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ANCIENT RECORDS OF EGYPT

HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PERSIAN CONQUEST, C0LLEC3TED
EDITED AND TRANSLATED WITH COMMENTARY
BY

JAMES HENRY BjREASTED,

Ph.D.

PEOFE8SOB OF EOTPTOLOGT AND OBIENTAL HI8TOEY


IN THE UNIVEE8ITY OF CHICAGO

VOLUME

II

THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY

CHICAGO
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
1906

LONDON: LUZAC &

CO.

LEIPZIG: OTTO HARRASSOWITZ

787660,

Copyright 1906, By
Thk Univbesity op Chicago
Published March 1906

or

Composed and Printed By


The University of Chicago Press
Cliicagw, Illinois,

U.

S. A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME

I
S

The Documentary Sources

of Egyptian History

1-37

Chronology

38-57

Chronological Table

58-75

The Palermo
I.

II.

The First to the

Stone:

Fifth Dynasties

Predynastic Kings
First

76-167

90
91-116

Dynasty

III.

Second Dynasty

IV.

Third Dynasty

145-148

V.

Fourth Dynasty

149-152

Fifth Dynasty

153-167

VI.

The Third Dynasty

168-175

Reign of Snefru

168-175
168-169

Sinai Inscriptions

Biography of Methen

170-175

The Fourth Dynasty

176-212

Reign of Khufu

176-187

Sinai Inscriptions

176

Inventory Stela

177-180

Examples of Dedication Inscriptions by Sons


Reign of Khafre

188-189

Will of Prince Nekure, Son of King Khafre

Enactment

Establishing the

1 81-187

188-209

Stela of Mertityotes

Testamentary

11 7-144

an Unknown

of

Endowment

of

His

190-199

Official,

Tomb by

the

Pyramid of Khafre
Reign of Menkure

200-209
210-212

Debhen's Inscription, Recounting King Menkure's Erection of a

Tomb

for

Him

210-212

The Fifth Dynasty

213-281

Reign of Userkaf

213-235
V

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vi

....

Testamentary Enactment of Nekonekh


I.

II.

The Priesthood of Hathor


The Mortuary Priesthood of Khenuka

III.

Nekonekh's Will

IV.

Nekonekh's Mortuary Priesthood

V.

Enactment

of

Senuonekh,

Regulating

231-235
236-241

Sinai Inscriptions

236

Nenekhsekhmet

Stela of

237-240

Inscription of Persen

241

Reign of Neferirkere

242-249

Inscriptions of the Vizier, Chief Judge,

Architect

and Chief

Weshptah

242-249

Reign of Nuserre

250-262

Sinai Inscription

Tomb

....

Inscriptions of Hotephiryakhet

Inscription of Ptahshepses

Reign

of

Menkuhor

263

264-281

264-267

Sinai Inscriptions
Inscriptions of Senezemib, Chief Judge, Vizier,

and Chief Architect


Mortuary Inscription of Nezemib
Inscription of the

268-277
'

Nomarch Henku

The Sixth Dynasty


Inscriptions of Sabu, Also Called Ibebi

Inscription of Sabu, Also Called

Inscription of an

Unknown

Thety

....
.

Builder

Uni
Career under Teti (1. i)
Career under Pepi I (11. 2-32)
Career under Mernere (11. 32-50)

III.

Reign

of Pepi I

Hammamat

282-294
282-286
287-288

289-290

Inscription of

II.

278-279
280-281

282-390

Reign of Teti

I.

251-253
263

Reign of Dedkere-Isesi

Tomb

250

254-262

Sinai Inscription

Tomb

226-227

228-230

Reign of Sahure

Tomb

220-222
223-225

His Mortuary Priesthood

Tomb
Tomb

213-215
216-219

Nekonekh's Mortuary Statue

Testamentary

291-294

....
....

292-294
306-315

319-324

295-315

Inscriptions*

295-301

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii

The King's Inscriptions


The Expedition's Inscription

I.

II.

....

III.

Chief Architect's Inscription

IV.

Inscription of the Treasurer of the

God

Ikhi

Hatnub Quarry

304-305

Inscription of Uni: II Career under Pepi I

Reign of Mernere

I.

Northern Inscription

II.

Southern Inscription

316-318
.

Meniere

Harkhuf
Harkhuf (continued)

.....

Reign of Pepi II
of

Land by

Two

Idu, Called Also Seneni

325-336

350-354

337-338
339-343

Queens, Enekhnes-Merire

Harkhuf (continued from

Inscriptions of

336)

344-349

350-354

Letter of Pepi II

350-354

Dates and Introduction

351

III.

Acknowledgment of Harkhuf 's Letter


Harkhuf's Rewards

IV.

King's Instructions

11.

319-324

337-38$

Sinai Inscription

I.

317

318

Inscription of Uni: III Career under

Stela of the

306-315

316-336

Inscriptions at the First Cataract

Conveyance

300-301

302-303

Inscription in the

Inscriptions of

297-298
299

Sinai Inscription

Inscriptions of

296

351

352

353-354

Inscriptions of Pepi-Nakht

355-360

Khui

361

Inscriptions of Sebni

362-374

Inscriptions of Ibi

375-379
380-385

Inscriptions of

Inscription of

Reign

of Ity

Hammamat
Reign

Zau

of

386-387
386-387

Inscription

Imhotep

388-390

The Ninth and Tenth Dynasties

II.

III.

Inscription of Tefibi

391-414
391-414

Inscriptions of Siut
I.

393-397

Inscription of Kheti I

398-404

Inscription of Kheti II

405-414

H
TABLE OF CONTENTS

viii

The Eleventh Dynasty


The Nomarch,

415-459
419-420

Intef

Mortuary Stela
Reign of Horus-Wahenekh-Intef I
Royal Tomb Stela
Reign of Horus-Nakhtneb-Tepnefer-Intef II
.

419-420
.

Reigns of Intef III and Nibkhnire-Mentuhotep II


Relief near

423A-423G
423A-423G
423H

Reign of Nibhotep-Mentuhotep I
.

Assuan

Reign of

Inscription of

427-433
434-459

Inscriptions

434-459

The First Wonder


The Official Tablet
The Commander's Tablet
The Second Wonder
Completion of the Work

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

435-438
439-443

444-448
449-451

452-456

Stela of Eti

457-459

The Twelfth Dynasty


Chronology of Twelfth Dynasty

Reign of Amenemhet
Inscription of

Hammamat

424-426
427-433

Henu
Nibtowere-Mentuhotep IV

Hammamat

423

424-426

Reign of Senekhkere-Mentuhotep III

Hammamat

421-423
421-423

Stela of Thethi

Temple Fragments from Gebelen

463-497

Khnumhotep

463-465

466-468

Inscription of Intef

Inscription of
Inscription of

The Teaching

Nessumontu
Korusko
of

460-750
460-462

469-471

472-473

Amenemhet

474-483

Dedication Inscription

484-485

The Tale

486-497

Reign of

The

of Sinuhe

Sesostris I

498-593

Building Inscription of the Temple of Heliopolis

Inscription of

Wadi Haifa

Meri

Inscription of

Inscription of

Mentuhotep

Amenemhet (Ameni)

Stela of Ikudidi

Inscription of Intefyoker

....
.

498-506
507-509

510-514
515-523

524-528
529

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ix

Inscriptions of

The

Mentuhotep

530-534

Contracts of Hepzefi

535~538

First Contract

539~543

Second Contract

544-548

III.

Third Contract

549~553

IV.

Fourth Contract

S54~558

V.

Fifth Contract

VI.

Sixth Contract

SS9~567
568-571

I.

II.

.......

Seventh Contract

VII.

572-575

Eighth Contract

576-581

IX.

Ninth Contract

582-588

X.

Tenth Contract

589-593

Amenemhet

594-613

VIII.

Reign

of

II

Inscription of Simontu
Inscription of Sihathor

........

594~598
599-605

Sinai Inscription
Stela of

606

Khentemsemeti

607-613

Reign of Sesostris II

614-639

Inscription of

Hapu

Inscription of

Khnumhotep

Reign of

614-618
II

619-639

Sesostris III

640-748

The Conquest of Nubia


I.
The Canal Inscriptions

643-645

Second Inscription

646-648

The Elephantine Inscription


The First Semneh Stela
The Second Semneh Stela

649-650

Inscription of Ikhernofret

661-670

Inscription of Sisatet

671-673

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.

642-649

First Inscription

I.

II.

640-672

651-652

......
.......

See also

Hammamat
Stela of

676

653-660

fif.

Inscription

and 687
674-675

Sebek-Khu, called Zaa

676-687

Inscriptions of Thuthotep

688-706

Hammamat

707-712

Inscriptions

Inscriptions of Sinai

7i3~738

Wadi Maghara

7^3~7^3

I.

I.

Inscriptions of

Khenemsu

714-716

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Harnakht

Inscription of

II.

III.

Inscription of Sebekdidi

IV.

Inscription of

Sarbiit

II.

Ameni

721-723

el-Khadem

....

Inscription of Ptahwer

II.

Inscription of

IV.

Inscription of Harurre

725-727

730~732

733~738

Turra Inscription

739-742

Inscription of Sehetepibre

743-748

Reign

of

Amenemhet IV

Kummeh

Inscription

750

From the Thirteenth Dynasty to the Hyksos

Reign of Sekhemre-Khutowe

75i~752

of Neferhotep

Great Abydos Stela

753~772
.

'

Boundary Stela
Reign of Nubkheprure-Intef

Ameniseneb

781-787

II

....

II.

III.

II.

Ahmose I (11. 1-24)


Career under Amenhotep I (11. 24-29)
Career under Thutmose I (11. 29-39)
.

III.

Ahmose's Summary

4-16

38-39
78-82
17-25

Ahmose's Campaigns [Continued


Ahmose's Rewards

1-1043

1-3

Career under

Biography of Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet
I.

1-37

Biography of Ahmose, Son of Ebana


I.

753-765

781-787

The Eighteenth Dynasty


Ahmose

773~78o

VOLUME
of

773~78o

Reign of Khenzer

Reign

766-772

Coptos Decree

Inscriptions of

751-787

-751-752

Records of Nile-Levels

Reign

749-750
749

Sinai Inscriptions

724-738
728-729

Amenemhet

III.

717-718

719-720

Inscription of Sebek-hir-hab

I.

40]

....
....

18-20
21-24
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xi

Quarry Inscription

26-28

Karnak

29-32

Stela

Building Inscription

33-37

Reign of Amenhotep I
Biography of Ahmose, Son
II.

....

Ebana
Career under Amenhotep I (11. 24-29)
of

Biography of Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet

III.

;|^IV.

38-53

40-42

Biography of Ineni
II.

38-39
40-42

Career under Amenhotep I

I.

38-53

43-46

Career under Amenhotep I

Career under Thutmose I

44-46

99-108

Career under Thutmose II

Career under Thutmose III and Hatshepsut

11 5-1 18

340-343

Stela of

Harmini

47-48

Stela of

Keres

49-52

Reign

Thutmose

54-114

Coronation Decree

54-60

Biographical Inscription of Thure

61-66

Tombos

67-73

of

Stela

Inscriptions at the First Cataract

74-77

I.

Sehel Inscription

75

II.

Sehel Inscription

76

Assuan Inscription
Inscription of Ahmose, Son of Ebana
^ III.
Career under Thutmose I (11. 29-39)
Biography of Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet
III.

....
.

86-89

90-98

Biography of Ineni

99-108

Career under Thutmose I

4-14)

(11.

99-108
109-114

Stela of

Reign of

78-82

83-85

Karnak Obelisks
Abydos Stela

Yuf
Thutmose

78-82

83-85

Career under Thutmose I

^11.

77

11 5-1 2 7

II

Biography of Ineni

11 5-1 18

Career under Thutmose II

11 5-1 18

Assuan Inscription
Biography of Ahmose-Pen-Nekbet
IV. Career under Thutmose II

1 19-12 2

III.

.'

123-124

123-124

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xii

Campaign in Syria
The Ebony Shrine
#JReign of

125

Der el-Bahri
Thutmose III and Hatshepsut
of

....

Inscription of the Coronation;

Semneh Temple
II.

I.

Buildings and Offerings

Inscriptions

Renewal of

The

Sesostris Ill's List of Offerings

Dedun and
Nebwawi

Sesostris III

Abydos Stela
^The Birth of Queen Hatshepsut
The Council of the Gods
I.
II.
Interviews Between Amon and Thoth
HI. Amon with Queen Ahmose
IV. Interview Between Amon and Khnum
VI.

VII.

184-186

VIII.

IX.

X.
XII.
XIII.

is

Led

193-194
195-198

Queen Ahmose
.

Birth

Council of

199-201

204
205

206-207

Amon

....

Amon and Hathor

Nursing of the Child

Second Interview of

The

Confinement

to

Presentation of the Child to

XL The

192

202-203

Interview Between Thoth and

The

187-191

Fashions the Child

Queen Ahmose

173-176
178-183

Statue Inscription

Khnum

168-172

177

II.

V.

131-166
167

Dedication to

Biography of

128-390
128-130

Introduction

I.

126-127

208
209

210

Amon and Thoth

Final Scene

211

212

Statue of Enebni

213

Vase Inscription

214

C^The Coronation
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

The

of

Queen Hatshepsut

Purification

Amon

215

216

Gods

217-220

presents the Child to All the

The Northern Journey


Coronation by Atum

221-225
.

Reception of the Crowns and the

Names

Amon

226-227

..

228-230

...

VI.

Proclamation as King before

VII.

Coronation before the Court

232-239

Second Purification

240-241

VIII.

IX.

Concluding Ceremonies

Southern Pylon Inscription at Karnak

....

231

242

243-245

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xiii

ii

J^The Punt Reliefs

246-295

Departure of the Fleet

252-253

Reception in Punt

254-258

III.

The

259-262

IV.

Loading the Vessels


The Return Voyage

I.

II.

V.

VI.
VII.
VIII.

IX.

Traffic

266

Presentation of the Tribute to the

Queen by

Nemyew
Gifts to Amon

the

Chiefs of Punt, Irem and

267-269

The Queen

270-272

Ofifers the

Weighing and Measuring the Gifts to Amon


Formal Announcement of the Success of the
.

Expedition before

X.

263-265

Amon

273-282

283-288

Formal Announcement of the Success

of

the

Expedition to the Court

289-295

Inscription of the Speos Artemidos

296-303

The Karnak

304-307

I.

II.

III.

Obelisks

Columns
Side Columns

Shaft Inscriptions; Middle

Shaft Inscriptions;

....

II.

III.

Rock

Base Inscription
.

Reception in Thebes

330~335

Dedication of the ObeHsks


Inscription in

336

Wadi Maghara

....

Career under Thutmose III and Hatshepsut

Senmut
Inscriptions on the Karnak Statue
Assuan Inscription
Inscriptions on the Berlin Statue

....

Inscription of Thutiy
Inscriptions of
I.

II.

Puemre

340-343

344
345-368

Inscriptions of

III.

338-339

344

Summary

Conclusion of

337

340-343

Biography of Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet

II.

322

323-329

Biography of Ineni

I.

312-313

Transport

Building Inscription of Western Thebes

>IV.

308-311

314-321

ReHefs of Transportation of ObeHsks


I.

349-358
359-362

363-368
369-378

Statue of Inscription

379
380-381

Tomb

382-387

Inscriptions

Inscriptions of

Hapuseneb

388-390

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xiv

39i~779

)<Reign of Thutmose III

The Annals
The Annals: Conspectus

I.

II.

of

Campaigns

Introduction
First

Campaign (Year

Wadi Haifa

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

IX.

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XV.
XVI.
XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

408-443

23)

Inscription

....

411--437

438-443

Second Campaign (Year 24)


Third Campaign (Year 25)

444-449

Fourth Campaign

453
454-462

450-452

Campaign (Year 29)


Sixth Campaign (Year 30)
Seventh Campaign (Year 31)
Eighth Campaign (Year 33)
Ninth Campaign (Year 34)
Tenth Campaign (Year 35)
Eleventh Campaign (Year 36)
Twelfth Campaign (Year 37)
Thirteenth Campaign (Year 38)
Fourteenth Campaign (Year 39)
Fifteenth Campaign
Sixteenth Campaign
Seventeenth Campaign
Fifth

463-467

468-475
476-487

488-495
496-503

....
....
.

Biography of

504
505

506-515

516-519
520-523

524-527
.

Conclusion

528-539
540

Feasts and Offerings from the Conquests

Amenemhab

541-573

574-592

Fragments of Karnak Pylon VII

593~S98
599-608

Great Karnak Building Inscription


Building Inscription of the Karnak Ptah-Temple

Obelisks

609-622
623

I.

Karnak Obelisks

624-625

II.

Lateran Obelisks

626-628

III.

Constantinople Obelisk

IV.

London Obelisk
New York Obelisk

V.

......

Medinet Habu Building Inscriptions


^

406
407

^Fragment on the Siege of Megiddo


III.

....

391-405

629-631

632-633

....

634-636
637-641

Heliopolis Building Inscriptions

642-643

Nubian Wars

644-654

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xvii

Tomb
Tomb
Tomb
Tomb
Tomb
Tomb
Tomb

of Merire II

981

of Merire I

982-988

of

Eye

of

of

Mai
Ahmose
Tutu

1009-1013

of

Huy

1014-1018

of

989-996
997-1003
1 004-1 008

Reign of Tutenkhamon

Tomb

of

1 01 9-1 041

Huy

1019-1041

Investiture of the Viceroy of

I.

II.

Tribute of the North

III.

Tribute of the South

Kush

1020-102 6

102 7-1 033


.

1 034-1 041

Reign of Eye

1042-1043
LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE

Plan of Punt ReHefs

105

VOLUME

III

The Nineteenth Dynasty

1--651

Reign of Harmhab

Tomb

of

1-73

Harmhab

Leyden Fragments

I.

II.
II.

....

Stela with Adoration Scene

I.

Gold
Vienna Fragment
Alexandria Fragments
British Museum Fragments

Reward

rV.
I.

Doorposts

II.

Stela with

13

14-19
14-17

Three Hymns

Coronation Inscription

I.

In the North

II.

In the South

Edict of

Theban Necropolis
Harmhab.

18-19

Harmhab

20-21

22-32

.......

Graffiti in the

of

2-5

10-12

Cairo Fragments

The Wars

2-9

6-9

of

III.

V.

1-21

32A-32C
33-44
34-36

37-44
45-67

\,

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xviii

Introduction

I.

50

Enactment Against Robbing the Poor of Dues


for the Royal Breweries and Kitchens (11. 14-17)

51

the People
III.

The
(11.

10-14)

Enactment Against Robbing the Poor


Due the Pharaoh (11. 17-18)

IV.

of

Wood
52

Enactment Against Exacting Dues from a Poor

V.

Man Thus Robbed


VI.

49

King's Zeal for the Relief of

......

Introduction:

II.

i-io)

(11.

(11.

....

18-20)

54

Slave Service

55

VII.

VIII.

(11.

22-24)

Enactment Against Stealing of Hides by the


Soldiers

IX.

53

Against Robbing the Poor of Dues for the Harem


or the Gods by the Soldiers (11. 20-24)
Enactments Against Unlawful Appropriation of

25-28)

(11.

56-57

Against Connivance of Dishonest Inspectors with

Thievish Tax-Collectors, for a Share of the Booty


(11.

X.

28-32)

58

Enactment Against Stealing Vegetables Under


Pretense of Collecting Taxes (11. 32-35)
Enactments too Fragmentary for Analysis (11. 3539) and Right Side (11. i, 2)
.

XI.
XII.

Narrative

of

Corrupt

63-65

Narrative of the King's Monthly Audiences and


Largesses

XIV.

(11.

7-10)

66

Laudation of the King, and Conclusion (Left


Side)

Tomb

67

of Neferhotep

68-73

Reign of Ramses I

Wadi Haifa
Reign of

60-62

Judges

01-3-7)
XIII.

59

the King's Reforms, Containing

an Enactment Against

Also

74-79

Stela

74-79
80-250

Seti I

Karnak

Reliefs

80-156

Scene

i.

March through Southern

Scene

2.

Battle with the Shasu

85-86

Scene

3.

Capture of Pekanan

87-88

Scene

4.

Capture of

Yenoam

89-90

Palestine

83-84

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxiii

Great Inscription on the First Pylon (Medi-

1.

net

Habu)

85-92

2.

Poem on Second Libyan War

3.

Relief Scenes

4.

North Wall (Medinet Habu)


Papyrus Harris

on

First

93-99

Pylon and Outside


.

405

The Syrian War


VI. The Nubian War
Medinet Habu Temple Calendar
Act of Endowment of the Temples of Khnum
V.

15-135

136-138
139-145
.

Papyrus Harris

146-150
1

Discussion of

00-114

51-41

151-181

182-183

Content
I.

II.

Introduction

Theban

Section

184-246

III.

HeUopolitan Section

247-304

IV.

Memphite

305-351

V.
VI.
VII.

Section

General Section (Small Temples)

Summary

383-396

Historical Section

397-412

Record of the Royal Jubilee


Records of the

413-415

Harem Conspiracy

416-456

Appointment of the Court

I.

The
The
The
The
The
The

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

Condemned
Condemned
Condemned
Condemned

423-424

of the First Prosecution

425-443

of the

Second Prosecution

of the

Third Prosecution

of the

Fourth Prosecution

Hammamat

Acquitted

Abydos

Practicers of

Magic

454-456
457-472

457-468

Stela

Building Inscription of the

Tomb

457-460
461-468

Stela

Reign of Ramses

Dedication

Reign of Ramses VI

451-452
453

The First Stela


The Second Stela

11.

444-445

446-450

Reign of Ramses IV

I.

352-382

Khonsu Temple

...

469-471
472

473
.

473

474-483

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxiv

Tomb
Reign of

Penno
Ramses VII

of

Stela of

474-483

484-485

Hori

484-485

Reign of Ramses IX
Inscriptions of the
I.

II.

486-556

High

Priest of

Amon, Amenhotep

486-498

Building Inscriptions

488-491

Records of Rewards

492-498

The Records

of the

Royal Tomb-Robberies

499-556

Papyrus Abbott

509~535

Papyrus Amherst

536-541

III.

Turin Fragment

542-543

IV.

Mayer Papyri
Ramses XII

544-556

I.

II.

Reign of

The Report

of

557-603

Wenamon

5 5 7-591

Records of the Restoration of the Royal


Letter to the Viceroy of

Building Inscriptions in

Kush
the Temple

of

Mummies

Khonsu

592-594

595-600
601-603

The Twenty-First Dynasty

604-692

The Twenty-First Dynasty

604-607

Reign of Hrihor

Temple
Nesubenebded

Inscriptions of the

Reign of

of

Khonsu

....

627-630

Reign of the High Priest and King Paynozem I

Paynozem

I as

High

Records on the Royal

Paynozem

I as

Priest

Mummies

King

Records on the Royal

631-649
631-635

Building Inscriptions

II.

608-626
627-630

Gebelen Inscription

I.

608-626

Mummies

....
....

631-635
636-642
643

fif.

643-647

Building Inscriptions

648-649

High Priesthood of Menkheperre


Stela of the Banishment
Record of Restoration
Karnak Graffito
Records on the Royal Mummies
High Priesthood of Paynozem II
Records on the Priestly Mummies
Records on the Royal Mummies

650-661

650-658

.....

659
660
661

662-687
662-663

664-667

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxv

Record

of

Paynozem

Stela of the ''Great Chief of

High Priesthood
Records on

668

II's Burial

Me," Sheshonk

Pesibkhenno

of

688-692

Mummy- Wrappings

Burial of Nesikhonsu

Records on the Royal

688
689

Mummies

690-692

The Twenty-Second Dynasty

693-792

Records of Nile-Levels at Karnak

Reign of Sheshonk I

669-687

693-698
699-728

Records on Mummy-Bandages of Zeptahefonekh

699-700

Building Inscription

701-708

Great Karnak Relief

709-722

Presentation of Tribute

723-724

Karnak

Stela

724A

Dakhel Stela

725-728

Reign of Osorkon I

Record

of

729-737

Temple

Reign of Takelot

Gifts

729-737

738-740

Statue of the Nile-God Dedicated by the

High

Priest,

Sheshonk

738-740

Reign of Osorkon II

742-751

Flood Inscription

742-744

Statue Inscription

745-747

Jubilee Inscriptions

748-751

Reign of Takelot II

752-755

Graffito of Harsiese
Stela of

752-754

Kerome

755

Reign of Sheshonk III

75^-777

Annals of the High Priest of Amon, Osorkon


I.

East of Door

........

West of Door
First Serapeum Stela of Pediese
Record of Installation

Stela of

Weshtehet

756-770
760-761

775~777
778-781

Second Serapeum Stela of Pediese

Sheshonk IV

771-774

Reign of Pemou
of

762-770

II.

Reign

"

778-781

782-792

782-784

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxvi

Serapeum

Harpeson

Stela of

785-792

The Twenty-Third Dynasty


Records of Nile-Levels

at

793-883

Karnak

793-794

Reign of Osorkon III

795

Will of Yewelot

Reign of Piankhi

The Piankhi

795
796-883

Stela

796-883

The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

Reign of Bocchoris

Serapeum

884
884

Stelae

The Twenty-Fifth Dynasty


Records of the Nile-Levels at Karnak

....

Reign of Shabaka

884

885-934
885-888
889

Building Inscription

Reign of Taharka

'

889
892-918

Tanis Stela

892-896

Building Inscription in Large Cliff-Temple of Napata

897-900

Inscription of

Mentemhet

Serapeum Stela
Reign of Tanutamon
Stela of

901-916
917-918

919-934

'.

Tanutamon

919-934

The Twenty-Sixth Dynasty


Reign of Psamtik

935-1029

935-973
93 5-958

Adoption Stela of Nitocris


Statue Inscription of the Chief Steward, Ibe

958A-958M

Serapeum Stela
Second Serapeum Stela

First

Statue Inscription of

959-962

963-966

Hor

967-973

Reign of Necho

Serapeum

974-980

Stela

974-979
980

Building Inscription

Reign of Psamtik II

Statue Inscription of Neferibre-Nofer

Reign

....

of Apries

Serapeum

Stela of the Divine Consort Enekhnesneferibre

Nesuhor

981-983

984-995
984-988

Stela

Inscription of

981-983

...

988A-988J
.

989-995

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Reign of Amasis (Ahmose

xxvii

II)

996-1029

Elephantine Stela

Serapeum

Stela

Statue Inscription of the General


Statue Inscription of Pefnefdineit

Mortuary

Stelae of the Priest

Ahmose

....

Psamtik

996-1007
1008-1012
1013-1014
loi 5-1025

1026-1029

LIST OP FIGURES
fACK

Plan of Scenes and Inscriptions in Medinet

Index

Habu Temple

521

EXPLANATION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL SIGNS AND


SPECIAL CHARACTERS
1.

The

introductions to the documents are in twelve-

point type, like these lines.


2.

All of the translations are in ten-point type, like this line.

In the footnotes and introductions all quotations from


the documents in the original words of the translation are
Italics are not
in italics^ inclosed in quotation marks.
employed in the text of the volumes for any other purpose
3.

except for
4.

The

titles.

lines of the original

document are indicated

in

by superior numbers.
5. The loss of a word in the original is indicated by
three words by
two words by
four
five words by
words by
and
A word in the original is
more than five by
estimated at a "square" as known to Egyptologists, and
the estimate can be but a very rough one.
6. When any of the dashes, like those of No. 5, are inthe translation

closed in half-brackets, the dashes so inclosed indicate not

but uncertain words. Thus ^ ^ represents one un^


certain word, ^
two uncertain words, and ^
more than five uncertain words.
7. When a word or group of words are inclosed in halflost,

"

words so inclosed are uncertain in meaning;


that is, the translation is not above question.
8. Roman numerals I, II, III, and IV, not preceded by
the title of any book or journal, refer to these four volumes
The Arabic numerals following
of Historical Documents.
such Romans refer to the numbered paragraphs of these
volumes. All paragraph marks ( and , without a

brackets, the

Roman)
9.

paragraphs of the same volume.


For signs used in transliteration, see Vol. I, p. xv.
refer to

xxviii

THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY

REIGN OF AHMOSE

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA^


This inscription contains the biography of a naval
officer, Ahmose, a nobleman of El Kab, who served with
I.

distinction

hotep

I,

under three successive kings: Ahmose

and Thutmose

the predecessor of

important, because

I,

Sekenenre.

It is especially

our only contemporary source for

is

the expulsion of the Hyksos,


of

under

his father having served

I,

Ahmose
it

Amen-

I,

Ahmose- Pen-Nekhbet

and forms, with the biography

( 17

ff.),

our only source for the

wars of the early Eighteenth Dynasty; for the royal records


of this critical period

have

totally perished.

The

family of

nomarchs at El Kab^ were strong supporters of the rising


dynasty, and it is clear that such loyalty was liberally rewarded with the gifts of slaves and land,*" of which both
the El Kab Ahmoses boast.
It was by thus cementing a
firm friendship with such local nobility that the
*On

the wall of

Ahmose's

first

kings

-tomb at El Kab; in two parts: the first,


and the second, of 8 hnes, on the door- wall at

cliff

of 31 lines on the right-hand wall,


the left of door. Text: Champollion, Notices descriptives,

I,

655-57, only 26

and very inaccurate; first completely published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 12,
a and d; thence inaccurately copied by Rheinisch, Chrestomathie, PI. 6, omitting
d; and equally incorrectly, Lemm, Lesestiicke, 67; Bunsen, Egypt's Place, 2d ed.
lines,

V, 732, 733 (beginning only). I have collated the excellent Berlin squeeze (No.
172)^ which mostly sustains Lepsius, Denkmdler, but furnishes some important
corrections.
Valuable discussion of difficult passages by Piehl, Proceedings of the
Society 0} Biblical Archceology, XV, 256-58, and Sphinx, III, 7-12.

^The family

Empire, and already under the Thirteenth


Dynasty enjoyed the favor of the king (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 14, h) but it is
impossible to trace the line back of Ahmose, son of Ebana's grandmother.
is

far older than the

cA boundary stone marking one Umit of such a


by the Berlin

Museum

gift

by Thutmose

was acquired

'^Southern boundary 0} the fields given


as a favor of the royal presence, to the orderly (snn) of his majesty, Nekri {Nkry);
ijO stat," See a similar tablet in Mariette, Monuments divers, 47A, under Thutin 1899.

It reads:

mose IV.
3

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

[2

Dynasty maintained themselves during


The royal children were
their long and exhausting wars.
even intrusted to these El Kab princes, to be reared under
their charge,^ and they finally ruled from El Kab to
of the Eighteenth

Esneh.^
2.

The

ten campaigns in which

Ahmose took

treated in the respective reigns under

which they

part are
fall,

as

follows:

Ahmose I, 11. 1-24 (4ff.).


II. Career under Amenhotep I, 11. 24-29 (38ff.).
III. Career under Thutmose I, 11. 29-39 ( 7^ ff-)3. The immediate authorship of the inscription is estabAhmose is represented as
lished by the neighboring relief.
standing at the left, and before him is his grandson, Pahri
I.

Career under

(F^-hry)j accompanied by the following words:

By

the son of his daughter the conductor of the works in this tomb,

perpetuating the
of

Amon,

The

name

of the father of his mother, the

draughtsman^

Pahri,^ triumphant.

long inscription was therefore executed by Ahmose'

grandson, Pahri,

who was

a draughtsman.

CAREER UNDER AHMOSE

I.

[LI. 1-24;

continued 38

ff.]

an introduction and a few words about

4. After

youth and parentage, Ahmose plunges directly into his


^SeeTomb

of Pahri,

his
first

"Eleventh Memoir," Egyptian Exploration Fund, and

Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 10, b and 11,

b.

grandson of Ahmose, son of Ebana, was "prince of Esneh (Yny'f),


{^ h't), satisfying the excellent heart of his lord from
Tylor, Tomb of Pahri, PI. III.
the House of Hathor to El Kab:'
t>Pahri,

governor of the southern lands

cSee Goodwin, Zeitschrift

dHis tomb

El Kab, by

is

dgyptische Sprache, 1872, 21.

most interesting one at El Kab; see The Tomb of Pahri at


and Tylor, "Eleventh Memoir," of Egyptian Exploration Fund.

the

Griffith

fiir

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA

5]

campaign, with an account of a siege of the

city of

This can be no other than the


Avaris by Manetho (Josephus, Contra Apion, 1,
(ht-w^r't).

make

according to him, the Hyksos

their

Hatwaret

city called
14),

where,

stand in

last

mentioned as the residence of the Asiatics


(^ ^ mw, 303, 1. 37) by Hatshepsut, and by a papyrus of the
late Nineteenth Dynasty,^ as the residence of an Apophis;
Eg3rpt. *

It is also

no doubt about the identification with


The siege, which must have lasted many years, was
Avaris.
interrupted by the rebellion of some disaffected noble in
Upper Egypt; but the city was finally captured, and the
so that there

is

Hyksos, fleeing into Asia, were pursued to the city of Sharuhen


Here they were besieged for six years by
(Josh. 19:6).

Ahmose

I,

and

this stronghold

was

probably at the conclusion of

pushed

northward and

also captured.

this

invaded

siege that

Syria,

Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet (20), probably


last

still

as

It

was

Ahmose

narrated

by

in pursuit of the

remnants of the Hyksos.

5.

The king now

returned, and carried his

army

other extreme of his domain, invading Nubia.


recalled

from a successful campaign

successive rebellions,

there,

to

to the

He was
quell

two

the last of the internal dissensions

which had distracted the country since the fall of the Middle
Kingdom. At this point the wars, and probably the reign,
of

Ahmose

I closed,

Ahmose, son

of

Ebana, having gained

distinction in all his campaigns.

^According to Egypt Exploration Fund Archceological Report (1900-1901, 13),


there is in Cairo a stela containing a reference to this war with the Hyksos, but I
have been unable to gain any information concerning it. It is probably 30.
contains a folk-tale narrating the cause of the war between
a Hyksos king, Apophis in Avaris, and a Sekenenre, who was ruler (hk ^) in Thebes.
^Sallier I, 1-3;

it

Unfortunately, only the beginning

and interpretations of
tion.

this

is

preserved.

document are

Most

of the current translations

largely the products of a vivid imagina-

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

[^^6

Introductory Address
6. 'Chief of the sailors,

Ahmose {Y^h-m^)^ son

triumphant; "he says: "I will

know

tell

you,

came

all

Ebana

of

p-ft^-^),

ye people; I will cause

was presented with gold


seven times ^ in the presence ^of the whole land; male and female slaves
likewise.
I was endowed with very many fields."
The fame of one
you

to

the honors which

me.

to

valiant in his achievements shall not perish ^in this land forever.^

His Youth
7.

He

speaks as follows:

my

{NT}h)y

father being

an

**I

spent

my

youth in the

city of

Nekheb*^

king of Upper and Lower

officer of the

(Sknyn R^-), triumphant, Baba (B^b^), Sson of


Royenet, (R^-yn't), was his name. Then I served as an officer in his
Egypt, Sekenenre

stead, in the ship

'The Offering'

in the time of the

Lands, Nebpehtire (Nb-phty-R^y Ahmose

Then

garment.^

ferred 'to the northern

on

foot^

fleet,

because of

when he rode abroad


Campaign

One

8.

after I set

still

up a household,

my

of the

Two

triumphant, ^while I was

young, not having taken a wife,^ and while I was

(still)

the

I),

Lord

sleeping in

was

trans-

I followed the king

valor.

in his ^chariot.

against the Hyksos; Siege oj Avaris

besieged the city of Avaris (Ht-w^r't); I showed valor on

foot^ before his majesty; then I

was appointed

^to (the ship) 'Shining-

in-Memphis.'^

^Ahmose has recorded elsewhere in his tomb (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 12,
a list of the gifts he received, making a total of 9 men and 10 women; the total

c)

of

land is lost. This does not agree with his narrative, which does not summarize,
but in different gifts mentions in all 9 men and 7 women received from the king,

and 8 men and


^This

XXVI,

women

statement

last

is

captured.

probably a proverbial phrase

see Spiegelberg, Recueil,

41, 42.

cEl Kab.

^See Muller, Liebespoesie,

3.

^This is, of course, some garment worn by a youth;


youth (I, 294, 1. i).
^Lit.,

naval

"on my two

feet;"

this is

emphasized as land

ofl5cer.

gReward

after the first battle at Avaris.

cf.

the girdle of Uni's

service,

Ahmose being a

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA

12]

Second Battle oj Avaris

One fought on the water in the canal: Pezedku (P^-ddkw) of


Avaris.
Then I fought hand to hand, ^I brought away a hand.* It
was reported to the royal herald. One gave to me the gold of valor.^
9.

Third Battle
10.

hand

Then

was again

there

hand "there;

to

Avaris

of

I again fought

fighting in this place;

I brought

One gave

away a hand.

to

me

the

gold of braverv in the second place.


First Rebellion, Interrupting Siege of Avaris

11.

One

fought in this Egypt,*^ south of this city; ^"then I brought

man; I descended into the water; behold, he


was brought^ as a seizure upon the road of this ^3city,e (ralthough"") I
It was announced to the royal herald.
crossed with him over the water.
Then one presented^ me with gold in double measure
away a

living captive, a

.^^

Capture of Avaris
12.

One

women,

^Cut

majesty gave them to

total four heads, his

ofif

^Reward

man and

^^captured Avaris; I took captive there one

me

three

for slaves.^

as a trophy, from a slain enemy.


after the

second

^Reward

battle.

after the third battle.

dThere can be no doubt that the word {km't) means here, as always elsewhere,
^'this city" is then EI Kab, for the word "south" is an adjective femi*^ Egypt;"
nine agreeing with "Egypt." The phrase can only be translated into a language
like Greek or German, thus: "in diesem siidlich von dieser Stadt befindlichen
Aegypten." The siege of Avaris is therefore interrupted by a rebellion in upper
Egypt, similar to the two later ones (15, 16), and for this reason the narrative
particularly specifies "this Egypt, south, etc."

See also

13,

1.

15.

men

"captured as a seizure upon the ship 0} the


enemy" (1. 21). There is no ground for the fanciful rendering, indicating that he
Ahmose means that, although obliged to descend to and cross over
lost his way
the water (of some canal) with his prisoner, he brought him away as safely as one
^Contrast with this the two

seized

upon the road

myk

of the city.

(confusion from hieratic

^Read hr

for

gReward

after the fourth battle.

^Reward

after the fifth battle; apparently Avaris

assault; but these brief references to fighting

of the siege, which


six.

See

13.

would then have

?),

as in

1.

28.

was captured on the fourth

may each one

indicate a whole season

lasted four years, as that of

Sharuhen lasted

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

[13

Siege of Sharuhen
13. ^sQne besieged Sharuhen* (S^-r^-h^-n^) for 6 years,^ (and)
his majesty took

hand.

Then

it.

me

^^One gave

women and one


rbesidesi giving me the

I took captive there

the gold of bravery,

two

captives for slaves.

Campaign
14.

Now,

after his majesty

ascended the

river

'^Then I took captive


presented

female

me

had

slain the Asiatics

(Mntyw

Khenthennofer (Hnt-hn-nfr),

to

Nubian Troglodytes;^

Nubia

against

his majesty
there,

two

made a
living

to

great slaughter

men, and three

Stt), ^"^he

destroy the

among them.
hands. One

with gold in double measure, rbesidesi giving to

me two

^^His majesty sailed down-stream, his heart joyous

slaves.'^

with the might of victory, (for) he had seized Southerners and Northerners.

Second Rebellion
15. 2There

came an enemy

of the South; his fate, his destruction

approached; the gods of the South seized him, and his majesty found

him

in Tintto-emu {Tynt-t^-^mw).^

living prisoner,

and

all his

His majesty carried him

people carried captive.

I carried

off *^a

away two

aCf. Josh. 19:6.

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, has "5," which has been generally accepted; Champollion's text and Brugsch's translation have "6."
I repeatedly examined the
especial
care;
it has a clear "6."
squeeze for this point with
The correctness of
the rendering "for 6 years" rather than "in the year 6" has been clearly demon-

by Piehl {Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology, XV, 258).


Another proof is that m, the preposition here, is used all through the Beknekhonsu
inscription (Munich) for "during" or "for" a period of years. This throws a new
light on the whole Asiatic campaign, for the stubbornness of the besieged and the
persistence of Ahmose are almost certainly an indication that the siege is an extension of the campaign against the Hyksos, who, having retreated to Sharuhen, are
strated

here making their last stand.


itself also lasted

See

II,

1.

many

We may suppose,

therefore, that the siege of Avaris

years, allowing opportunity for

a rebellion in Upper Egypt.

II.

cCf. Miiller,

Asien und Europa, 21.

^These slaves being women, are not the two captives just taken, as the translations of Renouf and Petrie indicate.
^Lit.,

of the land of the water-supply"

(^-mWy "water-supply," occurs

407, 1. 6, and in Rekhmire, 698, 1. 25); possibly the district of the


The name is elsewhere
cataract is meant, as the rebellion was in the South.

at Siut,
first

"She

I,

unknown.

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET

17]

enemy ;^ one

archers^ as a seizure in the ship of the

heads besides pieces of land (amounting


It

was done

'^gave to

me

five

my city.^

to) five stat (st^'t)^ in

to all the sailors likewise.

Third Rebellion

Then came that fallen one,^ 23whose name was Teti-en (Tty-^ n) f
he had gathered to himself rebels.
His majesty slew him and his
i6.

^^

servants,^ annihilating^ them.

and

fields

(amounting

There were given

to) five statJ in

my

[Continued 38

^^to

me

three heads,

city.

ff.]

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET
17.

This El

Kab nobleman,

(i-i6), served under the

like

first

Ahmose, son

Ahmose

Ebana

kings of the Eighteenth

Dynasty, but he lived to a greater age.


career under

of

Beginning his

he continued under Amenhotep I,


Thutmose I, II, and III, and died enjoying the favor of
Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. He has separated his
I,

^This hitherto uncertain word (myg^) is rendered tolerably certain by a


scene in the tomb of Harmhab {Memoires de la mission frangaise au Caire, V, PI.
Ill, foil. p. 434; see also 420), where it bears the determinative of shooting, and
stands over a man with a bow, with the title ^^ chief archer {myg =) of his majesty.'*
of

^The determinative indicates an enemy, not a proper name, but the meaning
the word {^^t^) is unknown.
The rendering "fievreux" from Chabas is based

on an impossible etymology. See Piehl, Sphinx, III, 11.


cA land measure containing about seven-tenths acres, here in apposition with
*^
pieces of land"
^El Kab.
^

There

is

^TeiTji of

no reason

the contrary, this very

name was

wicked of

especially
fiir

common

name.

On

at this period; see the ushebtis

agyptische Sprache, 32, pp. 113

f.).

heart.'*

^Written femimne(!) in the


^Lit., *^as that

for a foe.

for supposing that this is not the rebel's real

published by Borchardt {Zeitschrift


gLit., *'the

contempt

which

text.

exists not."

JA land measure containing about seven-tenths of an acre, here in apposition


with

^^

pieces of land."

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

lo

[ i8

biography into three parts: his campaigns,* his rewards,^

and a summary.

*=

AHMOSE^S CAMPAIGNS^

I.

[Continued 40]

He

18.

Ahmose

enumerates his campaigns and his captures under

I,

Amenhotep

Thutmose

and

II.

Ahmose I

Career under

/.

His meager reference to a campaign of Ahmose

19.

Zahi

I,

our sole source of knowledge for that event.

is

I in
It

probably followed the capture of Sharuhen.


Campaign in Syria
20. 'Hereditary prince,
treasurer,

herald ^of his Lord,^

{Pn-Nlfb't), triumphant; he says:

phty-R

^,

Ahmose

living prisoner

I),

wearer of the royal

count,

**I

chief

^^Ahmose, called Pen-Nekhbet


followed King Nebpehtire {Nh-

^i captured for

triumphant,

seal,

him

in Zahi

{D

^-hy)

and a hand."
[Continued 40]

belonging to Mr. Finlay, Zeitschrift filr dgyptische Sprache, 1883, 77, 78; (2) statue-base in the Louvre, Lepsius,
Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XIV A; Prisse, Monuments egyptiens, IV;
(3) Ahmose's tomb-wall at El Kab, Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 43, a (lower left-

^Campaigns, three originals:

hand

corner),

(i) statue-base

and Sethe, Unterstichungeny

I,

85.

All sources

have been collated.

belonging to Mr. Finlay, Zeitschrift


fur dgyptische Sprache, 1883, 78; (2) statue-base in the Louvre, Lepsius, Auswahl
der wichtigsten Urkunden, XIV B; Prisse, Monuments egyptiens, IV.

^Rewards, two originals:

(i) statue-base

cSummary, Ahmose's tomb-wall


Sethe, Untersuchungen,
Denkmdler,
Text, IV, 46,
Lepsius,

11.

10-20;

dThe

translation of the

I,

in El
85,

campaigns

is

Kab, Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 43, a,


corrected and revised; and partially,
distributed under the different reigns,

under which he Uved, because they furnish very important historical events, but
his rewards and the summary, being more purely personal, are given in this reign.
A11 except the Finlay text insert other titles here, but, except the

companion," they are


title

"sole

illegible.

whm

which would mean


was also in the rewards (1. 4).

^All the other texts

This unusual

first,

have

kf^,

slines numbered from the Finlay statue

text.

*^

repeating captures.^*

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET

25]

II.

21.

'

ii

ahmose's rewards
3

.a

4.

Ahmose,

called

Pen-Nekhbet;

he says:

"By

of gold:

three bracelets, six necklaces, three armlets, a mekhtebet;

who

was not separated


from the king upon the battlefield, from (the time of) ^King Nebpehtire (Ahmose I), triumphant, to Kin^ Okhepernere (Thutmose II),
triumphant; I was in the favor ^of the king's presence, until King
Menkheperre (Thutmose III), living forever.^
22. King Zeserkere (Amenhotep I), triumphant, gave to me, ^of
gold: two bracelets, two necklaces, an armlet, a dagger, a headdress,
a fan, and a mekhtebet.
23. 9King Okheperkere (Thutmose I), triumphant, gave to me,
of gold: two bracelets, four necklaces, one armlet, six flies, ^ ^three
Uons;^ two golden axes.
24. King Okhepernere (Thutmose II), triumphant, gave to me
a

the ^sovereign,

lives forever!

silver axe."

ni.

ahmose's summary*

25. ^^He says, "I followed the Kings "of Upper and Lower

Egypt, the gods; I was with "their majesties

when they went

to the

South and North country, in every place where they went; [from] '^King
Nebpehtire (Ahmose
[triumphant],

triumphant, King Zeserkere (Amenhotep I)

King ^^Okheperkere (Thutmose

^Unimportant

titles

numbered according
is

I),

of

Ahmose

(see 20,

1.

Auswahl

to text in Lepsius,

i)

very fragmentary;

lines are

der wichtigsten Urkunden.

^This phrase shows that Thutmose III is still alive at


now too old to be '^upon the battlefield,'* under him.

cThese are golden flies,


were a decoration of honor.

triumphant. King

I),

this time,

but Ahmose

among Ahhotep's jewelry at Cairo. They


The word has been mistranslated "helmets." See

like those

Breasted, Proceedings of the Society 0} Biblical Arch(Bology, 1900, pp. 94, 95.
dCf. inscription of

Amenemhab,

585.

