So the operation voltage should
be enhanced in the appropriate range according to actual
operation. Then the total loss of the line and the shunt reactor
will be reduced.

IV.

CONCLUSION

Usually in the calculation model of line loss, it does not


take the shunt reactor active power loss into consideration. In
this paper, from the point view of the reactor loss, the model of
shunt reactor is changed and the active power loss of shunt
reactor is taken into account. So the paper researches the
influence of high-voltage shunt reactor loss on 750kV line loss.
Then the paper proposes that the shunt reactor loss has close
relationship with the line voltage and has no direct relationship
with the transmission power in line. According to the improved
model, the most suitable voltage that makes the total loss of the
line and the shunt reactor minimum is given. The simulation of
750kV line loss in actual operation verifies correctness of the
conclusion. At last, the paper proposes guidance to reduce the
loss of the 750kV line.
REFERENCES
[1]

Zhang Li, Xu Yuqin, Application and development of shunt reactors in


EHV and UHV transmission lines, Electric Power Automation
Equipment, vol. 27, pp. 75-78, 2007.
[2] Kang Zhen, Jiang Chaowei, Application of shunt reactor in 750kV
EHV transmission line, Ningxia Electric Power, vol. 2, pp. 8-10, 2008.
[3] Huang Mingliang, Study on Connecting System for Laxiwa
Hydropower Station and Construction Schemes of 750kV Northwest
China Power Grid, Power system Technology, vol. 29, pp. 20-25, 2005.
[4] Li Bin, Li Yongli, He Jiali, Study on the Performance of Protective
Relaying and Shunt Reactors of 750 kV Transmission Line,
Automation of Electric Power System, vol. 29, pp. 40-44, 2005.
[5] Li Qingwen, Analysis on Vibration-reduction Measures and Results of
750 kV Parallel Reactors, Electric Power Construction, vol. 27, pp. 2325, 2006.
[6] Pan Xiong, Ding Xinliang, Huang Mingliang, Yang Panfeng,
Simulation Analysis on Application of Controllable Reactors in 750 kV
Northwest China Power Grid, Automation of Electric Power System,
vol. 31, pp. 104-107, 2007.
[7] Wan Qianyun, Zhao Zhiyong, Wan Ying, Power System Operation
Technology, China Electric Power Press, pp. 127-128, 2007
[8] Chen Heng, Power system steady-state analysis, China Electric Power
Press, pp. 73-75, 2007.
[9] Republic of China Machinery Industry Standard JB/T 10779 - 2007
750KV oil-immersed shunt reactor technology parameters, Mechanical
Industry Press,2008.
[10] GB/T 23753-2009 330KV and 500KV oil-immersed shunt reactor
parameters and technical requirements, China Standards Press,2009.