^Finlay text, according to Masp)ero's copy, has


pero. Struggle of the Nations, 239, n. i, as above.
f

Ahmose's tomb-wall in El Kab;

43, a, 11. 10-20; ibid., Text, IV, 46;


revised, most of the lacunae restored

I; corrected

by Mas-

published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, III,

Sethe, Unterstcchungen,

I,

from Lepsius' papers and

gThe summary does not begin until


Re by Ahmose, and his titles occupy
length.

Thutmose

1.

11.

10;

11.

3-9.

85, corrected

and

his squeeze.

and 2 contain an adoration of


These 9 lines lack half their

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

12

Okhepernere (Thutmose

II),

triumphant, until this

[26

Good God, King

Menkheperre (Thutmose III) ^swho is given hfe forever.*


I have attained a good old age, having ^%ad a life^ of royal favor,
having had^ honor under their majesties and the love of me having
been in the court."
[Concluded in

344]

QUARRY INSCRIPTION^
The inscription records the work of Neferperet, an
official of Ahmose I, who, in the latter's twenty-second year,
26.

took out stone from the

Ma

sara quarry, for the temples of

Ptah and of Amon. The inscription is important, because


it is the last dated document of Ahmose I, because it records
the

first

resumption of building after the expulsion of the

Hyksos, and for

its

reference to the Fenkhu,

whose

cattle

were captured on some Asiatic campaign.


Above, in a position of significant prominence in the
queen's case, are the names and
his queen, Ahmose-Nefretiri

titles

{Y^h-ms^

of

Ahmose

I,

and

nfr't-yry).

27. 'Year 22 under the majesty of the king. Son of Re, Ahmose,

who

^The quarry-chambers were opened a[ne]w; good


Ayan (^ nw) was taken out for his temples of myriads of

given

is

life.

limestone ^of
[years],^ the

temple of Ptah, the temple of

(Yp't, Luxor), and

all

the

Amon

in southern

Opet

monuments which his majesty made ^for himi.

*This phrase after Thutmose Ill's name shows that he was living at the time
of this inscription; all the others were at this time "triumphant" (deceased).
Hence Ahmose, now an old man, died under Thutmose III.
^Lit.,

cQn

"having been in a life" and "having been in honor."


the wall of the limestone quarry of

Ma

sara, just southeast of Cairo.


Published by Vyse, Operations, III, 99; Young, Hieroglyphics, 88; Lepsius,
Denkmdler, III, 3, a = ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, II, 488 = Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, I, 15; and Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 3, b; the text of the last is the
same as the preceding, but it represents a second inscription. Both are badly
broken, but they supplement each other, so that practically nothing is lost.

dA

conventional phrase applied to

their durability.

all

temples,

and

referring, of course, to

KARNAK STELA

31]

The
[in his]

28.
of the

13

was dragged with oxen^ which


victories [among]^ the Fenkhu (Fnhw).

his m[ajesty] captured

stone

The

Lord

assistant, the hereditary prince

Two Lands in restoring the monuments

of the

greatly [satisfying] the heart of the


seal, sole

ryigilanti^

Good God;

one

of efternity"'],

the wearer of the royal

companion, chief treasurer, Neferperet (Njr-pr't),

KARNAK STELAd
29.

Among Ahmose's

pious works for the temples

and the

the restoration of the furniture, utensils,

longing to the ritual of the

Karnak temple

recorded this work upon a splendid

two

lines of inscription, of

stela,

which only the

like,

Amon.

of

was
be-

He

containing thirty-

last six are

devoted

to the record of his benefactions, while the other twenty-six

contain only conventional eulogy of himself.


of this tedious succession of phrases, there

is

In the course
a vague refer-

ence to his wars:

his

The

approach with fearful step together, standing at


judgment-hall; his sword is in Khenthennofer, his terror is in the

30.

Asiatics

Fenkhu-lands, the fear of his majesty


31.

Asia.

He was
The

thus as

much

is

in this land like

Min

feared in Egypt as in

introduction closes with the

names

of

(1.

12).

Nubia or
Ahmose I

and the queen Ahhotep, after which follows the record of


the work in Karnak (11. 27-32):
^It is not the

Fenkhu themselves who

are employed in the quarry (as some-

times stated, e. g., Maspero, Struggle of the Nations, 93; also Petrie, History of
Egypt, II, 36), but only the oxen captured.

m^

^The horizontal lines in Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, a, 1. 5, indicate an


"in," or "among;" indeed, the entire phrase, "which his majesty captured in his
," is so common that the restorations are probable.
victories in

<^[Rs]-d^d^,

^A

lit.,

"of watchful head."

white limestone stela over 7^ feet high and nearly 3 J feet wide; found by

Legrain by Pylon VII at Karnak. It was below the pavement of Thutmose III,
and had been buried before Ikhnaton's time. Published in Annales, IV, 27-29.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

14

32.
father

[32

Now, his majesty commanded to make monuments for his


Amon-Re, being: great chaplets of gold with rosettes of genuine

and vases

large vases (hs't) of gold; jars {nms't)

seals^ of gold;

lapis lazuli;

(hs't) of silver; tables

(wdh'w)

of gold, offering-tables (dbh'i

and silver; necklaces of gold and silver combined with


and malachite; a drinking- vessel for the ka, of gold, its
silver; a drinking- vessel for the ka, of silver rimmed with

htp) of gold
lapis lazuli

standard of

gold, its standard of silver; a flat dish (tnyw) of gold;

pink granite,

filled

with ointment

jars (nms't) of

great pails (wlimw)^ of silver

rimmed

with gold, the fhandlesi] thereon of silver; a harp of ebony, ^ of gold

and

silver;

sphinxes of silver;

a""

i^

with gold; abargeof the ''Begin-

ning-of-the-River " called "Userhetamon,"^ of


the terraces, in order to
"

of ""cedar

make

likewise;

his

voyage

new cedar

I erected

IJthereini].

I gave

of the best of

columns

BUILDING INSCRIPTION^
name

mother
She was a queen Tetiof Ahmose I's father and mother.
^^
khig' s-mother and great
sheri, and although she is called a
33.

This document discloses

king^s-wije,^^

she

is

not designated

She was doubtless the wife


daughter Ahmose

I's

to us the

of the

daughter.

king's

as

and her
the famous

of the last Sekenenre,

mother, was, of course,

Queen Ahhotep. The latter's brother-husband,


of Ahmose I, was probably Kemose.

the father

aOr: "seal rings."


l^These are the ceremonial pails with bucket handles, swelling or bulbous
below, with more or less pointed bottom. Schaefer calls my attention to the

example on the Ethiopian stela in the Louvre, 1. 11 {Zeitschrift fur dgyptische


Sprache, 1895, PI. V). There are many examples in bronze in the museums.
cl suspect that

a word has been omitted at

this point, as the repetition of the

preposition indicates.
^!^pt,

Schaefer suggests the spd which appears in the Mentuhotep cofl5n at Berlin.

^Meaning "mighty
sacred barge of
f

is the front

Amon."

This

is

the usual

name

of the

Amon.

Stela about 6^ feet high

lished

of

by him in Abydos,

and

III, PI.

3 feet wide,

LII.

found by Petrie at Abydos; pub-

BUILDING INSCRIPTION

36]

The

inscription

so picturesque,

is

form, as to be unique.

15

and unconventional

In content

it

in

records the king's

determination to erect further mortuary buildings for his

grandmother. Queen Tetisheri.


Introduction

came to pass that his majesty sat in the audience-hall,


the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebpehtire, Son of Re,

34. ^Now,
(even)

Ahmose

(I),

it

given

life;

=^

while the hereditary princess, great in favor,

great in amiabihty, king's-daughter, king's-sister, divine consort, great


king's-wife, Ahmose-Nefretiri,

who

liveth,

was with

his majesty.

The Conversation

One spoke

35.

^with the other, seeking benefactions for* the departed

(dead), to present libations of water, to offer

the offering-tablet at the

first

month, the

upon the

of every season, at the

altar, ^to enrich

monthly

feast of

coming forth of the sem, sthe


feast of the night-offerings on the fifth of the month, the feast of the sixth
of the month, the feast of Hakro^ (H^k-r^), the feast of Wag (W^g),
the feast of Thoth, and at the first ^of every season of heaven, and of
the

of the

first

earth.

His

feast of the

spake and answered him: "Wherefore has

sister

remembered? ^And why has


come into thy heart ?"

this

word been spoken?

this

What

been
has

Ahmose' s Purpose
36.

The king

the mother of

himself spake to her: "I, ^t

my

is,

who have remembered

my

mother, and the mother of

father, great king's-

and king's-mother, Tetisheri {Tty-iry)^ triumphant. ^(Although)


she already has a tomb {y) and a mortuary chapel (m^h^'t) on the
soil of Thebes and Abydos, I have said this to thee, in that ^my majesty
has desired to have made for her (also) a pyramid and a house (ht) in
wife

'^

*The negative
in

1.

is to

be read as the preposition n; see the converse confusion

14,

^The

has been overlooked in the publication

"Her

tomb and her chapel are at this moment {m ty (sic!) *t) on the soil,
etc."
I can only understand this clause as concessive, and that the new buildings
planned by Ahmose are in addition to the ones in 1. 9.
^Lit.,

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AHMOSE

i6

Tazeser, as a monumental donation of

dug,

its

trees shall

my

majesty.

[37

Its lake shall

be

be planted, "its offerings shall be founded, equipped

with people, endowed with lands, presented '*with herds, mortuary


priests

and

ritual priests

having their duties, every

man knowing

his

stipulation."

37. ^^Lo, his majesty spake this word, while this was in process of
tonstruction.

His majesty did

^^this

because he so greatly loved her,

Never did former kings the like of it for 'stheir


mothers. Lo, his majesty extended his arm, and bent his hand;^ he
^
pronounced for her a mortuary prayer
beyond everything.

^A
to,

posture of prayer.

^Here follow three fragmentary


and the usual objects in such an

lines,

giving the

ofifering.

names

of the gods appealed

REIGN OF AMENHOTEP

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA^


[LI. 24-29,

ports

concluded 78

16;

CAREER UNDER AMENHOTEP

II.

38.

continued from

ff.]

Under this king Ahmose commands the royal transThe enemy is defeated,
in a campaign against Kush.

head of the Egyptian troops. He


brings the king back to Egypt in two days, and is given
^^
^^the gold,^^ and a title of honor: ^^ Warrior of the Ruler.

Ahmose

fighting at the

The campaign extended

Middle Kingdom frontier,


for a rock inscription of Amenhotep's eighth year has been
found on the island of Uronarti, just below Semneh.^
to the

39. I sailed the King Zeserkere (JD^r-k^-R^, Amenhotep

I), tri-

umphant, when he ascended the river to Kush (KS), in order to extend


^sthe borders of Egypt.
His majesty captured that Nubian Troglodyte

who were brought

in the midst of his army,

away

as prisoners,

like those

army;

brought

who

none of them

are annihilated.

Meanwhile

fought incredibly;^ his


off

two hands, ^^and

pursued his people and his

and took (him)

^Bibliography,

missing.

majesty

took

Then

cattle.

was

at the

beheld

thrust *^aside*^

my

head

of our^

bravery.

(them) to his majesty.

One

I brought off a living prisoner,

I brought his majesty in two days to

to his majesty.

etc., p. 3, n. a.

^Steindorff, Berichte der Philologisch-historischen Classe der Koniglichen


S&chsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft, Leipzig, Sitzung vom 18. Juni, 1900,
P- 233-

cSame phrase, Tombos Inscription

( 71,

1.

7).

dThis and 81 are the only places in all the historical texts of Egypt, where
"our troops" are spoken of. It is a real touch of patriotism.
Lit.,

"7 fought more than what

is triie."

17

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AMENHOTEP

i8

Egypt

*%om

the upper well;^ one presented

me

with gold.

[40

Then

brought away two female slaves, in addition to those which I had taken
*9to his majesty.

One appointed me 'Warrior

of the Ruler.'

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET^
[Continued from
II.

20;

continued 83

ff.,

and 344]

CAREER UNDER AMENHOTEP

Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet accompanied the king on two


campaigns: one against the Nubians, of which we have a
fuller account in the biography of Ahmose, son of Ebana
(39); and the other against the Libyans; this biography
being our only source for this war of Amenhotep I in Libya.
For his valor on these occasions he was rewarded by the
40.

king.

Campaign in Kush
41. I ^followed King Zeserkere (DSr-k^-R^, Amenhotep

umphant; I captured

for

him

^in

Kush, a

I),

tri-

living prisoner.

Campaign in Libya
42. Again I served for King Zeserkere, triumphant; ^I captured
for

him on

the north of

Imukehek (Y^ mw-khk),

[Continued 83

ff.,

three hands.

and 344]

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI^
43.

This

Thutmose

I,

official

served under four kings:

Thutmose

II,

and Thutmose

Amenhotep

III, reigning

ain view of Amenhotep I's inscription at the second cataract,


correct in concluding that the second cataract is meant here.

^Bibliography on p. 10, n.

we

I,

with

are probably

a.

cFrom a Theban tomb at Abd el-Kurna, first noted by Champollion {Notices


descriptives, I, 492-94), and then by Brugsch, who published some fragments
{Recueil de monuments, I, 36, 1-3, tree list, etc., and Pi. 65, 4-5); also Piehl.
The long text is found in Reciieil,
Inscriptions, I, Pis. 129 Q-130 and pp. 105, 106.

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI

44]

He

Hatshepsut.

19

evidently died under this joint reign;

biography was composed at

this time,

and

is

his

the most impor-

tant of all sources for the history of the succession of the

Ineni was:

Thutmosids.

all

works in Karnak; the double

his charge; the

double gold-house was on his

Hereditary prince, count, chief of


silver-house

was under

House
Amon.*

seal; sealer of all contracts in the

seer of the double granary of

of

Amon;

excellency, over-

These offices brought him the superintendence of many of


the most important works executed in Thebes by the kings
whom he served. His career is divided as follows:
I. Career under Amenhotep I (44-46).
n. Career under Thutmose I (99-108).
ni. Career under Thutmose II ( 11 5-1 8).
IV. Career under Thutmose III and Hatshepsut ( 34043)-

CAREER UNDER AMENHOTEP

I.

44.

The

beginning, containing the

and the narrative begins

lost,

of a building probably

in the

Amenhotep

name

of the king,

middle of the account

I's

gate on the south of

Karnak temple, found below the later pavement,

the

is

of

which

the two dedications read:^

"Amenhotep I; he made (it) as his monument for his father Amon,


of Thebes (ns'wt-t ^ wy), erecting for him a great gate of 20 cubits

I.

lord

(in height) at the

double fafade of the temple, of

which the Son of Re, Amenhotep,


XII, 106, 107, where

XIV,

73, 74.)

The

it is

first

fine limestone of

living forever,

made

inaccurately published by Bouriant.

"7 or 8 lines"

for

Ayan,

him."

(See also, ibid.,

are wanting, according to Bouriant,

and

also the ends of the first 14 remaining lines; following these are 6 complete lines.
The wall scenes and plans of the tomb (also the long inscription) have been published by an architect, H. Boussac {Memoires de la mission frangaise au Caire,
XVIII). To the Egyptologist the publication is little more than worthless, and the
work must be done again. But the long inscription has now disappeared.

*One

of Boussac's plates; he has not

^Legrain, Annates, IV, 15

ff.

numbered them!

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AMENHOTEP

20

[Amenhotep

2.

temple, erecting the southern gate,

white limestone
It is

[45

building his house, establishing his

I];

made

high, even 20 cubits, of fine

important to note that this gate was erected in cele-

bration of the king's

Sed Jubilee.

first

Turning again

to

Ineni, his inscription begins:


Buildings^

'Hatnub (Ht-nb),

45.

made

the parts thereof were of electrum.

in one sheet;

made

that which his majesty


necklaces.

vessels,

under
under

my

was foreman

of

every work,

all

offices

were

^at the feasts of the beginning of the

likewise for his

Amon,
was made

father

Inspection

control.

I inspected

^bronze, Asiatic copper, collars,

my command.

seasons;

doors were erected of copper

its

lord of Thebes;
for

they were

me, I was the reckoner.

4r_i.

Death

oj

Amenhotep I

46. His majesty having spent

in happiness

and the years in

he joined the sun, he associated (with

peace, went forth to heaven;

him) and went forth

life

[Continued 99-108]

STELA OF HARMINI^
47.

Harmini

name than
chief

^^

scribe, ^^

magistrate

^As in the

(hr-myny) prefixes

first,

of

but he was no

no other
less

Nekhen-Hieraconpolis.

title

man

to

his

than the

This impor-

as far as " Thebes.^*

^Possibly also the mortuary temple of Amenhotep I, found by Spiegelberg in


1896 at Drah abu-'n-Neggah on the west side at Thebes (see Spiegelberg, Zwei
Beitrdge zur Geschichte und Topographic der thebanischen Nekropolis im Neuen

Reich (Strassburg, 1898; and Sethe, Gotting'sche Gelehrie Anzeigen, 1902, No. i,
29-31), The temple is referred to as ^^ House of Zeserkere {Amenhotep I) on the
See also Sethe, loc. cit., 30.
west of Thebes" (Lepsius, Denkmdler, Text, III, 238).

cMortuary

stela of

unknown provenience (probably Abydos), now

in the
Florence Museum, No. 1567; published in Catalogue, 288-90; Piehl, Recueil, II,
122-24. I had also my own photograph of the original.

STELA OF KERES

49]

tant post on the original


his

Nubian

21

frontier either resulted in

promotion to the governorship of

Wawat

in lower

Nubia,

Nekhen appointment involved jurisdiction in Wawat,


view of the fact that earlier Nubia began in the vicinity of

or his
in

Nekhen.

In any case, he had charge of the

Wawat, which was

first

it

hands

from

of the ^^king's-son 0}

Although the inscription mentions no


clearly belongs to the Eighteenth Dynasty before the

Kush^^ ( 1034
king,

later in the

^^trihute^^

ff.).

appointment of a

king^s-son of Kush,^^

^^

governor of the south countries, and

by Thutmose

(6i

ff.).

Hence we

wrong in placing it under Amenhotep I, though


Harmini must of course have served under Ahmose I, also.
are not far

48. After

the

usual

continues, in Harmini' s
I passed

many

mortuary prayer,

the

inscription

own words:

mayor (h^ty-^) of Nekhen (Hieraconpolis).


the Lord of the Two Lands; I was praised,

years as

I brought in its tribute to

and no occasion was found against me. I attained old age in Wawat,
being a favorite of my lord. I went north with its tribute for the king,
each year; I came forth thence justified; there was not found a balance
against me.

STELA OF KERES*
49. Keres, like his contemporary,

Yuf

the service of one of the queen-mothers.

( 109

ff.),

was

The question

here whether the ^^king's-mother Ahhotep,^^

whom

in

arises

Keres

Amenhotep I, in whose
tenth year her command was issued, or Ahhotep (I), mother
As Ahhotep II was never the mother of
of King Ahmose.
a king, it must have been Ahhotep I, who had a tomb
served,

was Ahhotep

(II),

wife of

^Limestone stela, 0.82 m. high, from Drah abu-'n-Neggah, now in Cairo, without
a number. Published by Bouriant, Rectteil, IX, 94 f., No. 74 (his text is excessively
incorrect);
I

am

much

better

by

Piehl, Zeitschrift fur agyptische Sprache, 1888, 117!.

also indebted to Schaefer for a carefully collated

copy made from the

original.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AMENHOTEP

22

erected at

whom

Abydos

We

for Keres.

[50

thus see this queen, from

the Eighteenth Dynasty sprang,

still

living in the

tenth year of the second king of the dynasty.


so. Keres,

who was

for us the old queen's

and a statue

at

her herald, has not only preserved

command, honoring him with a tomb

Abvdos, but has also added a loose enumera-

which resembles that

tion of his duties as her herald,

of the

herald, Intef (763-71).


51. ^Year 10,

first

month

of

the third season (ninth month),

first

King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Zeserbody: Amenhotep (I), beloved of Osiris, given

day, under the majesty of the


kere,

Son

of Re, of his

life.

^Command

$2.

of the king's-mother to the hereditary prince, count,

wearer of the royal


overseer

companion, overseer of the gold-house,

seal, sole

steward of the

the silver-house, chief

of

king's-mother,

who liveth the herald {whm w) Keres {K ^ rs) The king'smother has commanded to have made for thee a tomb ^at the stairway
3 Ahhotep,

'

of the great god, lord of Abydos, confirming thy every office


favor.

among
There

There

shall

be made for thee thy ^statues, abiding in the temple,


^ their virtues in writing

the followers of
shall

and every

"^in

be made for thee mortuary offerings {htp dy

king's-wife does for the one

whom

.^

stny), as the

she has loved, for the hereditary

prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, the steward, the herald, Keres

(Krs), only favorite united ^with the limbs of Sekhmet, following his

He

queen (hnw't) at her going.


danti of his queen,

to-

whom

"

"

before the people, the real Tconfi-

secret things are told, ^'"experienced'' in the

plans of his queen, transmitting affairs to the palace, finding ^solutions,

making agreeable unpleasant matters, one upon whose word his queen
depends, approaching the truth, knowing the affairs of the mind,
profitable in speech to his queen, ^great in respect in the house of the

king's-mother, weighty in affairs, excellent in speech, secretive in mind,

administering the palace, "sealing (his)


hears, official

who

mouth concerning

solves knotty problems, chief steward, Keres (Krs),

vigilant administrator for the king's-mother,

than by day, the herald, Keres (Krs).


aCut out.

that which he

bRead

wsf.

"not more lax^ by night

STELA OF KERES

53]

53.
citizens

as ye
verily

He
(^

"O

says:

23

ye mayors, scribes, ritual priests, ^^attendants,

nh'w) of the army, as your city-gods favor you, and love you,

would bequeath your office (s) to your children ^^after old age;
,^
so shall ye say: 'An offering which the king gives;

king, of the two lofty plumes, lord of Ufe, giver of that which
^5lord of burial after old age.

May

ka of

^ Keres, a

Lands, really honest, free ^'from lying,


tecting the weak, defending

forth

him who

desired,

he give bread, beer, oxen, geese,

upon the

everything good and pure, that comes forth


All Lord, for the

is

man
r

is

">

of truth, before the

two men, reconciled by the utterance of


r

Two

in deciding matters, pro-

without

a pair of balances, ^^the like fof Thothi] in

table of ^^the

his

"

^%im

(sic!),

sending

mouth, accurate

like

the name, inclining the

heart to hear matters, the likeness of a god in his hour, real rconfidant^
"of his

queen,

whom

the queen of the

Two Lands

Keres."

^Name
^His

of

titles.

Amon

cut out in time of Ikhnaton.

has advanced.

REIGN OF THUTMOSE

CORONATION DECREE^
54.

This unique document

day

king^s coronation

a royal decree issued on the

is

to the viceroy of

Nubia, Thure,

forming him of the king's accession, fixing the

name to be used
name to be used in the

in-

full titulary,

offering oblations,

and the

the royal

in

royal

oath. Thure's official residence

was doubtless Elephantine,

for he

charged to offer obla-

is

and it was he who put up the


return from his Nubian campaign,

tions to the gods of that city,

records of

Thutmose

I's

at the first cataract ( 74

to be cut on

stelae

and

set

He

ff.).

up

then caused the decree

Wadi

in

Haifa, ^

Kubban, and

probably also Elephantine.


Superscription

55. Royal
countries,

*^

command

to the king's-son, the governor of the south

Thure (Tw-r^) triumphant.


Announcement

Behold, there

is

brought to thee

order to inform thee that

my

oj Accession
this

[command]^

of the^ king in

majesty has appeared^ as King of Upper

*In two copies: (i) a sandstone ( ?) stela, 72 by 84 cm., found at Wadi Haifa,
in Cairo, published from a copy of Brugsch by Erman {Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 29, ii7=Erman, Aegyptische Grammatik, 37*-38*); (2) a sandstone stela, 67 by 76 cm., found by Borchardt at Kubban (Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische
Sprache, 36, 26, n. i), now in Berlin (No. 13725, Ausfuhrliches Verzeichniss des
Berliner Museums, 131), unpublished. The beginning is lost on the Cairo stela,
and the end on the Berlin stela; the two thus furnish a practically complete text.
The relief at the top is lost on both. I used my own copy of the Berlin text.

now

^Not Elephantine, as stated


See

{Zeitschrijt fiir dgyptische Sprache,

29,

117).

ibid., 36, 3, n. i.

cSee the similar introduction to Pepi II's letter to

Harkhuf

(I,

351,

1.

2).

^Supplied from the Story of Sinuhe, 180, 181.


^Lit.,

"dawned;"

the

same word

without change to the king.

It is

used for the rising sun, and is transferred


regularly used also of his appearance in public.
is

24

CORONATION DECREE

6o]

and Lower Egypt upon the Horus-throne


Uke forever.

25

of the living, without his

Titulary

56.

Make my

titulary as follows:

Horus:^ "Mighty Bull, Beloved of Mat;"


Favorite of the

Two

Goddesses:* "Shining in the Serpent-diadem,

Great in Strength;"

Golden Horus:* "Goodly in Years, Making Hearts Live;"


Kling of Upper and Lower Egypt:* "Okheperkere;"
Son of Re:* "[Thutmose], Living forever, and ever."

Name

to he

Used in the Cultus

57. Cause thou oblations to be offered to the gods of Elephantine

"Performance

of the South,^ as follows:*^

on behalf
is

given

of the

King

of the pleasing ceremonies'^

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere, who

of

life."

Name

to he

Used in the Oath

58. Cause thou that the oath be established in the


majesty, born of the king's-mother, Seniseneb,

who

name

of

my

in health.

is

Conclusion
59. This

a communication to inform thee of

is

that the royal house

is

well

and prosperous

it;

and

of the fact

Date
60. Year

i,

twenty-first day; the

^These
the

month

third

day

five titles are

names following each


^Cf.

Erman

of the second season

(seventh month)

of the feast of coronation.

common
title

to all

Middle Kingdom and Empire kings; only

are individual.

{Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 29, 117).

'cThis preposition (w) introduces the


presenting oblations by the priest

title

or designation of the ceremony of

on the king's

dLit., ''doing of the pleasing things."

behalf.
^

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

26
^^^^^^^ '

'

II.

11

.III

II

.III

[6i
^^M

BIOGRAPHICAL INSCRIPTION OF THURE^


In

6i.

this inscription the

name

of the author

is

lost.

He served under Ahmose, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, by


whom he was appointed viceroy of Kush (1. 6), Thutmose II,
and Thutmose III (1. 14, note). He is supposed by Brugsch
{Egypt under the Pharaohs, 135), and by Maspero {Struggle
of the Nations, 230, n. 2) to be the same as Nehi, the
viceroy of Kush,

and has

who

also placed

under Thutmose

also served

his

inscription

III,

on the facade of the

Semneh temple (651 ff.).


Now, Nehi was still in office in Thutmose Ill's fifty-second
and if he began his official career under Ahmose, he
would have been over 117 years old^ at that time! The
identity with Nehi, which was at best an assumption, is
therefore impossible.
Another identification is, however,
certain.
This unknown was appointed viceroy of Kush by
Thutmose I, at whose accession he was in his prime. He
is therefore the same as the viceroy, Thure, whom we find
at Elephantine in Thutmose I's first year ( 55), being the
earliest viceroy of Kush whom we know.
That he survived
into Thutmose Ill's reign is shown by a tomb at Silsileh,
where he is mentioned under Hatshepsut.*^
year,

Service under

pehtire

under the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Neb-

62.

(Ahmose

I)

good character in

a^Inscribed
text:

of

all

Ahmose I

he made

me

overseer of the

his heart, not careless in

on the south wall (facade) of Thutmose

of very
his court.

Ill's

Semneh temple;

Young, Hieroglyphics, 91; Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 47, c. The upper half
the lines has been cut away for a later relief of Thutmose III.
I am indebted

to Steindorff for the use of his collation of the original.

was 25 at Ahmose I's death, we must then add 10 for Amenhotep


Thutmose I, and 51 for Thutmose III a total of 117 years.

^If he

30 for

cGriflSth, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical ArchcBology,

also note

on

I,

1.

14 in the translation, infra.

XII, 104.

See

TOMBOS STELA

67]

Service under

27

Amenhotep I

63. Favor was repeated by his son, King of Upper and

(Amenhotep

[Zeserkejre

the works in

I) 4

the granary of

Karnak

pi

didi] for

Lower Egypt
Amon, to conduct
him the excellent

me for doing his^ truth

things of (his) ^ heart ; he favored

^
.

Service under Thutmose I

The King

64.

mose

I)

of gold

of gold

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere (Thut-

of

he appointed

me to

be king's-son of [Kush]

an armlet the second time

a vase, two bracelets

gave

he

me

me

more

than the magnates of the palace, he recognized the excellence of


^

heart.

"

He

"'^

"

in the place of satisfying the

"

attained old age

Service under Thutmose II

65.

The

first

of the repetition of the favor of the

Lower Egypt, Okhepernere (Thutmose


13

-with

King

he made

II);

of

fme""]
^4

a royal message, recording

Upper and
.c

Service under Thutmose III

66. [King Thutmose III]; he magnified

me

in the midst

TOMBOS STELAd
67.

Three important

scription

facts are preserved to us in this in-

*Both these pronouns


Hor's tablet (British

Amon;

refer to

Museum,

^The portion preserved

is

826),

11.

the

same thought occurs

in Suti

and

16, 17.

hopelessly obscvire.

cHere are the remains of a royal oval, which certainly contained the name of
Thutmose III; in this king's second year, a viceroy of Kush is mentioned in this
same temple ( 170, 1. 2)^ but the name is unfortunately broken out. He is doubtless
the same as our viceroy.
<iEngraved on the rocks on the island of Tombos, just above the third cataract
published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 5, a, and thence Piehl, Petites
etudes egyptologiques.
The Berlin squeeze (No. 284) permitted some important
corrections, but the publication (Lepsius, Denkmdler) is a brilliant example of corof the Nile;

rectness in the

form of the

signs, as

drawn by M. Weidenbach.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

28

1.

In the second year Thutmose

[68

I defeated the

Nubians

and conquered the country as far as the third cataract*


11. 6 and 7, and the location of the inscription);
2.

He

then built a fortified station for his troops at

Tombos, remains

which

of

survive,

still

lished his southern frontier at this point


3.

(cf.

His empire extended from


(cf.

are already subdued

3, 4,

(cf.

11.

(cf.

this point

the Euphrates on the north

1.

13);

and

and thus estab1.

10).^

on the south

to

the Asiatic peoples


16),

but his Asiatic

campaign did not take place until after this Nubian expedition (see 81, 1. 35).
Hence we must suppose, either that
he had already made an Asiatic campaign of which no
account has survived; or that his predecessors had already
made the conquest of the country as far as Euphrates, and
thus he could refer to it as in his domain. The latter is the
more probable supposition.
68. Other interesting data are the fact that the oath, even

made

in the foreign provinces, is


(1.

14),

accorjling

to

the

in the

name

instructions in

his

of the king

coronation

and the curious reference to the


Euphrates as ^Hhat inverted water which goes down-stream

announcement

(cf . 58)

in going up-stream^

(cf.

1.

13, note).

Unfortunately, this important inscription offers no sober


narrative of the events which

commemorates, but is written


in that fulsome style so often found in victorious hymns of
the Pharaohs. This is a style so overloaded with far-fetched
figures and unfamiliar words that it is often quite unintel*An unpublished

inscription of his,

472, note) shows that he pushed

^his

some

it

on the Island of Arko (Wilkinson, Thebes,

forty miles south of the third cataract.

another inscription at Tangiir, about seventy-five miles


above the second cataract, but we possess only a partial copy by a layman, from
which it is impossible to make out much. It is dated " Year 2, first month 0} third
season,^^ which shows that it was made on the way out (Sethe, Unterstichungen, I,
41), about five months before the Tombos inscription.
expedition

left

TOMBOS STELA

7o]

5-9,

where some phrases

epithets

applied to the king

worst in

It is at its

ligible.*

containing only exaggerated

have necessarily been

left

29

11.

untranslated.

Introduction

69. ^Year

2,

second month of the

first

season, fifteenth day, under

Mat (M^^t);

the majesty of Horus: Mighty Bull, Beloved of


of the

Two

Strength

Goddesses:

Golden Horus

Shining in the Serpent-diadem, Mighty^ in


:

Goodly in Years, Making hearts

Upper and Lower Egypt: Okheperkere, who


Re: Thutmose (I, living) forever, eternally.*^
of

Hymn
70.
the

Favorite

is

given

live

life;

King
Son of

of Victory

Lord (hry-d ^ d^) of


the sun; South and North land as

of his induction *his coronation as

Two Lands,

to rule the circuit of

Horus and Set,'^ the Uniter of the Two Lands.


He has seated himself upon the throne of Keb, wearing 3 the radiance
ruler of the portions of

of the double crown, the staffs of his majesty; he hath taken his inheri-

assumed the seat of Horus, in order to extend the boundThebes and the territory of Khaftet-hir-nebes ;^ so that the

tance, he hath
aries of

Sand-dwellers and the barbarians shall labor for her.


tioni of the

^rAn abomina-

god are the Haunebu; bound are the Ekbet

(^ kb't);

Southerners come down^-river, the Northerners come up^-river, and


lands are together bringing their tribute ^to the
dial,

Okheperkere (Thutmose

There

is

I),

who

a good example on the second

^The coronation

letter

cCf. the titulary given

dThe myth

has ''great in

Good God,

liveth forever, the

Semneh

the
all

the primor-

mighty one,

stela (I, 657).

strength,'* the usual form.

by the king himself in the coronation

letter

(56).

Horus and Set states that they divided the Nile country between
them; over both these domains the Pharaoh rules, and hence follow the words:
"uniter, etc.,"
It is possible that "Horus and Set" should be translated only "the
of

two lords;" see Piehl, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaology, XX, 199,
200.

For the same phrase applied to a successor, see

I,

692.

^The goddess of western Thebes.

8The pronoun

refers to

Thebes; the foreign captives are

her buildings.

^To Thebes,

the royal residence.

to

be employed on

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

30

Horus, Lord of the

Two

chiefs of their tribes

Lands,

to him,

The

bowing down

the

He

71.

two^

his

there

it

He

'"Nubians"';

is

floods their valleys;

Amon; Keb,

of

staff

Negro

among them.

not a single survivor

the

of their

"'

is

who
The
their

mouths

them are too much

cut from

for the birds,^ carrying off the prey to another place.


sole

the

hath united the boundaries ^of

The fragments

a violent flood.

is like

his front. *^

by the sword, and are thrust aside in

fall

lands; ^their foulness,

on

is

peoples^

a remnant among the Curly-Haired,^

sides, there is not

come to attack him;


Nubian Troglodytes

[Sand]-dwellers,

Nubia

hath overthrown the chief of the

fhelpless, defenseless! in his grasp.

[71

'^interiori*

^send to his majesty, doing obeisance to that which


Victory in

name

divine begetter, whose

the

^^
is

hidden,

Reproducer, Bull of the divine ennead, chosen emanation of the

members who doeth

divine

the pleasure of the Spirits of HeUopohs.

Tomhos

The

72.

Fortress Built

lords of the palace have

made a

fortress for his

army,

*'None-Faces-Him-"Among-the-Nine-Bows-Together;"^

(called)

a young panther among the fleeing

cattle;

the

fame

hke

of his majesty

blinded them.
Universal

Triumph

73. (He) brought the ends of the earth into his domain; (he) trod
its

two extremities "with

his

mighty sword, seeking

battle;

^^nwtyw, with a hide as the first determinative.


^The interior peoples of the neighboring lands.

he

(but)

'

cThis means the sacred uraeus serpent on his forehead, as the determinative
shows.
dSee

An
III, 61),

XXII,
261

f.,

311,

I,

1.

14.

by Amenhotep II (Lepsius, Denkmaler,


and again in the Nineteenth Dynasty, Recueil,

epithet for the Negro, used also

by

Seti I (III, 155,

1.

4);

See Piehl, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archoeology,


and Sphinx, VI, 19 f.

107,

11.

7, 8.

^Determinative

BThe

first

is

an

XV,

eagle.

half of line 9

is

a series of obsciire epithets of praise applied to the

king.
^It
fortress

is

name of the fortress.


by Thutmose II in his Assuan

doubtful whether this

which

is

referred to

is

the

It is

probably the same

inscription ( 121,

1.

7).

INSCRIPTIONS AT THE FIRST CATARACT

74]

31

found no one who faced him.^

(He) penetrated valleys which ^3the


(royal) ancestors knew not, which the wearers of the double diadem

had not

His southern boundary

seen.

as far as the frontier of this

is

land,^ (his) northern as far as that inverted water

^^xhe

stream in going up-stream.<^


kings;

his

name has reached

penetrated the
taken^ by

fame

Two Lands

it (viz.,

name)

his

as far as the circuit of heaven,

as far as the nether world;

it

has

the oath

is

in all lands, because of the greatness of the

^^xhey

of his majesty,

like

which goes downhas not happened to other


'^

(viz.,

the lands) were not seen in the

archives of the ancestors since the Worshipers of Horus,^

who

gives his

breath to the one that follows him, his offerings to the one that treads
^^his

His majesty

way.

is

Horus, assuming his (Horus's) kingdom of

myriads of years, Tsubject^ to him are the


wr, Okeanos), the entire earth
his beloved,

gods

Thutmose

is

isles of

under his two

(I), living

forever

and

his father, the creator of his beauty,

is

who

Thebes,

is

upon the throne

given

life, stability,

the Great Circle (l^nlw]-

feet; '^bodily

ever.
^

son of Re,

Amon-Re, king

of

^beloved of the gods of

satisfaction, health, joy of his heart

of Horus, '"leading"' all the living like Re, forever.

INSCRIPTIONS AT THE FIRST CATARACT

Some

74.

eight

months

after the preceding expedition

passed Tangur, about seventy-five miles above the second

on the way out, they had reached Assuan on the


return a fact which was recorded by Thure, the viceroy of
Kush, in two inscriptions on the island of Sehel and one at

cataract,

Assuan.
*See Sethe, Verbum,

II, 967.

cThe Euphrates.

t>Nubia.

dFor the Egyptian on the Nile north was '' down-stream " and south was "upstream."
It seemed very curious to him that in another country as here on the
Euphrates, one went south in going down-stream; hence the anomaly of the text,
which becomes clear, if we substitute "south" for "up-stream." See also IV, 407.
^Heaven, earth, and the nether world, include the entire Egyptian universe.
^In the coronation
the oath

is

sThe

given (see

announcement the form of the

58).

pre-dynastic kings,

king's

title

to

be used in
^

now

mythical demigods.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

32

I.

On

75.

[75

SEHEL INSCRIPTION*

arriving at the

canal of Sesostris III (see

first
I,

cataract, the king

642

fiF.)

stopped up.

found the

He

cleared

and the viceroy made the following records:

it,

of

Year 3,
the King

is

given

it

month of the third season, day 22, under the majesty


Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere (Thutmose I), who

first

of

life.

His majesty commanded to dig

this canal, after

[stopped up] with stones, (so that) no [ship sailed upon

[sail]ed

The

[down-stream] upon

it,

his heart [glad,

he found

He

it].

having slain his enemies].^

king's-son, [Thure].^

II.

SEHEL INSCRIPTION^

Above are the Horus-, throne- and personal-names


Thutmose I; and below, the following:
76.

Year

month of the third


victory and in power,

3, first

this canal in

season, day 22.


at his return

of

His majesty sailed

from overthrowing the

wretched Kush.

The

king's-son, Thure.

in.

On

77.

he

left

the

ASSUAN INSCRIPTION'

same day the king arrived

at Assuan,

where

a similar record:

Year 3, first month of the third season, day 22, under the majesty
His majesty arrived from Kush, having overthrown
of Thutmose (I).^
the enemy.

^De Morgan, Catalogue


^The preceding
(see

649

des monuments, 85,

restorations are

No.

from Thutmose

13.
Ill's

copy of

this inscription

f.).

^Restored from the following inscription.

Thure, also

55.

^Discovered by Wilbour, and published in Recueily XIII, 202 ; better, de


gan, Catalogue des monuments, 85, No. 19.

De Morgan, Catalogue des monuments,


^

Full titulary.

41,

No. 185.

Mor-

INSCRIPTION OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA

8o]

33

INSCRIPTION OF AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA^


[LI.

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

ni.
78.

active

29-39; concluded from 39]

Ahmose's career under Thutmose


service

He

campaigning.

in

first

is

still

sails

one of

the royal

campaign against Nubia ( 80), resulting in


his appointment to the head of the naval forces.
They
returned in triumph with the Nubian foe hanged head
transport in the

downward
79. It

bow

at the

was not

of the royal barge.

until after this

famous expedition

to

Naharin

Nubian campaign

that the

Our only sources


two El Kab Ahmoses.

set out.

for this event are the biographies of the

up his boundary tablet beside that of his father ( 478), and it must have been on this
campaign that this first boundary tablet was set up by'
Thutmose I.^ For it is always supposed that this campaign was the only Asiatic expedition of Thutmose I; but

Thutmose

as the

III states that he set

Tombos

inscription ( 67

ff.)

speaks of the conquest

of Asia as far as the Euphrates, before the Asiatic

campaign

we must suppose either that


Thutmose I had already made a still earlier campaign in
Syria; or that his predecessors, Ahmose I and Amenhotep I,
narrated by the two Ahmoses,

had achieved greater conquests in Asia than our scanty


sources for their reigns would indicate.
Campaign

against

Nubia

80. I sailed the King Okheperkere (Thutmose

I),

triumphant,

he ascended the river to Khenthennofer (Ilnt-hn-nfr),

*For bibliography, see

when

3oin order to cast

p. 3, note a.

t>The inscription of Hatshepsut's childhood ( 225, 1. 11) mentions her father's


(Thutmose I's) survivals among the chiefs of Retenu, meaning those he had
left.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

34

[8i

out violence in the highlands, in order to suppress the raiding^ of the

showed bravery in his presence in the bad water, in the


One appointed me chief of the
'"passage"' of ^Hhe ship by the bend.
.^
His majesty was
sailors.
s^His majesty was furious thereat, like a panther;^ his majesty
cast his first lance, which remained in the body of that fallen one.*^
^sr
i powerless before his flaming uraeus,^ made
This was
"sol in an instant of destruction
their people were brought off as Uving
hill

region.

34His majesty sailed down-river, with

prisoners.

all

countries in his

Nubian Troglodyte being hanged head downward


the ba[rge] of his majesty, and landed 35at Karnak.

grasp, that wretched


at the

[prowp

of

Asiatic

Campaign

8i. After these things^ one journeyed to Retenu (Rtnw) to *wash


his heart

among

the foreign countries.

His majesty arrived at Naharin

(N ^-h ^-ry-n ^)

36his

majesty found

when he was "planning! destruction; his majesty made a


slaughter among them.
37N'mnberless were the living prisoners,

that foe

great

which

brought

his majesty

^The

from

off

his victories.

flying raids into the valley of the Nile

made by

Meanwhile

was

the barbarians inhabiting

on either side of the valley. The account of the


very obscure, but the weakness of the enemy makes the result certain.

the desert behind the hills


is

^The

text

cThis

is

at

battle

ends here in the middle of a sentence, and proceeds around the


corner of the wall with what seems to be the account of another incident in the
same Nubian campaign.
Inscription,

precisely

1.

9, II,

what

121)

Thutmose II in his Nubian war (Assuan


announcement of revolt was brought to him,

said of

is

when

the

hence a similar incident probably should precede here.


dCf. Sinuhe's

weapon which "remained in

It is possible that there is

a sign in the
f

The

gThe

last

his {his foe's) neck."

no lacuna here, as the squeeze shows not a trace of

9 inches of the

line.

sacred serpent which crowns the royal forehead.


restoration

is

from the

Amida

tablet of

Amenhotep

II, II, 797,

1.

17,

where the same phrase occurs.


^This phrase shows clearly that the Nubian campaign took place before the
The same order is observed in the biography of Ahmose-PenNekhbet (84, 85). The usual supposition that the Asiatic preceded the Nubian
campaign is based on a false conclusion from the Tombos inscription (67 fif.).
Asiatic campaign.

An

idiom for taking revenge or obtaining satisfaction.

JFrom

the squeeze;

cf.

also

1.

17.

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET

85]

35

and his majesty beheld my bravery. sSj brought


horses, and him who was upon it as a living prisoner,

the head of our troops,^


off

a chariot,

its

and took them

One

to ^his majesty.^

presented

me

with gold in double

measure.

His Old Age


82.
at their

grew old, and had attained old age, my honors were as


^ a tomb, which I myself made.
beginning.^

39When

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET
[Continued from

42;

concluded 123-4, 344]

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

III.

Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet took part in the


campaign in Nubia; and also accompanied the Asiatic
campaign to Naharin, of which Ahmose, son of Ebana,
furnishes a fuller account (81).
He was then richly rewarded for his valor by the king.
83.

In

this reign

Campaign in Kush
84. I ^followed the King Okheperkere (Thutmose
I captured for

prisoners,

him

whom

^in

Kush, two

I brought off ^in

triumphant;

I),

living prisoners, beside three

Uving

Kush, without counting them.^

Campaign in Naharin
85. Agains I served ^for King Okheperkere (Thutmose

phant; I captured for

"21 hands, one

^See note on

horse,

1.

cf.

Naharin (N^-h-ry-n^)j

also

1.

27.

to receive rewards as at the beginning.

<iNearly one -third line

is

^Bibliography, p. 10, note


*

of

lacking.
a.

Perhaps meaning that they were not included in the

^Showing
paign.

trium-

26, 39.

'^From the squeeze;

cHe continued

him in the country


and one chariot.

I),

clearly that the Asiatic

campaign took place

official

count.

after the

Nubian cam-

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

36

[86

KARNAK OBELISKS^
86.

This pair stood before the pylon (IV) of Thutmose

in the great

Kamak

Pococke saw

still

by Thutmose

temple;

the northern obelisk, which

standing, has since fallen.

is

Their erection

narrated by the chief architect in charge,

Both Ineni and the standing obelisk


refer to ^Hwo great obelisks,'^'' so that there can be no doubt
that Thutmose I erected both.^ The work must have been
done just before his demission of the crown an event
which left the northern obelisk still uninscribed. It is certainly very significant that it was later inscribed by Thutmose III! If he did not reach the throne until after the
reigns of Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, the northern obelisk remained uninscribed for some twenty-three years at
least!
This is improbable, and the fact that the northern
obelisk was not usurped by Thutmose II or Hatshepsut
would indicate that they had no opportunity to do so, beIneni (see

105).

cause Thutmose III, having succeeded Thutmose I for a

few years, had already taken possession of

it

himself (see

dgyptische Sprache, 36, 39 f.)the middle columns of the standing obelisk

Sethe, Zeitschrijt

Only

fiir

Thutmose I; the side columns


additions by Ramses IV and Ramses VI of

are the inscriptions of

are later

the Twentieth Dynasty.

The middle columns

of

north and south sides contain only the elaborate


lary of

Thutmose

I;

the
titu-

those of the east and west, his

dedication, as follows:
^Text: Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 6; ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, II,
127 f.; Champollion, Monuments, IV, 312-313; Rouge, Album photographique, 50,
See also Pococke, Description of the East, I, 95; and Brugsch, Reise53> 54> 68.
berichte, 159.

^See Breasted, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology, XXII, 90.


The two additional bases noted in Baedeker (1902, 253) probably belong to some
other king, perhaps Amenhotep III, who mentions obelisks ( 903, 1. 57); or to

Thutmose

III.

KARNAK OBELISKS ABYDOS STELA

90]

Mighty

87. ^Horus:

Lower Egypt; Favorite


Beautiful in years,
(I),

beloved of Truth; King of Upper and

bull,

Two

of the

pent-diadem, great in strength

Goddesses: Shining with the Ser-

Okheperkere, Setepnere

who makes

37

hearts live; Bodily

Son

Golden Horus

Thutmose

of Re,

Shining-in-Beauty.

He made

(it),

monument

as his

for his father

Presider over Karnak, that he might be given

88. ^Horus:

Mighty

Amon, Lord

beloved of Truth, King of Upper and

bull,

Lands, erecting for him*^ two great

The pyramidions were

of the temple.

89.

A fragment

an

of

tine also refers to

Thebes,

Re, forever.

life like

Lower Egypt: Okheperkere, Setep-Amon (Thutmose I).


He made (it) as his monument for his father Amon-Re,

Two

of

obelisk''

Thutmose

obelisks*^ at the

chief of the

double facade

of

on the

island of Elephan-

I^s jubilee.

It still

bears the

words:
Thutmose

monument
granite.

(I);

Shining-in-Beauty;

he made

as his

Khnum; making for him two obelisks


occurrence.^ That he may be given life forever.

to his father,

First

(it)

of

ABYDOS STELAs
90.

This

stela recorded the king's

temple of Osiris.
ently held

In the

lost introduction

an audience and declared

^Middle column, east

^Middle column, west


cSee Ineni,

11.

works

in the

Abydos

he has appar-

his intention of exe-

side.
side.

9-11, 105.

dAbout one-third of the hne is flaked off; the material of the pyramidions
crowning the obelisks was usually copper or bronze.
eBrugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1220.
The epithet, " Skining-in-Beauiy," is found
on Thutmose I's Karnak obelisk, and is not used by other Thutmosids. Hence
the obelisk certainly belongs to
f

Thutmose

I.

Referring, of course, to the royal jubilee.

^Sandstone

stela

from Abydos, now in Cairo; published by Marie tte {AbydoSj

and by de Rouge (Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 19-22). Only the lower


portion is preserved, the relief above being broken off, and probably a considerII, 31)

able fraction of the text.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

38

[91

whereupon the

cuting certain works for the god;

priests

reply in the words with which the preserved portion begins.

The

chief treasurer

then instructed to execute the said

is

On

works, which, he states, he did.

their completion the

king delivers an address to the priests like that of Thutmose


III(57iff.).
91.

beautiful

Address of the Priests


^

''How pleasant

is this

in the hearts of the people!

Thou makest a monument

in the sight of the gods!

is this

for Osiris, thou beautifiest the First of the Westerners, the great

the beginning, whose place


3his

his heart, for

founded.

As

Atum

whom

How

whom

advanced,

god

of

he magnified before

kings have labored since this land was

for thee, thou wast

born to him; he made thee in the

uprightness of his heart, to do that which he did in the earth, to restore


4the sanctuaries of the gods, [to]

thine

is

the silver,

Keb^ has opened

for thee that

Tatenen*^ has given to thee his things.


all

there

^if

isi

which

is

art gold,

in him,

All the countries labor for thee,

sEvery costly stone

the lands are under thy rule.

in thy house ;

Thou

their temples.

a wish in thee,

it

must be done

is rcollectedi
;

it is

that which

thy ka desires which happens.

Royal Instructions

to the

Chief Treasurer

92 . His majesty commanded the chief treasurer


^

causing to come

" Conduct the work,

every prepared one of his workmen,

who knows

and is skilful in
that which he knows, who does not transgress what was commanded
the best of his lay priests,

him,

7[rto erect^]

lasting statue.

the

monument

the directions

of his father [Osiris], to equip his ever-

Execute the very secret things, no one seeing, no one

beholding, no one knowing his body.

chapel -barque (wts-nfr'w) of

Make

for

him

silver, gold, lapis lazuli,

the portable

black copper,

^every splendid costly stone."

Words

of the Chief Treasurer

(shm-) sistrums and


93. I executed for him the offering-tables,
(hyt-) sistrums, necklace-rattles {mny'wt), censers, ""a flat dish"" (tnyw),

^The number

of lines lost before this point

t>The earth-god.

is

uncertain.

cPtah.

ABYDOS STELA

97]

3q

I did not rremove^ them.

a great oblation there.

I did not discon-

tinue them.

The Sacred Barge

new cedar

94. I built* 9the august [barge] of


terraces;

lake;^

of the best of the

bow and its stern being of electrum, making festive the


make his voyage therein at his feast of the ''District of

its

to

Peker" {Pky),
Statues 0} the Gods

95. Furthermore,

ennead

of) the great

commanded

majesty]

^[his

to shape^

Abydos; (each) one

of gods dwelling in

of

mentioned by his name; Khnum, lord of Hirur, dwelUng in

Khnum,

lord of the cataract, dwelling in

Abydos

(statues

them is
Abydos;

Thoth, leader of the

Horus, presider over Letopolis;

great gods, "presider over Hesret;

Harendotes; Upwawet of the South, and

Up wawet

of the North;

mys-

and splendid were their bodies. The standards'^ thereof were


of "electrum, more excellent than their predecessors; more splendid
were they than that which is in heaven; more secret were they than the
were they than the dwellers in
more
fashion of the nether world
terious

Nun.
Words

of the

King

96. ^3My majesty did these things for

him
abide and
loved

much more than

so

my monuments

all

Address
[I

say

to]

father Osiris, because I

my name might
my father, Osiris,

gods, in order that

endure in the house of

First of the Westerners, '4ord of

97.

my

Abydos, forever and ever.

to the Priests

you, divine fathers of this temple, priests {w^h'w),

ritual priests, dwellers in the place of the hand,^ ^^all the lay priests of

the temple;

offer ye to

my

tomb, present ye to

maintain ye the monuments of

*Read:

'^Meaning

kh as in Ineni
it

( 105,

1.

my

majesty;

my

oblation-tablet;

mention ye

was reflected in the water;

see

same idea more


is

not

clearly ( 888,

uncommon

^These are the standards upon which the statues were borne.
title.

^An order of

priests of

name;

10).

^Ms, "to shape" with a following name of a god,

ePriestly

my

whom we know

nothing.

(cf. I,

1.

20).

672).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

40

remember ye
the statue of

my titulary;
my majesty;

my memory among
of
of

give ye
set

Upraises to

my name

^'I

likeness;

mouth

in the

For

your children.

my

am

of

[98

praise ye

your servants,

a king excellent because

what he has done; the unique in might through the (mere) mention
^^ which I made in this land, till ye know it.
There is
his name
"

no

lie

before you, nor exaggeration

for the gods; I

have beautified

I have

^therein.

made monuments

their sanctuaries for the future; I

have

maintained their temples, I have restored that which was ruinous, I

have surpassed ^^that which was done before. I have informed the
priests (w'^b'w) of their duties, I have led the ignorant to that which
he did not know.
have been before

I have increased the

me

the gods

work

had joy

in

of others, the kings 2who

my

time, their temples were

in festivity.

Universal
98. I

made

the boundaries of Egypt

(t

^-mry) as far as that which

made ^ ^strong those who were in fear; I repelled


I made Egypt the superior of every land
evil from them.
favorite of Amon, =^^Son of Re, of his body, his beloved Thut-

the sun encircles.

the

Triumph

"

^1

mose

(I),

Shining Hke Re, beloved of Osiris, First of the Westerners;

Great God, lord of Abydos, ruler of eternity; given


faction,
living;

life,

stabihty, satis-

and health, while shining as King upon the Horus-throne of the


and joy of his heart, together with his ka, like Re, forever.

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI^
[Continued from 46; continued
II.

(lL.

4- 1 4)

began under Amenhotep


The king's name and
continues here under Thutmose I.
99.

I,

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

115]

The

career of Ineni, which

the narrative

of

his

accession

unfortunately

lacunae at the ends of the lines (probably

1.

fall

4).

in

The

the

biog-

raphy then narrates the wide dominion of the king, and


the rich tribute therefrom (101); Ineni's advancement to
*Read

r-d

^'t.

^Bibliography on p. 18, note

c.

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI

iQo]

superintendence

the

of

41

building

king's

especially the construction of the

Kamak

projects

(102)

pylons of Thut-

and the erection before them of his two obelisks,


one of which still stands ( 103-5); ^^so the excavation of
the king's cliff -tomb and improvements in the necropolis
Ineni's rewards in serfs and treasury
of Thebes ( 106)
dues ( 107); and the death of the king ( 108).
100. The Karnak hall, which Ineni constructed, is of
great historic interest, as it was the first hall on entering the
building, and served as the chief hypostyle, or colonnaded
It
hall, of the temple throughout the reign of Thutmose I.
was in this hall that Thutmose III was proclaimed king by

mose

I,

the priests of

Amon

Thutmose

builder,

(131

I,

ff.),

thus putting aside either

Thutmose

or the w^eakling

II,

Hatshepsut erected her two great obelisks.

this hall

description of the erection of the hall


lost in the

lacuna at the end of

reference to the

^^

1.

7,

itself is

and

1.

and

its

in

The

unfortunately

8 begins with a

great pylons on its either side^^^ the erection

But Thutmose III informs us of the interesting fact that he replaced with stone columns the cedar
columns erected by Thutmose I in this hall ( 601). Indeed,
Thutmose I himself was obliged to replace the northernmost
two of his cedar columns by stone ones before the end of his
reign. ^
The fact is recorded by him on one of the new columns (see Piehl, Actes du 6""^ congres des orientalistes a Leide,

of

which

1883,

follows.

IV"'*'

partie, section

unfortunately
of

which

columns

now

3,

monument

This inscription

is

only a series of disconnected fragments,

little is intelligible.

is

203-19).

The

dedication on one of the

as follows:

''Thutmose

for his father

Amon-Re,

/,

he made

chief of the

{it)

as his

Two Lands

a hint as to the length of his reign; he must have reigned long enough
for the wooden colonnade to begin to decay.

aThis

is

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

42

[ loi

making for him an august colonnade, which adorns the Two


(Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 131 1, and
Lands with its beauty.
'^^

Rouge, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 163.) On the further


career of this historic hall, only begun here, see 599 ff.
803

ff

Accession and Power of Thutmose I

lOi.

Good God, who

^the

who

smites the Nubians, lord of

He made

boundary as
the ^Horns of the Earth,* and the marshes in Kebeh {Khh)
might,

overthrows the Asiatics.

Elephantine.

The

his majesty

Thebes, for his father Amon, each year.

me

far as

Sand-dwellers bore their tribute like the

impost of the South and the North;


prosper^ for

his

under

forwarded them to

Everything was

made

to

Ineni^s Promotion

102. 7He

filled his

heart with me,^ I was brought to be a dignitary,

overseer of the granary;

the fields of divine offerings were under

authority; all^ the excellent works together were under

my

my

administra-

tion.

Karnak Pylons

made
Ayan (^ nw) august
the temple of new

103. I inspected the great monuments which he


*great pylons
flagstaves

on

its

either side of fine limestone of

were erected at the double facade of

cedar of the best of the Terraces;^ their tops were of electrum.8 I


^>wrought with electrum.

inspected

Assuan inscription of Thutmose II ( 120, 1. 4),


where it refers to the south; the marshes above must therefore be those of the
Euphrates in the north, also used by Thutmose II, loc. cit.

*The same phrase occurs

^Such a passive

is

in

often a respectful circumlocution to indicate

an act of the

king.

cAn idiom
dRead:

signifying favor with the king.

nh't.

The following is the description of the erection and adornment by Ineni of


and two pylons of Thutmose I at Karnak (IV and V), and the two obelisks
before them, of which one still stands.
the hall

Meaning

the slopes of

Lebanon;

cf.

the "Myrrh-terraces."

BFour such flagstaves, set in channels cut


usually adorned the temple fa9ade.

for

them

in the faces of the pylons,

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI

io6

43

Karnak Portal
104. I inspected the erection of the great doorway (named)

Mighty-in-Wealth;"^

its

huge door was

of Asiatic copper

*'Amon-

whereon was

the Divine Shadow,^ inlaid with gold.

Karnak

Obelisks

105. I inspected the erection of two^ obeUsks

august boat^ of 120 cubits in

its

and landed

length, 40 cubits in

Karnak

at

laid with every pleasant

its

the

width, in order

(They) came in peace, safety^ and pros-

to transport these obelisks.


perity,

^*^biiilt

^^of the city.

Its ^tracki

was

wood.

Thutmose Ps Clifj-tomb
106. I inspected the excavation of the cKfif-tomb of his majesty,

no one

alone,

^things

seeing,

no one hearing.^

upon
I

excellent.

"i^

made

"

^I

was

fields of clay, in

I sought out the excellent

vigilant^ in seeking that

which

is

order to plaster their tombs of the

was a work such as the ancestors had not done which I


was obliged to do there
'3i sought out for those
necropolis;

it

"

*The name

is

^Explained

cHence

not

among

^i

the ten gates given

by Mariette, Karnak,

889, note.

depending on Mariette's plan {Karnak, 2)


hension in attributing one of these obelisks to Thutmose III
Egypt,

Petrie,

II, 67).

38.

The standing

is

under misappre-

(Petrie,

History of

obelisk of this pair distinctly refers to the erection

of ''two great obelisks" (88); hence Thutmose III must have appropriated the
now fallen obelisk after it was up, and before the inscriptions were cut.

<lThe

same words are used of

the transport of Hatshepsut's obelisks;

see

326, note.

Fund

Archceological Report, 1895-96, 9 and 10, where


One
Naville gives the equivalents of the above dimensions rather inaccurately.

^Egypt Exploration

hundred and twenty royal cubits = 206.6

Read hip,
BThe same
f

ndy

feet,

and 40 royal

cubits

=68.86

feet.

wd .

no one hearing," occurs on the statue of


Sennefer, British Musemn, 48.
See also 92. This remarkable statement indicates the secrecy with which the vast rock-cut tombs of the Emperors were excavated, in order to avoid the tomb-robberies, which finally forced the removal of the
Another officer, Hapuseneb ( 389, 11. 7, 8), also
royal mummies to Der el-Bahri.
states that he worked on the king's "cliff -tomb" (hr't), see Piehl, Zeitschrift fur
phrase:

'^no one seeing,

dgyptische Sprache, 23, 59. See Breasted, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical
ArchcBology, XXII, 90-94.
The construction of such a tomb is described in the last
twelve lines of Sinuhe; see Goodwin, Zeitschrift filr dgyptische Sprache, 1872, 21 ff.

iThe various supplies for the tomb.

Lit.,

"My

head was watchful."

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

44

who should be

after

me.

was a work

It

wisdom; there was not given


be praised because of

to

my wisdom

that which I have done,

me

after

My

my

heart,

my

[107

virtue

command by an elder.
years, by those who shall

^^while I

was

was

I shall

imitate

chief (r '^-hry) of all works.

Rewards

Ineni's

107.

of

praise endured in the palace,

my

love

His majesty endowed me* with peasant-serfs, and

my

among

the court.

income was from

the granary of the king's estate on each day.

Death
108.

The king

rested from

oj

Thutmose I

life,

going forth to heaven, having com-

pleted his years in gladness of heart.

[Continued

1 1 5-18]

STELA OF YUFb
109.

This

official

served

mother of King Ahmose

under Queen Ahhotep,

the

and administered her property in


Edfu. He also repaired for her there a ruined tomb belonging to her ancestor, the queen Sebekemsaf, who was the
wife of one of the Thirteenth Dynasty Intefs."" He says
nothing of any subsequent connection with the royal house
under the following reign of Amenhotep I, but he was later
in the service of Queen Ahmose, the favorite wife of Thutmose I, and mother of Hatshepsut. His career therefore
I,

extended through at least part of four generations of the


royal house.

^The same

rare phrase in

Ahmose, son of Ebana

( 6,

1.

3).

m. high, from Edfu, now in Cairo, old No. 238; published by Bouriant, Recueil, IX, 92, 93, No. 72.
I had also a carefully revised
copy, kindly loaned me by Schaefer.
^Sandstone

stela, 0.62

cSee Newberry, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology, XXIV,


285^9. Maspero supposed (Monties royales, 625-28) that Sebekemsaf was a
deceased daughter of Ahhotep, but Newberry has clearly shown that she was an
ancestor of Ahhotep.

STELA OF YUF

113]

45

Relief

no. In
left

the middle

women

are two

is

an

which on the
and on the right a man, standing,

offering- table, before

sitting,

accompanied by his son. Before the first woman are the


words: ^^ Divine consort, great king^s-wije, Ahhotep, tri-

umphant; before the second:


[Sebek]emsaf^

Before the

but his

ka,^^

^^King's-wije,

king^s -sister

."

first

man

name

is

is

a mortuary prayer for ^Hhy

illegible;

before the son:

^^His son,

prophet 0} the dues (s^w), Harhotep, triumphant. ^^


is

(fern.)

Below

the following inscription:

Mortuary Prayer
111. 'An offering which the king gives; Horus of Edfu, Osiris and
Isis;

may

they give bread, beer, oxen, geese, everything good and pure

ka of the great

for the

king's-wife, ^'the king's-mother, Ahhotep, tri-

umphant; and her son Nebpehtire (Ahmose

I),

Restoration of Sebekemsaf^s

112. She gave to me.^

The

triumphant.

Tomb

prophet of the dues (S^w)

Tsecond'''^

door-keeper of the temple, the priest, Yuf

of the altar,

3 the

son of

(Yryt-s't), he says: "I repaired this

Iritset

king's-daughter, Sebekemsaf, after finding

it

tomb

{Yw f)j

(ysy) of ^the

beginning to go to ruin."

Favor under Queen Ahhotep


113.
tell

Then

"^o

this priest said:

ye

you, and I will cause you to hear

wife,

Ahhotep.

She appointed ^me to

with the statue of her majesty.

who

my

pass by this

stela, I will

favor with the great king's-

offer to her;

She gave

to

me

she intrusted

bread:

me

'joo (by't-)

and 10 persen loaves; 2 (ds-) jars of beer, and a joint (pnsw)


from every ox. I was endowed^ [with] ^upland, and with lowland.
loaves,

^Of covirse, Sebekemsas is meant.


^The connection of this phrase is not clear; the following list of titles terminating with the name of the owner of the stela can hardly be connected with
Perhaps the stela is the gift meant.
cTwo strokes, perhaps misunderstood from hieratic determinative for a man.

the preceding.

^S

h' kwy, as in

Ahmose,

6,

1.

3.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

46

She repeated

to

me

another favor, she gave to

Edfu, ^to administer^

it

me

all

[114

her property in

for her majesty.

Favor under Queen Ahmose


114. Another favor of the great king's-wife, Ahmose, triumphant,

whom

king

appointed

me

^Okheperkere
to

(Thutmose

I),

be scribe of the assistant treasurer.

with "the statue of her majesty, she gave to


2 {ds-) jars of beer,

and a

joint

She

triumphant, loves.

me

{w ^h't) from every

She intrusted

me

100 loaves of bread,


ox.

^^I

was endowed

with upland, and with lowland.


Field-scribe^ of

^ffrp;
majesty."

hence we

Horus

may

of Edfu,

Denereg (Dnrg).

possibly render:

^'Evidently the subscript of the scribe

"to present

who made

it

(the

income?)

the document.

to

her

REIGN OF THUTMOSE

II

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI*
[Continued from io8; concluded 34off.]

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

III.

115.

According

to this biography,

directly at the death of

Thutmose

II

Thutmose

II succeeded

under the new reign,


Ineni enjoyed the greatest favor, until the death of Thut-

mose

I;^

II.

Succession of Thutmose II

116.

The Hawk*^

in the nest^ [appeared

as]'^

the ^sKing of

Upper
he became

and Lower Egypt, Okhepernere f^ ^-f^pr-n-R Thutmose II),


king of the Black Land^ and ruler of the Red Land,** having taken
*^,

possession of the

Two

Regions in triumph.
Ineni' s

Favor

117. I was a favorite of the king^ in his every place; greater was
that

which he did for

me

than^ those

who preceded

(me).

I attained

the old age of the revered, I possessed the favor of his majesty every day.
I

was supplied from the table

^Bibliography on p. 18, note

of the king ^^with bread of oblations for

c.

^This seems unfavorable to Sethe's theory that Thutmose III succeeded


Thutmose I and reigned for a short time before the accession of Thutmose II.
But Sethe offers very cogent arguments in explanation of Ineni's silence on this
point.
See Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 19, 29, and 39, 52; and Zeitschrift fiir
dgyptische Sprache, 36.

cThis

is

a poetical designation of the crown prince as Horus,

who

also suc-

ceeded his father, Osiris.

dErman's

*The
^Lit.,

restoration.

cultivable land

"one who

filled

Sethe, Untersuchungen,

and the

I,

40, n. i.

desert.

the heart of the king."

sSupply of course: "than that which he did for those who, etc.;" or "than
that which those did who, etc." meaning he received greater favor than from preceding kings.

47

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE H

48

[ii8

the king, beer likewise, meat, fat-meat, vegetables, various fruits, honey,
cakes, wine,

My

oil.

necessities

were apportioned in health and

Hfe,

as his majesty himself said, for love of me.

Death of Thutmose II
Ii8. (He) went forth to heaven, having mingled with the gods.^

[Concluded 340-43]

ASSUAN INSCRIPTION^
119.

senger

This inscription narrates:

who announces

(i) the arrival of

a mes-

a rebellion in Kush,

to his majesty

and mentions a frontier fortress of the king's father, Thutmose I (see 72) (11. 5-9) (2) the anger of the king (11. 9-1 1)
(3) his dispatch of an army thither (11. 11, 12); (4) the overthrow of Kush, and the capture of one of the chief's children
with some other prisoners (11. 12-15); (4) ^^^ complete
;

pacification of the country

(11.

The

15-17).

inscription

is

dated on the day of the king's accession, and, according to


1.

7,

his father,

Thutmose

I,

was

living at the time, thus

proving the coregency of the two.


Protocol

120. 'Year

i,

second month of the

first

season, day 8, coronation

day^ under the majesty of Horus: Mighty Bull, Powerful in Strength;


Favorite of the

Two

Divine in kingship;

Goddesses:

Golden Horus:

Powerful in Being; ^King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Okhepernere,

Son

of

Re: Thutmose

(II),

upon the Horus-

Beautiful in diadems,

*See also Senmut's reference to his death ( 368,

11.

7, 8).

on the road from Assuan to Philae; text in Lepsius, DenkMorgan, Catalogue des monuments, I, 3, 4, and Rouge, Inscriphieroglyphiques, 250, 251 but the best text is revised from a squeeze by Sethe,

^Cut

into the rock

mdler, III, 16, a; de


tions

Untersuchungen,

I,

translation, 38.

81;

cThe "appearance"
construed with "upon,
first

(lit.,

dawning) of a king

etc.," after the

year, the coronation

is

names

is

his coronation;

of the king.

not an anniversary, but the very

As
first

it

is

to

be

this is the king's

day of the

reign.

ASSUAN INSCRIPTION

i2i]

throne of the living; his father, Re,


of

Thebes;

3 they

smite for

fame

the palace, (rbuti) his

him
is

is

49

and Amon, lord

his protection,

Lo, his majesty

his enemies.

mighty; the fear of him

is

in

is

in the land,

Haunebu; ^the two divisions of Horus


and Set* are under his charge; the Nine Bows together are beneath
The Asiatics come to him bearing tribute, and the Nubian
his feet.
[his] terror in

the lands of the

Troglodytes bearing baskets.

Horns

Earth^

of the

His southern boundary

^northern as far as the ends ;

(his)

Asia^ are the dominion of his majesty, the


repulsed

among

is

arm

as far as the

*^the

marshes of

messenger

of his

not

is

the lands of the Fe[n]khu.

Announcement

of Rebellion

One came to inform^ his majesty as follows: " The wretched


Kush %as begun to rebel, those who were under the dominion of the
121.

Lord

The

Two Lands

of the

purpose

hostility,

beginning to smite him.

inhabitants of Egypt are about to bring

which thy father

this ^fortress

away

the cattle behind

built in his campaigns, the

King

of

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere (Thutmose I), living forever,^


in order to repulse the rebellious barbarians, the Nubian Troglodytes
of Khenthennofer, for those who are ^there on the north of the wretched
"^
Kush r
with the two Nubian Troglodytes among the children
1 before the Lord of the Two
of the chief of the wretched Kush who
"
1."
Lands ^
His majesty was furious thereat, like a panther,
when he "heard it. Said his majesty, "I swear,^ as Re loves me, as
"

my

father, lord of gods,

let live

anyone among

Cf. 70,

^Cf.

1.

loi,

Amon,

their

lord of Thebes, favors me, I will not

males

"among them."

2.
1.

and Index V.

5;

cSee Index V,

s.

v.

the heart of his majesty,^' which


for introducing a matter to a superior in letter-writing.

dLit., "to

form

make prosperous

is

the conventional

Egyptians who have settled in Nubia beyond the


frontier military station, and are thus in danger of being pillaged by the rebellious
Nubians.

eThese are the

cattle of

^This epithet indicates that Thutmose I


gSethe:

"neigen

2,

north side)

Biindniss?"

same royal oath in the obelisk inscription of Hatshepsut (318,


and in the Megiddo campaign of Thutmose III ( 432, 1. 40).

h Compare the
1.

zum

is still living.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

50

II

[ 122

The Campaign

Then

122.

(T^-pd't) on his
those

who were

Two

majesty dispatched a numerous army into Nubia

his

occasion of a campaign, in order to overthrow

first

rebellious against his majesty or hostile to the

"Then

all

Lord

of

barians;

army of his majesty arrived at wretched


^.*
This army ^^of his majesty overthrew those barthey did [not]^ let live anyone among their males, according

to all the

command

^^chief of

wretched Kush, who was taken away alive as a living prisoner

the

Kush

Lands.

this

of his majesty, except

one of those children of the

They were placed under the feet of


the Good God; for his majesty had appeared upon his throne when
^5the hving prisoners were brought in, which this army of his majesty
had captured. This land was made a subject of his majesty as formerly,
with their people to^ his majesty.

the people

Lord

of the

Rejoiced, the chiefs were joyful;

Two

his divinity.

Lands, they lauded

came

It

to pass

Amon

they gave praise to the

this god, excellent in

on account of the fame of

examples of
his majesty,

him so much more than any king who


has been since the beginning. The King of Upper and Lower Egypt:
Okhepernere, Son of Re: Thutmose (II), Beautiful in. Diadems, given
^^because his father

loved

satisfaction, like

life, stability,

Re, forever.

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET^
[Concluded from
IV.

123.

The

85; see also 344]

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

II

conclusion of the long military career of this

officer, at least in

so far as he has recorded

it,

was a cam-

paign of Thutmose II against the Shasu-Bedwin, of which


this is our only record.
It is probable that this defeat of
the Shasu

^Partially

^The

was only an incident

in

the northward

march

broken away.

negative

is

broken out in the

text,

but

may certainly be supplied from

a place under his majesty'* ^^ the place where his majesty was.
dBibhography on p. 10, note a.
cLit., "to

1.

10.

CAMPAIGN IN SYRIA

125]

Niy

against

This

( 125). ^

last

campaign

51

also brought its

reward of valor from the king (24).


Campaign

against the Shasu

124. I followed King Okhepernere^ (Thutmose II), triumphant;


there were brought off for me in Shasu (S^-sw) very many living
I did not count them.

prisoners;

[See also 344]

CAMPAIGN IN
125.

The

SYRIA<^

great importance of this fragment has been

overlooked in

and was first noticed by


Sethe.*^
It records a campaign of Thutmose II in ^^Retenu,
the Upper^^ and as far probably as Niy.
^^[Gifts

(Thutmose

the histories,

all

which were brought

to]^ the

fame

[from his vicj^tories

11)^

[Retenu] sthe Upper

*horse[s]

'kings

out of

^his

majesty in

of the king,

Okhepernere

3elephant[sp

Niy
^[when] he came

[the land] ^of

*The reign of Thutmose II was so short that we can hardly suppose that he made
more than one campaign into Asia, in addition to his Nubian campaign ( 119-22).
^Published by Maspero {Zeitschrijt fiir agyptische Sprache, 1883, 78) as
"Thutmose I;" corrected as above, Maspejo, Struggle of the Nations, 239, n. i.
^Fragment from the Der el-Bahri temple, middle colonnade, toward the right
end of the Punt reliefs ( 272). Only the extreme tops of nine lines are preserved.
Text:

Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari, 7; Diimichen, Historische Inschri/ten, II, 17;


Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 102 and 40.
Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 80.
Besides
this inscription, there is a short building inscription of Thutmose II in the Der el-

Bahri temple, giving the usual dedication of a doorway which he erected there
(Brugsch, Recueil de monuments, 69, i).
<iSethe,

Untersuchungen,

I,

40.

As the inscription accompanies a relief representing gifts, the beginning is


undoubtedly to be restored according to numerous analogies, as Sethe has done,
Untersuchungen, I, 40.
^In Naville's text the end of the name is lost; hence Naville, not having colis unable to identify the name, but says "it seems to be
that of Thothmes I" (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 17).
Both Mariette and Diimlated the old publications,

ichen give

Thutmose

II.

8Cf. the elephant hunt in the


(11.

22-25,

588) under

Thutmose

same region here mentioned,


III.

in

Amenemhab

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

52

II

[126

THE EBONY SHRINE OF DER EL-BAHRI*


The

126.

by Naville

left

in the

an ebony

side-panel of

shrine, unearthed

temple of Der el-Bahri, contains the follow-

ing dedication written thrice on the outside.

It is in the

Thutmose I and II, but the feminine pronoun


occurs thrice, and the feminine verbal ending four times ;^
hence Hatshepsut was certainly the author of the monument.

name

of

Moreover, one of Hatshepsut's partisans, Thutiy, states that

he made just such an ebony shrine in her time


It

was

therefore later usurped

( 375,

1.

24).

by the two Thutmoses, show-

ing that Hatshepsut reigned for a time before them.


127. The Good God, Lord of the Two Lands, lord of offering,
lord of diadems, who hath taken the crown of the Two Lands, King

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okhepernere, Bodily Son of Re, Thutmose (11)^; he made (it) as his monument for his'^ father, Amon-Re,
making for him an august shrine of ebony of the best of the highlands,
that she might live and abide^ ^ioi him^e like Re, forever.
of

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, xxv-xxix.

''The feminine occurs continually in the other inscriptions

as Sethe has

shown

on the shrine

also,

{Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 8, 9).

cRight-hand column has Thutmose

I!

dThe column on the edge has "her I"


Naville has not noted this feminine, which occurs in two of the three texts;
he offers an impossible masculine in his translation.
^" Live^'
PI.

XXVII

is

and "abide" are both feminine forms.

They

are ignored

by Naville;

very inaccurate in reproducing the alterations evident in the original.

eOr: "through him.**

REIGN OF THUTMOSE

AND HATSHEPSUT

III

INTRODUCTION
The

Thutmose I's independent reign was


followed by years of conflict and strife among the Thutmosids, in which the parties of Thutmose I (not yet deceased),
Thutmose II, Thutmose III, and Hatshepsut were all push128.

close of

ing the claims of their respective candidates for the throne


at the

same

As they all succeeded

time.

periods, there

the greatest confusion of royal

is

monuments dating from

the

for longer or shorter

this period.

It

seems

author that Sethe's explanation of the problem


correctly to solve the difficulty.

It is the first,

names on
is

to the

the

and thus

first

far

the only, scientific study of the problem employing

and

reckoning with

fol-

all

Sethe maintains the

the materials.

lowing propositions:

The

1.

instigator of the insertion of

another royal

name

is

a royal name over

the king bearing the inserted

name;

hence

The

2.

systematic insertion of the

and Thutmose II

of

Thutmose

name of Hatshepsut on
with Thutmose III, shows

together, over the

buildings erected by her together


that

names

Thutmose I and

II reigned for a short time together, after

and Thutmose III had begun.


monuments of Thutmose III show that

the joint reign of Hatshepsut

The

3.

he at
^^

first

earliest

reigned alone, Hatshepsut being called merely

great king^s-wife,^^ until she later

became king coregent

with him.
129.

was
I.

The

real succession

on the

first fall

therefore probably thus:

Thutmose

III reigns for a time alone.


S3

of

Thutmose I

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE

54

2.

III

& QUEEN

[130

Hatshepsut's party forces her upon Thutmose III as

coregent.
3.

About year 6

Thutmose

of

III,

Thutmose

and II

together gain the throne, for a brief coregency, but are not

Thutmose III, who, on the disappearance


(probably death) of Thutmose I, regains the throne, and
^
rules as coregent with Thutmose II, till the latter's death,
which followed shortly, about year 8 of Thutmose Ill's
able to suppress

reign
4.

(numbered from

Thutmose

his first accession).

with Hatshepsut

III,

him permanently, holds

the throne,

at least twelve years more,

Thutmose
numbered

III

finally

his years

130. It will

and they

rule together

undivided

when

possession.

He

his first accession, ruling at least

till

the year 54.^

be seen that in this readjustment of the reigns

practically all of the reign of

the bulk of

associated with

the death of the queen,

holds

from

thirty-four years more,

till

now

Thutmose

Thutmose

I falls before,

and

Ill's reign after, the period of the

family conflict; while the reign of

Thutmose

midst of this period of conflict that

lies

II falls in the

between.

Hence

numbering of these three kings need not be changed,


and for this reason also their inscriptions are taken up in the
the old

old order.

It

should be noted that a number of

difficulties

^Fragments of a statue from the temple of Wazmose at Thebes, as published


by Daressy {Annates du service, I, 99) bear the date: year 18 of Thutmose II!
In view of Daressy's numerous errors in publishing the short inscription, this is
not to be accepted without examination of the original which, according to Borchardt, is stated by Daressy to be missing at Cairo.
The date is probably year 18
of

Thutmose

I.

mass of evidence which favors the


be found in the following translations. For

^It is impossible here to discuss the large

above conclusions.
the rest, the student

Some
is

of

it

will

referred to Sethe's

discussion with Naville {Zeitschrift

first treatise

{Untersuchungen,

I),

his

fiir dgyptische Sprache, 35, 36, and 37), and


Breasted, A New Chapter in the Life of Thutmose III (Leipzig, 1900, or Untersuchungen, II). For year 20 of Hatehepsut, see Petrie, Catalogs .... Sinai, p. 19.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

i3i]

beset

any theory

of the

Thutmosid

be regarded as

finally

The above

struggle.

reconstruction, in view of recent discoveries,


to

55

demonstrated, but

it

is

perhaps not

at least deals

with and attempts to solve the otherwise insuperable

diffi-

culties of the current traditional theory.

INSCRIPTION OF THE CORONATION; BUILDINGS AND


OFFERINGS^
131.

This inscription contains

historical material of the

highest importance, which has been overlooked in


histories.

On

all

the

the occasion of the completion of one of his

Karnak temple, sometime between the years 15 and 22 (1. 17), Thutmose III held an
audience and addressed his court, informing them that he
owed his crown to Amon, and that he had shown his gratitude by great buildings and sumptuous offerings (11. 1-22).
The court replied, acknowledging his divine call to the
numerous additions

to the

throne

All this

(11.

22-24).

is

now

recorded as an in tro-

pin the Karnak temple of Amon, on the exterior of the south wall of the chambers south of the sanctuary; three fragments were first published in 1863 by Brugsch
{Recueil de Monuments, I, PI. XXVI), then entire by Marie tte {Karnak, 14-16) in
1875, with lines numbered backward and incorrect arrangement of fragments;
then more accurately, but less completely and without the fragments, by de Rouge
(Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 165-74) in 1879, with lines numbered correctly;
then much better than either, with correct arrangement of fragments, by Brugsch
(Thesaurus, 1281-90); finally I published the coronation portion alone, based on
the old publications {New Chapter, 6-9).
But I have since secured much

a careful copy of the original by my friend, Mr. Alan


Gardiner, which he kindly placed at my disposal; also, through the kindness of
Mr. Newberry, two large photographs made by Dr. Page May; and finally two
more, which I owe to the thoughtfulness of Borchardt. These materials add
much to the publications, and show that Brugsch made numerous restorations in
the lacunae, without indication that the added signs were not found on the original.
The inscription is in forty -nine vertical lines, and as the upper courses of masonry
have perished, the upper half of all the lines has been lost, except 11. 36-49, where
fragments with the tops of these lines have survived, though with lacunae below

better materials, especially

them.

EIGHTEENTH

56

DYN.:

duction to a three-fold

god:

first,

list

his buildings

(11.

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[132

of the king's benefactions to the

25-36); second, his offerings of

and the herds, besides gifts of lands (11. 36-41);


temple utensils and the like (11. 42-48). A short

the field,
third,

peroration concludes the record


132.

The

(11.

48-49)-

introductory speech of the king begins with

an account of

his

youth and of

how he was named

In

king.

the course of these reminiscences, the king in one phrase

only

(1.

3)

compares himself

Delta marshes.

This very

to the youthful

Horus

common comparison

in the

of the king

with Horus* in the Delta, together with the following con-

was misunderstood by Brugsch as literal.''


error was exposed by Maspero^ in 1880, and since
the inscription was left for twenty years untouched,
its significance and content had been finally settled.
text,^

conclusion, however,

hardly to be justified

is

that the inscription as used in all the histories


is

then
as

if

This

we notice
now current,
if

translated backward!*
133. Translating the king's

it

This

becomes coherent

each

line,

and

tells

speech in the proper direction,

in spite of the loss of the first half of

a remarkable

story.

The king

states,

with protestations of his truthfulness, that he was a lad in


the temple of

ment

Amon,

before he had received his appoint-

as priest {hn-ntr,

^^

prophet,^ ^^

1.

2);

and that he

*See, for example, the identical statement with reference to


642, note (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 201, c).

later

Amenmeses,

III,

'^It was the following context which misled Brugsch, for he remarks that such
comparisons were an "oft wiederkehrende Redensart junger Konige" (365).

^Geschichte, 365, and 288, 289; for the same error recently repeated, see Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology, 1904, 37.

^Revue

critique,

1880,

I,

107, n. i;

and

Zeitschrijt jiir dgyptische Sprache,

1882, 133.

^Brugsch, the entire inscription, beginning with the last line, and ending with
the first.
As far back as 1879 the publication of the admirable de Rouge had
added the proper numbering to the lines; Brugsch has it in his Thesaurus (1891).
*

Of

course, this appointment

must have followed

later.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

134]

occupied the priestly

office of

^^

Pillar of his

57

Mother

^^

(1.

3).

On the occasion of a great feast the young priest was stationed


by the god

in the northern hypostyle

procession of the god appeared

(who

is

ducting

ceremonies

the

with the then king

(1.

down

before

up and placed before

Then

king;

passed

procession

the god

in adoration, but
(1.

was

7).

unfortunately lost in the lacuna, but immedi-

it is

now

the gods^^

him

followed the oracle^ of the god, proclaiming

ately following

him king

The

5).

where the young priest was, while the god*


him (1. 6). As he stopped before the young

priest the latter fell

him

splendid

hall

sought for

134.

The

unfortunately not named) offering incense and con-

around the

raised

4),

(1.

3).

(1.

is

a reference to the

^^

secrets

in the hearts of

revealed, namely, their intention to

make

At this juncture in their coronation by


the gods, Hatshepsut and Amenhotep III proceed to Heliopolis to be crowned by the sun-god, as was the immemorial
custom (cf. 221 ff.). But the young priest, Thutmose, is
more highly favored for him the gates of heaven are opened,
he flies thither to be received by the sun-god (1. 9), who
then crowned him (11. 10, 11), and fixed his four royal
names^ (in addition to the fifth, Thutmose, which he al(1.

8).*'

ready bore), in accordance with divinely conferred qualities


(U.

Thus he

12-14).

is

authority established at

*Or possibly the then


''This oracle

is

installed in the kingship,

home and abroad

referred tq

by the court

in their reply

III himself in his inscription of year 23 at Haifa:


him his inheritance as a body which he begat; he uttered

Horus-throne of the

^Compare

15,

16),

his
in

king.

"He

{nd' f r^ hr' f) that

(11.

and

(1.

23),

and by Thutmose

(the god) hath assigned to

an oracle concerning him


his coronation might be established for him (as) king upon the
living" (11. 3, 4, from a photograph by Steindorflf).

the designation of Hatshepsut

and Amenhotep III as king by the

gods before their coronation ( 231).

^Harmhab's names are declared


same juncture (III, 29, 1. 19).

at his divine coronation at precisely the

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

58

order that he
(11.

may

16, 17), erect

like the present

offer the

him

ones

wealth of the earth to

and present him

buildings,

of

records the elevation of

ff.),

humble rank

Amon

fact.

The

(III,

III from a posi-

in the priesthood of the

This

Harmhab

is

Karnak temple
unquestionable

only difference between this elevation of Thut-

a long

that of
official

Harmhab

is

that

rank

Harmhab

reached

it

career, culminating in great political

power, while Thutmose III rose to


priestly

of

life

Thutmose

to the throne of Egypt.

mose III and


after

offerings

17-22).

(11.

divine interposition, like that in the

tion of

Amon

This remarkable narrative, under a cloak of alleged

135.

22

[135

in the temple.

from

Any

directly

it

from

his

attempt to explain this

Suppose that
Thutmose III was the oldest son of Thutmose I, born before
the latter's accession; his mother being, as we know, a
is

to pass distinctly

lady not of royal blood,

fact

named

to

theory.

Isis.

This would explain

him as a priest in the Amon temple. When


his father, Thutmose I, after marrying the royal princess
Ahmose, gained the throne, and Hatshepsut, his daughter
by her, grew up, she (Hatshepsut) was given in marriage
to the king's eldest son, still a priest in the temple.
Thus
was the young priest immediately invested with a future
claim upon the throne a claim which a young man of the
ability which we know he possessed, would surely make
effective.
Queen Ahmose dies, and with her perishes
Thutmose I's right to the throne. The young priest imme-

why we

find

diately claims his right to reign, through his wife, precisely

as his father,

from theory

^Harmhab

who

is

Thutmose

I,

had done.^

And now we

pass

to fact again.

also gained his right to the throne

through his wife, a royal princess,

referred to in his coronation inscription (III, 28,

1.

15).

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

138]

On

136.

59

when

the occasion of a great feast,

the god

appears in procession, the future Thutmose III has

all ar-

ranged so that the god shall stop before him as he stands in


his place among the ranks of priests in the colonnaded hall,

and

shall indicate

him

carried out successfully,

adds also the

as

The plan

the future king.

and a superb stroke

is

of imagination

the celestial realm there to be crowned

visit to

and named by Re, the sun-god himself. Thus Thutmose


III succeeded his father; and of his wife, the royal heiress,
Hatshepsut, in whose right he ruled, we hear not a word in

The

the whole transaction.^

The

inscription refers to

gifts are

offerings of the fifteenth

important to note that already at this time, be-

year;

it is

tween

this date

(year 22),

and

own name.

also all in his


137.

later buildings

and the beginning of

Thutmose

campaigns
domains in Syria

his great

III possessed forest

from which he drew cedar for his temple doors.


He was also receiving captives and the children of native
princes from Syria at this time.
These facts indicate that
(1.

34),

he was
as

still

holding his father^s conquests, at least as far north

Lebanon ;^ and

sistent revolt that

of the year 22.

it

was

to suppress

a widespread and per-

he began his campaigns

in Syria at the close

*=

Birth and Youth of Thutmose III

138.

that I should be

my

upon

is

he; I

am

his son,

his throne, while I

whom

he commanded

was one dwelling

in his

^This coincides with Sethe's conclusion that Thutmose III succeeded Thutmose I
a time alone, before the legitimists forced Hatshepsut upon him as coregent.
^Where his forest domains of cedar must have been located.
cFor a full exposition of the historical and other data in this remarkable inscription, see the author's A New Chapter in the Life of ThtUmose III (in Sethe's

for

Untersuchungen), Hinrichs, Leipzig, 1900.

^The king

holding audience.
occurred
the sitting
There is httle doubt that 1. i began ''year x, month x, day x,
The audience now begins with a
(Jppr hms't"), as, e. g., at Der el-Bahri ( 292).
from
the
throne.
speech

eThe

in the relief

god's;

is

represented enthroned at the

see "his temple''

(1.

2).

left,

'

EIGHTEENTH

6o

my

my

installation to

was in the capacity^

Horns

in

III

& QUEEN

there

is

[139

no lie therein

majesty was a stripling, while I was a youth in his temple,

before occurred
I

THUTMOSE

me in uprightness of heart

nest ;* he begat
since

DYN.:

Khemmis.

be prophet

of the "Pillar of his

was standing

my

majesty.

Mother,"^ Hke the youth

in the northern hypostyle'^ *

The Feast
the splendors of his horizon.

139.

heaven and earth with

his beauty;

The

"Coming

forth of

him ^[praise]
the ^altari
His majesty placed for him incense upon the fire, and

of his temple.

offered to

festive

he received the great marvels;^

his rays were' in the eyes of the people like the

Harakhte."

He made

him a

goats, ^

people, they gave to

great oblation consisting of oxen, calves, mountain

Search and Discovery


[the god]^

140.

both

hend

sides^ of

it,

the heart of

made the circuit


those who were in

his actions, while searching for

recognizing me,

*A common

lo,

he halted

figure for the

my

on
front did not compreof the hypostyle**

majesty in every place.

[I

On

threw myself on] the pave-

young king, conceived as the young Honis-hawk;

see 116.

cA title of the god Horus, and then of a priest; (see New Chapter^ 12 and 30)
as it was an office which could be held by a high priest {ibid., 30), this indicates
promotion of Prince Thutmose from the rank of '' prophet."
<iThis

is

the northern half of the colonnaded hall built

by Thutmose

I in the

between his two Pylons (IV and V, see 99 and my New Chapter,
12-14, 30* 31)- As it was later dismantled by Hatshepsut for the erection of her
obelisks in it, we have here also a terminus ad quem for the date of Thutmose Ill's
coup d'etat. On the later history of the hall, see 600, 601, and 803 Q.

Kamak temple

A common

poetic designation for the temple of a god; to or

at this juncture the sacred procession

the

first
f

is

In the lacuna opening the next

show.

words of the

line

from the temple

moving, as the following three sentences


he reaches "his temple," these being

line,

which are preserved.

Doubtless the things offered to him.

sOr

the procession.

^Where Prince Thutmose has already been stationed by the god (1. 3).
^ Meaning the colonnades on either side of the central aisle;
Prince Thutmose
is

standing in the

left,

or "northern," colonnade.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

143]

6i

He set me before his majesty ;*


King."^ He was astonished at

ment, I prostrated myself in his presence.


I

was stationed at the

me

''Station of the

Then they Trevealedi before the people


the secrets in the hearts of the gods, who know these his
there was
none who knew them, there was none who revealed them ^fbeside himi].
without untruth.

Ascent
141.

Heaven

fHe opened ifor] me the doors of heaven; he opened the portals

of the horizon of Re.


his

to

form in heaven;

I flew to heaven^ as a divine

glorious forms of the

adored his majesty

Horizon-God upon

hawk, beholding^
I

feast.

his mysterious

ways

saw the

in heaven.

Coronation in Heaven
142.

Re

himself established me, I was dignified with the diadems

which [we]re upon

upon ''[my
forehead]
\he satisfied] me with all his glories; I was sated
with the counsels of the gods, like Horus, when he counted his body
I was fpresentTjed with the
at the house of my father, Amon-Re.
his head, his serpent-diadem, rested

dignities of a god, with

"

my

diadems.

Fixing Titulary^
143. His

own

titulary

aProbably "his ma/M/y"

was

'*

affixed for

himself;"

viz.,

me.

he raised

me up and

set

me

before

himself.

^The "Station

of the

King"

is

the place in the holy of holies where the king

stood in the performance of the prescribed state ritual. One is known in Amida,
in Elephantine, in Thebes (temple of Memnon colossi), and, as above, at Karnak.
(See Spiegelberg, Recueil, XX, 50, and my New Chapter, 16, 17.) I have since
found another at Memphis (III, 532). The placing of Prince Thutmose at this
oflBicial

is

"Station of the

King"

is

a public recognition of him as king.

cThe usual meaning of this phrase applied to a king is that he died, but this
clearly not its meaning here, where the king on the throne uses the phrase him-

self in

addressing his courtiers.

<iSo

Brugsch, but Gardiner and photographs have only a lacuna for " beholding."

^S^r't," see Piehl, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 24, 83-85;


also in Harmhab's coronation, 11. 3 and 11.

Compare the fixing of the titulary by the gods


and that of Amenhotep III ( 230, 239).
*

it

occurs

in the coronation of Hatshepsut

EIGHTEENTH

62

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

Name

First

He

bull.

my

'3[in this

Horus upon the standard;^ he made me mighty as a


He caused that I should shine in the midst of Thebes
name, Horus: "Mighty Bull, Shining in Thebes "]>

my

fixed

mighty

Name

Second
144. [He

my

made my

kingship enduring, like

Two

[name]. Favorite of the

Re

like

[144

Re

in heaven,

in]*^

this

Goddesses: "Enduring in Kingship,

Heaven."

in

Name

Third

Horus-hawk of gold, he gave to me his


might and his strength and I was splendid with these his diadems, in
this my name, ^^[Golden Horus: "Mighty in Strength, Splendid in
145.

He formed me

as a

Diadems"].

Name

Fourth

146.

Lord

of the

Two

[in this

my name], King of Upper and Lower

Lands: " Menkheperre " (the being of Re abides).

Name

Fifth

am

147. I

Egypt,

his son

who came

like the presider over Hesret;'^

from him, a likeness fashioned

forth

he beautified

all

my

forms, in this

my

name. Son of Re: "Thutmose, Beautiful of Form," living forever and


ever.

Recognition of

148.
tries

my
my

my

's

His Authority

he caused that [the princes

of] all [coun]-

[should come], doing obeisance because of the fame of

terror

was

sandals.

in the hearts of the

He

gave victory by

boundaries of Egypt]

^This
(really the

Nine Bows;

my

because

all

my majesty;

lands were under

arms, in order to widen *^[the

so much

him.

He

Horus-hawk which surmounts the so-called standard or banner


facade of a building) containing the Horus-name of the king.
is

the

^Restored from the name of the king, as


cThis restoration

is

not

it

literally certain,

occurs elsewhere.

but something similar must have

occupied the lacuna.

dThat is, Thoth, with whose name '*ThtUmose"

(or

Thothmose)

is

compounded.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

i5o]

more than

rejoiced in me,
since

it

63

any king who had been in the earth

(in)

was loosened.^
Purpose

149. I

am

His Choice

oj

whom

his son, beloved of his majesty,

^to cause! that I

should present this land at the place, where he

cause to encompass

ment abiding

his double desires

in

^^

which he established,

Karnak.

requited

to

is.

make a monu-

beauty with something

his

The recomby magnifying him more than the gods.


pense of him who does excellent things is a reward for him of things
more excellent than they. I have built his house as an eternal work.

greater than

it

my ffather!]

18

caused that I should be divine, that I might

who made me that I might supply with food


that I might make to flourish for him the sacred

extend the throne of him


his altars

upon earth

slaughtering-block with great slaughters in his temple, consisting of

oxen and calves without

descending

^^

limit.

''fori

things,

the dues therefor. I filled for him


which were paid anew,
I increased for him
his granaries with barley and spelt without limit.
for this temple
the divine offerings, I gave to him increase, *
of my father Amon, at all feasts ^of the sixth day (of the month)^ satisof those

know that it is forever;


Karnak, Re of HeUopolis of

fied

with that which he desired should be.

that

Thebes

is eternal.

Amon, Lord

of

the South (Hermonthis), his glorious eye which

Erection oj This

150. I

way

made my monument,

of the lord of

Karnak,

is

in this land

*^

Monument

I recorded

my commands

at the stair-

of the fashioner of all that is or exists.

Everything shall remain forever, that

is

therein

"

"

**

with the things of his gods, when the god is satisThe monument is a work in the temple for a
fied with his things.
memorial of my beauty in his house, and I shall endure in the mouth*^

libation, together

forever.

aThat is, loosened {wh


as in the Pyramid Texts.
^So Brugsch;

it is

cOf the people.

not

and separated from the heavens

now

visible

on the

wall.

at the beginning,

EIGHTEENTH

64

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[151

Reply oj the Court


151. These companions, they said: *3"

has been spoken to us; which

May

word

of

Re

writing speak,^
established

is

The

oracle of the

Thoth

at the first beginning.

*4

may

is

Two

is

assigned to thee;

thy coronation upon the Horus-throne, and recorded are

King of Upper and Lower Egypt. He has united


Lands in peace, all countries in subjection."

A New
152.

is like

he who makes the

thy annals as
the

H.

thy majesty

god himself,^

His kingship

rejoicing.

which

in the court, L. P.

thy nostrils be rejuvenated with satisfying Ufe;

endure upon the great throne.


the

we have heard

this [word]

*s

for thee

Chapel^

anew, together with a "Divine Abode," a monu-

ment of fine white sandstone. The king himself performed with his
two hands the stretching of the cord and the extension of the line, putting
(it) upon the ground, and furnishing on this monument the exaction of
work, according to the

command

of *^

enduring work of their

hands.

A Holy

oj Holies

my majesty erected for him an august Holy of Holies,^


place of Amon (named): **His-Great-Seat-is-Like-the-

153. Behold,
the favorite

Horizon-of -Heaven," of sandstone of the

was wrought with electrum

*7

Red Moimtain.^

Its interior

Three Portals
154. I [erected] the first portal, (named:) " Menkheperre-is-Splendid-

in-the-Opulence-of-Amon;"

the second portal, (named:)

"Menkhe-

Evidently a reference to the oracle which decreed Thutmose III king.


pare the ''oracle of the god himself" in the Punt reliefs ( 285, 1. 5).
^See Papyrus Ebers, I, 8.

cHere the audience of the court seems to have been concluded, and the
buildings

and

Com-

list

of

offerings begins.

<iThe form of the determinative

is like

the shrine of Saft-el-Henneh.

e^ear Cairo (cf. Baedeker's Egypt, 1902, 77; wrongly stated to be near Syene
in Egypt under the Pharaohs, 176), about two miles east of the city.
It yields a
reddish, sandy conglomerate called "gritstone."
This passage shows the elastic
character of the word rendered ''sandstone" {rwd't); it indicated only gritty, hard
stone, and usually sandstone.
See also Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, 478, n. i.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

J T56]

65

(named:)

perre-is-Abiding-in-Favor-with-Amon " [the third^ portal,

wrought

"MenkheperreJ^-is-the-Great-One-of-the-Souls-of-Amon; "
with real electrum, through which Mat*^ enters for him

making

monument.

festive the

which he desired, he united

He

*^

rejoiced in his praise, he did that

his (sic) majesty with satisfying

life,

and

joy of heart forever.

Pylon VI

My

155.

majesty [erectjed an august pylon^ of the interior in front

of *9|Tthe holy of hoUesT|

ioned of

new

doubly
It

him a

great door, fash-

mounted with real black copper,


The great name upon it was of electrum, doubly

cedar, wrought with gold,

with copper.

"refined^

I erected for

gold and black copper 3


gold

'"refined"'

made

was more beautiful than

the

"

"

thereof were of

in the likeness of the horizon of heaven.


[''anything'']

that has (ever) been.

My majesty further made for him these three portals 3i

Shrines and Statues


the northern

156.

new cedar
and the

shrines of stone, (with) doors of

[my majesty] belonging thereto,


the kings 32[of Egypt who were

thereto; ^the statues of^

statues^

of

my

fathers,

before me].

aMariette found six gates bearing the name of Thutmose III in Karnak; but
of the three above named he could only find the last (see Marie tte, Karnak, Textes,
The first was found by Legrain
58, and Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 131 1, 1312, 1315.
never been found.
service,
the
second
has
{Annates
du
II,
in 1901
227);
^Inserted by Brugsch, but no longer visible on original.

cGoddess of

truth.

^This pylon of the interior is, of course, the pylon (VI) of Thutmose III,
behind the two pylons (IV and V) of his father, Thutmose I, and just in front of
the holy of holies.
The back of this pylon is occupied by the conclusion of the
Annals and the record of feasts and offerings ( 541 ff.), and the front by Nubian
lists.

^Apparently

further

reference

to

the three

portals

mentioned

before

(154).

fSo Brugsch, but


trace of

it

on the

it

is

probably one of his

tacit restorations, as there is

no

wall.

gThese statues were those of his ancestors mentioned in the list in one of the
rear chambers of the Karnak temple and now in Paris (see 604 f.).

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

66

A
157.

my

[for]

Restoration^

father

Amon-Re

Karnak, by making for


the ancestors, by beautifying for

in

upon
him a monument anew,
him his temple which built^ for him 33[my majesty]

my

Behold,

majesty found this (made) of brick,^ very ruinous, of the work of

the ancestors.

My

majesty himself wrought with his two hands, at

the feast of "Stretching-the-Cord,"


Its

[157

beautiful

upon

monument

this

name which my majesty made was:

34

" Menkheperre-

(Thutmose - III) - Adored - of - the - People - is - Great - in - the - Strength - of Amon." Its great door was of cedar of the royal domain,*^ wrought
with [copper; the great name upon it] was of electrum. 3S
.

Conclusion of Buildings

He [rdid""] more than any king who has been since the beginning.

158.

There was none beyond


handicraft, exacting

his majesty in

"i

36

knowledge of everything in every


f

Twheni there was an "Appear-

ance "^ at

of very great

to the desire of his

majesty concerning them, because he so

Amon

his father

monuments,

excellent in

work according

much

loved

[Qord of Thebes'"].

but it must have been a considerable


building, as a special ceremony of laying out the plan was held.
It may have been
the chambers attributed to Hatshepsut, on the south wall of which the inscription
*It is impossible to identify this structure,

stands.

As

this is the last building

in the

list,

doubtless the occasion of the audience of the court


the king.

^Egyptian order preserved,

its

conclusion or dedication

and

is

the introductory speech of

to indicate division of lines.

cin contrast with his restoration of it in stone (which here falls into the following lacuna) cf. Thutmose Ill's Ptah-temple at Karnak, which bears the inscription:
;

His

majesty found this temple of brick


(Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1188).

^^

he made this temple of sandstone"

domain must have been in Syria, for cedar did not grow
This indicates that Thutmose III maintained his authority there before
ning of his great campaigns (see my New Chapter, 28, 29).
<iThis

^So Brugsch; evidently another

in Egypt.

the begin-

tacit restoration.

At this point begins a part of the lost upper portions of the lines, preserved
on two blocks at the top of the wall. They have been set on wrong by Mariette,
and should be shifted two lines to the right. From here to the end, the average
loss is from one-quarter to one-half line.
*

gOf

the god, in procession.

CORONATION INSCRIPTION

i63]

New
The

159.

king himself

for his father

Amon-Re,

67

Offerings

commanded

to

make

divine offerings, 37anew

lord of Thebes,

30 jars of

bundles of vegetables, 3 Qibn't-) jars of wine, (^/-^^-) fowl,


loaves, *i nd^ of p h-) herb and i w^ ^ of dates.*

fruit,

100

white

Live Offerings

My

160.

majesty furthermore

commanded ^ho

present an offering,

consisting of oxen, calves, of bulls, of gazelles,

Vegetable Garden

My

161.
to

him

made

majesty

and

vegetables

him a garden anew,

for

gave lands, 392800 stat^ to be

South and North,

and Lands

beautiful flowers.

all

in order to present

My majesty furthermore
many

fields of divine offerings;

lands in

^ ""stati.

Foreign Slaves

suppHed with people.

162.
the south

and north

and children [of the


[Amon] commanded
(m[hr]w) of

I filled

it

with [captives] from

countries, being children ^[oi] the chiefs of Retenu*^

Khenthennofer, according as

chiefs] of

silver, gold,

my

father

milk therein, each day for these vessels

and bronze, which

my

majesty

made

for

him

^*anew.

Another
163. Year 15,

New

Offering

(month) of the third season, day 27;


commanded to found a great divine offering anew
first

for the sake of the

life,

in order that the altars of

my

year""]

prosperity,

father

and health

Amon may

of

my

majesty
[Tin

my

the

majesty,

be supplied for

all

eternity.

*See same two items together in feasts and offerings ( 571,

1.

30,

and

note).

^See Grifl&th, Proceedings of the Society 0} Biblical Archeology, XIV, 412.

^Numeral
dSee

New

is lost.

Chapter, 28.

"They are mentioned from


'So Brugsch, but there

is

1.

42 on,

now no

164.

trace of

it.

EIGHTEENTH

68

THUTMOSE

DYN.:

III

& QUEEN

[164

Small Monuments j^ Utensils, Etc.


164.

''My majesty furthermore presented

to

him

many]^

[very

of
monuments: a great vase (hst) of electrum, of 7 cubits*^
silver, gold, bronze, and copper, they shone over the (sacred) lake;

Two Lands

the

body

were flooded with their brightness,

of Nut, while
real

my

work

my majesty exacted anew.


of my heart,*^ by the guidance

of the

Never was made the


(hbnt-)

2 great

the

jars, as

majesty founded anew, for

bersi ^

made

of the

my

My

My

majesty furthermore presented to

first

of this great oblation, ^Swhich

father

Amon,

my

lord of Thebes,

majesty furthermore [made]

many Tcham''enclosure'',

A Harp,
165.

him

god himself,

wrought with electrum and black copper,^ erecting an

seat ^^

for

it

land since the time of the an[cestors]

like in this

at all his feasts forever.

hands of "Him-Who-is-South-of-His-Wall."

""beyond everything!

him

Ofifering-tables of electrum of

statue followed.

which

out of the conceptions


-^being the

43like the stars in the

[My majesty madef a

gold, lapis lazuli, malachite,

Etc.

splendid harp wrought with silver,

and every splendid

costly stone, ^^for the

praise of the beauty of his majesty^ at his appearances in the


goldj bronze,
(mnfp't-) linen,

and every

made anew,

names

costly stone, a hall as in the beginning;

supplied with

all

that belongs thereto;

-^two chambers (ySwy) containing splendid ointment for [''my father


Amon""]

['^which'']

I [""exact^Jed for

it.

Conclusion
166.

My majesty did

recompense

for the

are in

temple

[this]

this for

permanence

my father Amon, ''lord [of Thebes^l, as


of ^Qthe statues of my majesty which

the limbs, as

an everlasting work,

his voyage therein, at his great feasts of the

New

to

make

Year.

^The Egyptian uses the word "monument" also for smaller works, vessels,
which a list begins here.
^So Brugsch, but Gardiner has the mh-sign and a lacuna.
clf this refers to the height, as seems certain, it was of the astonishing height

utensils, etc., of

of twelve feet!

^The same phrase (km

^-n-yb) occurs in

Papyrus Harris (IV, 308,

^'An epithet of Ptah, patron of handicrafts.

KSee Building Inscription of Amenhotep III, 11. 3,

^So Brugsch; no trace on

original.

1.

4).

^Sh}},'t.
1 1,

and 22 ( 883, 886, and 889).

^The god.

SEMNEH TEMPLE INSCRIPTIONS

i68]

69

SEMNEH TEMPLE INSCRIPTIONS^


The temple

167.

ground up,

Semneh was rebuilt of stone from the


by Thutmose III, with the pious intention of reof

storing the brick sanctuary of his great ancestor (at least


,

officially so), Sesostris III, in

Of

temple stands.

whose

fortress of

Semneh

the

Sesostris Ill's original temple nothing

has ever been found, unless the "Second Semneh Tablet"


653-60) was a part of

(I,

This tablet Thutmose III

it.

up in the wall of his new temple; and


recorded on the new walls the old list of feasts and

piously set

also

had

offerings

.which he found among the inscriptions of Sesostris

III.

More than this the old temple was sacred to Khnum and
Dedun; but Thutmose III adds to them Sesostris III, now
apotheosized as the hero who conquered Nubia^ (see I,
There is here a noble regard for the greatest king
of the Middle Kingdom, which contrasts very strikingly
with the shameful desecration of which the Nineteenth
640

ff.)

Dynasty was

Thutmose

guilty.

III completed his

new temple

early in his

second year, and the original sculptures show not a trace of

Queen Hatshepsut's
I.

RENEWAL OF

regnancy.*"

SESOSTRIS

lIl'S

LIST OF OFFERINGS*^

Scenes

On

168.

baldachin.

the right Sesostris III

is

Before him at the extreme

enthroned under a
left

stands

Thutmose

III.
^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 47, at-56, b; Young, Hieroglyphics, 91-95. Steindorff's collation of Lepsius with the original shows that the latter's plates are very
accurate.

^This apotheosis of Sesostris III doubtless took place


we have no earlier evidence.

earlier

than

this,

but

cOn later traces of her in the reliefs, see Sethe, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprocket
36, 59-63,

^On

and

Pis.

VI-X.

the east wall, outside (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 55, a-h).

EIGHTEENTH

70

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[169

Inscription

169. ^Year

day

second month of the third season (tenth month),

2,

under the majesty of

^Thutmose

(III), given Ufe.

Decree 0} Renewal
170. That which was spoken by^ the majesty of the Court, L. P. H.,

companion, king's-son, governor

to the wearer of the royal seal, sole

the southern countries

^:

3" Cause that there be engraved the divine

which the King of Upper and Lower Eg)rpt, Lord of the


Lands, Lord of Offering, Khekure (Sesostris III)^
made

offerings,

-in the

of

Two

temple of his father Dedun, presider over Nubia, the avenging

son; that he might do excellent things for his fathers

and the

festal offerings, that fhis

who

name might be mentioned

begat him;

in the house

sKhnum, binder of the (Nine) Bows, smiter of the Shasu


while the king, Khekure (Sesostris III) was among the living,

ofi his father]

{Ss^'w)',

while he lived

^the gods; causing that there be offered divine

and the mortuary offering to the dead by his majesty.


Divine offerings were made anew
"^m the house of his
father Dedun, that his name might be mentioned in the house of his
father Khnum, binder of the (Nine) Bows, smiter of the Shasu.
offerings to the gods

Sesostris

171. There shall be given:

and the water


sider over

of

IIPs

List

southern grain and spelt ^ for them,

Wawat

Nubia, a

Dedun, pre-

^for his father

festal offering of the

beginning of the seasons: of

southern grain, 15 heket;^ for his father Dedun, presider over Nubia:
of southern grain, 645 heket; of spelt, 20;

>Khnum, binder of the (Nine) Bows

[for his father],

a festal offering of the beginning

of the seasons: southern grain, 50 heket; southern grain, 425 heket;


of spelt, 20;

Bows: a

each year for his father

bull of the herd for the

New

Khnum,

binder of the (Nine)

Year (wp-rnp't);

for his father

aPuU titulary.
bLit., "from" (m).
cThe name of the official is lost, but it is almost certainly the viceroy of Kush,
who was appointed by Thutmose I ( 61 f.), whose name was probably Thure.
^His Horus-name follows.

^Restored after

1.

7.

*See Griffith (Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology,

sThe

ofiFerings are

separated by a semicolon.

XIV,

430).

SEMNEH TEMPLE INSCRIPTIONS

172]

Dedun: a

^a bull of the

bull

herd for the

71

(named:)

feast,

"Repulse-of-the-Troglodytes,"* which occurs in the fourth month of the

second season, on the twenty-first day, ^a

beginning

festal offering of the

of the seasons;^ southern grain, 50 heket; southern grain, 202^ heket;


of spelt, 15; each year at (the feast) " Repulse-of-the-Troglodytes " royal
:

linen, 8

"the

[for]

third season^ (ninth

month)

feast,

which occurs in the

first

a bull of the herd; for his father

of the

Khnum,

binder of the (Nine) Bows, smiter of the Shasu: southern grain, 26 heket;

each year for the king's-wife

"southern grain, 26 heket; each

year for the great king's-wife, Merseger (Mr-sgr), at (the feast) "Binding-of-the-Barbarians:" southern grain, 135 heket; of spelt, 10; each

year for the king, Khekure (Sesostris III)

172. '3His majesty enjoined them upon the chiefs, and governors
of the fortresses of Elephantine of the South, as dues of each year to

abide and to endure:

DEDICATION TO DEDUN AND SESOSTRIS

n.

III

Scene ^

Sacred barque, containing a shrine with statue of

173.

Sesostris III; behind this


ing, the

Thutmose

and Dedun stand-

god embracing the king.


Words

My

174.

III

of

Dedun

beloved son, Menkheperre,

how

beautiful

is this

beautiful

monument, which thou hast made for my beloved son. King of Upper
and Lower Egypt, Khekure (Sesostris III). Thou hast perpetuated
his

name

forever, that thou

aSee

654.

I,

^The season
cThere

and the

live.

feast of victory

seem

to

have

a small lacuna after the units; the number

is

tiProbably
this

feast

mayest

Thutmose

Ill's coronation feast,

fallen together.

is

probably 205.

which occurred on the fourth of

month.
There

is

no doubt that

this is

another feast introduced by

r,

"at, " as in

on the west wall (Lepsius, Denkntdler, III, 48, 6-49, )


similar scene on the newer portion of the same wall, farther north.
*

Inside,

1.

There

10.
is

EIGHTEENTH

72

175.

Thou

On the opposite wall in a similar

satisfying Ufe,

his

Thou

him many

hast presented to

and Asiatic copper.


hke Re, forever.

gold, bronze,

176.

scene ^

The

[175

Dedun adds:

hast renewed his birth^ a second time in a

memoriam.'^

and

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

monument

in

offering-tables of silver

The reward

dedication inscription in full

is

thereof for thee

is

as follows i"^

^The Good God, Menkheperre (Thutmose III). He made (it) as


monument for his father Dedun, presider over Nubia {T ^-pd't), and

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khekure (Sesostris III);


making for them a temple ^of fine white stone of Nubia (T^-pdt)

for the

although
ing

to""

it

of ruinous brick; as a son does, ^accord-

(it)

the desire which his father desired,

Regions,
set

my majesty found

in

who brought him up

to

him

the

Two

this land.

have

^who assigned

be Horus, lord of

to

my divine heart that I should make his monument

make him mighty according

as he gave

that I should

that I should perpetuate

his

house forever, according as he has become greater than any god.

He

hath given to

me

all Ufe, stability

and

satisfaction like Re, forever.

BIOGRAPHY OF NEBWAWI
177.

This

official

enjoyed a long career, beginning early

Thutmose

and continuing under Amenhotep 11. The narrative of his career was evidently distributed upon a number of monuments,* some of which are
lost, so that we now possess only the story of his earliest and
latest years, the former on a statue, the latter on a stela,
both of which were gifts from the king.
in the reign of

^Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 50,

III

b.

^Lit., ^'repeated birth for him.'*


cLit.,

ing.

"a monument

of putting the heart,** that

Compare Hebrew, H?

is,

of putting in mind, remind-

CO

<lOn the outside of the west wall;


Young, Hieroglyphics, 93.

Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 52, b; see also

^Perhaps four (see Spiegelberg, Recueil, XIX, 99).

BIOGRAPHY OF NEBWAWI

i8i]

THE STATUE INSCRIPTION^

I.

This

178.

the
to

Thutmose

III; during

be High Priest of Osiris at Abydos.

Hatshepsut

is

Nebwawi during

text narrates the career of

nine years of

first

73

which he

rises

It is significant that

not referred to until the ninth year, and even

then not by name.

At

this point the narrative is

abruptly concluded, as

if

to

be continued on another monument.


Introduction

Given as a favor

King

Upper and Lower


Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), living forever, to the High Priest
of Osiris, Nebwawi (Nb-w^'wy).
He saith: "I was a servant, useful
to his lord, zealously serving^ him who favored him.
179.

of the king, the

of

First Period

180. I

made

filled

the

chief in the

every day

first office

in the house of

my

father, Osiris; I

A royal command

of the temple.

came before me

in the secret of the lord of Abydos.

This period was until the year

'"31.^

My

Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose

lord, the

King

III), praised

was

me

.^

of

Upper and

for

it.

Second Period
181. I was appointed to be High Priest of
office of this

my

father Osiris; every

house was placed under the authority of the king's-servant.

Another time

it

was commanded me, that

I should go, to ^bring forth

in procession his father, Harendotes, in the

house of Min, lord of

^On

a statue in the hands of a native dealer in Luxor; seen and copied by


and published, Recueil, XIX, 97, 98; thence by Revillout, Revue
egyptologiqtce, VIII, 132.
Unfortunately, the dealer allowed Spiegelberg only a
few moments to copy it, and he was unable to secure a reliable text. See the translation and full discussion by Sethe, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 36, 71 ff.
Spiegelberg

^Lit.,

cAn

"pressing

(i. e.,

entire line is lost;

<ilt is

following) the
its

length

is

way

not given as published.

almost certain that Spiegelberg's 10

*Lit., *'to

cause

to

dawn.'*

of, etc."

is

to be read 2;

giving 3.

EIGHTEENTH

74

Panopolis, at

all his feasts

prophets and

all

the

until the year 6.

It

The majesty

nome.

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

in Panopolis, I being there as chief of the

workmen

This period was

of the entire temple.

was the occasion


of

[182

my

in the Thinite

lord praised me.

Third Period
182. I was appointed to be chief in the

of his father, the

King

Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebpehtire (Ahmose I); his treasuries


were upon my seals I came forth therefrom, safe and prosperous, until
of

the year 9.

183. I conducted the work on the ship.*

I repulsed

him

that

rebelled against her majesty^ (fem.).

II.

184.

ABYDOS STELA ^

This monument takes up the Hfe of Nebwawi after

a long interruption at the close of Thutmose Ill's reign, after


the coregency of

Amenhotep

the narrative into the reign of

monument

is

gift of

Thutmose

corroborated by the epithet

Thutmose
was called to
of

had begun, for it carries


Amenhotep II, although the

II

^^

This conclusion

is

name
Nebwawi

living jorever^^ after the

III, in the reign of

the court,

III.^

Amenhotep

11.

and probably died there during the

coregency.
*This is the sacred barge used in the drama of the Osiris-myth; see the same
connection in the inscription of Pefnefdineit (IV, 1023).

^Read "his majesty;"

the feminine

consistent with the rest of the inscription,

was doubtless inserted by Spiegelberg as


Osiris

is

referred to.

now in Cairo; Mariette, Abydos, II, 33, =- Birch,


dgyptische
Zeitschrift fur
Sprache, 1876, 5, 6 (very bad) = Rouge, Album photographique, No. 151. I have not seen the last, but used Berlin squeeze (A 1628).
Translated by Spiegelberg, Recueil, XIX, 99.
cStela found at Abydos,

^On

the coregency, see Sethe, Untersuchungen,

I,

55.

It

must have begun

late

in the year 53, or early in 54, for we find Thutmose III still alone in year 52 (Lepsius,
Denkmaler, III, 45, e; Sethe, Uniersuchungen, I, 23, n. i), and Amenhotep II

As the campaign in Asia was already over by


Amenhotep II's third year, and it was certainly made necessary by Thutmose Ill's
death, it is clear that Amenhotep II reigned his first year with Thutmose III, fought
out his war in Asia in his second year, and went to Nubia in his third ( 780 fif.).
already alone in his third year.

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

i87]

Reign
185.

Thutmose III

oj

Given as a favor of the king's presence, the King Menkhe-

High

perre, Hving forever, ^to the

He

75

saith:

''I

many works

conducted

Nebwawi.

Priest of Osiris,

in 3the house of

my

father

and every splendid costly


he knew that I was excellent

Osiris, of silver, gold, lapis lazuli, malachite,


4 All

stone.

these were

of heart ^toward him.


tector of the

my

upon

I administered the Taffairsi of

my

house of

my

place was

was summoned

made among

my

lord, as pro-

^I attained reverence*

father.

favor of the king's presence.

and

seal, (for)

his princes.

^to his

^My

under the

house of gold,

feet strode in the

splendid place ;^ I was anointed with the best ointment, ^a wreath

(w^

h)

was

at

my

him whom he has

throat, as the king does to

Reign
186. His son repeated to

of

me

Egypt, Okheprure (Amenhotep


statue of his father, the

King

favored.

Amenhotep II
favor, ^the

King

of

II), living forever.

Upper and Lower

He

gave to

me

Upper and Lower Egypt, "Menkhe-

of

perre (Thutmose III), living forever; his likeness of millions of years


in the house of his father Osiris; divine offerings;

"lands of the royal

domain.

L. P. H. of the Son

Every writing remained

of Re, his beloved

^^

Amenhotep

Westerners, lord of Abydos, given

^in force"! for the


(II),
life,

beloved of Osiris, First of the


like

Re, forever."*^

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT^


187.

Beginning with the Fourth Dynasty, every Egyp-

tian king
It is
tale

might bear the

title,

^^Son oj i^e," the sun-god.

not an accident therefore, that the interesting folkpreserved

aOld

to

us in

the

Papyrus Westcar narrates

age.

^'The halls of the palace.

Here follow seven

lines containing the usual

mortuary prayer.

^A series of reliefs and inscriptions in the Der el-Bahri temple, occupying the
north half of the middle colonnade (corresponding to the Punt reliefs on the south
half, 246 fif.).
They were uncovered by the excavations of the Egypt ExploraPublished in
tion Fund under Naville, which began excavating the temple in 1894.
Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 46-55.

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE IH & QUEEN

76

that the three children of a priest's wife, begotten

bom among

and

^^Son of i?^," on the Fifth Dynasty

The

had once ruled as king

tale current

common

sand years later among the

of Egypt, lineal

this

corre-

a thou-

As Re
descent from him
people.^

through intervening kings was claimed by

from

first

rise of the title,

monuments thus

sponds remarkably with the legendary

t88

by Re,

became the

astonishing prodigies,

three kings of the Fifth Dynasty.^

all

Pharaohs

time on, and was sufficient to justify the assump-

tion of the title;

but in

its strictest

sense the

title

indicated

was immediately and physically the offspring


It is probable that this
of the god and a mortal mother.
interpretation was pressed at first only by kings whose
that the king

claims to the throne through their mortal parents were questionable.


fruitful

up around

Naturally, there gradually grew

a theme a

so

literary version of the story, as well as

These finally
took stereot3^ed form, and the pictures, accompanied by
explanatory text, made up of fragmentary quotations from
the story in poetic form, have been preserved to us by
Hatshepsut at Der el-Bahri and by Amenhotep III at Luxor.
i88. The Papyrus Westcar,^ dating from the rise of the
Eighteenth Dynasty, has preserved to us the charming
pictures of the various incidents in the drama.
"^

*See Petrie, History of Egypt,

I,

69

f.

^The Papyrus Westcar (see Erman, Die Mdrchen des Papyrus Westcar, Berlin,
1890; Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, 373 ff., and Aus den Papyrus des koniglichen

Museums zu

Berlin, 38, 39) is


three kings which it narrates.

from 700

to 1,000 years later

than the birth of the

cThat these pictures are composed of conventionally current scenes is shown


by the fact (i) that both Hatshepsut and Amenhotep III used almost identically
the same scenes in their birth reliefs; (2) that the sculptor of Hatshepsut's scenes,
copied his traditional models in every detail, including the sex of the child (of
This was not to conceal the child's sex, for all the pronouns in
course, a boy!
the accompanying texts are feminine!); had he been sketching something new,
prompted by this particular occasion, his sketches would have been made to suit
the occasion.

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

i9o]

in

folk-tale

circulated

which the

among

the

found expression and

state fiction

common

texts,

accompanying the

hotep

III, unfortunately furnish

poem

77

The explanatory
Hatshepsut and Amen-

people.

reliefs of

us only the merest frag-

which the court and the higher


classes heard the story of the monarch's divine paternity.
The meagerness of the surviving fragments of the court
poem makes a comparison with the folk-tale a very brief
ments of the

fine

in

matter, but enough of the former

preserved to show that

is

one quotes from the other, or both quote from a

common

source in traditional stock phrases long orally current.

same gods

For

and at least in
two incidents the same words are employed by both.
189. Later every king claimed Amon (successor of Re)
as his physical father, and in Ptolemaic times the incidents
the

figure at the birth in both,

in the divine birth of the

temple

the

reliefs.^

times, Alexander the

Amon

king were regularly depicted in

The most notable example in late


Great, who journeyed to the Oasis of

that he might be recognized as the god's son,

harmony with a state


old as the Fifth Djmasty. He thus became the
king of Egypt by the only possible means.
therefore merely acting in

190.

In the case of Hatshepsut,

it

a woman, for the entire legend was

result

202).

was

in

some cases

Undoubtedly,

this

fiction as

legitimate

was, of course, a violent

wrenching of the traditional details to apply the

The

fitted

fiction to

only to a man.

startling inconsistency
tale

was

of

Hatshepsut' s

(e. g.,

divine

59-61; Champollion, Monuments, II,


145 sext. ff.; these late representations have not been collected and published;
Much
to put them all, early and late, together would be a very useful piece of work.
material, especially with reference to Alexander the Great, has been collected by
Maspero {Comment Alexandre devint dieu en Egypte, Ecole des hautes 6tudes,

^For example, Lepsius, Denkmdler,

II,

annuaire 1897).
^See Mahaffy, The Ptolemic Dynasty, 15, 16.

EIGHTEENTH

78

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[191

designing her before her birth for the throne,

paternity,

was intended by her supporters to enforce her claims to the


kingship.
The whole was therefore sculptured in a series
of magnificent reliefs at Der el-Bahri, which have suffered
sadly from a twofold attack: by the triumphant Thutmose
III, who erased the figure and inscriptions of the queen;
and by the Amon-hating Amenhotep IV, who did likewise
for those of Amon.
Hence it has been necessary to employ
also the duplicate by Amenhotep III in Luxor. ^
191. The reliefs begin at the south end of the colonnade,
proceed northward (lower row) without interruption, and
conclude at the north end.

THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS^

I.

Scene
192.

Amon

two rows

enthroned at the

at the

right, before

twelve gods'" in

left.

Inscription

The
tween

long inscription of probably twenty-one

Amon and

lines'^

be-

the gods contained the words of the gods

(three lines at the left)

and those

of

Amon

(all

the rest) in

which he has evidently prophesied the birth of Hatshep^ut


and promises her great power; for we can still read:
/

I will unite for her the

Two Lands

to her all lands, all countries.

in peace

I will give

*See 841 ff. I have arranged the Der el-Bahri and Luxor texts in parallel
columns, and find that they largely supplement each other. They are practically
identical.

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 46 (Luxor, Gayet, 73 (66), fig. 189).


cOslris, Isis, Harsiese, Nephthys, Anubis, Hathor, Montu, Turn, Shu, Tefnut,

Keb, and Nut.


behind Amon; all have been carefully hacked away,
and only the tops of the lines have escaped destruction. In front of Amon is
Ramses II's clumsy note: ^'Restoration 0} the monument which King UsermareSetepnere {Ramses II) made, for his father Amon." The note has been cut directly
<ilncluding

two

lines

over the old inscription!

^Amenhotep

III has

Thoth before

this council of

gods at Luxor.

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

195]

79

INTERVIEW BETWEEN AMON AND THOTH*

n.

Scene

Amon

193.

stands at the

Thoth on

before

left

the right. ^

Inscriptions^

The words
of

Ramses

of

Amon

are almost totally illegible, the record

II 's restoration being placed over the lower half.

Without them,

it is

the interview.

The words

difficult to discern the

of

Words

of

thou maiden

194.

Thoth

exact purpose of

are better preserved

Thoth^

whom

thou hast mentioned.

Lo,

an old man.^ Ahmose is her name, the beneficent, mistress of


She is the wife of the king [0]kheperkere
in this whole land,
go thou
(Thutmose I), given life forever. While his majesty is in

"

ii,

to her.

Amon and Thoth


in.

are

now

seen^ proceeding to the queen.

AMON WITH QUEEN AHMOSE^


Scene

Amon and Queen Ahmose

195.

are seated facing each

the god extends to her the symbols of

other;

life.

They

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 47 (Luxor, Gayet, 62 (72).

^The Luxor scene shows one

feature omitted in

Der

el-Bahri, viz., the queen

and Hathor standing between Amon and Thoth. Hathor embraces the queen,
and the fragmentary inscription would indicate that the goddess is informing the
queen of what is to befall her.
^Between and over the gods.

^By combining Der el-Bahri and Luxor.

^End

of

an optative imperative

^Possibly a reference to the fact that the king

is

old as a reason that

Amon

should become the father of Hatshepsut?

gOn

the right of the preceding scene (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 47; Luxor,

63 (71).
^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 47, Luxor, Gayet, 63 (71); a much better text
than Gayet's, although with impossible conjectures in the lacunae, is by Bouriant,
Recueil, IX, 84, 85.

EIGHTEENTH

8o

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[196

upon the heavens,^ symbolic of the exalted character of the interview, supported by two female divinities
who are seated upon a couch. ^ The inscriptions are as
are sitting

follows

The Interview^
196. Utterance of

He made

form

his

kere (Thutmose

Amon-Re,

like the

majesty of this husband, the King Okheper-

He found

I).

her as she slept in the beauty of her

She waked at the fragrance of the god, which she smelled in

palace.

He went

the presence of his majesty.


ea,

lord of Thebes, presider over Kamak.*^

to her immediately, coivit

cum

he imposed his desire upon her, he caused that she should see him

in his

form of a god.

When

he came before her, she rejoiced at the

sight of his beauty, his love passed into her limbs,

of the

god flooded;

all his

which the fragrance

odors were from Punt.

Words

Queen^

oj the

197. Utterance by the king's-wife and king^s-mother Ahmose, in


the presence of the majesty of this august god,

"How

great

united

my

is

thy fame!^

It is splendid to see

majesty (fem.) with thy favors,^ thy

After this, the majesty of this god did

Amon, Lord

of the

mouth.^

have placed^ in thy body,


She

dew

Two

this saying

is

in all

^Upon which

cText behind Amon.

<iThe following

my limbs."

Lands, before her:


this

my

daughter,

which comes out of thy

shall exercise the excellent kingship in this

^Plainer in Luxor.

Thebes:

thy front; thou hast

be the name of

shall

of

that he desired with her.

Amon^

"Khnemet-Amon-Hatshepsut

whom

all

of

Words
198. Utterance of

Amon, Lord

whole land.J

the interview really took place.


is

not really the words of

Amon.

^Behind the queen.

Luxor has a different text here: "


the plans which thou hast
made; thy [heart] is satisfied with my majesty" (feminine).
sNext to the right; four lines.
^Read wd'ny.
f

^The connection

is

not clear.

iThis announcement of the god to Hatshepsut's mother is strikingly like the


announcement of Re to Rededet, the mortal mother of his three unborn children
in Papyrus Westcar (IX, 10, 11): ''He {Re) hath said to her: * They shall exercise
this excellent office in this whole land J "

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

302]

My

soul

rule the

is

Two

rV.

199.

my

hers,

'"bounty"' is hers,

may

Lands,* that she

my

lead

crown
all

''is

hers,''

8i

that she

may

.^

the living

INTERVIEW BETWEEN AMON AND KHNUM^

Amon now

calls in the aid of the

god Khnum, who

created man.
Scene

Amon stands on the left before Khnum on the right. The


following inscriptions

accompany them

Instructions of

Amon^

200. Utterance of Amon, preside! over

Umbs which

together with her ka, from these

her better than

all

have begotten.

all

Kamak:
are in

gods; ''shape for me,"^^ this

have given

joy of heart from me,

to her all life

all offerings,

Reply

of

and

my

" Go, to

me;

make

her,

go, to fashion

daughter,

whom

and

satisfaction, all stability,

all

bread, like Re, forever."

Khnum

form this [thy] daughter [Makere] (Hatshepsut),^ for


for offerings
for love of the beaulife, prosperity and health
Her form shall be more exalted than the gods, in her
tiful mistress.
great dignity of King of Upper and Lower Egypt."
201. "I

will

V.

KHNUM FASHIONS THE

CHILD^

Scene

202

he

is

Khnum is seated before a potter's wheel, upon which


fashioning two male

(!)

children,^

the

first

*Luxor adds: "like Re, forever^' and ends here.


^Nearly two lines of conventional promises, in a very fragmentary
here.
cNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 48

being

state, follow

= Luxor,

63 (71), Fig. 203).


^They have all disappeared but one line. The rendering is partially from
Luxor, with corresponding changes of gender. In fashioning the child (at Der elBahri, PL 48), Khnum repeats the instructions he has received from Amon, which
can thus be reconstructed from this source, also. I have arranged the three sources
in parallel columns,

and employed

Read twt ny f
* Luxor adds:
"together with

^This would indicate that the


used by

Khnum

all.

all his

sNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 48


tional sketches in which, of course,

{Amenhotep Ill's) ka's."

= Luxor,

reliefs

63 (71), Fig. 202).


were made according to old and tradi-

a female child had no place.

in addressing the child are feminine I

All the pronouns

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

82

[203

The frog-headed
Hatshepsut and the second her ka.
goddess Heket, * kneeling on the right, extends the symbol of
life

to the

two children.
Inscription

Khnum repeats the

203.

Amon,

them now

putting

Utterance of

Khnum,

instructions he has received

in the first person.

the potter, lord of Hirur (Hr-wr):

"I have
have come

formed thee of these limbs of Amon, presider over Karnak. I


I have given
to thee (fem.), to fashion thee better than all gods.^
Ufe

(fern.) all

and

from

to thee

satisfaction, all stability, all joy of heart with

me;

I have given to thee (fem.) ^all health, all lands; I have given to thee
(fem.)
all

countries, all people;*^ I

aJOl

have given

to thee (fem.) all offerings,

foodl I have given to thee (fem.) to appear

like

^ I

Re, forever;

have given

upon the throne

to thee (fem.) to

ka's of all the living, while thou (fem.) shinest as

Lower Egj^t,

of

King

of

Horus

be before the

of

Upper and

South and North, according as thy (fem.) father who

loves thee (fem.) has

commanded.

INTERVIEW BETWEEN THOTH AND QUEEN AHMOSE*'

VI.

Scene

204.

Thoth,

Queen Ahmose standing on

who

stands with outstretched

the right

arm

is

saluted

by

at the left.

Inscriptions

They

unfortunately contain only

praise, so that the

Vn.

titles

and epithets of

purpose of the interview

QUEEN AHMOSE

IS

is

not clear.

LED TO CONFINEMENT*

Scene

KJinum and Heket appear on each side of the queen


leading her by either hand.
Before them nine divinities in
three rows of three.
All are led by Amon.
205.

*At Luxor

it is

Hathor.

^In Papyrus Westcar (X, 14) Khnum ''makes sound his limbs"
cUnimportant variants in Luxor.
^Two short lines lost.

(= Luxor, 64 (69), Fig. 197).


49 (-Luxor 64 (69), Fig. 1-98).

Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 48

'Naville, Deir-el-Bahari^ II,


THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

2o6]

83

Inscriptions

They again

and

offer only titles

epithets of praise;

the

some references
^^Thou didst conceive imme-

inscription of Heket, * however, did contain

we can

to the scene;

diately after this,

discern:
"

thou

a child

with

\JGo^]

;" but the bulk of her speech


him^ to the court, to
is hacked out or covered by Ramses II's renewals.
Before

Amon

a long inscription of thirteen

hacked

doubtless contained

out,

lines,

the

now

completely

description

the

of

scene.

THE

VIII.

BIRTH''

Scene

206.

The queen^

sits

enthroned in the middle of the

upper row, holding the child


divinities, acting as

before her are four female

midwives and extending

Behind her are

the child.^

five

goddesses;^

extending to the queen the sign of


rests

upon a couch.

upon a couch, we

their

life.

arms

the foremost,

The

entire

In the middle row, which also

see directly

for

row
rests

under the queen two genii of

myriads of years; and on either side of them the genii of


the east

and

west.*^

The bottom row shows: on

the genii of the north

and south; on the

right,

the

left,

Bes and

" Heket, mistress of Hirur, White One of Nekhen,


deliverer" (at births), in which she is identified with Bileithuia because of similar

*Her titles are

also interesting

functions.

^Khnum

or

Amon ?

cNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 51


<iShe bears the
is

name

(=Luxor, 65

of Hatshepsut

(70), Fig. 199).

But in Luxor the corresponding


and there can be no doubt of the

occupied by the mother of the child,

position
identity

here.

In Luxor, one of these midwives


f

is

passing the child to the next.

and Nephthys; these two, together with Khnum and Heket


queen, and Meskhenet, who sits at the right, are the same five divinities

Among them

who led in the


who figure at the

Isis

birth of the children of

BNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 16.

Re

in

Papyrus Westcar (IX,

23).

^
EIGHTEENTH

84

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[207

Teweret, with a blank space which contained an inscription


now totally gone.^ At the extreme right sits Meskhenet,
the goddess of births, directing the midwives.
Inscriptions

The

207.

Meskhenet

on the

upper row and

( 203).

PRESENTATION OF THE CHILD TO AMON*'

DC.

The

child

is

now

presented to her father by Hathor.


Scene

1.

right in the

utter the conventional promises, as in the

all

Khnum^

speech of

208.

divinities

Hathor, enthroned on the right, extends the child to

Amon, who

is

standing on the

left.

Inscriptions
2.

The

one can

brief

still

words

of

Hathor have almost disappeared;

read: ^^she extends her

Words
3.

Utterance of [Amon]

he jore his majesty

Amon
^

to see his daughter,

Makere (Hatshepsut),

his beloved, the king,

while his heart

oj

arm

living, after she

was born,

was exceedingly happy. ^

[Amon to] his bodily daughter [Hatshepsut]: "Gloriwhich has come forth from me; king, taking the Two Lands,

Utterance^ of

ous part

upon the Horus-throne

forever."

Luxor, but I can see no connection with chap. 137


which Naville finds a resemblance {Deir-el-Bahari, II, 16).

*It is better preserved at

of the

cise

Book of the Dead,

to

^In Papyrus Westcar (X, 13, 14). Meskhenet says: "^4 king,
the kingship in this whole land."
cNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 52

= Luxor,

who

shall exer-

65 (70), Fig. 200).

^The usual promises.

^Exactly the same phrase (ndm yh) is used by the divinities in Papyrus Westcar
(XI, 5), as they announce the birth of his children to Rawoser, saying: "Z^/ thy
heart he happy, Rawoser; behold three children are born to thee."
^

Under

his extended

arm.

THE BIRTH OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

2io]

85

COUNCIL OF AMON AND HATHOR

X.

Scene

209.

Amon

enthroned at the

is

left

Behind the

before Hathor, enthroned at the right.


is

the goddess Serek,*

to its

who

is

holding the child


latter

perhaps summoning the child

nourishment in the following scene.


Inscriptions

They

are unfortunately so defaced that

the conventional promises can be

XI.

made

THE NURSING OF THE

little

more than

out.^

CHILD*'

Scene

210.

On

a couch at the

left

(above)

sits

Queen Ahmose,

supported by a goddess, and before her the child and

its

ka are nursed by two cow-headed Hathors.


Below the
couch are two Hathor cows, suckling the child and its
ka.*^
On the right are the ka's, twelve in number, which
have already been suckled and are being passed on to the
Nile-god and an obscure deity named Heku (hk ^ w), who
present them to three enthroned divinities.
Inscription

It

has almost

all

been hacked out, but we can discern

the words: '^Nursing her majesty (fem.) together with all

her ka'sJ^

*She

is

^'Luxor

lacking at Luxor.
is

no

better.

cNaville, Deir-el-Bakari, II, 53


67 (68), Fig. 194).

(Luxor, 66

(67), Figs. 192

and

193,

and

<JThe children have been hacked out, but they are clear in Luxor. There is a
splendid granite statue of such a Hathor cow in Florence, suckling the infant King

Harmhab.

EIGHTEENTH

86

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[211

SECOND INTERVIEW OF AMON AND THOTH

Xn.

Scene

211.

Amon and Thoth

stand facing each other, and hold

between them the child ^ and

its

ka.*

Inscriptions

Only the conventional promises; the purpose


interview

is

of

the

perhaps the arrangement of the child's future.

THE FINAL SCENE^

Xni.

Scene

Khnum

and Anubis advance, the latter


Before them two female
rolling a large disk before him.
divinities in the upper row present the child and its ka to
a kneeling god (the Nile-god ?), and in the lower row the
212.

At the

left

same scene appears before another unknown


hind

divinity.

Be-

stands Sefkhet, keeping record, accom-

(at the right)

panied by an attendant god.


Inscriptions

Only the conventional promises;


sible to explain the

purpose of

now launched upon

its

it

is

therefore impos-

this scene.

The

child

is

career.

STATUE OF ENEBNI^
213.

Thutmose
^Hacked

statue

upon which the nobleman Enebni

III as ^^her (Hatshepsut's) brother.

refers to

^^

out.

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, II, 55


Fig. 196.

^Statue in the British

Museum.

(=Luxor, 67
Inscription:

(68), Fig.

"Lepsius,

195,

and 64

Auswahl

(69),

der wichtig-

Urkunden, it; Sethe, Untersttchungen, I, 123, e, and cf. also 6, 7, and 51;
also Maspero, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology, XIV, 170 ff.
sten

215]

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

87

Two

Lands,

Made

as a favor ^ of the

Good Goddess,

Mistress of the

Makere (Hatshepsut), living and abiding like Re, and her brother the
Good God, Lord of Offering, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), who is
given

life like

An

Re, forever.

" offering-which-the-king-gives "

^ for the

ka

of the only

excellent one, the favored of his god, the beloved of his lord, because
of his excellence; the follower of his lord

on

South

his journeys in the

country and the North country,*^ the king's-son, chief of the archers,

master of the royal weapons, Enebni {^nbny), triumphant before the


great ennead of gods.

VASE INSCRIPTION^
214.

A small jar, presented

by Hatshepsut

to her mother,

Ahmose, bears the words:


Divine Consort, Great King's-Wife, Hatshepsut; she

made

(it)

for

her mother, Great King's- Wife, Ahmose, triumphant before Osiris.

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT


215.

The

scenes and inscriptions in this series are in

uninterrupted continuation of the birth series ( 187-212).


*The usual formula has: "Given as a
( 366).

^The usual formulary in the name


cThis suggests unknown campaigns

of
of

favor, etc.," see, e. g.,

Senmut

statue

Amon, Osiris, and Anubis is omitted.


Thutmose III, while he was still ham-

pered by the association with Hatshepsut.


Gizeh; text in Mariette, Monuments divers, 48, d i; Maspero, Monties
royales, 633, n. 4; Brugsch, Recueil de monuments, I, PI. 36, 4, and p. 49; Sethe,
Untersuchungen, I, 122, 6, 20.
<iln

^Showing

clearly that the

queen

for a time after her accession bore the usual

of the king's legitimate wife, with

titles

Sethe, Untersuchungen,

same

I,

31 and

36,

no pretense of being king herself. See


where another vase inscription shows the

fact.

and inscriptions on the wall of the northern half of the middle colonnade in the Der el-Bahri temple; they begin on the south end-wall (directly over
the first scene of the birth series, which they continue), proceed northward along
the west wall, and conclude on the north end-wall (directly over the last scene of
the birth series).
They were uncovered by the Fund excavations under Naville,
and pubUshed by Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 56-64.
f

Reliefs

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE

88

III

& QUEEN

[216

They

represent the child consecrated to the kingship by the

gods;

then grown to maidenhood and crowned by them;

crowned by her father, Thutmose I, before the


assembled court. This is followed by some concluding
ceremonies by the gods. The birth series of Amenhotep
III at Luxor continues to furnish a parallel as far as the
coronation by Atum (III) and the reception of names and
crowns (IV). The entire series has been more or less defaced
and systematically hacked out by the queen's political

and

finally

enemies.

The

historical value of the different sections is

discussed as they are taken up.

THE PURIFICATION*

I.

Scene

216.

The

Khonsu on

child^ stands between

the

who

left,

Amon

on the

right

and

are pouring water over her head.


Inscriptions

Both the gods utter the following words


Thou art pure, together with thy ka, [for] thy great
:*"

of

Upper and Lower Egypt,


n.

dignity of

King

living.

AMON PRESENTS THE CHILD TO ALL THE GODS^


Scene

Amon, enthroned at the


knees; before him stand six

217.
his

left,

fondles the child

figures: three (above) rep-

resenting "a^/ the gods of the South,^^

representing

'^all the

scene in the birth series;

and three (below)

gods of the North.^^

^Middle terrace, northern


first

upon

on the south end-wall, upper row, over the


published by Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 56 ( = Luxor,
half,

75 (64), Fig. 186).

^The figure has totally disappeared


cSame in Luxor.
^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 56

at

Der

(= Luxor

el-Bahri, but

is

preserved at Luxor.

73 (66), Fig. 190).

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

221]

89

Inscriptions

They have

218.

as usual been hacked out and further

name

obscured by the barbarous restorations of Amon's

where

it

Ramses

did not belong, by


Words

of

II.

Amon

219. Utterance of Amon-Re, lord of ^[heaven


hold ye,

my

and North, who come

of South

*^

to look

her, ""doing obeisance before her^.


-

220. ^Utterance of
[Hatshepsut],

*She

"Be-

daughter [Hatshepsut]^ living; be ye loving toward her,

and be ye satisfied with her."


He shows her to all the gods

upon

the gods:*

to]

is

Thou

who

all

liveth,

Words

the gods,

we

[to]

Amon-[Re]: "This thy daughter

are satisfied with her in

life

and peace.

now thy daughter of thy form, whom thou hast begotten, prepared.
hast given to her thy soul, thy

her, the lands

knowest the two aeons .^

in

",

thy rbountyi, the magic

were hers, the countries were hers;^

cover, all that the sea encircles.


for thou

"

^Whiie she was in the body of her that bare

powers of the diadem.^

Horus

Gods

oj the

Ufe, the years

all

that the heavens

Thou hast now done ^this with her,


Thou hast given to her the share of

We

of Set in satisfaction.

have given to

here

in.

With

221.

THE NORTHERN JOURNEY^

this incident in the

queen's childhood

we

pass

out of pure fiction into a narrative which possibly contains


^Ramses

II's restoration

^In the blank where the

renders this uncertain.

name

of the queen

had been cut

out,

Ramses

II has

inserted ''Amon.'*

"he causes them

cLit.,

to see her."

Amon himself in the birth


and ns ymy = " belonging to."

^See the same statement by


fiRead fi^ s't (or nt)
f

scenes ( 198).

Periods of 60 years.

gRamses

II has again put in a restoration of

that follow the conventional promises of

^Text
209-11.

first

life,

Amon

much more

wrong

place.

After

satisfaction, etc.

published by Naville, Recueil, 18, PI.

Later and

in the

and

corrections, ibid., 19,


correctly Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 57.
i,

EIGHTEENTH

90

a kernel of

fact.

DYN.:

Having

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[222

actually, during her father's life-

made a journey with him to


warps its purpose (of which we
time,

the north, she


really

know

now

slightly

nothing) and

represents the journey as the occasion of an acknowledg-

coming kingship by all the gods of Egypt as


she proceeds to Heliopolis to be crowned by Atum. According to. the date of her jubilee (year 15), she must have
spent fifteen years as crown prince (being nominated thirty

ment

of her

years before the jubilee).*

After references to her godlike

appearance and blooming beauty, having grown from child-

hood
it is

to

maidenhood, the journey

stated that all the gods

northward.
(11.

8-15)

is

Following

this,

came

is

barely mentioned, but

to her as she

over half of the

journeyed
inscription

occupied with the splendid promises of the gods

regarding the greatness of her future kingdom.

journey northward

is

That

this

represented as primarily in order to

and there be acknowledged and crowned


by Atum, is shown by the accompanying scene, in which
she is crowned in his presence.
222 The same incident occurs in the coronation of Amenhotep III. This was undoubtedly an old custom, for Atum
was the solar deity, who was always associated with the
visit Heliopolis,

kingship; and, as

we

Atum's successor

at Heliopolis, Re,

all

noticed in the preceding birth series,

mortal kings of Egypt.

became the father

In accordance with

of

this old

custom, Amenhotep III also visited Atum, and was crowned

by him, before his accession. The visit of Piankhi (IV,


871) was due to the same custom, and Thutmose Ill's
ascension to heaven (141) to be crowned and receive his
royal naities is but a splendid variation of the customary
fiction.

^See Sethe, Zeitschrift filr dgyptische Sprache, 36, 65.

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

225]

91

The Queen's Growth and Beauty


223. ^Her majesty saw
people,

who

heard, falling

all this

down

things herself, which she told to the

for terror

among them.

^Her majesty

grew beyond everything; to look upon her was more beautiful than
was like a god, her form was like a god, she did
anything; her r
^everything as a god, her splendor was like a god; her majesty (fem.)

">

was a maiden,
divine form to

Buto in her time.

beautiful, blooming,
flourish,

a ^favor

ofi

him

^She

made

her

that fashioned her.

The Journey
224. Her majesty (fem.) journeyed

^to the

North country

after her

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere, who Hveth


There came^ her mother, Hathor, patroness of Thebes Buto,
of Dep; Amon, lord of Thebes; ^Atum, lord of Heliopolis;

father, the

forever.

mistress

Montu, lord

of

Thebes; Khnum, lord of the Cataract;

all

the gods

and North, and approached


pleasant ways, (they) came, and they

that are in Thebes, all the gods of the South


7her.

They

brought

traversed for her,

all life

behind her;

and

satisfaction with them, they exerted their protection

one proceeded %fter another of them, they passed on

behind her every day.


Promises of the Gods
225. They said, "Welcome, daughter of Amon-Re; thou hast seen
thy administration in the land, thou shall set
restore that

which has gone

to its ruin,^

^it

in order, thou shalt

thou shalt make thy monuments

in this house, thou shalt victual the offering-tables of


thee,

thou shalt pass through the land^ and thou shalt embrace ^many

Thou

countries.

the

him who begat

shalt strike

among

mace the Troglodytes; thou

the Tehenu, thou shalt smite with

shalt cut off the heads of the soldiers,

thou shalt seize ^Hhe chiefs of Retenu, bearing the sword, the survivals

*What

thing

tion to the gods,


into youth

is meant is not clear; possibly it refers to the preceding presentawhich she narrates now to the people. Then follow her growth

and beauty, and the journey.

^Ywlj/r

is

a sdm' Jpr' f-iorva..

a clear reference to the queen's restoration of the temples recorded at


Benihasan ( 296 ff.), and plainly indicates the late date of the coronation reliefs,
which are thus evidently later than the temple restorations.
cThis

is

<iRead }pns't t^

{t

^Meaning those

whom

for

two land-signs).
her father Thutmose I had

evidence of his Asiatic campaign.

left;

hence

this is further


EIGHTEENTH

92

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

of thy father.

Thy

thy rrewardi

"thousands of men

Thou

is

tribute is myriads of

thee with

men, the captives of thy valor;

for the temples of the ""Two Lands'".

Thebes, the steps of the king, Amon-Re, lord

givest offerings in

'^Xhe gods have [endowed] thee with years, they

of Thebes.

life

and

[226

'"present"'

satisfaction, they praise thee, for their heart

given understanding to the egg* which ^^[they] have fashioned.

hath

They

boundary as far as the breadth of heaven, as far as the


of the twelfth hour of the night
the Two Lands shall be filled

shall set thy


limits

with children

thy numerous children ^sare (as) the number of thy

grain, Twhichi thou

"

'^

in the hearts of thy people;

beloved.

of the bull of his mother,^

IV.

it is

the daughter

CORONATION BY ATUM^

The queen on the left


presence of Atum standing on
226.

is

led

by Hathor^

the right.

into the

In Luxor, after

being led in by Sekhmet, the king (corresponding to the

Der el-Bahri) kneels before Atum enthroned.''


Before them stands Thoth, of whose inscription only the fol-

queen

in

lowing has survived:


Words

of

Thoth

227. Set his diadem upon his head;

put

titulary

before the gods

RECEPTION or THE CROWNS AND THE NAMES*

V.

228.

The

coronation before

Atum

is

followed by a similar

ceremony before Amon.^


^Meaning the queen.

^Amon-Kamephis.

cNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, III,

57,

58

= Luxor,

73 (66), Fig.

191,

and 74

(65), Fig. 188).

dThere

another divinity before the queen, and there were others behind
Hathor, but all have disappeared.
is

probable that this scene was also in the Der el-Bahri series in the
erased space immediately following the above introduction to Atum.
^'It

is

^The conventional phrases.


BNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 4, where only an account of the scene is given
with a few sentences of text, as the whole is almost completely hacked out. At

Luxor

the scene of the crowns

is well preserved (Gayet,


75 (64), Fig. 184 incom*
Denkmdler, III, 75, c), but the scene of names is omitted.
of course a later custom, as Amon himself is a later god.

plete; better Lepsius,

l^This

is

1 231]

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

93

Scene

embraced by Amon, enthroned


at the left; from the right approach two goddesses,^ one
bearing the crown of Upper and the other the crown of
Lower Egypt, and behind them are the genii of the cardinal

The queen,*

standing,

is

points.
Inscriptions

229. Presented to thee

Re; thou
Lands by

shalt

is this

red crown, which

wear the double crown, and thou

this its

is

upon the head of

shalt take the

Two

name

Presented to thee
shalt take the lands

is this

by

its

white crown, mighty upon thy head; thou

diadem, by
Reception of

this its

name.

Names

There was here a scene (wanting in Luxor), representing the reception by the queen of her new royal names,
conferred by the gods."" The scene is totally destroyed,
with the exception of the figures'^ of Sefkhet and Thoth ( ?)
on the right accompanied by the words:
230.

Writing the name. Golden Horus:


the name,

King

VI.

of

Divine of Diadems.

Writing

Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere.

PROCLAMATION AS KING BEFORE AMON^


Scene

231.

The

queen,

in

king's

costume, with the double

Upper and Lower Egypt, stands before Amon,


enthroned on the left. Behind the queen are the genii of
the cardinal points, and behind these again Sefkhet and
Thoth are keeping record.

crown

of

^From Luxor, where, of course, it is the king.


^From the Der el-Bahri inscription it is evident that they are Nekhbet and
Buto, the goddesses of South and North, as we should expect.
cSee the conferring of names upon Thutmose III ( 143 ff.) by the gods.
Later, when the queen's names are really conferred by the officials, it is naively
"

explained that they have been revealed to the


dNaville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 59.

officials

by the god

( 239).

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari; III, 59, 60.

94

EIGHTEENTH

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[232

Inscriptions

The accompanying

inscriptions are either destroyed or,

where preserved, show only conventional phrases. That


the coronation before the gods is complete is seen from the
fragmentary words of Thoth:

diadems [upon thy

set

these

thy

head].^^

CORONATION BEFORE THE COURT*

Vn.

We now

232.

^^Thou hast

queen, which

reach the alleged real coronation of the

is

represented as taking place before the

command

Thutmose I, who retires from the


throne in Hatshepsut's favor. As she bore the title ^^ great
king^s-wife,^^ for some time after her accession,^ it is clear
court, at the

that she

of

did not immediate Iv succeed her father in the

kingship as here represented.

This

233.

fact alone shakes one's confidence in the truth

but to this fact we must add

of the coronation inscription;

another

still

more

given as the

first

decisive.

The

of Thoth,

New

The

remarkable coincidence.

date of the coronation

Year's Day, of

selection of this date

Thutmose

plained as intentional on the part of

which

itself
is

is

ex-

I in a passage,

states :*=

^First published

212; finally,
60-63.

much

by Naville

PL

corrections, ibid., 19, 211,


better (but not without errors) in Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III,
in Rectteil, 18,

^See Sethe, Unterstcchungen,


Sprache, 36, 67.

I,

III;

31 and 36, and

Zeitschrijt fiir dgyptische

"at (r) the festival day (^-disk) of her


coronation; when the first day of the year and the beginning of the seasons should
be united, etc." (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 7, 1. 33). The /^-disk cannot be read
as the sun-disk ("day"), for it lacks the stroke, never lacking with the sun-disk
in this inscription (e. g., in the neighboring lines twice, 1. 27 and 1. 29).
We must
read r^-/, "he knew, recognized." Nfr follows in the usual construction with n.
There is not a shadow of doubt as to the correct rendering. Later: Naville's
later altered rendering, in a recent number of Sphinx, is grammatically imcNaville's rendering

possible.

is

as follows:

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

234]

**He (Thutmose

New

on^

I)

Day

Year's

Thutmose

Day

But

if

very

(of years) of

many

day

and

of the

jubilees."^

therefore ostensibly selected

as the most auspicious

tion.

we

recognized the auspiciousness of a coronation

as the beginning of the peaceful years

spending of myriads

95

New

Year's

for his daughter's corona-

we examine her obelisk

inscription (318,

1.

8),

find that, as she actually reckoned, the beginning of her

regnal year

somewhere between the first of the sixth and


the twelfth month, and not on New Year's

fell

the thirtieth of

Day.

Finally, this account of the coronation in the

Bahri temple,
coronation of

is

Der

el-

taken verbatim from the account of the

Amenemhet

III

in

the

Middle Kingdom

temple at Arsinoe,*" and deserves no more credence than the


geographical

lists

of

Ramses

have been copied from the


teenth Dynasties.

Habu, which
the Eighteenth and Nine-

III at Medinet

lists

of

It is clear that this entire

coronation of

an artificial
creation, a fiction of later origin, prompted by political
As such it is closely paralleled by the similar
necessity.
representations of Ramses II in his great Abydos inscripHatshepsut,

like

the

supernatural birth,

is

tion (III, 251-81), with the sole difference that his father is

stated to have remained as coregent

on the throne.

Scene

234.

Thutmose

I is

enthroned at the

left,

with his daughter

standing before him; in their presence three rows of court-

standing on the right.

iers

^Lit., "of,"

H 239,

11.

making

the phrase,

''New Year's

33, 34.

cFragments

in Berlin (Nos.

1 5801-4;

den
character
of
knowledge
the
owe the

see Aegyptische Inschrijten aus

Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin, Heft III, 138). I


my friend, Mr. Alan Gardiner,

of these fragments to
to them.

coronation."

who

kindly called

my attention

EIGHTEENTH

96

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[235

Inscriptions^

They

furnish the only surviving account of such a corona-

monarch and the

the presence of the superseded

tion, in

court.

Thutmose I Summons His Daughter

to be

235. 'There saw her^ the majesty of her father,


divine

her great fashioner

is

Her heart is glad,

Crowned
this

Horus;^ how

(for) great is

her crown

*she advocates her cause rin^ truth, ^exalteri of her royal dignity,
of that

palace of

and the

in the palace,

assume thy royal


lious;

shalt

were

living

Said his majesty to her:

".

me

have placed (thee) before

Thou

^The

which her ka does.

and

set before her'^ 3in his

''Come, glorious one;^ I

that ^thou mayest see thy administration^

excellent deeds of thy ka's^ that thou

dignity, glorious ^in thy magic,

be powerful in the

Two

mayest

mighty in thy strength.

Lands; thou

shalt seize the rebel-

^thou shalt appear in the palace, thy forehead shall be adorned

with the double diadem, resting upon the head of the heiress of Horus,

whom

I begat, 'daughter of the white crown, beloved of Buto.

The

by him who presides over the thrones

of the

diadems are given

to thee

gods.

Thutmose I Summons

^My

236.

majesty caused that there be brought to him the digni-

taries of the king, the nobles, the

and the

and

companions, ^the

in vertical lines, divided into three groups

The language

the group of courtiers.

is difficult

officers of the court,*

may do homage,^

chief of the people, J that they

^They are

the Court

is

in

many

to set the

maj-

by the king's throne

respects unusual, the whole

and sometimes uncertain.

^Hatshepsut.

^Meaning King Thutmose

I,

to

whom

all

the following epithets are applied.

^Referring to the court spectators.

Of course, read:
f

<^-f-n-ys' t

as in

1.

10.

Addressed to his daughter, the queen.

8She has already seen

it

in the land at large

on the northern journey (224,

1.8).

^That which the ka does,


^Of course, correct
iRlf.y't,

is

to reign;

the phrase

to Sny't.

a class of people not yet closely defined.

^Ndt-hr.

is

not

uncommon.

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

238]

Horus* before him

esty of ^the daughter of this

There was a

sitting^ of the

97

"

in his palace of

i.^

king himself, "in the audience-hall of the

-^ht of the ^courti, while these people prostrated themselves^ in the


rt.

Thutmose Fs Address

237. Said his majesty before them: "This

who

.mon, Hatshepsut,

my
my

successor^ ^^upon

my

liveth, I

of the palace; she

it

assuredly

command

name

who

evil in

^blasphemy of her majesty

upon

Horus

daughter of a god, for

by

(viz.,

whom

my

name).^

even the gods

day according

exert their protection every

shall die.

of her majesty (fem.),

immediately into the royal chamber, just as

of this

shall sit

is

the people^ in every place

Whosoever proclaims with unanimity the name


the

is

she

who shall lead you; ^sye shall proclaim her word,


her command. He who shall do her homage shall

he who shall speak

'^shall enter

[her]

it is

ye shall be united at
live,

my daughter, Khnemet-

have appointed

throne, she

wonderful seat.^j__jShe shall

Court

to the

it

For ^^thou
fight;

was done by
art divine,

behind

to the

whom

command

they

of her

father, the lord of the gods.^

The Court and People Acknowledge

the

New

Queen

238. ^^The dignitaries of the king, the nobles and the chief of the
people J hear ^this

command

for the

^Meaning the king, Thutmose

advancement

of the dignity of

I.

Possibly referring to the tomb-temple of Der el-Bahri,


3 (note).
where the scene is engraved. In this case, the events narrated took place in the

^See

1.

Der el-Bahri temple

itself.

cSee sitting of year 9, Punt relief ( 292,


^Lit.,

"were upon

1.

i).

their bellies."

At this point the inscription


seated in a pavilion, etc.

is

interrupted by the scene representing the king

^This word (ys'ty) is very important; for it indicates, not association as coregent, but accession as successor.
It is used in the same sense, precisely, by the

nomarch Key

(I,

692).

command matters to the people {rjty't)."


name of the new queen is to be as effective in

sLit., *'She shall

l^That
as

is,

the

had been that of the king, her


Here the text

named

in

11.

is

1.

father.

interrupted by the bas-relief of the three rows of officials

8, 9.

JSee 236,

securing entrance

9, n. f.

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE

98

III

& QUEEN

[239

Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut)


They kissed the earth at his feet, when the ^^royal
living forever.
word fell among them they praised all the gods for the King of Upper
and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere (Thutmose I), Hving forever. They
went forth, their mouths =^^rejoiced, they published his proclamation
his daughter, the king of

[to]

them.

All the people^ of all the

dwelUngs

^^of the court

they came, their mouths rejoicing, they proclaimed


thing,

(it)

dwelhng on dwelling ^^therein was announcing

soldiers

on

soldiers

"

1,^

(it)

Tproclaimedi, they ''proclaimed''

her majesty (fem.) as king;


while the great god was

beyond everyin his

name;

they leaped and they danced *sfor the double

They

joy of their hearts.

heard;

the

name

of

while her majesty (fem.) was a youth,

* ^turning''

(Hatshepsut), living forever,

"=

their hearts to his daughter,

when they recognized

that

it

Makere
was the

and ^^thus they were excellent in her


great soul beyond everything. As for any man who shall love her
in his heart, and shall do her homage every day, ^%e shall shine,
and he shall flourish exceedingly; [but] as for any man who shall
speak against the name of her majesty, the god shall determine his
death immediately, ^^even by the gods who exercise protection behind
fa[ther] of the divine daughter,

The majesty

her every day.

of this her father hath published

this,

for king.

upon 3 the name of this his daughter


While her majesty was a youth, the heart of his majesty

incUned to

[her] exceedingly.

all

the people'^ have united

Proclamation of the Queen's

239. 3iHis majesty commanded that the

Names
ritual priests

be brought

names that belonged to the assumption of the


dignities of her royal crown and for insertion in (every) work and every
seal of the ^zpavorite of the Two Goddesses, who makes the circuit
to '"proclaim"' her great

north of the wall,

who

clothes all the gods of the Favorite of the

Two

Goddesses. 33He has recognized the auspiciousness of the coronation on

New

Year's

*See

^A

Day

236,

1.

as the beginning of the peaceful years

9, n.

^See

cf.

of the

f.

verb of shouting

^Written twice,

and

is

lacking, as

it is

construed with hr.

note a.

236, n.

Some ceremony unknown to us. The whole line refers to ceremonies in


which the oflScial name of the monarch must be used (see 57).

THE CORONATION OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT

240]

spending of myriads

(of years) of 34very

many

jubilees.

claimed her royal names, for ^sthe god caused that


hearts to

make

made them

it

99

They

pro-

should be in their

her names according to the form with which he had

before:^

36Her great name, Horus: [Wosretkew {wsf t-k^ w)],^ forever;

Two

37Her great name, Favorite of the

Goddesses:

''Fresh in

Years," ^ good goddess, mistress of offering;

s^Her great name. Golden Horus: "Divine of diadems;"*^


39Her great

who Uveth

name

Kjng

of

Upper and Lower Egypt: "Makere,

forever."

her real

It is

of

name which

made

the god

beforehand.

SECOND PURIFICATION*

VIII.

240. After the public coronation, further ceremonies of

the gods follow.


First Scene

The queen

led

is

away by

the god KJieseti.

Inscriptions

The

first

(day) of the

first

season.

New

Year's Day, the

first

of the

King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Favorite of


Goddesses, who makes the circuit north of the wall, the Feast

peaceful years of the


the
of

Two

Shed

^The leading away


his

Mother,"

of the

to enter the

"Great House"

"Great House"

(rfor

thei)

(""byi)

the "Pillar of

purification of the

"Great House."

aThey were inspired to announce the same names which the god had already
conferred upon her before ( 230). This is to explain how the officials knew the
same names already conferred by the god.
^'' Mighty of doubles."

cW^d't

^The complete
ing.

This

^Ntr't-}}^ w.

rnp'wt.

titulary should contain five

last fifth

name was her

personal

names

of which the last

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 63.

the queen.

hCf.

150.

I,

Titulary of the queen.

here lack-

name, Hatshepsut, which she had

already received in childhood.

gOver

is

Over the god.

JA

priestly title.

EIGHTEENTH

icx>

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[241

Second Scene

The god Kheseti, standing at the right, holds over


the queen, who stands at the left, a vessel in the form of the
241.

sign of

life.

Inscription

Over the queen, merely her name with

over

epitheta;

the god, the following:


I

have purified thee with these waters of

all health, all

all

joy of heart, to celebrate very

satisfying

many

life, all stability,

jubilees, like

Re, for-

ever.

DC.

242.

The queen

CONCLUDING CEREMONIES*
is

now

led

away by Horns, and

several

ceremonies follow, which are too nearly destroyed to be


clear,

but one of them was the

of the wallj^^ in

above. ^

The

^^

making

accordance with the

coronation

is

title

0} the circuit

of the

now regarded

north

queen used

as complete, for

Horus says: ^^Thou hast established thy dignity as king,


and appeared upon the Horus-throne,^^

SOUTHERN PYLON INSCRIPTION AT KARNAK<^


There

a distinct tendency on the part of Hatshepsut


to show especial respect to her father, Thutmose I.
The
243 .

is

evident purpose of the following inscription

is

to

make

clear that her father recognizes her right to rule as king.

represents

him

It

shortly after her accession, as praying for

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 63, 64.

^In

240,

and elsewhere.

cOn

the north side of the third southern pylon, left wing, below; text: Lepsius,
Denkmdler, III, 18; Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 113, 114; translated by de Rouge,

Melanges (Tarcheologie egyptienne,

The

inscription

is

46 f.; Sethe, ibid, I, 27, 28 (cf. also p.


very mutilated, and some omissions have been necessary.
I,

i).

KARNAK SOUTHERN PYLON INSCRIPTION

245]

loi

and favor of the gods upon her reign, ^ and the


entire document is of course, the work of the queen herself.
244. The accompanying scene shows Thutmose I standing on the right before Amon, Mut, and KJionsu, the Theban
triad on the left; the inscription of twenty lines occupies
Over half of it is occupied with the
the space between.
names, titles, and fulsome epithets of Thutmose I, and the
the blessing

translation omits these, beginning in the middle of

with the king's address to the three


/

245.

"

come

(the

to thee, lord of gods;

dominion

of)

my

11,

divinities.

[before] thee, in return for this that [thou hast put]^

Red Land^ under

1.

do obeisance^

"the Black and the

daughter, the King of Upper

and Lower Egypt, Makere^ (Hatshepsut), who Uves forever, just as thou
^^.
didst put (it) under (the dominion of) my majesty
Thou hast given to me the kingdom of every land in the presence of the
Two Lands, exalting my beauty while I was a youth .... [the Black
Land] ^^and the Red Land are under my dominion. I am satisfied with
victories, thou hast placed every rebellious land under my sandals which
.

thy serpent-diadem has bound, bearing their

ened the fear

[of

me]

^stheir

them

in victory according to thy

[they

come

to

Tribute
because

of

her

^ ^^

^^fthe

thou hast strength-

made my subjects;
countries with bowed head.

all

are

the heart of

my

desired, that she be associated with [thee]^

^Lit.,

I,

majesty

is

glad

my daughter
whom thou hast

concerning

petition^]

Wosretkew,^ King of Upper and Lower Egypt, of

^Sethe has shown (Unterstcchungen,


tion of Hatshepsut as coregent.

limbs tremble, I have seized

command; they

me] doing obeisance, and


^^

gifts;

28) that

it

"that"'

thou mightest

does not record the installa-

"smell the ground."

cSethe's emendation, Unterstichungen,

1,

113.

^The black land of the valley and the red of the desert hills.
^The name has been changed to that of Thutmose II, but the queen's name
can

still

be read.

^The conventional praise of the king; in the following lines which are very
fragmentary, only the references to the queen are translated.

gHorus-name of Hatshepsut.
^Apparently a play on her name, "Associaie

of

Amon" (Khnemet-Amon).

I02

EIGHTEENTH

assign [this] land

[to]

[my]

beloved

me

[246

Make her prosperous as King

her grasp.

'9mayest thou [Tgranti] for

concerning

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

the prayer of the

first

time,

(fem.)

my

petitions

under

her

majesty (fem.).

THE PUNT RELIEFS^


These are undoubtedly the most interesting series
reliefs in Egypt, and form almost our only early source of
246.

of

information for the land of Punt.

They

are as beautiful

in execution as they are important in content.

an important expedition

of the

queen

They

thither,

record

which was

successfully concluded just before her ninth year ( 292,


247.

The

only

earlier

evidences of

intercourse

1.

i).

with

Fourth Dynasty a Puntite negro


appears as the slave of one of the sons of King Khufu;^ in
the Fifth, King Sahure sent an expedition thither (I, 161, 8),

Punt are as

follows: In the

*In the Der el-Bahri temple, occupying the south half of the middle terrace
(corresponding to the Birth and Youth on the north half, 187 ff.). See accompanying plan (p. 105). First copied by Diimichen and published by Diimichen,
Historische Inschriften, II, 8-20, and Fleety 1-3, and 18, a; then by Mariette,
Deir-el-Bahari, 5-10.
The excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund since
1894 have for the first time uncovered all the Punt reliefs, and they have all
now appeared in the superb publication of the Egypt Exploration Fund (Naville,
The Temple of Deir-el-Bahari, Introductory Memoir, Pis. 7-10, and Vol. Ill,
Pis. 69-86).
Unfortunately, the old publications have not been collated and the portions since lost, added.
It is therefore still necessary to collate Mariette and
Diimichen; I have placed all copies in parallel columns as a basis for the present
translation.
The inscriptions and reliefs have suffered, not merely from the hand
of time and modern vandalism, but the inscriptions and figures of Hatshepsut were
hacked out by her political enemies after her fall, and the figure and neighboring
inscriptions of Amon, wherever occurring, were later erased by Amenhotep IV.
The faint traces remaining on the wall are difficult to read; hence the numerous
errors in the old publications.
The most useful treatments are Erman {Life in
Ancient Egypt, 505 ff.), Maspero (Struggle 0} the Nations, 247-53, with very full
citation of the older bibliography) and for Punt especially see Miiller (Mittheil;

ungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, III, 42; also Orientalistische Litteraturzeitung, II, 416) and Krall (Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Blemyer und Nuhier,
" Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie," Philologisch-historische Classe, Vol.
XLVI, 4te Abhandlung) to which is added an excursus on Punt).
^Lepsius, Denkmaler, II, 23; see

Erman, Aegypten,

670.

THE PUNT RELIEFS

J 248]

103

and King Isesi sent another, which brought back a dancing


dwarf (I, 351); in the Sixth, an officer of Pepi II, named
Enenkhet, was killed by the Sand-dwellers on the coast, while
building a ship for the Punt voyage (1, 360), and another expedition thither under the same king was led by the assistant treasurer, Thethy (I, 361); in the Eleventh Dynasty,
Henu, chief treasurer of King Senekhkere-Mentuhotep III,
dispatched an expedition to Punt, which he accompanied

Red Sea (I, 430) in the Twelfth


Amenemhet II, named Khentkhetwer,

only to the coast of the

Dynasty, an

officer of

records his safe return from Punt

(I,

604-6);* and finally

an expedition under Sesostris II (I, 618).


these sources contains more than the meagerest ref-

there

was

None

of

also

erence to the fact of the expedition.


248.

The

reliefs illustrating

her expedition, which Hat-

shepsut had carved in her beautiful


therefore, as stated, the first

Der

and only

el-Bahri temple, are

full

source for a study

Punt and the voyage thither. The expedition, like


those of Henu^ and of Khentkhetwer, may have left the Nile
at Koptos, and proceeded by caravan to Wadi Gasiis on the
Red Sea, where the ships may have been built.*" But as no
shift of cargo is mentioned, and the same ships depicted as
sailing the Red Sea are afterward shown on the Nile, it is
possible that the canal through the Wadi Tumilat connecting the Nile and the Red Sea had existed from the Twelfth

of ancient

Dynasty, having been

The

question of the location of Punt

M.

of the Sesostrises."^
is

too large for dis-

Petersburg papyrus of the Middle Kingdom, in possession


Golenischefif, narrates the adventures of a shipwrecked sailor on a voyage to

^A
of

made by one

fairy-tale in

St.

Punt.

^As Henu returned by way of Hammamat, he must have sent


from the Red Sea terminus of the Koptos-Hammamat road.
cCf. the ship of

dStrabo, XVII,

Enenkhet
i,

26.

(I,

360).

his expedition

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

I04

cussion here, but

was

it

was

[249

and probably

certainly in Africa,

the Somali coast.

249.

The

scriptions

and the accompanying

successive scenes

the story of the expedition so clearly that

tell

introductory outline

is

necessary.

250. Historically,

it

is

and that

reliefs,

ordinate position, so that, as far as this source


is

no

important to note that Thutmose

III appears only once in the Punt

the queen

in-

is

in

a sub-

concerned,

the author of the expedition, which she under-

takes in accordance with an oracle of

The arrangement

Amon

( 284).

on the wall is interesting; Punt is at the extreme south (left) on the end wall
of the colonnade (see plan), and the fleet bound thither is
placed by the artist with prows literally toward the south,
251.

while the returning


stern toward

Punt

fleet is

of the reliefs

correspondingly represented with

in the south

and bows

The

to the north.

successive scenes then proceed northward (to the right)

and

conclude on the north end-wall.

I.

DEPARTURE OF THE FLEET ^


Scene

two of which are

252. Five vessels,

already under
the pilot's

The

sail.

command,

to a tree has

above

it

and health
of Punt

prosperity,

mistress

"

Dumichen,

72> 73t>Lit.,

''maker

Fleet of

^\An

"

its

small boat lashed

(fem.),

that she

rest

stern

offering) for the

of her majesty

*First scene on the west wall, lower row;


Mariette, Voyage dans la haute Egypte, II, 63;
II, 11;

porV^

the words:

moored, the

bearing over

last vessel

^'Steer^ to

still

may

to

lije,

Hathor,

bring wind;^^

Marie tte, Deir-el-Bahari, 6 below;


Dumichen, Historische Inschriften,

an Egyptian Queen,

i;

Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III,

EIGHTEENTH

io6

DYN.:

THUTMOSE

showing that a propitiatory offering

is

III

& QUEEN

being

made

[253

ashore

as they leave.*
Inscriptions

253. ^Sailing in the sea, ^beginning^ the goodly way toward God'sLand, journeying ^in peace to the land of Punt, by ^the army of
the

Lord

Two

of the

Lands, according to the command^

Sof the

Lord

Amon, lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, ^in order to


bring for him the marvels of ^every country, because he so much loves
^the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, [Makere (Hatshepsut)],^ >for
his father Amon-Re, lord of heaven, lord of earth, ^more than the
of Gods,

other kings

"who have

been

II.

^*in this

RECEPTION IN PUNT*

The voyage has been

254.

land ^3forever.

safely

made, and the expedition

has landed.
Scene^

On

head of his
etc.,

king' s-messenger^^

advances at the

A pile of necklaces,

hatchets, daggers,

the right the


soldiers.

^^

before him, ostensibly an offering to Hathor, are for

trade with the Puntites, whose chief, "Perete," advances

from the

left to

meet the Egyptians.

Behind him follow

abnormally fleshy wife,* "E^i," their children

^Cf.
offering

sons*

Erman, Aegypten, 675. Henu in the Eleventh Dynasty made a similar


as he dispatched his Punt expedition (I, 432; see also III, 423).

^Lit.,

"taking the head 0} the

cSee Oracle,

the old erasure;


*^his

^On

way"

285.

name has been

<iThe queen's

hence

two

his

the following clause, to

father"

and

Ramses II inserted his name over


the word "earth" is also due to him;

cut out; later

the entire loss of connection with

1.

10.

two rows; Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari, 5; Diimichen,


Historische Inschriften^ II, 8 and 10; Naville, Deir-el-Bahari^ III, 69. As Naville
has unfortunately not added the now lacking portions contained in the old publications, it is necessary here to employ them also.
the south wall, lowest

^Lowest row.

sOnly

been stolen from the wall;


see Diimichen, Residtate, LVII; photograph in Mariette, Voyage dans la haute
in the old publications, as this block has

Egypte, II, 62.

THE PUNT RELIEFS

258]

107

and a daughter* and three Puntites* driving the "a^s


which hears his wife.^^ Behind these is a landscape in
Punt, showing

among

the trees the houses of the Puntites

Below the whole is a line of


on poles (Pjahlbauten).
water, showing that the scene is near the sea or the haven
The inscriptions are
in which the Egyptians have landed.
set

these:

Over

the Egyptians

255. [The arrival] of the king*s-messenger in God's-Land, together


with the army which is behind him, before the chiefs of Punt; dispatched with every good thing from the court, L. P. H., for Hathor,
mistress of Punt; for the sake of the

life,

prosperity,

and health

of her

majesty.
Before

256.

The coming

the-

Puntites

of^ the chiefs of

bowed head,

to receive this

lord of gods,

Amon-Re

army

Punt, doing obeisance, with

of the king; they give praise to the

.^

Over

the Puntites

257. They say, as they pray for peace: '*Why have ye come

which the people know not

thither*^

Did ye come down


upon the ways of heaven, or did ye sail upon the waters, upon the sea
Have ye trodden fthe way oi^Y Re ? Lo, as for
of God's-Land ?
the King of Egypt, is there no way to his majesty, that we may live by

unto

this land,

the breath which he gives

Before the Leader of the Puntites

258.

aQnly

The

chief of Punt,

Perehu {P'^-r^-hw).

^Egyptian

in the old publications.

"hy"

cHere evidently the name of the queen originally stood; it was then erased by
Thutmose III, and in the time of Ramses II the blank was mistaken for an erasure
Traces of
of Amon's name by Amenhotep IV, which name was then inserted.
the old inscription are visible at the end.
^Lit.,

"Why

The people

^The
supplied.

have ye reached this?"


of

text has

Egypt

"Re"

(rm{).

See the oracle,

285,

1.

10.

as the direct object of "trodden;"

something must be

EIGHTEENTH

io8

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

His Wife

Before

His wife, Eti

[259

(^Z);).^

Over the Ass

The

ass

which bears

his wife.

THE TRAFFIC^

ni.

Scene^

259.

who

At the

right

stands before

is

the tent of the

^^

king^ s-messenger,^^

Before him are the products of Punt,

it.

and approaching from the

a long line of Puntites,

left is

bearing similar products; at their head, as before, the chief

and

enormous

his

At the extreme

wife.

left

the Puntite

landscape, as in II.

In
260. Pitching the

teixt

the Tent

of the king's-messenger

myrrh-terraces of Punt on the

side'^ of

and

his

army, in the

the sea, in order to receive the

There are offered to them bread, beer, wine,


meat, fruit, everything found in Egypt, according to that which was
commanded in the court, L. P. H.
chiefs of this country.

Before the Egyptian

261. Reception of the tribute of the chief of Punt, by the king'smessenger.


Before the Puntites

262.

The coming

Punt bearing

of the chief of

of ^the sea before the king's-[messenger]^

^Before the two sons


daughter."

who

follow her:

^South wall; references as for

^^

His

II.

tribute at the side


.

son;**

before the daughter:

"His

cgecond row from below.

"on the two sides of" from which Diimichen


{Geschichte, 120) would locate Punt on both sides of the Red Sea, but this dual is
a common idiom, meaning no more than a singular. See 262, where it is absurd
to suppose that the chief of Punt is bringing his gifts "at both sides of the sea/"
Diimichen's translation "von beiden Seiten" is, moreover, impossible, for the text
<iThe Egyptian has a dual,

has "upon," not "von."

^Egyptian "by."
f

These words extend over the Puntites;

lost at the end.

it is

uncertain

how much

has been

THE PUNT RELIEFS

265]

109

LOADING THE VESSELS*

IV.

Scene

Two

myrrh trees, sacks


of myrrh, ivory, woods, apes; on shore^ and ascending the
gang-planks, men carrying sacks and trees.
263.

vessels heavily laden with

Over
264. (^Look

to!) ^

Men

your

with Trees on Shore

feet,

ye people!

Behold

the load

is

very

heavy
^Prosperity rbei with

rus,""

for the sake of the

Amon;

of God's-Land, for the house of

there

myrrh
is

tree in the midst

the place fwherei

it

be made to grow for Makere, in his temple, according to com-

shall

mand.
Over

the Vessels

265. ^The loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of *the
country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods of God's-Land, heaps

myrrh trees, ^with ebony ^ and pure ivory,


Emu, (^ ww), with cinnamon wood, ^khesyt wood,^

of 3myrrh-resin, with fresh

with green gold Sof

with ihmut-incense, ^sonter-incense, eye-cosmetic, ^with apes, <>monkeys,

"with skins

*dogs, ^'and

and

^stheir children.

who has been

^^of the

southern panther, ^^^ith natives

Never was brought

^^the like of this for

any king

since the beginning.

^South wall, uppermost row; first scene on the west wall, upper row; Mariette,
Deir-el-Bahari, 5 and 6; Diimichen, Historische Inschrijten, II, 9 and 12;
Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, 2; Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 69 above, and 74
below.

^At the

cA

left,

guess;

part of the

men

over the scene of the

traffic.

and some similar exclamation on the


be expected. Note the Puntites represented

the words are broken away,

carrying the trees

is

to

as speaking Egyptian!

^Words

of a second

man.

^Fragments of the Punt wall show the felling of the ebony trees, with the
inscription: "CtUting the ebony in great qtiantities*' (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III,
70).
^

Sweet wood, used in making incense.

EIGHTEENTH

no

THUTMOSE IH & QUEEN

DYN.:

[266

THE RETURN VOYAGE*

V.

Scene^

Three vessels under


merated in 265.
266.

full sail,

with the cargo enu-

Inscriptions^ over the Vessel


Sailing, arriving in peace, journeying to

the

army

of the

Lord

of the

Two

Lands, with the chiefs of

They have brought

behind them.

Thebes^ with joy

that, the

Hke

of

of heart,

this

by

country

which was not

brought for other kings, being marvels of Punt, because of the greatness of the fame of this ^revered god,

Amon-Re, Lord

of Thebes.^

PRESENTATION OF THE TRIBUTE TO THE QUEEN BY


THE CHIEFS OF PUNT, IREM, AND NEMYEW^

VI.

Scene^

267.

At the

right the cartouches of the queen,

defaced; approaching from the


gifts,

led

by four

left,

two

lines of kneeling chiefs,

lines of

badly

men

with

being the chiefs of

Punt (two lower lines), ^^the chiefs of Irem^^' (upper middle


line) and ^^the chiefs of Nemyew^^^ (Nm^yw, upper line,
Behind them approach Egyptians and Puntites
negroes).
with myrrh trees and other products of Punt.
^Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari, 6; Voyage dans la haute Egypte, II, 63; Diimichen,
Historische Inschriften, 13; Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, 3; Naville, Deir-el-

Bahari, III, 75.

^At the right of the


^This scene

is

^Beginning at the right.

vessels loading.

therefore

upon

the Nile, not

upon

the

Red

Sea.

ePunt.

^Restored by Ramses
erased by Amenhotep IV.

II,

supposing that the name of

In

reality, it

Amon had

been here
was the name of Hatshepsut which had

been erased.
gMariette, Deir-el-Bahari,
Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 74

6;

Diimichen, Historische Inschriften,

and

76.

14,

15;

^Over the loading of the ships and the return voyage.


iThe location of these two countries is uncertain; Nemyewis entirely unknown,
and it is a question whether Irem is one of the inland Nubian countries or on the

Red Sea

coast north of Punt.

THE PUNT RELIEFS

27i]

iii

Inscriptions^

268.

'

Wosretkew^ (Hatshepsut) by
the Nubian Troglodytes of Khenthen-

[Kis]sing the earth to

the chiefs of Punt

nofer, every country

doing obeisance with bowed

of

head, bearing their tribute to the place where her majesty

ways not trodden by others


dominion of her majesty and counted ^

tribute each year ^^which her father

hath

set all the lands

(fern.) is

every country

lord of Thebes, as

Amon

the Chiefs of

Punt^

269. They say as they pray for peace from her majesty
to thee, king (sic) of

Egypt,

Re

(fem,),^

sun, your sovereign, mistress of heaven


as far as the circuit of heaven, the
encircles the

VII.

^who

fappointed"!] for her,

beneath her sandals, living forever.

Over

''Hail

is

f sea^]

fame

of

(fern.):

who shines like the


Thy name reaches

[Makere (Hatshepsut) J^^

THE QUEEN OFFERS THE GIFTS TO AMON^

'

Scene

270.

of

The queen

stands at the

before her the products

left;

Punt and Irem (lower row), brought back by the expedi-

tion,

mingled with those of Nubia (upper row).


Before the Queen

271. The King himself, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut) ; presentation^ of the marvels of Punt, the treasures

*By the queen's cartouches.

^he

queen's Horus-name:

"Mighty in

cMore probably a short lacuna

The remains
^Feminine;

Senmut

bo's.

^Referring to

here.

Amon.

of a similar inscription are visible over the chiefs of

cf.

the similar "female

Horus"

(obelisk-base, south,

Nemyew.
1.

i,

314;

statue, 354; etc.).

gTraces of the cartouche in Naville, (PI. 74); the determinative for "sea"
also probable, and suits the context admirably.
hMariette, Deir-el-Bahari,
17;

7, 8;

Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 77,

iAn absolute
being the date.

infinitive

Dumichen, Historische
78, and 80.

used as the

title

is

Inschrijien, II, 16,

of the scene, the preceding royal

name

EIGHTEENTH

112

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[272

God's-Land, together with the gifts of the countries of the South,


with the impost of the wretched Kush,^ the baskets of the Negro-land,

of

Amon,

to^

lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, for the sake of the

Upper and Lower Egypt,


Makere (Hatshepsut), that she may hve, abide, and her heart be joyful;
that she may rule the Two Lands like Re, forever.
life,

prosperity,

and health

of the

By

of

the Trees ^

272. Thirty-one fresh myrrh

trees,

Amon,

the majesty of this god,

King

brought as marvels of Punt for

lord of Thebes;

never was seen the

like since the beginning.

Under
Electrum;

eye-cosmetic;

the Trees^

throw-sticks

of

the

Puntites;

ebony;

ivory, Tshellsi {k^ S).

With Panther^

southern panther alive, captured for her majesty (fem.) in the

[south] countries.

Miscellaneous Objects

Electrum;^

Vin.

many

is

closely connected with the preceding

presentation scene, of which


tion.

3,300 (small cattle) .^

WEIGHING AND MEASURING THE OFFERINGS^

This scene

273.

panther-skins;

It is

it

forms the unbroken continua-

accompanied by the following descriptive

^By an evident emendation.

cLower row.

^Construe with "presentation.'*

^Upper row.

^Lit.,

"brought" (ynyy);

of wild beasts, e.

g.,

it is

regularly used of prisoners

also the lions

text:*

and apparently

captured by Amenhotep III ( 865).

more panthers show fragments of a similar

also

Two

inscription.

^With four chests, probably made by Thutiy (376, 1. 31).


gOver a gap among these oflferings is the inscription recording the Asiatic

campaign of Thutmose II (125).

^On the right of the preceding scene in two rows; Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari^
Diimichen,
Historische Inschriften, II, 18, 19; Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III,
8;
79, 81, 82.

iAt the extreme right in five columns, behind the figure of


offering incense (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 82).

Thutmose

III

|,

THE PUNT RELIEFS

277]

113

274. ^The king himself, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,

Makere (Hatshepsut).*
laying the hand on the

Taking the measure

"

(hk't) of the electrum,

of the heaps, first instance of doing the

Measuring of the fresh myrrh unto Amon, lord

things.

lord of heaven, the

first

of the harvest

countries of Punt.

The

lord of

of

good

Thebes,

of the marvels of the

Khmimu

(Thoth) records them in writ-

Her^ majesty (fem.) sherself, is acting


with her two hands, the best of myrrh is upon all her Umbs, her fra-

ing; Sefkhet counts the numbers.

grance

divine dew, her odor

is

is

mingled with Punt, her skin

with electrum, ^shining as do the stars^ in the midst of the

There

before the whole land.

rejoicing

is

by

all

is

gilded

festival-hall,

the people; they give

Makere (Hatshepsut)

praise to the lord of gods, ^they laud

*=

in her

divine quahties, because of the greatness of the marvels which have

happened

Never did the

for her.

like

happen under any gods^ who

May she be given fife, like Re, forever.

were before, since the beginning.

Measuring Scene^

Two

huge heaps of myrrh are being scooped into


measures by four men; a fifth, whose figure has been carefully erased, is Hatshepsut's favorite, ^Hhe scribe and steward,
275.

Thutiy^^ (369
for the queen;

ff.),

who

keeping record of the measure

is

Thoth
Amon.

while the god

performs a similar

office for

Over

the

at the extreme right

Myrrh Heaps

276. Heaps of myrrh in great quantities.

Over

the

Men

Measuring

277. Measuring the fresh myrrh, in great quantities, for Amon,


lord of Thebes; marvels of the countries of Punt, treasures of God's-

Land, for the sake of the

aThe

date.

life,

^Read

prosperity

and health

.^

-s for -/.

women of ancient Egypt.


^Yellow stars painted on a blue field form a common ceiling decoration. For
comparison of the king with a star, not so common as with the sun, see I, 510 ff.,
cA bold

1.

figure referring to the yellow

hue of the

2.

eThat

is,

"kings"

^Lower row

gThe queen's name has been

erased.

(Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 79).

EIGHTEENTH

114

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[278

Bejore Thoth

278. Recording in writing, reckoning the numbers, summing up


in millions, hundreds of thousands, tens of thousands, thousands and
hundreds; reception of the marvels of Punt, *for Amon-Re, lord of

Thebes, lord of heaven.*

Weighing Scene^

huge pair of balances piled on one side with commercial gold in large rings, against weights in the form of
cows on the other side, is presided over by the gods Horus
and Dedun of Nubia,^ standing at the left. At the right is
279.

Round and

Sefkhet, the goddess of letters, keeping record.

cow

^^

weights j^^ and quantities of ^'eledrum^^ in bars and

rings, are piled

up beside the
Over

balances.

the Balances

280. The balances, accurate and true, of Thoth, which the King of

Upper and Lower Egypt, [Makejre (Hatshepsut), made for her father,
Amon, lord of Thebes, in order to weigh the silver, gold, lapis lazuli,
malachite, and every splendid costly stone, for the sake of the life, pros.^
perity, and health of her majesty (fem.)
Under

the Balances

281. Weighing the gold and electrum,


ern countries, for

Kamak

Amon-Re,

the impost of the south-

lord of Thebes,

presider over

A
Before Sefkhet

282. Recording in writing, reckoning the numbers, summing up in


milUons, hundreds of thousands, tens of thousands, thousands, and

Reception of the marvels of the South countries, for Amon,

hundreds.

lord of Thebes, presider over

^Amon

is

Kamak.

here not properly restored by

^Upper row

Ramses

(Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 8i).

^Because the gold comes from Nubia.


<lThe

name

of the queen has been erased.

II;

see

end

of 9.

THE PUNT RELIEFS

284]

115

FORMAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE SUCCESS OF THE


EXPEDITION BEFORE AMON^

IX.

Scene

before

The queen stands at the extreme left, staff in hand,


Amon, enthroned at the extreme right. Behind the

queen

is

283.

the sacred barque of

Thutmose

before which

III*=

Amon

offers

borne by priests,^

"(?/

the best of jresh

myrrh J^
Inscription

284.

This long

and Amon falls


and encomium

Amon

of

all

this favorable

7-9),
^^

of the

and

queen

that

between the queen

The first contains the titulary

two parts.

It is here

statement that

To

into

(11.

1-4), followed

4-6), in accordance with

(11.

was made.

text in vertical lines

by the oracle

which the expedition

repeated, in order to enforce the

was commanded has been done

statement

Amon

(11.

when

the

by Egyptians, but

their

products were obtained only through intermediaries


10-12).

The

6).

replies with praise

reverts to a description of former times

myrrh-terraces^^ were not visited

(1.

success of future expeditions

is

(11.

promised, and

guidance of the expedition just successfully carried out


mentioned. The inscription closes with further praise of

his
is

the queen,

which gradually becomes too mutilated

for trans-

lation.

*At the extreme right; Mariette, Deir-el-Bahari, 10; Diimichen, Historische


Inschriften, II, 20; through some confusion in Diimichen's papers his 1. 10 and
1.
II have exchanged places, and Mariette has the same mistake!
It is clear,
therefore, that Mariette's text is drawn from Diimichen, an astonishing number of
errors having crept in during the process.
From these sources Sethe constructed a
skilfully emended text (Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 103, 104), which is sustained in
almost all cases by the last and best text (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 84), which
is undoubtedly very nearly correct.
The entire inscription has been carefully
hacked away; hence the numerous errors in the old publications, a collation of
which demonstrates the superiority of Naville's texts.
^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 83.

^^Ibid.,

82.

EIGHTEENTH

ii6

Titles

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

and Encomium

of

[285

Hatshepsut

Mighty in Ka's; Favorite of the Two Goddesses:


Fresh in Years; Golden Horus: Divine in Diadems; King of Upper
of Amon, whom he loves,
and Lower Egypt: Makere (Hatshepsut),
285. ^^Horus:

who is upon his


of the

Two

whom he has made to flourish the inheritance


kingdom of the South and North, ^to whom he

throne, for

Lands, the

hath given that which the sun encompasses, that which

She hath no enemies among the Southerns, she hath no foes

inclose.

among

Keb and Nut

and every country which the god


hath created, they all labor for her. ^They come to her with fearful
They
heart, their chiefs with bowed head, their gifts upon their back.
present to her their children that there may be^ ^given to them the
breath of life, because of the greatness of the fame of her father, Amon,
the Northerns; the heavens

who hath

set all

lands beneath

hfer

sandals.

The Oracle

The

king himself, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere

(Hatshepsut).

The majesty

of the court

steps*^ of the slord of [gods];

made

supplication at the

command was heard from

throne, an oracle of the god himself, that the

ways

to

the great

Punt should be

searched out, that the highways to the Myrrh-terraces should be penetrated: *^"I^ will lead the

from God's-Land

army on water and on

land, to bring marvels

for this god, for the fashioner of her beauty."

It

was done, according to all that the majesty of this revered god commanded, according to the desire of her majesty (fern.), in order that
she might be given life, stability, and satisfaction, like Re, forever.
Promises of

Amon
"Welcome! my
Upper and Lower Egypt,

286. ^Utterance of Amon-Re, lord of Thebes:


sweet daughter,

*The

first line

my

favorite, the

King

at the left before the queen.

of

This

first

part comprises six lines.

^Read [m] yswt ? Compare 804, 1. 3.


cThe steps leading up to his throne, which have been hacked away in the
relief, but are shown to have existed by the lower ends of the lines of text which
shorten by steps in front of the throne (Naville, Delr-el-Bahari, III, 84).
dThe first person in the same sentence where the god occurs in the third person
is

of course very strange.


Lit.,

^^

Comet Cornel in

peace.''*

THE PUNT RELIEFS

2^8]

Makere (Hatshepsut) who makes my

monuments, who puriof the great ennead of gods for my dwelling, as a memorial
^Thou art the king, taking possession of the Two Lands,
,

the seat

fies

of her love.

Khnemet-Amon, Hatshepsut,

Thou

my

satisfiest

satisfaction

heart at

from me,

is

times;

all

all

them

loj

of the gods of

h^ve given to thee

all countries,

for thee,
""of

all

all life

health from me,

all

lands and

behold them until those myriads of years


thought to spend!,

have given thee

from me,

all stability

I have long intended

glad.

beautiful

great in oblations, pure in food-offerings.

9from me, I have given to thee


heart

117

all

and
joy

wherein thy

and the

aeons shall

usefulness which I have

Punt as

far as the lands

God's-Land."

Punt in Former Time


287.
not;

it

"No one trod the

was heard

of

Myrrh-terraces, which the people (rm/)

from mouth

The marvels brought

mouth "by hearsay

to

of the ancestors

thence under thy fathers, the Kings of

Lower Egypt, were brought from one to another, and since


of "the ancestors of the Kings of Upper Egypt, who were of
return for

many payments;^ none

will

the time
old, as a

reaching them^ except thy carriers."

Punt under
288. "But I

knew

the

Queen

cause thy army to tread them,^

^^i

have led them

on water and on land, to explore^ the waters of inaccessible channels,


and I have reached the Myrrh-terraces."
"It is a glorious region of God's-Land; it is indeed my place of
I

delight.

have made

for myself, in order to^ rdiverti ^4niy heart,

it

together with Mut, Hathor, Wereret, mistress of Punt, the mistress,


'

Great in Sorcery,' mistress of

all

gods.

They^ took myrrh as they

wished, they loaded the vessels to their hearts* content, ^^with fresh

myrrh
(rm/)

trees,

know

every good

gift of this

not. Southerns of

^Meaning that

in going

country, Puntites

God's-Land.

I conciHated

the people

them

by^^ love

from hand to hand many successive prices were paid.

^The Myrrh-terraces.
cThis is the word {wh
used long before of exploring unknown countries
Old Kingdom by Harkhuf (I, zZh 334) and employed again by the queen
'=>)

the

whom

her speech (294,

dRead
elsis.

1.

r for yr.

11).
^

Hatshepsut's people.

8Lit., ^'because of."

in
in

EIGHTEENTH

ii8

DYN.:

THUTMOSE IH & QUEEN

[289

that they might give ^^to thee praise, because thou art a god, because

fame

of thy

^1

the begetter,

know

Amon-Re

my

am

thy father,

come

who

sets thy fear

in peace to all gods.

^^gum

am

who

daughter,

their wise lord,

binds the

lords,-

'among the Nine Bows, while they

They have brought

beautiful thing of God's-Land, for


of

'them'',

I have begotten her for myself.

the king [Makere] (Hatshepsut).

is

am

in the countries.

all

the marvels, every

which thy majesty^ sent them heaps


:

myrrh, and enduring trees bearing fresh myrrh, united

of

May thy majesty


order to deUght my

in the festival-hall, to be seen of the lord of the gods.

my

cause them to grow.^


heart
all

My

among them.

name

is

temple, ^^in

before the gods, thy

name^

is

before

Heaven and earth are flooded with incense;


Great House. Mayest thou offer them to me, pure

the living, forever.

odors are in the

^and cleansed, in order to express the ointment for the divine limbs,
to offer myrrh, to

make

am making

laces, while I

of seeing thee."

my

ointment, to itiake festive


^^Ubations for thee.
^

statue with neck-

My heart is glad because

FORMAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE SUCCESS OF THE


EXPEDITION TO THE COURT ^

X.

Scene

289.

kiosk,
(see

The queen

is

enthroned at the

left

in

a splendid

and before her are the figures of three noblemen


All the figures have been hacked out.
348).

^Feminine
scourge; the

The

of the second feminine singular suffix

is

visible

of "fnajesty" (hn't) should be over the scourge, as in

^The verb

is

s'rwd'k^ with nominal subject (sdm'k

1.

under the

18.

form, Sethe, Verbum,

II,

434).

That this is the proper emendation is shown by the Semneh


Thutmose III (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 52, &, line before goddess).

cRead: rn't pw.


inscription of

dThe remainder,

consisting of four short

and two long

and contains only the conventional promises

lines, is

very fragmentary

of the gods.

On the south side of the causeway which ascends through the center of the
middle terrace. The date and a few random words were published by Dumichen
{Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, 18, a); but the first complete text by Naville {Recueil,
18, PI. Ill, corrections, ibid., 19, 212, 213;

III, 85, 86.

much

better, Naville, Deir-el-Bahari,

THE PUNT RELIEFS

291]

119

"

Inscriptions

The

290.

texts

with the noblemen are as follows:


With

Behold,

it

the First

was commanded, as

Man

follows: **They shall give the court,^

L. P. H., to the hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole

companion, chief treasurer, Nehsi,^ to dispatch the army

With

Two

the

oj the court, L.
^^^

the middle:

Steward

of

favorite of the

queen

no individual
hacked out by
mose III.

inscription.*"

(see

This

Punt

is

expedition

in

Senmttt,^^jthe well-known

345

The

ff.).

All three

third

man

bears

have been

figures

Inscription^

perhaps the most interesting inscription in the

It furnishes the

series.

man

enemies after the triumph of Thut-

political

The Long
291

king^s-dignitarieSj the

P, iJ.," and over the

Amon,

Punt."

Men

Other

Over both are the words: "T/te


companions

[to]

had already

date ('^year p")

The

safely returned.

when

queen, having

publicly exhibited the results of the expedition (VIII),

having announced

its

Amon

success to

the

himself (IX),

and

now

holds ceremonious court, to announce in a speech from the

*The meaning

of the phrase

is

not clear, but

it

seems as

if

**

court" were here

used for "decree of the court."

^This

man

has therefore been identified as

who commanded

the

word "dispatch"

(sby) does not

parallel case of

Henu

Punt expedition.
(I,

427

f.;

mean

But

*'the king' s-messenger"

this conclusion

to conduct, as

especially 432,

11.

( 260, 261)
does not follow; the

we may see in the exactly


13, 14), who conducted the

expedition only to the sea and then dispatched (sby) it to Punt, returning then,
not from Punt, but merely "from the sea." Hence we have no evidence that Nehsi
did more than accompany the expedition to the sea, and the " king' s-messenger"
is

probably a different man.

cHe
last

so.

is

supposed by Spiegelberg {Recueil,

22, 115-25) to

be Thutiy ( 369

ff.).

din 22 columns before the queen; it has all been more or less hacked out, the
six lines (excluding one phrase) and the upper fourth of lines 6-16 completely

EIGHTEENTH

I20

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[292

throne to her nobles the unprecedented success of the

She

expedition.

Amon

in

Egypt ^

glorifies herself as
(11.

having made a Punt for

14 and 16), and exhorts them to main-

tain in the future the increased offerings

established

8 and 15).

(11.

This

which she has

was apparently the

last

practical purpose of the session.


Introduction

292. ^Year

occurred the sitting in the audience-hall,^ the king's-

9,

appearance with the etef-crown, upon the great throne of electrum, in


the midst of the splendors of

his*^

The grandees, the comcommand was brought, a *royal

palace.

panions of the court, came to hear; a

companions of the king,

edict to his*^ dignitaries, the divine fathers, the

the grandees:

Queen's Speech

293. **I shine forever in your faces through that which my father
hath desired.'i Truly, it was greatly my desire in doing, that I should

make

sgreat

should

him

make

splendid for

the ancestors

Lord

that begat

knew

of Eternity;

done.

him

not, I

I will cause

am
it

to

me; and

am

in assigning to

all his offerings

my

father, that I

that which

my

fathers,

doing as the Great One^ (did) ^to the

adding increase to that which was formerly


be said to posterity:

'How

beautiful

is

she.

*In the weighing and measuring scene the trees, of which there were three,
appear planted in tubs; and again they appear planted in the ground, and thus
a ^^Punt" was made for the god. It is possible that not only the trees, but also
the terraces of the temple are a part of this "Punt," and that the terraced structure
of the temple planted with myrrh trees thus reproduced the "myrrh-terraces."
This could not be better described in the text than by calling it "a Punt." The
fact that the temple is a reproduction of the small terraced temple of Mentuhotep
III does not prohibit us from supposing that the queen was conscious of the resemblance above noted. The service and equipment of the temple receive some light
from the mention of its High Priest, with twelve subordinate priests in four orders
(see note, 679).

^See

I,

239,

and

note.

cThese masculine pronouns simply represent the word "king" here, {^ h ^stny and Sps'w-stny is what is meant), and do not refer personally to the queen.
d" I shine as king, because my father Amon willed it so."
^" Great

One"

is

feminine and means

Isis,

the deceased Osiris, "the Lord of Eternity."

referring to that

which

Isis

did for

THE PUNT RELIEFS

295]

through
to
is

whom

this

has happened,' because I have been so very excellent

my

him, and the heart* sof

due

to him.

am

He

among you;

ye

may

beginning of being, nothing


8

of

qualities

worW.

excellence, that I speak a great

my

grasp

you upon the land

Ye

of

am the god, the


my mouth, beloved
I

virtues.

that goes out of

fails

shall fulfil according to that

my mouth^
for the future. I have given a command of my majesty
of him who begat me should be made splendid, that
Your

which I have exacted.


1

in the nether

shall shine for

it

that which he desired.

"

and

the august god, he hath opened

my

hath recognized

thing fwhichi I set


the Hving

heart* has been replete with that which

his splendor ^on high,

have entered into the


^

121

that the offerings

lifetime

is

the hfe ^that

"

the ointment should be increased

isi

in

of prime ointment of the

"

pure ox, in order to supply with offerings

>>

Punt Expedition Commanded


**

294.

fa decree

my

ofi]

the Myrrh- terraces, to explore his


to

open

majesty commanding to send to

ways Hot him,!

his highways, according to the

"

command

to learn his circuit,

of

my

father,

Amon.

for choice ointment, in order to express ointment for the

owed

divine limbs, which I


the laws of his house.
in the

ground in

to the lord of gods, in order to estabUsh

Trees were taken up in God's-Land, and


for the king of the gods.

'3[Eg)^t]*^

set

They

were brought^ bearing m)TTh therein for expressing ointment for the
divine limbs, which I

owed

to the lord of

Gods."

Punt in Egypt
295. Said

my

majesty (fem.):

*'I will

cause you to

know

that which

commanded me, I have hearkened to my father ^4


which he hath
commanding me to estabhsh for him a Punt

is

*Two

that
in his

words in Egyptian, but the distinction between them, if any,


One expects
see the thirtieth chapter of the "Book of the Dead."

different

not clear;
"for his heart."

is

^My

words control your lives?

had been planted were found by the Fund


excavations before the lower terrace at the inner end of the dromos. They contained earth and tree stumps which proved to be of the Mimusops, that is, the
cThe

pits in

which certain

Persea (Naville, Zeitschrift

dRead: yn'tw.

fiir

trees

dgyptische Sprache, 37, 52).

EIGHTEENTH

122

THUTMOSE

DYN.:

III

& QUEEN

[296

house, to plant the trees of God's-Land beside his temple, in his garden,

according as he commanded.
offerings

which I owed.

It

^5

was done, in order to endow the


I was [not] neglectful of that which he

Ye shall fulfil according to my regulations without transgression


He hath desired me as his favorite
of that which my mouth hath given.
his desire and that
I know all that he loveth; he is a god ^^
which he loveth
I have made for him a Punt in his garden, just
It is large for him, he walks abroad
as he commanded me, for Thebes.
needed.

"

i.

in it."^

^7

22

Hathor, mistress of myrrh;

she hath opened to thee (fem.) her two arms with resin

INSCRIPTION OF THE SPEOS ARTEMIDOS*^


296. In this remarkable

has

left

document the energetic queen

a record of her systematic restorations in the temples

which had been desolated by the barbarities of the Hyksos,

and had remained so down to her reign. There is a reference to the Punt expedition (1. 13), so that the inscription
dates from some time after the ninth year. Its references
to the Hyksos coincide remarkably with the account of their
treatment of the temples as recorded by Manetho. The
Hyksos are called ^^ A sialics ^^ (^^mw), and their city is
^^Avaris (h't-w^r't) of the Northland.''
the cliff-temple of Pakht, on
cut, is

whose front the

building of

inscription

is

mentioned only incidentally with the queen's other

pious works.
is

The

The language

is

often unusual,

and the whole

so badly preserved that there are necessarily

many

omis-

sions in the translation.

*Lit.,

"under

it,'*

referring to the trees.

^Ll. 17-21 are so completely

hacked out that not a sign can be read.

cCut high up on the front of the cliff-temple of Pakht, excavated at Benihasan


by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, called Speos Artemidos by the Greeks, Stabl
Antar by the modern natives. The inscription was discovered and published by
Golenischeff {Recueil, VI, 20; see also ibid., Ill, 1-7). It is in a bad state of preservation, and the copy is evidently a hurried one.

INSCRIPTION OF THE SPEOS ARTEMIDOS

299]

123

The Queen's Power


297.

=^He

'

hath established her great name

heavens.

She hath made excellent the

Red Land

of the

Goddess

of the

of her might o-ver the

'records''

Mountain^ as

like the

^r

far as the rising

flame behind the two hill-countries.

set his

Restoration of the Temples

the

298. The altars are opened, the sanctuaries ^are enlarged


desire of all gods; every one

is

in possession of the dwelling

he has loved, his ka rests upon his throne


^

colonnades

Emu.^

with electrum of

Every

command

are perpetuated,

their

on

its

body

Their feasts are permanent at the division of

my^ maker; the


which he made in

of

its

forever, because of the

time by the Tauthority"*

regulations of the

commandant

My

divine heart

this

^
.

searches for the sake of the future; [my] heart

known

[statue] is overlaid

the time, 'the festival offering fis made^] at


of the

which

that which

command which

it

had not

the hidden persea tree,

lord of myriads (of years), communicates.

The Queen^s Piety and Power


299. 9l have made bright the truth which he loved,

he Uveth by

am "a
to

it

Hkeness from

make

(the truth)

my

it is

bread, I eat of

limbs, one with him.

[his]

strong his might in this land.

He

lord"!

its

lands together are under

authority, the Black

"My

authority.

^See Sinuhe,

^The passage

I,

493,

1.

"in

(of the world).

and the Red are


of the countries
all

lands.

The

15.

refers to rebuilding the temples.

^Written here ^m'>

mw;

iBeginning with

7,

inscription, the

that

brightness,^ I

Atum

fame makes the great ones


bow down, while the uraeus upon my forehead s

under
to

my

my

know

hath begotten me,

Khepri doing that which Re exacted at the foundation

The

[I]

1.

cf.

the

Miiller,

first

Asien und Europa, 119.

person appears and continues to the end of the

queen being the speaker.

ein the sun-hymn of Sute and Hor (British Museum, 826, 1. 16), Sute says to
the sun-god, "/ acted as an effective leader among thy monuments, performing the
truth of thy heart, I know thou restest in truth."

^An extraordinary

idea, but clearly in the text.

sDoubtless a verb of subjugating or the

like.


EIGHTEENTH

124

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

land of ^^Reshu* and the land of Yu,^ they cannot rhideT from

Punt

esty;

is

mine, and the

fields of

the highways which were closed up,

smote that which was

Restoration of the

my

maj-

^^sycamore bearing fresh myrrh,

^sMy

and the two ways.

since

[300

my

soldiers

appearance as king.

Temple

of

Cusae

300. The temple of the Mistress of Cusae

which had begun to

*^

had swallowed up its august sanctuary, so that


the children played upon its house; ^'the serpent,*^ it caused no fear;
fall to ruin,

the ground

the poor counted the


I adorned

it,

"

in the rcoveringi, ^^no processions rmarchedi.

having been built anew, I overlaid

image with gold;

its

'9in order to protect its city

Building of the Temple of Pakht

301. Pakht the great, who traverses the valleys in the midst of the
I made her
eastland, *whose ways are fstorm-beateni

The

temple with that which was due *'to her ennead of gods.

were of acacia wood,

The
.

and

this;

her city

*^

in

made divine

^^l
"

"

fwas wrought^] with

^ssilver,

arms

22

3-3f 3

I built his great

*^of alabaster of

w probably

^Fourteenth

He

*^

of the god.^

were

an Unknown Temple^

whose house there was no understanding;

the divine fathers

^1

"

gold, chests of linen, every vessel that abides in the place

302

'"at the seasons.

the offering- table

Restoration of

bronze.

temples, furnished with that which comes forth

their
.

knew

priests

fitted with:

doors

nome

for

of

gave readiness to the

temple of limestone of Ayan,

Hatnub, the doors were

'-if

^-ty;

see Miiller, Asien

of copper, the

und Europa,

Upper Egypt, whose goddess was a

local

"

its
'^

133.

Hathor.

dPerhaps referring to the serpent of the goddess.


^Possibly:

^^The poor counted the breaches in the wall;"

but this

is

a mere

guess.

'Nearly one-half

line.

8The paragraph

deals with another divinity

who he may

be.

^This must refer to the queen

herself.

and

his temple;

it

is

not clear

3033

INSCRIPTION OF THE SPEOS ARTEMIDOS

thereon

were

electrum,

splendid

"

Feathers."*

with feasts

of
"

the feast of Thoth; I added to

doubled for him the

" Him-of-the-Two-Lof ty-

I [honorjed ^^the

with

which had been previously; as

offerings,

125

majesty of

him

this

["offerings"']

god

anew

an 3iincrease upon that

I did for the Eight, for

Khnum

in

[all]

build

Renenet and 32Meskhenet together, in order to


33
[Neh]emewi and Nehebkew,

great in 34walls,

and

his forms, for Heket,

in foundation.

equipped

it;

made

it

festive,

3Swhom Amon has made

I gave houses to the lord

to

appear as king himself upon the throne of Horus.

Restoration of the Desolation of the

Hyksos

303. Hear ye, all persons! ye people as many as ye arel


done this according to the design of my 36heart.^
restored that which

was

I have
I

have

have raised up that which was unfinmw) were in the midst of Avaris of the

ruins, I

ished^ 37since the Asiatics

(^ ^

Northland, and the barbarians'^ were in the midst of them, 38overthrow-

"the lofty of two feathers," a title of Min, a figure of whom was therefore on the door.
The ^'shadow,*' which was often put on the door, has the determinative of Min's figure; hence there is no doubt that it is such a "shadow,"
*Lit.,

which

is

meant

here.

^This rare phrase (m ^3]i y^'y) occurs also on the statue of Senmut (Lepsius,
Denkmdler, III, 25, /, correct nh to k), and in a clear passage over vases "of costly

which his majesty made according to the design {k^'t) of his own heart"
(Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1187) among ofiFerings of Thutmose III. See Breasted,
Proceedings of the Biblical Society of Archeology, May, 1901, 237.
stone,

^3tp-h^ty-^,

lit.,

^The same term

"begun;"

cf.

use of stp in beginning a journey.

applied by Thutmose III to his foes in Lebanon (II, 548).


W. M. Miiller {Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft, 1898, Heft 3, p. 7),
would recognize in this term {Sm ^
or i ^ mw) a class or nationality different from
Hyksos;
the
but if the word means simply strangers (Coptic "shemmo"), as Miiller
is

mw

no distinction at all, for the Hyksos were also "strangers." The


construction of the whole context shows that it is one of those poetic passages common in such inscriptions, the parallelism is evident:
"I have restored that which was ruins,
I have raised up that which was unfinished.
Since the Asiatics were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland,
thinks,

it

indicates

And
"Them" is
"Asiatics."
is

very

the barbarians were in the midst of them."

That a land or a part

common

and does not refer to the


should be resumed by a plural pronoun

therefore parallel with the "Northland,"

of

it

in the inscriptions of Egypt.

EIGHTEENTH

126

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[304

ing that which was made, while they ruled in ignorance* of Re.

command

did not do according to the divine

When

was sofirm upon the throne

two periods of years ^

my

against

enemies.

of Re, I

tains;

my

when

commanded

the sun 4shines,

majesty;

my Horus

is

It is

my

that
(its)

majesty (fem.).

was ennobled

until the

as Hor-watit^ ^oflaming

removed the abomination

captured the land of their sandals.


I have

came

my

until

He^

of the great god,

[I]

a regulation of the 'ifathers

[titulary]

abide like the moun-

rays are bright

high upon the standard

upon the
r

titulary of

forever.

THE KARNAK OBELISKS^


304.

Of

the queen's four obelisks at

Kamak, one

pair

has entirely disappeared from the temple; their position

is

unknown, and only the summit of one is now preserved in


Cairo (320 and Zeitschrift jilr dgyptische Sprache, 30,

PL

II); of the surviving pair

one

still

great Nineteenth Dynasty hypostyle hall,


its fallen

companion

lies

stands behind the

and the summit

of

near by.

Standing Obelisk

The

standing survivor

being 97I feet

high.*^

is

now

The

monuments can be followed


them was begun on the first
^M

^w, or

it

may mean

^A sudden change
cEach

of

the largest obelisk in Egypt,

history of these

two important

Work upon

for a long period.

of

Mechir

(sixth

month)

in the

"without."

number; the individual rukr

of the

Hyksos

is

meant.

sixty years long.

^Meaning: "the only Horus," and of the feminine gender.

The land which they

trod.

on standing obelisk: Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 22-24, d; ChampoUion, Monuments, IV, 314; Notices descriptives, II, 133 ff-; Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, I, 31 f. Fallen obelisk: Lepsius, Denkmdler, HI, 24, a-c; Recueil,
X, 142; 23, 195 f.; Champollion, Notices descriptives, II, 136.
^Inscriptions

gPetrie, History of Egypt, II, 131 (Naville's statement that they are the largest
known (Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 37, 52) is an error; the obelisk of Thut-

mose

III, before the

Lateran in Rome,

is

the highest

known;

see 626).

THE KARNAK OBELISKS

305]

queen's fifteenth year* by Senmut, the

The quarry work

127

queen's favorite

enormous
shafts from the granite at Assuan was completed on the
last of Mesore (twelfth month) of the queen's sixteenth
year, seven months after beginning.
Transported to
Thebes on a huge barge, drawn by a large fleet of galleys
(see 322 ff.), they were destined for erection, not before a
( 345

fT.).

temple, as
his

two

of clearing the

customary, but in the historic hall built between

is

Kamak

pylons,^ by the queen's father,

the hall where, fifteen years before, her father

planted by

Thutmose

Whether

III.

procedure

in the following

is,

Thutmose I,
had been sup-

this fact influenced

of course, purely conjectural,

but in order to introduce her obelisks into this

broke away the southern wall, removed

umns

of

Thutmose

her

on the southern

northern, of course unroofing

all

she

the cedar col-

all

side

hall,

and four on the

but the northern quarter

and thus totally dismantling the place, which


could no longer be employed for religious ceremonial.
305. A relief on a few fragmentary blocks at Karnak
shows the queen presenting two obelisks to Amon of Karnak
these may be the pair with which we are now dealing.
Before the queen is the following inscription:
of the

hall,*^

"^

The king
father,

erection of two great obelisks for her (sic!)

himself;^

Amon-Re,

in front of the august colonnade,

Their height pierces to heaven, illuminating

ingly plentiful electrum.

the

Two Lands

beginning;

like the sun-disk.

Never was done the

that she might be given

aBase, north side,

wrought with exceed-

318,

1.

life.

^IV and V.

8.

like since the

See

317,

11.

7-8.

cThutmose III restored the northern half ( 600-2), and Amenhotep


southern ( 803

II,

the

ff.).

Naville at the Congress at Rome (see


partially published by Naville (Zeitschrift fiir

dFound by Legrain, and reported by


Revue egyptologique, IX, 108-10);
agyptische Sprache, 37, 53)

Guimet,

XXX, PL

The

and

fully

by Naville and Legrain {Annales du Musie

XII, A).

relation of this phrase to the following

is difficult.

EIGHTEENTH

128

306.

On

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[306

obelisks were supplied with the

erection, the

usual single, central column of inscription on each face.


Later, side columns were added.

Some time

completion of the side-column inscriptions,

were surrounded by masonry up

and the

top,

inscriptions never

before the

the

obelisks

to the fifth scene

from the

were finished

(see

Sethe,

During the extermination of


the Amon cult by Amenhotep IV, he had the name of Amon
erased from them,^ and two or three generations afterward
the name of the dishonored god was recut by Seti I.^
307. The inscriptions on the shaft will be clear from the
Untersuchungen,

I,

54, 55).

translation below; those of the base are of unusual interest.

They

furnish the date of the obelisks,

and the beginning

fifteenth

viz.,

of the sixteenth year of the

Their erection celebrates

queen's reign.

rence^^ of the queen's jubilee,

the end of the

^^the first

a feast marking the

occur-

thirtieth

anniversary of the sovereign's appointment as crown prince.

This would place the queen's appointment

fifteen

years

before her accession to the throne.

I.

SHAFT inscriptions; middle columns


South Side

308. Horns: Wosretkew, King of Upper and Lower ^gypt, Lord of


the

Two

Lands, Makere,

brilliant

emanation of Amon,

whom

he has

caused to appear as king upon the throne of Horus before the splendors^
of the

Great House,

be mistress of the
satisfaction,

whom the great ennead

circuit of the sun.

and joy

They have

of heart before the living;

Amon, Hatshepsut, beloved


like

of gods

of

Amon-Re, king

have brought up

united her with

Son

of gods,

life,

Khnemet-

of Re,

who

to

is

given

life,

Re, forever.
^Only down

Denkmdler, Text,

to the surrounding
III, 21

masonry on the standing obelisk

(see Lepsius,

f.).

^Side columns of the shaft inscriptions, south and west sides (312).
^The meaning of this phrase is clear from the last scene in the Punt reliefs
( 292,

1.

i).

THE KARNAK OBELISKS

3ii]

129

West Side
309. Horus: Wosretkew; Favorite of the Two Groddesses; Fresh in
Years; Golden Horus; Divine of Diadems; King of Upper and Lower
Egypt: Lord of the

ment

Two

for her father

Lands, Makere.

Amon,

Hke the sun;

(it^)

lord of Thebes, erecting for

as her

monu-

him two

great

Amon -is -Great -in -Terror,"^


very much electrum; which illuminate the Two Lands
never was the like made since the beginning. May the

obelisks at the august gate (named):

wrought with

She made

**

Son of Re, Khnemet-Amon, Hatshepsut, be given

life

through him, like

Re, forever.

North Side

Like the west side as far as Makere, then:

310.

Her

father

Amon

hath established her great name; Makere upon

the august Ished tree; her annals are myriads of years, possessing hfe,

and satisfaction. Son of Re, Khnemet-Amon, Hatshepsut,


(rWheni) she celebeloved of Amon-Re, king of gods
brated fforT] him the first occurrence of the royal jubilee, in order that

stability,

she

may be

given

life

forever.

East Side

311.

Like the south side as far as Makere, then:

Her majesty (fem.) made the name of her


father estabhshed upon this monument, and abiding, when favor was
shown to the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Lord of the Two
Lands, Okheperkere (Thutmose I), by the majesty of this god,*^ when
the two great obelisks were erected by her majesty (fem.) on the first
occurrence;^ the lord of the gods said: "Thy father. King of Upper
and Lower Egypt, gave command to erect obelisks, and thy majesty
Beloved of Amon.

(fem.) will repeat^ the

monuments, in order that thou mayest

live

forever."

*The
cThe

obelisk.

t'This

is

the gate of Pylon V.

favor" shown to her father consisted in the honor paid him in that
the following oracle of Amon came to the queen regarding her father.
^^

dOf the

jubilee.

These are the two obelisks before the Karnak pylon of Thutmose I (see
86ff.)f

That

is,

she will build obelisks as her father

had done.

EIGHTEENTH

I30

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

SHAFT INSCRIPTIONS; SIDE COLUMNS^

II.

These represent thirty-two oblation

312.

[312

on

scenes, eight

each side of the shaft; of each eight (beginning at the top),

and seventh represent Thutmose III, the fourth


Thutmose I, and the rest the queen, all offering to Amon,
with the exception that on the west and south sides Seti I
has cut out the queen's name in the fifth scene and inserted
the second

the inscription: ^^Son of Re, Seti-Merneptah,

monument

Amon-Re,

oj his father

The pyramidion

313-

Amon

resentation of

who

lord of heaven.

at the top contains

blessing

restored the
^^^

a fourfold rep-

and crowning the queen.

*"

BASE INSCRIPTION

III.

Titulary and

Encomium

oj the

314. ^^Live the female Horus

who

his favorite, ^his only one,

exists

Queen
daughter of Amon-Re,

by him, the splendid part

All-Lord, whose beauty the spirits of Heliopolis fashioned;

taken the land hke Irsu/

whom

of the

who hath

he hath created to wear his diadem,

Khepris (If pry), who shines with crowns like "Himof-the-Horizon," the pure egg, the excellent seed, whom the two Sor3

who

exists like

ceresses^ reared,

^These axe

whom Amon

himself caused to appear ^upon his

later additions.

monument, which
the lord of diadems, Seti-Merneptah, made."
This is the restoration by Seti I of the
name of Amon, erased by Amenhotep IV. This erasure is found only in the five
upper scenes, showing that the obelisk was surrounded by masonry up to that
point; cf. Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 54, 55.
Cf. similar restoration by Seti I, 878.
^This

is

on the south

side; the west side has:

cSee Sethe's plate {Zeitschrift

fiir

"Renewal

of the

dgyptische Sprache, 36,

PL

II).

<iSouth side.

^Here follows the

^A god's name,

KGod

of

"He who made

of continued existence;

paronomasia:
thys;

lit.,

of the queen;

cf.

coronation inscription ( 239).

him*' {yr-sw), a

common term

for

"his

See also 985.

father."

^A

full titulary

}}pr't lj,prw

divine name,

it is

Horus

lit.,

my

fipry,

"two great

more often applied


in the mythology.

and the following phrase show threefold


^ ^ -i ^ c ^y my y ^ h'wty.
in sorcery," here referring to Isis and Neph-

this

to Isis alone; the reference is to their similar rearing

THE KARNAK OBELISKS

315]

throne in Hermonthis,

whom

131

he chose to protect Egypt,

to rdefendi the

people; the female Horus, avengeress of her father, the oldest (daughter)*
of the '"BuU-of-his-Mother,"^

swhom

make

Re'^ begat to

for himself

upon earth for the well-being of the people; his living


King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut),

excellent seed
portrait,

the electrum of kings.^

Queen's Dedication

315. ^She made (them) as her monument for her father, Amon,
lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, making for him two great obeUsks
of enduring granite of the

South ,^

7of the best of every country,

Their rays flood the

(their)

summit[s] being of electrum

which are seen on both

Two Lands when

^^sidesi of

the river.

the sun rises between them,8 as

he dawns in the horizon of heaven.


Speech of the Queen
316.

have done

^^''I

upon

this

from a loving heart^

for

my

father

Amon;

was wise by
his excellent spirit, I did not forget anything of that which he exacted.
^^My majesty (fem.) knoweth that he is divine. I did (it) under his
command, he it was who led me; I conceived not any works without
I have entered

was who gave the directions. I slept not because of


erred not from that which he commanded, my heart was

his do''ingi, ^he


his temple, I

his rprojecti of the first occurrence, J I

it

*Sethe, Untersuchungen,

'^An old

title

I,

46.

of the self-begetting sun-god,

Kamephis.

cThese are old conventional phrases; of course, Amon is the father of the
queen (see 187 ff.), but he has gradually been identified with Re.

The

^See a similar epithet applied to the queen in the Punt reliefs ( 274,
long list of epitheta is here ended, and the real matter now begins.

^The
cated

is

obelisks;

this is the usual

1.

3).

form of dedication in which the object dedi-

not represented by a pronoun, being regarded as a matter of course;

cf.

"fecit."

^The quarries

at

Assuan.

gThis simply shows that the obelisks stood in a general north-and-south

^The queen

herself begins to speak,

and continues

to

1.

4,

^See similar phrase in Speos Artemidos inscription ( 303,

JThe

first

west side.
1.

35).

occurrence of the jubilee; or the beginning of time, the primeval

plan.

^West

line.

side begins.

EIGHTEENTH

132

my

wise* before

know

father, I entered

my back upon the

not turn

Karnak

that

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

is

3upon^ the

affairs of his heart, I did

city of the All-Lord,

the horizon

<=

on

[318

but turned to

earth, ^the

it

the face.

August Ascent of the

beginning, the sacred eye of the All-Lord, the place of his heart, which

wears his beauty,^ and encompasses those


Origin

who

follow him."

of the Obelisks

317. The king himself, he saith, 5" I set (it) before the people, who
shall be ""after^ two aeons, ^ those whose heart shall consider^ this monument, and that which I have
"

and who

for

my father,

whose

point[s]^

heart led

^those

who

shall

speak

remembered
him two obeUsks

I sat in the palace, I

shall look to the future.^

him who fashioned me, 'my


of electrum,

made

me

to

make

for

mingled with heaven, in the august colon-

nade between ^the two great pylons^ of the king, the mighty

bull, the

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheperkere (Thutmose I), the


deceased Horus. Now, my heart took
words."
King

of

Oath

"0 ye people,

318.

to

Posterity

i^who shall see

my monument

after years, those

who shall speak of that which I have made, beware (lest) ye say, *I
know not, I know not *why this was made, (and) a mountain fashioned
entirely from gold like anything ""which happensl^
I swear^ as Re
^Lit.,

"wise

" my heart

was

the

god Esye (Sy ^);" a divinity whose name means the

one.**

^Same construction as in 316, 1. 8.


cThe word {y = hw-t) usually translated "horizon"

not yet fully understood.


It indicates the abiding-place of the solar gods, a region of light or something
is

similar.

dThis phrase, "Bearer 0} his beauty** {wis' t-nfrwf), is usually the appellation
of the sacred barque, in which the image of the god was borne.

Two

periods of sixty years each are meant.

"whose

Lit.,

heart shall he behind this monument.**

KRather the opposite, the past

^The word

is

to be expected here.

indicates the pyramidal top of the shaft, the pyramidion.

These are Pylons IV and V, between the ruins of which the obelisk stands,
surrounded by the fallen columns of the colonnade.
i

North

^As
*

side begins.

if it

were an everyday occurrence.

Compare

( 121,

1.

10),

same royal oath in the Assuan inscription of Thutmose


or Megiddo campaign of Thutmose III ( 422, 1. 40).
the

II

THE KARNAK OBELISKS

319]

loves me, as
satisfying

my

favors me, as

and Set have united

son of

like the

Amon

father

nostrils are filled

with

as I wear the white crown, as I appear in the red crown,

life,

as Horus^

Re

^my

133

sets in the

for

me

^their halves, as I rule this land

have become strong

Isis,^ as I

like the

son of Nut,'^ as

evening-barque, as he rises^ in sthe morning-barque, as

he joins his two mothers^ in the divine barque, as heaven abides, as that

which he hath made endures, as I


go

ishable,'^ as I shall

down

my

father,

Amon,

like

an Imper*

Atum,^ ^(so surely) these


majesty hath wrought with electrum for

^in the west like

my

two great obelisks which

be unto eternity

shall

^my name may

in order that

abide, enduring in this

temple forever and ever, (so surely) they are of one block of enduring

seam or

granite without

"

^joining

thereon from the year 15, the

first

My

1.

of

Mechir

majesty exacted work^


(sixth

month), until the


J

year 16, the last of Mesore (twelfth month) making seven months of
exaction in the mountain.

History

319. ^^" I did


It

was

my

*their side

(it)

desire to

upon

for him in rfidelityi of heart, ^asi a king to every god.

make them

their

i;

for him, gilded with electrum;

I thought

how

I laid

the people would say

my

by reason of that which issued from it, (for) I did


I gave for them
not turn back from that which I had said. sHear ye
of the finest electrum, which I had measured by the heket^ like sacks
My majesty appointed the numbers"^ more than ^the entire
(of grain).
Two Lands had (ever) seen. The ignorant like the wise knoweth it."

mouth was

excellent

^The
of the

text has

Tombos

two Horns birds; the reference

inscription of

Thutmose

1.

explained in the note on

1.

2).

cOsiris.

^Honis.
dLit., "visit or
elsis

I ( 70,

is

approach" {s'lv^h).

See Papyrus Prisse,

and Nephthys, by a confusion and mingling

9, 7.

of the solar

and Osirian

myths.

fName

gSun-god.

of a star.

hHere the long introduction

to the oath closes

iSee Breasted, Proceedings of the Society of


J

Meaning

it

continued

and the real asseveration begins.


Biblical Archeology, XXII, 92.
^East side begins.

''until,'' etc.

*A grain measure (nearly 5 liters); this is literally true, for Thutiy records
gives the
the measurement of electrum by the heket under his supervision, and
total between 13 and 14 bushels! ( 377, 1. 38).
n^The quantity of precious metals, but

cf.

Sethe, Untersuchungen,

I,

48.

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

134

[320

Conclusion

"Let not him who

shall

'How like her


The god knew

shut say,
father!'

hear this say

^who

it is!

that I should reign over ^the Black

no enemy

I have

therefor.

he has made

my

boundary

lie

which I have

truthrfuP in the sight of her

is""

and the Red Land as a

any land,

in

countries are

all

'to the extremities of

my

(for)

^of a truth,

my
all

he knew that I would

who

father;

glorifies

him,

Ufe, stability,

offer

it

and

subjects,

who

is

with

am his daughter
is with
exacted my r

to him.

that which he

requital

heaven, the circuit of

the sun has labored for me, which he has given to the one

him^

said,

me,^ Amon, lord of Thebes; he caused

in

it

it is

"

upon the Horus-throne

satisfaction,

of

the Hving, like Re, forever.

320.

The

shaft of the fallen obelisk, of

which only the

uppermost section has survived, bears only fragments of


the queen's titulary, which has been altered into that of
*"

**

Thutmose

The

III.

inscription,

of

base, however, carried

which the following

an interesting

fragments^

are

still

visible

321.

made my kingdom,

excellent

beloved of his majesty,^

He

hath

and the Red Lands are united


under my feet. My southern boundary is as far as the lands of Punt,
*and
my eastern boundary is as far as the marshes of Asia,
and the Asiatics are in my grasp my western b6undary is as far as the
mountain of Manu, and I rule 3
[my northern boundary
is as far as
], and my fame is among the Sand-dwellers altogether.^
the Black Land,

knew

would erect these obelisks.


^Meaning the queen herself.
cA fragment has been found at Abutig {Rectteil, X, 142;
^Viz.,

that I

see Zeitschrifi fur

agyptische Sprache, 30, PI. II).

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 24, a-c;

Recjieil,

X, 142;

ChampoUion, Notices

descriptives, II, 136.

^Recueil, 23, 195

*The amount

f.

of loss at the beginning of each line varies from one -fifth to

one-eighth of the total length of the


end.

line,

increasing gradually from beginning to

gAmon ?
^It looks as
aries.

if

the scribe

had here confused the northern and eastern bound-

322]

RELIEFS OF TRANSPORTATION OF OBELISKS

135

1 4
Punt has been brought to me
all
the luxurious marvels of this country were brought to my palace in one
malachite in the
collection, which the Asiatics presented s
They have brought to me the choicest products
country of Reshet.
^
"1* consisting of cedar, of juniper, and of meru wood.
of r

The myrrh

"

of

all

the good sweet

woods

of God's-Land.

I brought the tribute of

Tehenu, consisting of ivory and 700 tusks ""which were there"!. ^


numerous panther-skins of 5 cubits along the back and 4 cubits in
girth,^ of the southern panther;

besides

all

his

the tribute of this country

RELIEFS OF TRANSPORTATION OF OBELISKS'^


322.

tion

The queen had

and dedication

of

reliefs

representing the transporta-

two obelisks carved on the wall


and, as in the Punt

of the lower colonnade;

vessels of the transport are actually represented with


to the north,

the

reliefs,

bows

as they should be in sailing from Assuan;

while farther northward


identity of these obelisks

is

is

the dedication in Thebes.

The

uncertain; Wilkinson^ says that

he saw the bases of two obelisks at the termination of the


long avenue of sphinxes leading to the temple door, and

one would think that the representation


^A

in

Der el-Bahri

country.

^Lit.,

circumference =the girth of the beast before the skin was removed

cThe usual wishes

for the

monarch's welfare follow, with

all

pronouns and

endings in the feminine.


<iScenes

and

inscriptions in the

Der

el-Bahri temple on the west wall of the

lower colonnade, in the south half; the transportation published by Naville (in
Egypt Exploration Fund Archaological Report, 1895-96, PI. and pp. 6-13).

^Thebes and General View, 90, published in 1831. Naville denies the existence of obelisks at Der el-Bahri; but he ojice unreservedly accepted their existence.

Memoir, 10) on Wilkinson's testimony. It is difficult


suppose that so good an observer as Wilkinson mistook the pits in which trees

{Deir-el-Bahari, Introductory
to

were planted for obelisk-bases, as Naville states (Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache,
It is possible that they have either been broken up since Wilkinson's
37, 52).
day, or that Naville's search has missed them. The map of the French expedition
in the Description shows a block of granite on the very spot where the right-hand
obelisk would have stood.

EIGHTEENTH

136

DYN.:

THUTMOSE

III

& QUEEN

[323

would concern the obelisks of that temple. But Naville's


excavations on the spot failed to turn up the bases seen by
Wilkinson; and the transport inscriptions speak of landing
on the east side (329). This last datum would indicate
Karnak as the destination of the transports, and in this
case it is impossible to say which of the queen's two pairs
in Karnak is meant ( 304 ff.).*
I.

TRANSPORT
Scene^

323.

upon

it,

large tow-boat with the obelisks

is

being towed by three rows of oared barges,

in

a row; each row headed by a pilot-boat.

is

accompanied by an escort

lying trussed

*"

"^

nine

The tow-boat

of three boats, in

which

reli-

gious ceremonies are being performed.


Inscriptions^

324.

The

following

is

the long text in the upper row;

it

contains:
a) Titulary
h)

The command

needed
c)

and encomium

of the

queen

to gather material

(11.

i-?).

and build the

vessel

in the transport (three lines).

The command

to

muster

men and

troops for the trans-

port (four lines).


d)

The

transport (ten lines).

*It is diflScult to understand how Naville can maintain that the queen erected
only two obelisks at Karnak {Zeitschri}t }ur dgyptische Sprache, 37, 52), when three
obelisk-summits of hers are still in existence.

^The whole scene is very fragmentary, and as it was put together from squeezes,
is no doubt that some blocks are put together in questionable places.

there

cQnly one can be seen, but the inscription

^Oi

these three rows of barges the lowest

refers to two.

is still in situ (cf.

Mariette, Deir-el-

Bahari, 11, Diimichen, Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, IV); below this in one long
row are the marines (on the right) and the offering scene (on the left), with priests

and

approaching ( 333-35).
The texts are badly mutilated.

officials

328]

RELIEFS OF TRANSPORTATION OF OBELISKS


Encomium

Titulary and

137

Queen

of

325. [Live] the Horus: Wosretkew; Favorite of the Two Goddesses;


Fresh in Years; Golden Horus: Divine of Diadems; ^splendid part

Amon-Re,

of [her] father,

lord

who has

[heaven],

of

not been far

removed from the father of all gods, ^shining in brightness Hke "TheHorizon-God" (Y^hwiy); Rayet (R^yt)^ she illuminates 4like the
sun, vivifying the hearts of the people,
it

is

exalted in

name

Her fame has encompassed

hath reached ^heaven.

Circle'

who

(Okeanos)

^^their

(so that)

the

Great

presented to the palace

tribute

7chief

Building the Tow-Boat

326. Give ye

sycamores from the whole land


|

the

work

of building a very great boat,^ finished

Muster
327.
to load

oj

Men^ and Troops


army before

orders the whole

1,

the two obehsks in Elephantine^

AphroditopoUs and the entire

Two Lands

in order

the people in

were gathered in [one] place

way; the young men were mustered

in every

The Transport
328.

sailed

down-stream with gladness of heart

took the rtow-ropei, rejoicing

crew

jubilee,

Two Lands

the

^Feminine of Re, the sun-god.

cAn uncertain number


from

this point.

of lines

Trejoicedi the

''Half
is

now

Lines are separated by

,
|

lacking,

marines and the


in

peace.

line is lost.

and numbering

is

impossible

the second half of each hne being gone.

dThe wanting end of the line is not long enough for the dimensions of the boat;
but we find Ineni ( 105) giving the size of the boat on which he moved the Karnak
obelisks of Thutmose I.
His boat was 206.6 feet long and 68.86 feet wide for an
obelisk about 75 feet (Murray) high; hence the boat of the queen (if these are the
large Karnak pair) on the same proportion would have been about 268^ feet long

and 89^ feet wide. The proportion between width and length
Egypt Exploration Fund Archaological Report, 1895-96, 9, 10.
^Confer the muster of

men

for the el-Bersheh colossus (I, 697

is

to 3.

See

ff.)-

embarkation of the obelisks at the granite quarries of Assuan.


They were dragged on board the barges on sledges. The sledge is still under the
obelisk on the barge
a fact which has been overlooked in the explanation of the
f Referring

to the

reliefs {ibid.).

EIGHTEENTH

138

The king
Khnum.

DYN.:

he took the lead^

himself,
1

of

Amon

have estabUshed^
of the

King

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

in this

Amon-Re

with praise,

monument, which they

they have increased years at the jubilee

Upper and Lower Egypt

of

[329

Over

the Pilot-Boats'"

329. Landing in peace at "Victorious Thebes,"*^ heaven is in


'"they"' receive joy of heart (when) they
festival, earth in rejoicing;

behold

this

monument which [Makere] has

established for her father

[Amon].

n.

RECEPTION IN THEBES
Scene^

330.

On

shore appear the marines and the recruits (on

At the opposite

the right), mustered to unload the obelisks.

end

(the left)

is

of the obelisks,

^This

may

^Possibly:

has given

an offering scene in celebration of the


with priests and officials approaching.

also be *Hhe how-rope,** but the determinative

"\Her name

to thee."

is established], in this

broken

monument, and

fixed;

off.

which she

Cf. east side, middle line (311).

cThe lowermost boat; the other two bore similar

now

is

arrival

inscriptions, but they

have

perished.

<iThebes on the east bank.

Over the three escort-boats in the lower right-hand corner is a fragment of


text, mentioning the bow and stern cables (as in Ineni, 1. 17, 341) and ^'sailing
."
Other fragments of interest are: over the three
from Elephantine to
men in the bow of the obelisk-barge, three names: ''Steward of the King's-Wife,
the scribe, Tetem-Re {Tty-m-R^); overseer of the granary, Minmose (Mn-ms);
count of Thinis {Tny), Sitepeh {S^-tp-yh)." The last person, Sitepeh, is known
on a tablet of Abydos, where he appears with the same titles; cf. Marie tte, Catalogue

but are cut over others now


illegible.
The original names are very likely to have been those of Senmut, the
queen's favorite, in charge of the obelisks ( 345 ff.), and the other two partisans of
the queen, Thutiy and Nehsi, who already appear in Der el-Bahri ( 275, 289),
and have been erased in the Punt reliefs.
general d* Abydos, 393.

These names are not

original,

In one long row immediately below the transport scene published by Mariette,
Deir-el-Bahari, 11; Diimichen, Historische Inschriften, II, 21, and Fleet of an
Egyptian Queen, 4, 7, 8; see also Sethe, Unterstcchungen, I, 104, 105, where both
the texts are combined.
^

RELIEFS OF TRANSPORTATION OF OBELISKS

333]

139

Inscriptions

331.

They

record the rejoicing of the troops mustered

from the North, South, and Upper Nubia, to

work

of the obelisks.^

It is

assist in the

important to note that their

acclamations also mention Thutmose III, but after the queen.


Rejoicing of Marines and Recruits

332. The rejoicing by the royal marines of the ship of the king

^They

say,

"Hark

the acclamation!

Heaven

is

.^

in [joy, the earth]

[Amon] ^increased the years of his daughter who maketh


monuments, upon the Horus-throne of the living, like Re, forever.^

hath rejoicing.
his

^The acclamation by the

men

South and North, the young


of Thebes, the youths of Khenthennofer {Ifnt-hn-njr)^ for the

sake of the

of the

who

King

giveth

of

and health

life;

prosperity

An

offering for

make healthy
who liveth forever.*

of the

may be

that their heart

With
333.

King

Upper and Lower


/ (and) for the sake of the life, prosperity and health
Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III),

life,

Egypt

recruits of the

of

glad, like Re, forever."

the Offering

thy ka,

lord of gods, that thou mayest

at this (feast) of " Myriad-of- Years "^ of her

*See the mustering at Elephantine, to load the obelisks (327).


^'Cartouche cut out; undoubtedly that of the queen.

cQver the troops marching toward the left.


<iThe same phrase occurs on the Berlin block (No. 1636, Lepsius, Denkmaler^
III, 17, a; Diimichen, Historische Inschri/ten, II, 21; and Fleet of an Egyptian
Queen, IV, top row). Its inscriptions are as follows: (over the forward ship)
''Landing at 'The West* with joy of heart, the whole land is in rejoicing at this
beautiful feast of this god; they acclaim, they give praise, they celebrate the king,
the Lord of the Two Lands."
The titles have been inserted in place of the queen's

name. Then follows " Rejoicing by the marines of the ship of the king, Okhepernere
(Thutmose II), 'Star-of -the -Two -Lands;* they say: 'This beautiful feast of
(queen's cartouche cut out) whereon Amon appears, increasing the years of his
son, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre {Thutmose III), upon the Horus-

throne of the living, like Re, forever.^ "


feast, at the landing of the obelisks.

It is possible that all this

belongs to the same

The block was found on the upper


Over the soldiers marching toward the right.

terrace.

^Cartouche of the queen cut out.

kA name is cut out, undoubtedly


^Name of royal jubilee or feast.

that of Hatshepsut.

Words of two other

same place

priests in the

are too mutilated for translation.

EIGHTEENTH

I40

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[334

Rejoicing of the Priests

334. That which the priests of Karnak say:

monuments

As she

is,

"O

king, beautiful* of

so they are for eternity."

Rejoicing of the Court

335. The companions, the dignitaries, the


the whole land, say: "Happy is thy heart
desire,

it

thy heart; this thy

DEDICATION OF THE OBELISKS^

*^0n the corresponding wall of the northeast

two obelisks are dedicated


founded

the soldiers of

has come to pass."

III.

336.

officials,

this building

to

Amunre, by

the

side*^

monarch who

and who erected the great obelisks

Karnak; but from the following translation


remains of their hieroglyphics,

it

of the

little

of

that

evident they differ

is

widely from those of the great temple of Diospolis"^ and will

probably have stood on the pedestals of the dromos above


alluded

to.^

The

"

Amunneitgori^ continues:

work

for her father

erected to
this

(who

him two
is)

name of Pharaoh
She has made (this) her

inscription after the

Amunre, lord

of the regions,

fine obelisks of granite

the giver of

life,

like the

(and)

she did

sun."^

^Should be feminine to suit the context.

^Not yet published, and probably partially lost since seen by Wilkinson.
Hence I can only offer Wilkinson's remarks {Thebes and General View, 92).
cThe right-hand end of the colonnade on the northeast (practically north)
side of the ascent to the next terrace.

Karnak temple. So good an observer as Wilkinson is to be trusted in


a remark like this; there must have been some striking difference in the inscription,
<iThe

it from those of Hatshepsut's standing obelisk at Karnak;


improbable that these obelisk reliefs refer to the said Karnak pair.

distinguishing
fore

it is

there-

which he saw before the temple portal.


^This is Khnemet-Amon, Hatshepsut; Wilkinson adds the following note:
"I am uncertain as to the precise reading of this name, but cannot adopt the Amenthe of M. Champollion.
I suppose her to have been a queen."
This was written
**The obelisk-pedestals

seventy-five years ago.

sThis old translation is without a flaw, except in the last sentence, which
should be "that she may be given life, etc.," and even this change, with the exception
of the "final" construction, was suspected by Wilkinson (p. 94, n. i).

339]

BUILDING INSCRIPTION OF WESTERN THEBES

ROCK INSCRIPTION

IN

141

WADI MAGHARA^

Above is a bas-rclicf in which Thutmose III worships


Hathor, and Hatshepsut worships Soped; over this is the
337.

inscription:

*'

Year 16 under the majesty

connected with the names in the

oj,^^

which

Below

relief.

is

is

to

be

a much-

mutilated inscription of three short lines:


[Came]^ the king's[-messenger] at the head of his army, to traverse
the [inaccessible^] valley[s,] [to please^]

Horus who

bringing that which exists to his majesty

,^

is

in the palace,

by

living again, revered.

BUILDING INSCRIPTION OF WESTERN THEBES^


Above is a relief showing Hatshepsut worshiping
before Amon-Re, with Thutmose III standing behind her.
338.

An

inscription of five lines

fortress of the necropolis

below records repairs

by Hatshepsut.

in the

Hence the god-

dess of western Thebes, Khaftet-hir-nebes, stands behind

Thutmose.
339. ^Live the Horus: Wosretkew; Favorite of the Two Goddesses:
Fresh in Years; Golden Horus: Divine of Diadems, Ruler of South
and North; King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere; =Son of Re, of

Khnemet-Amon, Hatshepsut. She made (it) as


her monument for her father, Amon, lord of Thebes; erecting for him
Its
3the fortress of Khaftet-hir-nebes anew as a work for eternity.

his body, his beloved

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 28, 2; Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 122; Brugsch,


Thesaurus, VI, 1491; Laborde, Voyage de V Arable Petree, PI. 8, No. 4; Laval, La
Peninsule Arabique, PL 2, No. 4,; Weill, Sinai, 152.

^Restored from Senmut's Assuan inscription, see


^Restored from

I,

728.

^Cf. Sethe, Untersuchungen,

^Fragments,
messenger.

362.

among them

I,

122 and 51.

the determinative belonging to the lost

name

of the

Stela in the Vatican (No. 130); published by ChampoUion, Notices descripI had
lives, II, 700, 701; Piehl, Recueil, II, 129; Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, no.
corrections.
some
furnished
also my own copy of the original, a collation of which
f

EIGHTEENTH

142

^la

^m\0

was

DYN.:

^of beautiful stone of

to the ancient plan; never

majesty (fem.) did

more than

all

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN


Ayan

was done the

(*^

nw).^

It

was according
sHer

like since the beginning.

because she loved her father

this,

[340

gods, in order that she might be given

Amon

so

Hke Re,

life,

much

forever.

BIOGRAPHY OF INENI^
[Concluded from

CAREER UNDER THUTMOSE

IV.

118]

III

AND HATSHEPSUT

340. After outliving three kings, Ineni himself dies

under

Thutmose III and Hatshepsut. His


account of their accession upon the death of Thutmose II
unfortunately does not refer to Thutmose III by name,
although there can be no doubt that he is meant by ^^his
the joint reign of

son^^

(1.

The

16).

position of Hatshepsut

described in

is

such a way as to give the impression that she

and

ruling power,

'^his son^^

really the

is

merely a figurehead.

Accession oj Thutmose III and Hatshepsut

341. His^ son stood in his place as king of the Two Lands, having
become ruler upon the throne of the one who begat him. ^7 His sister
the Divine Consort, Hatshepsut, settled the raffairs^^ of the

by reason

of her plans.

Egypt was made

to labor with

Two Lands

bowed head

for

hm't, with wedge determinative of land, a rare word occurring


also in similar connection in Piehl, Inscriptions, I, cxxix,
B; it doubtless desig^Original has

nates some inclosure or wall.

^The

original

and confused with

shows ynr nfr n


the paint of a

^Bibliography on p. 18, note

niv (heretofore misread), though

modern

it is

very faint

incorrect restoration.

c.

IThutmose II' s son; this passage would prove that Thutmose III was the
son (and not the brother) of Thutmose II, but see Sethe, Uniersuchungen, I, 7 ff
Cf. also Maspero, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology, XIV, 178, and
Petrie, History of Egypt, II, 78, and Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 42, 43.

"made

Two

This rare phrase


occurs in the Annals on the eve before the battle of Megiddo: "the affairs (mhr-w)
The "mhr'w of the Two Lands"
of the chiefs were settled (yr-tw)." ( 429, 1. 2).
is also found in Rekhmire's tomb (Newberry, PI. VII, 1. 13) applied to Thutmose
III.
Ramses II also "made the mhr of the land" (Blessing of Ptah, III, 411, 1. 31).
^Lit.,

the land-affairs (mhr) of the

Lands.'*

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET

3441

her, the excellent seed of the god,

143

which came forth from him.

The

bow-rope* of the South, the mooring-stake of the Southerners; the

Northland

excellent stern-rope* of the

whose plans are

excellent,

who

is

command,
Two Regions, when she

she; the mistress of

satisfies

the

speaks.

InenVs Favor and Rewards


342. Her majesty praised me, she loved me, she recognized my
worth at the court, she presented me with things, she magnified me,
she

filled

my

house with

silver

and

gold, with all beautiful stuffs of the

royal house.

InenVs Good Character


343. I (can) not tell (it), I increased beyond everything, I will tell
you, ye people; hear ye, do ye the good that I did; ^^do ye likewise.

met no misfortune,^ my years were


(passed) in gladness of heart, I showed no treachery, I did not inform
I was the foreman of the foreagainst, I did no evil, I did no wrong.

I continued powerful in peace, I

an excellent one for the heart of his lord, devoid of


hesitancy, I was one who hearkened to that which his superior said.
My heart was not deceitful toward the great ones in the palace. I did
I was devoid of blasphemy toward
that which the god of the city loved.
men,

I did not fail ;

As

sacred things.

for the

one who Tpassesi the years as a

soul shall Hve rwith"! the All-Lord, his


of the living, his

memory and

good name

shall

his excellence shall

revered dignitary, the overseer of the granary of

favorite, his

be in the mouth

be forever.

Amon,

The

the scribe,

Ineni (F^(3'), triumphant.

BIOGRAPHY OF AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET<=
[Concluded from
Conclusion of

344.

'8The

Divine

Summary

the

Consort,

25]

Great

King's-Wife,

Makere

{M^'^'t-k^-R^y Hatshepsut), triumphant, repeated honors to me.

be quite clear to one who has seen a Nile boat,


and stern, with a fierce current holding both ropes taut. The ship

^These strange epithets

moored
is

at

bow

'^J

of course the state, of

will

which the queen

is

the mooring-lines.

Note that the

vessel

faces southward, the usual position in determining directions.


l^Lit.,

same

"my

misfortune

was not;"

construction.

^Bibliography on p. 10, note

c.

all

the following negative clauses

show

the

144

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE IH & QUEEN

[345

reared her eldest daughter, the Royal Daughter, Nefrure (Nfrw-R^)^


^

triumphant, while she was a 2child upon the breast

INSCRIPTIONS OF SENMUT
Senmut was

345.

who supported

group of

influential state officials

He was

her architect in Karnak, Luxor,

Hermonthis; and

In the

with the inscription:


life,

^^

Amon,

to

his

statues of

he appears

Hathor, for the sake

Makere {Hatshepsut), by

Senmut.^^^ This

Among

dence of his power.

of

and

of the Southern Speos,""

Giving praise

and health

prosperity,

the steward of

el-Bahri,

latter temple, also,

an adoration scene on the wall

of the

Der

the

Hatshepsut.

Karnak^ and Der el-Bahri

in

him have been found.


in

among

the most powerful noble

works

is

in

a remarkable evi-

Karnak he

the queen's great obelisks (304ff.), the largest

erected

now

in

Egypt, and went personally to the granite quarries at Assuan


to secure the

two vast blocks, leaving on the rocks a record

of his visit there ( 359


346.

He was

ff.).

prominent in the Punt expedition;

overseer of the storehouse of

much

to

Amon, he would

do with the products

^The remainder of the line, and


titles of Ahmose, 25, note.

^The base

naturally have

of that expedition,

of several lines

being

which were

now broken away,

contained

of a black granite statue, as yet unpublished (Naville, Deir-el-

Bahari, "Preliminary Report," 19).

^Benson and Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher, 310. The building
The fragmentary end
inscriptions or dedications of this temple have not survived.
monuments,
{Recueil
de
Brugsch
of such an inscription was seen by
69, 6), which
is

as follows:

"

of fine white {lime) stone of

Ayan;

splendid seat of the


another, where the

its

."
Still
which {former) kings knew not
name of Thutmose II has been inserted over that of the queen, is preserved toward
making for him a great temple of myriads of years {named)
the end: "
House-of-Amon-Most-Splendid;' of fine white limestone of Ayan, in his seat, etc.^*
first

time,

'

Sethe, Vntersuchungen,

I,

93.

dDiimichen, Historische Inschriften,

II,

34 = Sethe, Unterstichungen,

I,

109.

INSCRIPTIONS OF SENMUT

348]

145

most part devoted to Amon. He therefore appears


with Nehsi ( 289), the commander of the expedition in the
for the

presence of the queen, praising her on the success of the


enterprise.

He was

347

selected

by the queen

to rear her

daughter

and heiress to the throne, the princess, Nefrure, sharing this


honor with Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet ( 344). His statue, now
in Berlin, shows him with the infant princess (363ff.).
348. Judging from the titles on the Karnak statue
( 349

ff.),

himself,

many of

he controlled

and

all

but held that

the functions of the vizier

There

office.

is

the queen's remarkable career as king in

Thutmose
measure

opposition to

III was^in^somg measure due to him,

to the coterie of legitimists, of

most powerful member.

we can

no doubt that

It is

and

in great

which he was the

only on this supposition that

explain the fact that both he and they were exposed to

same persecution suffered by their queen. On Senmut's


Berlin statue, on his Karnak statue, in his tomb,^ on his
tombstone,^ and in the Punt reliefs, his name is everywhere
chiseled out.
In the Punt relief his entire figure, and those
of his two companions, Nehsi and Thutiy ( ? see 289),
the

likewise ardent supporters of the queen, are chiseled out.

The same

persistent persecution

is

Thutiy ( 369 ff.), who was hardly second in


mut; in that of Senmen,"" Senmut's brother;

unknown
a

^^

man,*^ next to the

chief steward^ ^^ of the

tomb

queen

of

tomb of
power to Sen-

evident in the

in that of

Senmut; and

at Silsileh.

In

all

an

in that of

these the

^Discovered by Steindorff and Newberry at Thebes (Benson and Gourlay,


The Temple of Mut in Asher, 310).

'^Now in Berlin (No. 2066; Ausfiihrliches Verzeichniss des Berliner Museums


160); published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 25 bis a; see also Sethe, Untersuchungen,
*=Sethe,

I,

iii.

Untersuchungen,

^Ibid.y 84, II,

e.

I,

128

f.

His name cannot be read.

EIGHTEENTH

146

DYN.:

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[349

common persecution is quite sufficient to show that these men formed the
queen's party of legitimists opposed to Thutmose III, who
has therefore treated their monuments and their memory as
name

of the

owner

is

chiseled out,

and

this

he did hers.*
INSCRIPTIONS

1.

349.

ON THE KARNAK STATUE^

This statue was presented

to

Senmut by Hatshepsut

and Thutmose III (350) as a token of honor, for the


special purpose of being set up in the temple of Mut at
Karnak. The inscriptions contain chiefly his many titles,
and epithets of honor, showing clearly that he was little, if
any, below the vizier himself in power.
Statue

was Presented by Queen^

350. ^[Given as a favjor of the king's-presence, the King of Upper


and Lower Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut), who is given [life, to ^the
hereditary prince, count], wearer of the royal seal, sole companion,

steward of

Amon, Senmut, triumphant;

in order to be in the temple*^

of 3[I]shru; in order to receive the plenty that

comes forth from before

the presence of this great goddess.


4[Given] as a favor of the king's-presence, extending the period of
life

to eternity, with a goodly

memory among

years that shall come; to the prince


of

^the people after the

and count, overseer

of the granary

Amon, Senmut, triumphant.

^Small objects from Senmut's tomb, see Spiegelberg, Recueil, 19, 91; and
Newberry, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology, XXII, 63, 64; full
list by Newberry, Benson and Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher, 310.
.

^Discovered by Misses Benson and Gourlay in 1896 in the Temple of Mut at


Karnak (M. 852). The inscriptions are published by Benson and Gourlay in
The Temple of Mut in Asher (London, 1899), 299-309. I had also an excellent
copy made for the Berlin Lexicon by Borchardt, the corrections and additions
from this copy are inserted without remark in the translation below.
cQn the back, Benson and Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher, 301-3.
^The statue was found in this temple, and its purpose is here noted. The
lacuna in Borchardt's copy is not large enough for "Mut, mistress of," which we

would expect.
^Construe with

*^

given."

INSCRIPTIONS OF SENMUT

SS2]

His
351. ^flt
of

Amon,

Duties as Architect

was""]^ the chief steward,

works of the king:

Senmut, who conducted

Karnak, in Hermonthis,

in

in the temple of

147

Mut,

[in]

the

all

^Der el-Bahri,

in Ishru, in southern

Opet

of

Amon

(Luxor), in [the presence] ^of this august god, while maintaining the

monuments

Lord

of the

of the

Two

Lands, enlarging, restoring

was commanded
It was commanded him that [rhei] should be
at the court, L. P. H.
^because he was so excellent for the heart (of the king). It came
to pass in every respect,^ as was commanded by doing according to the
"His true servant, without his
desire of his majesty concerning it.
like;*^ strong-hearted, not lax concerning the monuments of the lord
without deafness, (but) according to

9 works,

all

that

of gods; wearer of the royal seal, prophet of

His
352.

He

Praise of Himself;

"I was the

says:

Amon, "[Se]nmut.

His

Offices

greatest of the great in the whole land;

one who heard the hearing alone in the privy council, steward of [Amon],
^3Senmut, triumphant."

"I was the

real favorite of the king, acting as

every day, the overseer of the cattle of

"I was

^4

of truth, not

one praised of his lord

Amon, Senmut."

showing partiahty; with whose injunctions

Lord of the Two Lands was satisfied attached to Nekhen, prophet


of Mat, Senmut."
"I was one who entered in [love], ^^and came forth in favor, making
glad the heart of the king every day, the companion, and master of the
the

palace,

Senmut."

"I commanded

^^in the storehouse of

divine offerings of

Amon, Senmut."

every tenth day; the overseer of the storehouse of


^*I

conducted


^7

d Qf

^j^g gQ^jg

every day, for the sake of the

of Amon, Senmut."

and health of the king overseer of the f


"I was a foreman of foremen, superior of the

prosperity,

all

Amon

life,

"

great, ^^[overseer] of

[works] of the house of silver, conductor of every handicraft, chief of

the prophets of

^Read yn

Montu

in Hermonthis,

Senmut."

(Sethe).

^Lit., "very, very

much" (wr wr

mnlf).

cLit.,

"without one possessed of his quxilities"

dThe

first

word

shov/s traces of the sign for "feast.

EIGHTEENTH

148

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[353

"I was one ^^to whom the affairs of the Two Lands were [reporjted;
that which South and North contributed was on my seal, the labor of
all

my

countries =^was [under]


''I

was one, whose

charge."

steps were

known

in the palace; a real confidant

of the king, his beloved: overseer of the gardens of

Address

to the

Amon, Senmut."

Living, and Prayer

353. *^"0 ye living upon earth, lay priests of the temple,* who shall
see my statue, which I have formed as a likeness,^ ^^that I may be remem-

may your

bered in the nether world;


because ye say:

'

A royal

offering,

great goddess (Mut) praise you,

Mut

which

of I[shru] gives

she give the gping in and out in the nether world

the following of

ka of Senmut,^ who repeats the utterance of the


the "companions;" the one useful to the king, ^^^faithful to
for the

the just;

king to

i^ini

'^^May

the god, without his rblemishi before the people;

May

Senmut.

steward of

he (Amon) grant to come forth *sas a living soul; to

breathe the sweet north wind, to the [ka

of]

heaven and earth,

^=^7for

Amon,

the steward of

[Senmut]; ^^to receive loaves {sn'w) from the table of


feast of

Amon,

Amon,

at every

the ka of the citizen, mighty in his

arm; who followed the king in the South, North, East, and West
countries,

Senmut.

May

1,^

to

whom was

given the gold of praise, ^^^

he come forth as a living soul

may he

follow the god,

lord of gods;

may he be

may

not perish forever; breath for the mouth, splendor for

his

name

the dead; this

^The temple
^Lit.,

is

of

presented with the two regions of Horus;

not a thing under which one should H^e laxi."

Mut,

in

which the statue was

set up.

"which I have likened."

^Newberry begins a new numbering here (Benson and Gourlay, The Temple

Mut

in Asher, 309) as the inscription proceeds at this point to the


top of the base, but there is no break.

of

left side

of the

^Title omitted.

Goes
of

Mid

^Goes
of

Mut

to the front of the top of the base

to the right side of the top of the base

^Goes

Mut

(Benson and Gourlay, The Temple

in Asher, 309).

e'*Pure of limb between the two bows"

of

(Benson and Gourlay, The Temple

in Asher, 308).

to the front

in Asher, 309

and

( ?),

sides of the base

Sethe.

(Benson and Gourlay, The Temple

INSCRIPTIONS OF SENMUT

356]

"I was a noble,


all

to

whom

one hearkened; moreover,

the writings of the prophets;

know

of that

there

had access

was nothing which

which had happened since the beginning.*


Statue

354

149

to

I did not

was Presented by Queen and King

^^[Given] as a favor of the king's-presence

prince, count, steward of

[to]

the hereditary

Amon,

Sen[mut], triumphant, ^steward of the


female Horus: Wosretkew,*^ favorite of Horus: " Shining-in-Thebes,'"^

when maintaining

their

monuments

^forever, firm in favor with

them

every day.

^Overseer of the

Amon, Senmut, triumphant.


gardens of Amon, Senmut.

fields of

^Overseer of the

^Overseer of the cattle of ^Amon, Senmut, triumphant.


^Chief steward of ^Amon, Senmut, triumphant.
*Chief steward of the king, Senmut, triumphant.
'^Chief of the peasant-serfs of

Amon, Senmut, triumphant.

Prayers for Food -Offerings

355. ^The oblations in the South for the ka of the magnate of the
South and North, Senmut. May she (Mut) give ^the food-offerings in
the Northland to the ka of the greatest of the great, the noblest of the

May

noble, 3[Se]nmut.
table in
to the

Kamak,

ka

4[in]

comes forth from her


the temples of the gods of the South and North,
she (Mut) give

all

that

of the master of secret things in the temple, ^Senmut.

Prayers for Food-Offerings

356.

May

she (Mut) give the mortuary offering of bread, beer,

oxen, geese; and to drink ^water at the Hving stream; to the ka of the

*In this connection it is interesting to note that on his tombstone Senmut


placed an archaic text long forgotten, and no longer used in his day {Ausfilhrliches
Verzeichniss des Berliner

Museums,

160).

^Above the knees and arms on the sistnim; Benson and Gourlay, The Temple
0}

Mut

in Asher, 300.

cHorus-name of Hatshepsut (read Hr't, not

t^,

as published).

dHorus-name of Thutmose III (read ft ^, not t, as published). This important


correction is due to Sethe, who made it in Borchardt's manuscript (containing
the same mistake), and it was afterward verified by Borchardt from the original.
eLeft side of sistrum (Benson
it is

and Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher, 305

evidently to be connected with one of the verbs "to give" in the other

f.);

texts.

EIGHTEENTH

150

chief steward of
of

Amon,

of

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

'[Sejnmut, triumphant;

[357

^overseer of the cattle

^filHng the magazines, "rsuppiyingi the storehouses,

^Amon, Senmut;

**overseer

DYN.:

storehouse

the

"^overseer of the gardens of

He

of

^^Amon,

^^Senmut,

^^triumphant;

Amon, Senmut, triumphant.

Carries the Goddess in Processions

357 ^^fMasteri] of all people, chief of the whole land, steward of


Amon, Senmut, triumphant, ^chief [steward] of the king, Senmut; revered
by the great god. When he carries Hathor, 3 sovereign of Thebes, and
Mut, mistress of Ishru, he causes her to appear,^ ^he bears her beauty,
for the life, prosperity, and health of the King of Upper and Lower
Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut), living forever.

Prayer for Goodly Burial

358. sMay he (Osiris) give: goodly burial in the western highland,


^[as one revere]d by the great god; to the ka of the privy councilor
of the right hand,

the ka

of

* ^begotten

Senmut; ^splendor in heaven, ^power on earth;

^to

the overseer of the rtemples^ (h'wt) ^of Neit, Senmut,


of

Ramose, "born of ^sHenofer {H^-njr).

ASSUAN INSCRIPTION*'

n.

Engraved on the rocks at Assuan by Senmut, to


commemorate his commission by Queen Hatshepsut to cut
out the two Karnak obelisks erected by her (304ff.).
359.

He

appears in

relief

doing reverence to the queen, with the

following inscriptions:
Titles

Accompanying

the

Queen

360. Hereditary princess, great in favor and kindness, great in love


Re, the kingdom of heaven, who is true in the midst of the divine
ennead, the King's-Daughter, the King's-Sister, the Divine Consort, the

^Right side of the sistrum (Benson and Gourlay, The Temple of

Mid

in Asher,

307)-

^The idiom

for ''bring out in procession.'*

cText: Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 25 bis q; better, Lepsius, Denkmdler, Text,


IV, 116; de Morgan, Catalogtie des monuments, I, 41, No. 181 bis (copied from
Lepsius, Denkmdler with all mistakes!); corrected by Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 82.
f

INSCRIPTIONS OF SENMUT

363]

Great King's- Wife,^ Hatshepsut, who


mistress

of

Elephantine,

beloved

the

the

liveth,

151

beloved of Satet,

Khnum,

of

lord

of

the

Cataract.

Accompanying Senmut
361. Ascription of [honor] to the Divine Consort, Sovereign of the
entire Two Lands, by the wearer of the royal seal, companion, great in
love, chief steward,

Senmut (Sn-Mwt).

Record beneath the

362.

Came

Figures^

the hereditary prince,^ count,

heart of the Divine Consort,

by

Two

who

who

[greatly] satisfies the

pleases the Mistress of the

his injunction, chief steward of the Princess,

Two Lands

Nefrure (Njrw-R'^),

who

Senmut, in order to Tconducti the work of two great obehsks^ of


a " Myriad-(of-Years").e It took place according to that which was
liveth,

commanded; everything was done;

it

took place because of the fame

of her majesty (fem.).

m.

INSCRIPTIONS

ON THE BERLIN STATUE^

Karnak statue, was a royal


gift ( 350, 1. 2).
It represents Senmut in a squatting posture, holding between his knees the daughter and heir of
363.

This

statue, like the

the queen, the infant princess Nefrure,

The

inscriptions contain a

death of Thutmose II

whom

he reared.

most important reference

( 368,

11.

to the

7, 8).

*The same titles on an alabaster vase in Alnwick


corrected by Sethe, Unterstichungen, I, 122 and 25.

Castle, Birch catalogue 176,

^With corrections from M. Weidenbach's copy as given by Sethe, Untersuchungen,

I,

cLit.,

82.

"The coming

by the hereditary prince,

dit is not entirely certain that these are the

Pylons

etc."

two Karnak

obelisks,

between

IV and V.

The name of a

feast, see

above,

333.

^Certainly from Thebes, but probably not from his tomb; now in Berlin
(No. 2296, Ausfiihrliches Verzeichniss des Berliner Museums, 137-39); published

by Sharpe (Egyptian Inscriptions, II, 107) and Lepsius (Denkmaler, III, 25);
(ibid.,
translation
corrections by Sethe {Untersuchungen, I, iii); partial
SO, 51).

EIGHTEENTH DYN.: THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

152

[364

Sentnuty Tutor oj the Princess

364. *Senmut, triumphant, not found Tamong the

writingsii of the

ancestors,^ great father-tutor of the king's-daughter, Sovereign of the

Two

Lands, Divine Consort, Nefrure,*^

to the thought*^ of

my

heart

which

I did according

Mortuary Prayer
365. 'A royal offering, which Amon-Re and the King of Upper and
Lower Egypt, Makere, give; may they^ grant the mortuary oblation of
bread, beer, oxen, geese, linen, incense, ointment.

Royal Gift

366. ^Given as a favor of the king's-presence

[to]

the hereditary

Amon, Senmut.

prince, count, companion, great in love, steward of

Mortuary Prayer

Abydos gives; may he


grant all that cometh forth from his table every day 4for the ka of the
hereditary prince
i, who greatly satisfies the heart of the Lord of
the Two Lands, the favorite of the Good God, the overseer of, the
367.

royal offering which Osiris, lord of

"

granary of Amon, Senmut.

SenmuVs Favor with King and Queen


368. 5He says, "I was a noble, beloved of his
upon the wonderful plans of the Mistress of the

me

exalted

before the

Two

Lands, he appointed

lord,

who

enteredf

Two Lands.
me ^to be chief

He^
of his

^Beside the princess.

ambiguous phrase has been rendered: "[whose] ancestors were


not found in writing," a rendering not at all certain; possibly the word "like"
has been omitted, and we should translate: " Whose like was not found among, etc.**
more nearly parallel to the common statement.
''This very

cThe daughter of the queen,

whom Senmut

^See Speos Artemidos Inscription,

On

meaning "to support,

sut, base, south, 316,

35,

1.

he in

holding between his knees.

303 and note.

'Corrected from

the front.

8 An idiom

1.

is

my own

copy.

sympathy with;"

cf.

obelisk of Hatshep-

8.

l^According to Sethe, the masculine pronoun refers to Thutmose III. Cf.


Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 50; this supposition is rendered very probable by the

Karnak

statue ( 349

ff.).

INSCRIPTION OF THUTIY

369]

estate fthroughouti the entire land.

the chief of ^chiefs of works.

was

153

was the superior

of superiors,

in this land under his

since the occurrence of the death of his ^predecessor.*

command

was

in

life

Two

Lands, King of Upper and Lower Egypt,


Makere (Hatshepsut), who Kveth forever."'^

under the Mistress of the

INSCRIPTION OF THUTIY^
Thutiy was a loyal supporter of Queen Hatshepsut
348), and hence throughout his tomb his name and

369.
(see

that of the

queen have been

entirely erased.

successor of Ineni (34off.) as


gold-

and

silver -houses ^^^

mental enterprises, for

^^

He was

the

overseer of the double

and this brought him many monuwhich he furnished the metals, at

same time having the construction of a large number of


such monuments under his charge. He was probably the
builder of the queen's ebony shrine (1. 24 and i26ff.);
he furnished the metal-work on two great obelisks (1. 28),
superintended many other monuments, and was charged with
the

the measuring of the splendid returns in precious metal from


the queen's southern expeditions, particularly the famous one

That Thutiy is strictly veracious in


this statement is most strikingly shown by the scene of
weighing and measuring in the Punt reliefs ( 275), where
to

Punt

(11.

33-38).

the traces of his figure, busily engaged in taking his notes,


identifiable

by means

name and

of his

title,

^^

is

Scribe and

*This probably refers to the death of Thutmose II, the predecessor of ThutSee Sethe, Untersuchungen, I, 50.

mose III and Hatshepsut.

^On

the feet are engraved the

titles

of Senmut,

and

one hundred and sixth and fifty-fourth chapters of the


cStela

Neggah on

on the facade of Thutiy's tomb,


the west shore at Thebes.

{Denkmdler, III, 27, 10); later lost


ampton, Newberry, and Spiegelberg, in

lines

22, 115-25, with translation.

the

two

"Book

sides contain the

of the

Dead."

in the southern part of Drah-abu-*n-

by Lepsius, who pubHshed two


and rediscovered by the Marquis of North1898; published by Spiegelberg in Recueil^
First seen

154

EIGHTEENTH

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

[370

which accompany his figure.^ Both


and inscription have been carefully obliterated as in

steward,
figure

DYN.:

Thutiy,^^

the tomb.
Prayer for the King and Queen

370. ^Giving praise to Amon-[Re, king of] gods; adoring his


majesty every day at his rising in the eastern heavens, for the sake of the
life,

and health of King Makere (Hatshepsut), given Hfe


and King Menkheperre (Thutmose III), given Hfe, stability,

prosperity,

forever,

satisfaction, health, like

Re, forever.

Titles of

Thutiy

371. ^Hereditary prince, count, overseer of the double silver-house,


overseer of the double gold-house, great favorite of the Lord of the

Two

Lands, Thutiy.

^Hereditary prince, count, chief of prophets in Hermopolis, Thutiy.


^Hereditary prince, count, seaUng the treasures in the king's-house,

Thutiy.
^Hereditary prince, count,

how

who

gives instruction to^ the craftsmen

who

reveals

to work, Thutiy.

^Hereditary prince, count,

[to]*^

him who

is

skilled in

work, Thutiy.
'[Hereditary prince, count]

who

^[Hereditary prince, count],

the head in indolence, Thutiy.

^Hereditary prince, count,

[''vigilant''

gives regulations, Thutiy.

when] commissions are com-

manded him, Thutiy.


'[Hereditary prince,

count],

executing the plans that are com-

manded him, Thutiy.


'^[Hereditary prince, count], not forgetful of that which

is

com-

manded him, Thutiy.

^Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 79.

^Spiegelberg "anleitet;"

cThe parallelism

clearly
(1.
(1.

lit.,

^^

who opens

demands "/o"

5)

sh

6)

wn

hr

the face

to, etc.**

(m), thus:

n wb

\hr w]

^'

5if ^

w r yr'
w yrw't

Spiegelberg has supplied the hr {"face") in the lacuna, but overlooks the n {"to")^
necessarily common to both lines: "who opens the face to (two different words for
*^open" sb^ and wn). Compare wb^-yb on Lateran obelisk (side lines, 836).

INSCRIPTION OF THUTIY

374]

155

"Hereditary prince, count, knowing the useful things that are established forever, Thutiy.

^3Hereditary prince, count, favorite of Horus, lord of the palace,

Thutiy.
^4Hereditary prince, count, of sweeping step^ in the court, Thutiy.
^sHereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, overseer of every
handicraft of the king, Thutiy.

^^Hereditary prince, count, great companion of the

Lands, the excellent

Lord

of the

Two

scribe, active with his hands, Thutiy.

List of

Works

372. ^7He says: "I acted as chief (r^-hr)j giving the directions; I
led the craftsmen to

work

in^ the works,

in:*^

Second Nile-Barge

373. *^the great barge of the " Beginning-of-the-River " (named):


*'Userhet-Amon,"^ wrought with gold of the best of the highlands; it
illuminated the

Two Lands

with

its

rays.

Unknown Shrine
374. ^9a shrine, the horizon of the god, his great
of the best of the highlands, in

work

2Seret-mat (s^rt-m^^'t);

its

seat, of

electrum

established for eternity.

august fajade of electrum, great

[Amon].

aLit., *'far of foot."

^That this is the proper rendering is shown by the words of Amenhotep, son
of Hapi ( 917, 1. 38).
Spiegelberg's rendering: "nach dem Vorbild der Arbeiten,"
demands a word ("Vorbild") not in the original, and makes Thutiy represent
himself as merely working after the patterns of someone else.
cThis line (17) is vertical, extending along the ends of 11. 18-32 like an embracing bracket, thus:

1.

17
-1.18

1.

32

Before each of the fifteen works enumerated in 11. 18-32 we are to understand the
The preposition
sentence of 1. 17: "I led the craftsmen to work, etc., on**
"(?" must be changed to "iw" according as a small monument or a temple follows,
a difference not necessary in Egyptian.

last

^^See
^Lit.,

32.
^^

sending up {exhibiting)

truth,**

probably the name of a shrine.

EIGHTEENTH

156

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

[375

Works in Der el-Bahri


375. 21" Most Splendid"^ the temple of myriads of years; its great
doors fashioned of black copper,^ the inlaid figures of electrum.

Amon,

^^Khikhet,*^ the great seat of

his horizon in the west; all its

doors of real cedar, wrought with bronze.

^Hhe house^ of Amon,


wrought with gold and
24a great shrine of

his enduring horizon of eternity;

silver; its

its

floor

beauty was like the horizon of heaven.

ebony of Nubia {T

^-pd't)

the stairs beneath

it,

high and wide, of pure alabaster of Hatnub.


^sa palace^ of the god,

wrought with gold and

the faces (of people) with

its

''silver^;

it

illuminated

brightness.

Works in Karnak
376.

=^^great doors,

and bronze; the


2

high and wide in Karnak; wrought with copper

inlaid figures^ of electrum.

'magnificent necklaces, large amulets of the great seat, of electrum

and every

costly stone.

^^two great obelisks ;^ their height was 108 cubits

out with electrum;

which

filled

the

Two Lands

wrought through-

with their brightness.

29an august gate (named): ''Terror-of-Amon,"^ fashioned of copper


in

one sheet;

*Name

of

its

likenesses likewise.

Der el-Bahri temple.

^The making
berry, PL XVIII.

of metal doors

may be

seen in the

tomb

of Rekhmire, ed.

New-

^Meaning "Shining of the horizon" {H ^-y^ fywt). According to Spiegelberg,


this is another name for Der el-Bahri; it is, however, strange that the doors of this
temple should be mentioned twice. Possibly the "great doors" of 1. 21 are the
huge entrance doors, and those of 1. 22 the inner doors.
<iPossibly

^This

is

some part

of the

Der

el-Bahri temple.

very probablv the ebony shrine found in the

Der

el-Bahri temple (see

126).

^A

met with elsewhere


character are unknown.
gRead: hpw.
structure not

in the inscriptions.

Its

purpose and

no doubt that these obelisks were in Karnak, but the height given
Karnak. The theory that
the height of the pair has been combined in one datum receives some confirmation
from the discovery that the two obelisks on the barge in Hatshepsut's relief lie end
^^There

is

far exceeds that of Hatshepsut's surviving obelisk in

to end;
^

38, a,

but the

total is

10 feet less than twice the height of the Karnak obelisk.

a Karnak gate called " Amon-Great-in-Terror" (Mariette, Karnak,


8); but none is known of the above name.

There

is

INSCRIPTION OF THUTIY

377]

^many

offering-tables of

Amon

in

limit; of every costly stone

Karnak,

157

electrum without

of

^^magnificent chests,* wrought with copper


vessel; linen; of every precious stone of

32a great seat, a shrine, built of granite


of heaven;

work

its

is

and electrum; every


the divine members.^
its

durability

is like

the pillars

a thing of eternity.

Measuring

of the

Punt

Tributey Etc.

377. 33Behold, all the marvels and all the tribute of all countries,
the best of the marvels of Punt, were offered to Amon, lord of Karnak
<=

sake of the hfe, prosperity, and health of the King Makere

[for the

He (Amon)

(Hatshepsut), fgiven Hfe, stabiHty, health^]

Two

34 (for)

he knew that he (the king) would

was the one who counted them, because


heart; my praise was
with him;

Now,
his

Lands,
I

suite 35

my

rintegrityi of heart for

doing that which

He

affairs of his palace.

knowing that

appointed

was instructed

me

to him.

tj^g

double

Amon

in

the

silver-

Karnak,

The like has not happened


His majesty commanded to make 37

with his tribute to their roof.

the time of the ancestors.

one

to be leader of the palace,


36

in work.

them

was so excellent in
me more than his

house; every splendid costly stone in the temple of


filled

offer

He recognized me, as
my speech concerning

him.

spoken, concealing

is

hath given the

since

d of

electrum of the best of the highlands, in the midst of the festival-hall;

measured by the heket for

*A number

Amon

of such chests are

in the presence of the whole land.

shown

in the

Punt

reliefs (Naville, Deir-el-

Bahari, III, 80).

^The

line

cThis

is

has been cut wrong, was filled with stucco, and cut again;
stucco has fallen out, revealing the old mistakes and producing confusion.
in
is

the offering scene in the

Punt

the

reliefs (Naville, Deir-el-Bahari, III, 77),

The official offering


( 289) agrees strikingly with this.
^^
for the sake of the life, prosperity, and health of the king," and is usually conwhich the inscription

ducted by someone
<*It is

else (see 57);

possible that the

word

hence the impersonal passive here.

^'balance" should be supplied here, for the inscrip-

Punt

although
it does not mention electrum particularly) would indicate that the balance had
been made especially for the purpose. In Papyrus Harris (IV, 256) the balance
is also of electrum.
Spiegelberg conjectures "eine grosse Haufe," but it is only
tion over the balance in the scene of the weighing in the

the

myrrh which appears

^One
referring

in

^^

heaps" in the Punt

reliefs.

of the frequent pseudo-participles in building

back

to

nouns mentioned long before;

it

reliefs ( 280,

and

similar inscriptions,

refers here to the tribute in

1.

33.

EIGHTEENTH

158

DYN.:

Statement thereof:

of electrum

deben; for the

prosperity,

who

shepsut),

life,

is

given]

life

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN


38__

88^ heket,^ making:

and health

of the king

[378

(x+) 57^

[Makere (Hat-

forever.

Conclusion

378. I received (snw-) loaves from that which comes forth before

Amon, lord of Kamak.

happened in truth no deceitful


utterance [came from my mouth], 39l
them; I was vigilant, my
heart was excellent for my lord; that I might rest in the highland of
the blessed who are in the necropolis; that my memory might abide on
earth; that

my

All these things

soul might live with the lord of eternity; that he^

not be repelled 4o[by] the porters

who guard

may

the gates of the nether

may come forth at the cry of the offerer^ in my tomb of


the necropolis; that he may ^aboundi in bread; that he may overflow
with beer, that he may drink at the Uving water of the river. ^iMay
I go in and out like the glorious ones, who do that which their gods
praise; may my name be goodly among the people who shall come*^
after years; may they give to me praise at the two seasons with the
world; that he

praise

"

INSCRIPTIONS OF
379.

One

PUEMRE

under Hatshepsut,

of the important arcliitects

and later under Tliutmose III, was Puemre, wlio has left
some references to his building activity, in his tomb inscriptions and on his statue.
I.

STATUE INSCRIPTION^

Construction of

Ebony Shrine

380. I inspected the erection of a great shrine of ebony, wrought


with electrum, by the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Makere (Hatshepsut), for her mother

Mut, mistress

of Ishru.

who

* Eleven four-fifths bushels.

cLit., **the

^His

dRead: yWty'sn.

soul.

On a

statue discovered in the temple of

Benson and Gourlay, The Temple

of

Mut

one

Mut,

at

places the things."

Karnak;

in Asher, 315, 316.

published by

INSCRIPTIONS OF PUEMRE

1 385]

159

Uncertain Building

381. I inspected the erection of a

* of fine white (lime)stone of

Ayan by

II.

TOMB

INSCRIPTIONS''

Relief Scene

left sits

Puemre

overseers of workmen,''^

behind

382.
^^

At the

I.

The

(see 624).

receiving reports from six

whom

are two obelisks

inscriptions are as follows:

Over Puemre
383.

Inspection of the great and excellent monuments, which

2.

Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Menkheperre (Thutmose III) made for his father Amon, in Kamak,*^ of
silver, gold, and every splendid, costly stone; by the hereditary prince,
the

King

of

count, divine father, Puem[re].

Before the Overseers

384.

The approach

3.

say before this

official,

of the officials, the chiefs of works;

"Thy

heart

is

glad because

all

they

the works have

reached their positions for thee."

On
4.

Thutmose (III) [he] made (it) [as] his monument


Amon-Re, that he might be given life forever.

.....

his father,

the Obelisk^

.^

for

Relief Scene^

385. 5.

Puemre stands

at the

and baton in
bringing tribute, which

left,

hand, receiving three lines of chiefs

staff

three scribes are recording.


^Continued as in preceding paragraph.
cFrom his tomb at Abd el-Kurna; partially published by Lepsius, DenkIt is stated by Newberry
mdler, III, 39, c, and Denkmdler, Text, III, 243, 244.
(Benson and Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher, 315, note) to be a peculiarly
fine tomb, and he promises its full publication, which has not yet appeared.
^This shows that the obelisks were erected in Karnak.
eOnly the base of the second obelisk has survived, and its inscription is of
^Possibly a doorway.

course

lost.

^Horus-, throne-, and S^-R'^ -names.

gOn
PI. I;

the left wall; published

see also pp. 22

f.

by Dumichen, Die Oasen der Libyschen

Wiiste,

EIGHTEENTH

i6o

THUTMOSE HI & QUEEN

DYN.:

Inscription before
6.

of

[386

Puemre

Reception of the tribute of the Tproducts^ of the marshes of Asia,

Watet-Hor^ and the tribute

of the southern

presentation for the king, to the temple


prince, count,

wearer of the royal

seal,

sole

and northern oases;


by the hereditarycompanion

Puemre, triumphant.
386.

7.

"

Upper Row
the tribute of the ends of Asia.

Middle

Row

8.

^Recording the tribute of Watet-Hor.

9.

*=The chief of the vineyards of this god,

Amon

Lower Row
10.

^Recording the tribute of the oasis-region.

11.

*^The chiefs of the southern

and northern

oases.

Fragment^
387.

12. Inspection
,

of

weighing of great heaps of myrrh

the

ivory, ebony, electrum of

which

Emu

his majesty

living captives,

Menkheperre (Thutmose

{^m^ w),

all

sweet woods

brought from his victories

III).

INSCRIPTIONS OF HAPUSENEB^
388.

Hapuseneb,

vizier

under Hatshepsut, was architect

of a royal tomb, probably that of Hatshepsut,*^

and super-

^W ^'it-Hr, *^'way 0} Horus " (in Sinuhe, it is written w^'ivt Hr^ '^ways of Horus**

^ty't?).
As used in Sinuhe it must be on
but other texts write as above; read
or near the Asiatic frontier of the Delta; but as it sends tribute, it must be in Asia.
There was an Egyptian governor there in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His title was
ymy-T^ ys't m W^ 'ti-Hr (Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, I, 56, statue of *nbny).

cWith the man (lower row, men) before the scribe.


^With the scribe.
dAccompan}dng a weighing scene not given by Diimichen.
^Unknown amount lost.
* Statue in the Louvre, published by Newberry {Proceedings of the Society of
Biblical Archaeology, XXII, 31-36).
I had also my own copy of the original, which
added a few readings. Another statue, with unimportant inscriptions, Benson
and Gourlay, The Temple of Mui in Asher, 312-15. A further record of his services
on a statue in Bologna has been hacked out by Hapuseneb's enemies. I was
unable to secure any important data from a study of the original.
2 Against my own former opinion {Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaology, XXII, 94).

INSCRIPTIONS OF HAPUSENEB

389I

161

monuments.

vised the construction of other royal

His works

are recorded on his Louvre statue, but the inscriptions are


in

a sadly fragmentary

state,

and the name

of

Thutmose

II

has been inserted over that of Hatshepsut, as the feminine


endings show.*

Hapuseneb was the most powerful man


party, being not merely vizier, but also

in Hatshepsut's

^^High Priest

of

Anion, and chief of the prophets of South and North,^^^ besides a number of positions which he held in the treasury.

He

thus united in his person

all

the

power

of the adminis-

government with that of the strong sacerdotal party.


The formation of the priesthood of the whole land into a
coherent organization, with a single individual at its head,
appears here for the first time. This new and great organitrative

zation

was thus through Hapuseneb

enlisted

on the

side of

Hatshepsut.
Introduction

389. ^Made as a favor of the king's presence, the King of Upper

and Lower Egypt [Okheperne]re


(Thutmose II), beloved of
Amon-Re, king of all gods.
^The majesty (fern. !) of the King Okhepernere, given life, commanded
sandstone and with every splendid costly stone,
for the hereditary prince, count, ^great lord in the

South, (sm-) priest of ''HeHopohs^, governor of the


of the tem[ples].

sLo, his majesty was in his palace


^

king's-house,

whom

she magnified

over

excellence of

city, vizier,

[whom] ^her

among

(sic

!)

majesty

"

overseer
'

before

of the

miUions

the people, because of the greatness of the


.

Cliff -Tomb

'He

saith:

the temple.

''The good god. King Okhepernere, praised

[He appointed me]

^to

first

cDown

^'Louvre statue.
<^Here the

name

"

conduct the work upon his

found the cartouches also sunken, showing the


name.
^I

me

effect of cutting

"^

in

cHff-

out the

the front of the legs.

of Hapuseneb, of course, occurred, to which belong the follow-

ing two relative clauses.

i62

EIGHTEENTH

tomb

(hr't),

DYN.:

THUTMOSE IH & QUEEN

Karnak, in

^King Okhepemere, and


Amon,* in every
the house
F

of

made"! 'Hhe mortuary ofiferings of

I
i

of

at the going out of

^of gold

of gods, before his

"

He

^3

that I should be

plans.

Amon,^

Amon-Re, king

temple in Karnak, in Hermonthis

commanded

^Myi lord
was made chief (Hry) in

because of the great excellence of

appointed me,

my

[390

should be appointed

Various Works

390. b^4By the majesty (fem.) of the king, the Lord of the Two
Lands, Okhepemere, the living.*^ Lo, I was leader (frr/>) of the works
[on] *s

[in

Karjnak, wrought with gold;

^^

chief, of

^ wrought of rcopperi, the


and black copper; ^^
great name upon it was of electrum;^
^^
'9
[a shrine] of
^ and ebony, wrought with gold;
a ^chamber
fori everything and that which is in its inclosure; ^
many ofiferingtables of gold, silver, and lapis lazuli, vessels^ and necklaces; 'Hhe
making of two doors of copper, of a single stone; the great name upon
them being of electrum; ^Hhe erection of a temple of fine Hmestone
s
of Ayan (named): "Thutmose H-is-Divine-of-Monuments;" *3
of gold, silver, lapis lazuli, malachite, every splendid, costly stone, and
silver, gold,

every sweet wood.^

^Amon

has been restored, and perhaps where

it

does not belong.

^Right side; the arrangement of this and the following lines is the same as in
the stela of Thutiy ( 372, 11. 17 ff.; see note); 1. 14 above is numbered 26 in the
publication, and is to be understood before all the works enumerated, one in each
of the following lines.

Not

^Feminine participle!

^This monument

8The

last three

^Ll. 24

and 25

is

^A kind of wood

a door.

words are
are broken

silver, as in

the publication.
is

broken out.

lost.
oflf,

and possibly

still

a third

line.

REIGN OF THUTMOSE

III

THE ANNALS^
This document, containing no less than 223 lines,
the longest and most important historical inscription in
391-

is

Egypt, and forms the most complete account of the military

achievements of any Egyptian king.


injustice of the criticism that the

of giving a clear
for

it

atic records

of a military campaign,

at least in this reign careful, system-

were made and preserved

*They occupy the

demonstrates the

Egyptians were incapable

and succinct account

shows plainly that

It

in the royal archives,

inside of the walls inclosing the corridor

which surrounds

Karnak temple of Amon. These walls were


forming a large sandstone chamber (into which the granite

the granite holy of holies of the great

by Thutmose III,
holy of holies was finally inserted by Phillip Arrhidaeus) about 25 meters in length
from east to west, and 12 meters wide. The east end was left bare. The Annals,
beginning at the northeast corner, read westward along the north wall, and southward along the west wall, terminating at the door in the center of this wall. At
the other side of this door terminate also the presentation scenes and inscriptions
( 541 fif.) which read from east to west along the south wall, and northward along
the west wall to the said door.
Or, as Mariette says: "
apres avoir enjambe
sur la parol dans laquelle se trouve la porte d'entree (in middle of east wall) vont
se rejoindre en se terminant aux deux scenes d' adoration qui forment I'encadrement
de cette porte" (in middle of west wall; scene, Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 30, a.
See Mariette, Revue archeologique, i860*, I, N. S., 30).
Of the Annals walls, he
further says: "EUe se decompose en trois parties qui sont les suivantes:
built

"1.

Un

texte de 19 lignes qui se termine par:

qui prouve que I'inscription n'allait pas plus loin.

a toujour s, ce
(voy. Lepsius, Denkmdler, III,
comtne

le soleil

M. Lepsius n'a connu que 11 lignes; voy. aussi Birch, The Annals of Thothmes
III, dans les Archaeologia, Vol. XXXV, 121).
"2. Un seconde chapitre de
lignes qu'une porte laterale (la porte nom31,6;

no

mee Ra-men-Kheper Amen

{ouer biou) coupe en deux en laissant 67 lignes d'un


c6te (voy. Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31, 6, 6;
), et 43 de I'autre cote (M.
Lepsius n'en donne que 39; voy. ibid., 32;
).
"3. Un troisi^me chapitre de 94 lignes, dont 74 occupent la moitie ouest de

nord k la suite des no lignes precedentes, et les 20 dernieres sont gravees


sur la parol a gauche de la porte d'entree.
Ces 20 lignes sont publiees dans Lepsius,
Abih, III, Bl. 30, a
Quant aux 74 premieres lignes, elles se decomposent
la parol

en 54 lignes qui sont a Paris et qui commencent le chapitre (Lepsius, Auswahl^


taf. XII;
), en 6 lignes qui suivent celles-ci et qui sont perdues, et enfin en
163

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

i64

Til

[392

giving a detailed account of each invasion in language indicating the strategic operations of the

many

The

existence of such records

account of the
Now,

first

campaign

(11.

its

"

Amon

(the

and
day's) name under

roll

of leather* in the

We

even

know

^^

the

recording for the future^


official,

named Thaneni,

His tomb, on the west shore at

these records.

by ChampoUion, contains, among


biographical inscriptions in which he states:^

Thebes,
others,

indicated in the

to this day.

22).

who kept

its

recorded upon a

Elsewhere the king also speaks of


1.

is

11, 12, 433):

army, was recorded each day by

of:

title

temple of

noticed

first

14 autres lignes que

HI,

each of

that his majesty did to this city, to that wretched foe

all

his wretched

( 568,

in

campaigns.

392.

the

army

31, a;

M.

Lepsius a publi6es imparfaitement (Lepsius, Denkmaler

)."

Mariette then appends the following table summarizing the above:


ler chapitre:

aechaoitre-

3* chapitre

19 lignes

no
94

.
^7 lignes .
lignes/
.
'43 lignes .
6 lignes perdues
lignes
.
.
14 lignes

20 lignes
Total:

.
.

Lepsius, Den^wa/gr, III, 31, 5


Lepsius, Z>m^wa/er, III, 31, 6, 6
Lepsius, Denkmalery III, 32
Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 31, a
Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 30, a

223 lignes

Mariette gives 233 as the total, but refers to 223 {loc. cU., 32).
They are in a very bad state of preservation, the upper courses having mostly
disappeared, and with them the upper parts of the vertical lines of the inscription.
The translation begins at the extreme northeast corner on the north wall and
proceeds to the left.

The complete

Annals has never been edited together; being scattered


through several publications (see conspectus below) none of which is accurate
except Bissing. These texts must be supplemented and corrected by fragments
in ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, II, 154-58; Young, Hieroglyphics, 41-44;
Description de VEgypte, PI. 38 (No. 26, 27, 29); Brugsch, Recueil de monuments,
PI. 56, Nos. 5-7; de Rouge, Revue archeologique, N. S., II, PI. 16; Griffith,
Corrections from an early copy (about 1825) by James Burton, Zeitschrift fiir
text of the

dgyptische Sprache,

XXXIII,

125.

*On the use of leather, which was very common, see Birch, Zeitschrift fiir
dgyptische Sprache, 1871, 104 and 117; and Pietschmann, Leder und Holz als
Schreibmaterialien bei den Aegyptern (from Beitrdge zur Theorie und Praxis des
Buch- und Bihliothekswesens, Heft

2).

^See ChampoUion, Notices descriptives,


V, 1151.

I,

487, 831, 832; Brugsch, Thesaurus*

THE ANNALS

393]

165

"I followed "the Good God, Sovereign of Truth, King of Upper and
Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III); I beheld the victories of

won

the king which he

in every country.

He

Zahi as living prisoners to Egypt; he captured

down

he cut

all their cities;

no country remained

their groves ;

victories

brought the chiefs of


I recorded the

which he won in every land, putting (them) into writing accord-

ing to the facts.

There

is

no doubt that we have here the author

some

of

of

the ephemerides referred to in the Annals.*


393.

The

character of these ephemerides space will not

permit us to discuss here, further than to note that in the

account of the

first,

have a somewhat

or Megiddo, campaign (4o8ff.)

full

excerpt from them, in which the stra-

tegic details, like the line of


etc.,

march, the dispositions in

are given with such clearness that

a plan of the
excerpting

is

we

field of battle.

it is

battle,

possible to

draw

Unfortunately, this fulness in

Megiddo campaign, and even


abbreviation and omission^ already

confined to the

end the

toward

its

begin.

That the excerpts are much abbreviated

stated in the account of the seventh expedition

(1.

with reference to the supplies furnished to the

*A comparison of

the phrases

the accounts in the Annals

makes

distinctly

is

13, 472),

^^

harbors

and words used by Thaneni, above, with


this certain.

This

is

:^^

those of

evident even in the EngUsh.

a question whether Thaneni could have been the author of the earliest campaign records, for he is still in active service under Thutmose IV (see Recueil, IV,
130), so that, supposing he began with the Megiddo campaign at twenty-five years
of age, he would have been over eighty years old at the accession of Thutmose IV,
under whom he completed a census of the people and live-stock in all Egypt (see
ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, I, 487), which is recorded as follows: "Mustering
of the whole land before his majesty, making an inspection of everybody, knowing
the soldiers, priests, ^ royal serfs^, and all the craftsmen of the whole land, all the
cattle, fowl, and small cattle, by the military scribe, beloved of his lord, Thaneni."
On his wide powers, see also the inscription in Brugsch, Recueil de monuments,
66, 2, a.
On his tomb, see Bouriant, Recueil, XI, 156-59; ChampoUion, ibid.,
It is

484-87, 831, 832; further inscriptions also by Piehl, Inscriptions,


CVIII, E.

I,

^The omission

in the later campaigns, evident

anyway,

by a comparison with the narrative of Amenemhab (574

may be
ff*)-

I,

CVII,

D-

clearly seen

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i66

"They

(the supplies)

remain

[394

in the daily register of the palace, the

statemen of them not being given in this inscription, in order not to


multiply words.*

ested
to its

The

more interin the booty than the strategic operations which led
capture, because this booty was largely given to his

394.

excerpting scribe, being a priest,

temples; hence he pares

down

is

his extracts to the meagerest

statement of the king's whereabouts, adding a tolerably

summary

of the booty

and

tribute.

Indeed,

it

may

full

be said

command that this permanent


campaigns should be made on the temple wall,

although the king did

that,

record of his

yet the entire record

which we

call the

Annals serves as
of feasts and offer-

more than an introduction to the list


ings (541 ff.) by which the Annals are continued.
They
merely explain whence came the magnificent offerings to
Amon.^ It is therefore frequently impossible to distinguish
between a serious campaign like' that of Megiddo and
mere expeditions for inspection.
little

*=

395.

The

conquests recorded in the Annals involved the

most serious military projects undertaken by any Egyptian


king

^projects so successfully carried

that he

is

to

march

Thutmose

III

be regarded as unquestionably the greatest


to

Thutmose

had been
the Euphrates without meeting any serious

military leader of ancient Egypt.

able to

out by

*This register of daily supplies is, of course, not the ephemerides of Thaneni;
but the fact of excerption is equally clear, nevertheless. This interesting statement
finds a parallel in the tomb of Hui, where it is said concerning his praises: "One
mentions them (one) time (each) by its name, (for) they are too numerous to put them
in writing" (L^psius,. Denkmdler, III, iiy =Denkmdler, Text, III, 302).

showing Thutmose III presenting to Amon


a magnificent array of costly gifts in gold and silver. Many of the objects mentioned in the Annals may be seen here (ChampoUion, Monuments, IV, 316, 317;
and Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1185 ff.). The whole scene is of the greatest interest
(H 543 ff-)j it also contains the two obelisks of 624.^There

is

on

this

same wall a

relief

cThe word regularly used (wdy't)

really

means "expedition."

THE ANNALS

397]

coalition of his foes, so far as

167

we know.

The

conquest had not been permanent; that

is,

results of his

they could not

endure indefinitely without further campaigning, especially


in the extreme north.
This Hatshepsut had not done,
although the Lebanon or a part of

Then

year 15.

upper

Orontes,

which united

all

the

kingdom and

quietly

organized

it

was

city of

still

held in the

Kadesh, on the

formidable

revolt,

Egypt's Asiatic enemies from Sharuhen on

on the north. It is clear also


that the powerful kingdom of Mitanni assisted this general
revolt with men and means.
For the Mitannian king naturally feared to see the armies of the Pharaoh in Naharin at
the south to the Euphrates

his very threshold.

Early in the year 23, Thutmose III met

and overthrew the allied Syrians at Megiddo, which he


besieged and captured, and although he marched northward
to the southern end of Lebanon, he was far from able to
reach and punish Kadesh. But he established a fortress in
the southern Lebanon, to prevent another southward advance by the king of Kadesh, and then returned home.
396. Of the next eighteen years the summers of sixteen
were spent campaigning in Syria, making a total of sevenThe next three campaigns (2, 3, and 4)
teen campaigns.
are meagerly recorded,^ but in the year 29, on the fifth
campaign, we find the king plainly making preparations for
the conquest of Kadesh, by first securing the coast and
getting possession of the harbors of Phoenicia.

returned to Egypt for the


the

army

397.

is

The

first

He

then

time by water, and hereafter

by the fleet.
the king disembarked

regularly transported to Syria

next year, therefore,

aThe decree of Harmhab


Egypt each year by the time of

incidentally

shows that Thutmose III was back

the feast of Opet(1, 58,

11.

is lost.

in

29-31), early in October.

See Breasted, Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 39, 60, 61.


l^The record of the fourth

his

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

i68

[399

some Phoenician harbor, and marched upon Kadesh,


which he captured and chastised, returning then to the coast
The
at Simyra, and going north to punish Arvad again.
foothold in north Syria necessary for an advance into the
Euphrates country had now been gained, and Kadesh, the
dangerous enemy who would have threatened his rear on
such a march, had been subdued. The next year (31) was

army

in

therefore spent in equipping the Phoenician harbors with

supplies

and quelling any smouldering embers

of rebellion

there.

398. It

was not

until the second year (33) after these

preparations that the great king landed in Phoenicia for his

march

as a result of the great

Megiddo

had

now

sent presents, but

repeated since

Thutmose

successfully

I.

24,

king of Assur

victory, the

the Egyptians were again to

plunder the Euphrates countries

was

Already in the year

into the heart of Naharin.

a feat which had not been

The

long and arduous march*

made, the king of Mitanni, who had, with

Kadesh, been the heart and soul of the Syrian resistance, was
totally defeated,

Carchemish^ was reached and taken, the

Euphrates was crossed, and at

boundary

his

tablet,

last

marking the northern

empire, beside that of his father,

has

left

Thutmose

III sets

up

limits of his

Thutmose

I.

Before he

the region the envoys from the king of Babylon

the king of the Hittites, having doubtless started at


of his invasion, appear with their gifts.

On

the coast the king arranges that the princes of

keep the harbors supplied with


399.

The conquest

^On

the arrangements of

with a dwelling, supplies,


24-27).

^Amenemhab,

583.

etc.,

all

and
the news

his return to

Lebanon

shall

provisions.

of all Syria has

consumed exactly ten

Thutmose Ill's herald Intef, to provide the king


on such marches, see the Stela of Intef ( 771, 11.

THE ANNALS

4oil

169

Only a voyage
inspection along the Phoenician coast was required in

years, but revolt has

of

still

to

be reckoned with.

the next year (34), but the revolt of the king of Mitanni

Thutmose

called
after

into

Naharin

in the following year,

and

a decisive defeat the people of Naharin were again

brought under the Egyptian yoke.

The

records of the

next two years (36 and 37) are lost, but in the year ^S we
find the king punishing the princes of the southern Lebanon
region, in order to protect the road north between the

nons.

On

this occasion, for the first time,

from the prince

of Cyprus,

and

Leba-

he receives

gifts

also Arrapachitis, the later

Assyrian province.
400.

The punishment

of the raiding

Bedwin

of southern

Palestine forms a preliminary to the usual journey of inspec-

and the record of the next two


too fragmentary to show more than that

tion in the next year (39),

years (39 and 40) is


the tribute was paid as usual.
401

Finally, the long series of revolts in Syria culminates

in a last desperate rebellion,

in

enemy, the source of most of his

which Thutmose's archtrouble in Syria, Kadesh,

Naharin sends allies, and Tunip likewise,


so that the whole of north Syria, at least inland, is again
combined against Thutmose. In the year 42 he proceeded
first against Tunip,
and after its subjugation besieged
Kadesh, which was finally captured. Thus the nearly
twenty years of Syrian campaigning was concluded, as it had
begun, by the humiliation of Kadesh, which during all that
time had been Egypt's thorn in the flesh. This last downis

the leader.

was final; Kadesh no longer stirred


and Thutmose III could relax his ceaseless
fall

revolt in Syria,*
efforts

continued

during seventeen campaigns.


campaigns of the Nineteenth Dynasty begin in northern
Tunip, the old ally of Kadesh, that plays the leading role.

*When

is

the

Syria,

it

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

I70

The

402.

by two

lists

extent of these campaigns

conquered Asiatic

of

Karnak

[402

is

further indicated

cities left

by Thutmose III

Those belonging to the first


campaign, preserved in triplicate,^ are 119 in number, and
embrace, in general, the region from the northern limits of
Palestine southward an uncertain distance into Judea
in the great

temple.

(southern Judea being at that time already under Egyptian


control;

well as

cf.

Mliller,

Asien und Euro pa, 144, 154, 155), as

Damascus and

its district.

names have been recognized

in

it.

Many Old Testament


It is

introduced by the

'

superscription:
List of the countries of

Upper Retenu which

Megiddo {My-k-ty)

in the city of

his majesty shut

up

the wretched, whose children his

majesty brought as hving prisoners to the city of Suhen-em-Opet,^ on


his first victorious campaign, according to the

Amon, who

led

The

copy of the

same

third

him

of his father

to excellent ways.

(Mariette, Karnak, 19) has the

list

superscription, with the variant:

to the city of Thebes, in order to

[presider over]

Karnak, on

The second copy

are,

command

of the

his

fill

the storehouse*^ of his father

Amon,

first, etc.

list

has a different superscription

aThe first copy is on the west side of the Pylon VI, north end; the other two
one on the north side and the other on the south side of the Pylon VIII,

Text: ibid., 17-20; important corrections by GolenischefiE, Zeitschrift jiir dgyptische Sprache, XX, Pis. V and
VI, and more fully by Maspero, Recueil, VII, 94-97. Treatments by Maspero,
Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache, XXIX, 11 9-31, and Muller, Asien und Europa,
156-64, 144, and 154 f.; less critical Tomkins, Transactions of the Society of BibBaedeker's Karnak, or the Vllth, Mariette, Karnak).

lical Archceology,

IX, 257-80 (with

text).

a place of confinement
or dwelling for the foreign princes residing in Thebes as hostages. In the sixth
campaign ( 467) the purpose of thus keeping them is given.

^Swhn

Yp't means "Castle

{or Prison) in Thebes."

such disposal was made of these


children; cf. Building Stela of Amenhotep III, front, 11. 6, 7 ( 884), and Papyrus
of Capture of Joppa, III, 11. 11, 12, where, after the fall of the city, Thutiy says
to Thutmose III: "Let people come, to take them as captives; fill thou the house
cit is not infrequently distinctly stated that

of thy

father

Amon-Re,

with male and female slaves."

THE ANNALS

405]

171

All inaccessible lands of the marshes of Asia,*

which

his majesty-

they had never been trodden by the

brought as living captives


other kings, beside his majesty

which would indicate that some of the places belong


farther north than the limits above indicated.
403. The second list^ embraced 248 names (of which
many are lost) of cities in northern Syria and also perhaps
as far east as the Chaboras River,*" but our geographical
knowledge of this region is too meager as yet to identify any
a

title

number

of the places included.

404. In addition to these materials the great

list

of "Feasts

and Offerings from the Conquests" ( 547 ff.), the Building Inscription of the Karnak Ptah-Temple ( 609 ff.), the
king's obelisks (6295.), and his "Hymn of Victory"
(655

The

ff.),

furnish important references to the campaigns.

VII at Karnak also bore a long


which only scanty fragments have

great portal of Pylon

recital of his wars, of

survived (593
405.

ff.)-

The tombs

Theban cemetery

The

material.
of these,

is

of

the

officials

in

the

also contain very valuable supplementary

career of

Amenemhab,

translated below (574

the representations in the

which show many


lists

contemporary

tomb

of the objects

the most important

Next to these are


Rekhmire (76off.),

ff.)-

of

mentioned

in the tribute

a reference to Thutmose Ill's


tomb of Menkheperreseneb shows

of the Annals, besides

campaigns

The

( 755).

aSee also the

"Hymn

of Victory" ( 655

ff.)-

as an appendix to the third copy of the first


list (Baedeker's Karnak;
seventh in Mariette, Karnak; cf. B, 252, Mariette).
Text: Mariette, Karnak, 20, 21; Tomkins, Transactions of the Society of Biblical

^On

the Pylon VIII at

Karnak

und Europa, 286IX, 227-54, depends too much on modern names for his identi-

Archceology, IX, Pis. Ill, IV; the best treatment, Miiller, Asien

92; Tomkins, ibid.,


fications.

cSee Miiller, Asien

und Europa,

287.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

172

The tomb

[406

Puemere contains a relief showing the reception of tribute from ^^the ends
^
of Asia^^ ( 385), and that of Imnezeh^ (F m-ndh) a similar
scene of tribute from ^^Retenu the wretched.''^ Finally,
among the most interesting of these contemporaries is the
court herald, Intef, who tells how he preceded Thutmose
III on the march and prepared the Syrian palaces for his
the tribute of Asia ( 772

ff.).

of

reception (771, U. 24-27).

CONSPECTUS OF CAMPAIGNS
406. FIRST

CAMPAIGN, YEARS 22 AND 23 (408-43, 593

ff.,

616)
(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31,

Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1153-66,

11.

b,

1-67;

11.

ibid., Ill, 32,

and 1-2 1;

1-79,

11.

1-32 =

Bissing's unpublished

collation.^)

Megiddo captured Megiddo, Yenoam, Nuges,


Herenkeru; built fort in Lebanon; tribute and booty of
Battle of

these.

[second campaign] year 24 (444-49)


(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 32,
68,

11.

21-28;

11.

3 2-39

= Brugsch,

Thesaurus, 1166-

Bissing's unpublished collation.)

Tribute of Assur and Retenu.

[third campaign] YEAR 25 (450-52)


(Mariette, Karnak, Pis. 28

and

31.)

Plants of Retenu.

[fourth campaign, YEARS 26-28] (453)


Lost.
^Memoires de

la mission frangaise

au

Caire, V, 356

f.

^This is incorporated in the Berlin Dictionary, and I owe to von Bissing


sincere thanks for permission to use it.

my

CONSPECTUS OF CAMPAIGNS

4o6]

173

FIFTH CAMPAIGN, YEAR 29 (454-62)


Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,
11.
i-6=Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1168-70,

(Lepsius,

Karnak,

13,

Statistische Tajel,

^^";

sacrifice to

Amon;
"^w

of tribute received

list

i-7

11.

= Bissing,

1-7.)

11.

Second caption; campaign


"

1-7; Mariette,

11.

in

Zahi; capture of ^^W^

spoil of city; capture of


this expedition ;^^

sailed

Arvad;

home.

SIXTH CAMPAIGN, YEAR 30 (463-67)


Auswahl

(Lepsius.

Karnak,

13,

11.

7,

Statistische Tajel,

der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,

= Brugsch,

11.

Thesaurus, 11 70, 11 71,

7-9; Mariette,

11.

7-9 = Bissing,

7-9.)

11.

Capture of Kadesh; tribute of Retenu; punishment of


Arvad.

[seventh campaign], year 31 (468-75)


(Lepsius,

Karnak,

13,

Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII, 11. 9-17 Mariette,


11. 9-i6=Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1 171-73, 11. 9-i7 = Bissing,
;

Statistische Tajel,

9-17.)

11.

Capture of UUaza; tribute of Retenu; supplies for the


harbors; harvest of Retenu; tribute of Genebteyew; impost
of

Wawat.
[eighth campaign], year 33 (476-87)
(Lepsius,

ette,

Auswahl

Karnak,

13,

der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,

11.

17-29; Mari-

i7-28 = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1173-75, H- 17-29 =

11.

Bissing, Statistische Tajel,

11.

17-29.)

Conquest of Naharin;
(capture of Carchemish)

battle in

Naharin;

the booty

crossing of Euphrates; boundary

Naharin, supplies for the harbors; tribute


tribute of Hittites; Punt expedition; impost

tablets; tribute of

of

Babylon;

of

Wawat.
[ninth campaign], year 34 (488-95)
(Lepsius,

Mariette,

Auswahl

Karnak,

13,

der
11.

wichtigsten

Urkunden, XII,

29-35 = Brugsch,

29-3 7 = Bissing, Statistische Tafel,

11.

29-37.)

Thesaurus,

11.

29-37;

1175-77,

11.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

174

Surrender of Zahi towns

the harbors; tribute of Cyprus

impost of

TENTH CAMPAIGN, YEAR


(Lepsius,
sius,
11.

Auswahl
1.

o, U.

= Bissing,

Revolt of Naharin;

supplies for

Kush and Wawat.

35 (496-503)

der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,

Denkmdler, III, 31,

37-44, and

Retenu

tribute of

[406

11.

37-41; Lep-

i-3 = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 11 77, 11 78,

Statistische Tafel,

battle

11.

37-44.)

Naharin, king's booty;

in

army's booty; impost of Kush and Wawat.

[eleventh campaign, year

(504)

36]

Lost.

[twelfth campaign, year

37]

(505)

Lost.

[thirteenth campaign, year 38] (506-15)


(Lepsius, Denkmalefj III,

1178-81,

11.

31,

a,

3-io=Brugsch, Thesaurus,

11.

2-9.)

Capture of Nuges;

booty of same;

tribute of Syria;

harbor supplies; tribute of Cyprus and Arrapakhitis


ucts of Punt;

prod-

impost of Kush and Wawat.

FOURTEENTH CAMPAIGN, YEAR 39 (516-19)


(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31, a,

1181-1182,

11.

11.

10-14= Brugsch, Thesaurus,

9-13.)

Defeat of Shasu; Syrian tribute; harbor supplies.

[fifteenth campaign, year 40] (520-23)


(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 30, a, 11. 1-4= Brugsch, Thesaurus,
1 182,

11.

1-4;

photograph by Borchardt.)

Tribute of Cyprus; impost of

Kush and Wawat.

[sixteenth campaign, year 41] (524-27)


(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 30, a,
1 183,

11.

11.

4-10= Brugsch, Thesaurus,

1182,

4-10; photograph by Borchardt.)

Tribute of Retenu; tribute of Hittites; impost of

and Wawat.

Kush

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

4o8]

[seventeenth CAMPAIGN, YEAR


(Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 30, a,

1183-85,

Campaign

10-20= Brugsch, Thesaurus,

against Kadesh; overthrow of Erkatu, Tunip,

Kadesh; booty

known

(528-39)

42]

photograph by Borchardt.)

10-20;

11.

11.

175

harbor supplies;

of these;

country; of Tinay; impost of

I.

tribute of un-

Kush and Wawat.

407. ^Horus: ''Mighty Bull, Shining in Thebes;


^King of Upper and Lower Egypt, ^Lord of the the

Menkheperre; Son

commanded

of

Re: [Thutmose

to cause to

be record ed

Amon, gave to him, upon^J ^a tablet**


made for [his father, Amon ^ settmg
SameT^ogethCT^j^
'

[therein.

It

father. Re,

INTRODUCTION

was^d one according

[his victories

Two Lands :^
3 His

.^

(III)]

maje sty

which his

father,

in tEe^m5ie~whicE~Tus''mi!jestF

forth eachi] sexpedition

to]^ ^all [^the

by

comma nd^! which

its

his

gave to him.

II.

FIRST CAMPAIGN (YEAR

most important of Thutmose

408. This, the

paigns in Asia,

is

23)*^

Ill's

fortunately the most fully recorded.

^Omitted by Brugsch's

^The lacking portion

cam-

The

text.

of the conventional fivefold titulary

may

be found passim.

^Restored from Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII, second


horizontal line (455).

^Really temple wall; more often this word (wd) means a stela or slab of stone
set

up by

itself.

This line is unfortunately also broken away in Lepsius, Auswahl der wichUrkunden, XII; the restoration is probable, but conjectured.

tigsten
f

Restored from Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII, second

horizontal line.

sSeventy-nine short and 21 long vertical lines, beginning at the northeast


corner of the passage. Text: Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31, 6, 11. 167, and ibid.,
Ill, 32, 11. i-32=Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1 153-166, 11. 1-79 and 1-21.
The short
lines being next the base have almost all lost a portion of the lower ends, while a
large part of the long lines lacks the upper ends and frequently the lower ends,
also.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

176

occasion of the campaign was a general revolt


father's Syrian conquests

from Sharuhen

[409

among

his

to the Euphrates.

Fighting had already developed in Sharuhen, which was, of


course, too near the Egyptian frontier to venture to

common

make

and hence conflict reWe are taken with the king and clearly shown
sulted there.
his operations day by day till he overthrows a coalition of
practically all Syria at Megiddo, headed by the king of
Kadesh. He then besieges and captures Megiddo, but from
the surrender of Megiddo on, the record degenerates, as in
\all the other campaigns, to little more than a list of spoils.
'Fortunately, this latter part of the campaign is supplemented
'and really continued by the introduction to the list of feasts
and offerings^ established on the king's return to Thebes from
this campaign.
The close of the campaign is there narrated,
mentioning a fortress established in the Lebanon, whither the
king had marched after the fall of Megiddo, capturing there
the three cities at the seaward bend of the Litany River,
which we may call the Lebanon Tripolis:^ Yenoam,
Nuges, and Herenkeru, commanding the thoroughfare
northward between the Lebanons. All this serves merely
as an introduction to the splendid feasts of victory celebrated by the king, as is distinctly stated ^^on his return
The date of these
from the first victorious campaign J
:elebrations is preserved, and enables us for the first and
only time to determine the length of an Egyptian campaign
cause with the revolters;

^in

Syria.

409.

The

entire calendar of the

be determined,

is

campaign, as far as can

as follows:

^Only the spoil of these cities is enumerated in the Annals, the march thither
being entirely ignored. The record of feasts and offerings only mentions them
later to say that they were given to Amon.

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

4io]

177

Modern

Egyptian Calendar

Approximate
Distance

Event

(English Miles)

In Thani
In Gaza; Feast of Coronation
Departure from Gaza
In Yehem
In Aruna
Departure from Aruna

160
..

Arrival before Megiddo


Battle of Megiddo
Beginning of siege of Megiddo.
Capture of Megiddo

March

Calendar

Year of
Reign

22d
23d

Calendar

8th
9th
(<

c.

80 to 90

((

<(

/
<(

}^- 4 or 5

((
(<

to

April 19
"
28

over 900

Oct. II

14th

410. In less than 148 days, roughly five months,

mose III fought the Battle

of

10
13
14
14
15
15

2d

May

at least 75

Herenkeru
Construction of fort in Lebanon.
Return to Thebes, not later than

25th
4th
Sth
1 6th
19th
20th
20th

((

>

Lebanon
Capture of Yenoam, Nuges,

Approximate
Date

2ISt
2ISt

<(
.

Day

Month

Thut-

Megiddo, completely invested

with a wall the powerful fortress of Megiddo

marched northward

captured

it;

Lebanon

region, captured three cities,

itself,

and

seventy-five miles to the

and

built

a fortress

completed the return to the Delta coast and the

there;

voyage up-river to Thebes; and celebrated his

The

first feast

of

campaign from the departure


from Tharu to the arrival in Thebes lasted a maximum of \
175 days; that is, in five months and twenty-five days fronr
the day on which he left Tharu he was celebrating his great
victory there.

Feast of

Amon

entire

at Thebes.

Fortunately,

we

are able to

locate this period approximately in the astronomical calendar

and

tell

in

what month he went and returned.^

(See

409,

the Elephantine calendar fragment, which


gives the heliacal rising of Sothis in the reign of Thutmose III as the 28th of Epiphi
(Young, Hieroglyphics^ 59=Brugsch, Thesaurus, II, 363 = Lepsius, Denkmaler,

*For

this

purpose we have

= de Morgan,

first

Doubt has been cast


upon this date, but I have examined the Berlin squeezes, and there is not a shadow
of doubt that it belongs to the series of blocks from the reign of Thutmose III. In
III, 43, e

Catalogue des Monuments,

I,

121).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

178

column).

last

It is

[411

thus evident that the campaign

falls

exactly within the limits of the dry season in Palestine.*


411. Beside the celebration in Thebes, the victory

and recorded in a poetic inscription by the


Kush, Nehi ( 412, 413), at Wadi Halfa.^ It

celebrated
viceroy of

refers to the first

campaign, as follows:

who

412.

(a god) stationed ^his

majesty at the Horns of

the Earth, in order to overthrow the Asiatics (Mnt'w-SU).

Mighty
^

lie.

came

Amon, who

Atum, beloved
the Two Lands may

Son

Bull, Shining in Thebes,

^fighting for his

no

was

army

himself, that

forth

from the house

me

decrees

of

of

my

of
see

am

the

Montu,
it;

it is

father, the king of gods,

victory.

413. '*The king himself, he led the way of his army, mighty at its
head, like a flame of fire, the king who wrought with his sword. He

went

none

forth,

(Rtnw'tf

sic\)f

^^like

him, slaying the barbarians, smiting Retenu

bringing their princes as living captives, their chariots

wrought '4with gold, bound

do obeisance because

of the

to their horses.

fame

The

Tehenu
tribute upon

countries of

of his majesty, with their

width of column and height of corresponding signs it is identical with a block


bearing the name of Thutmose III. Erman, with whom I examined it, was of the
same opinion. Unfortunately, the regnal year is not given; but since my attempt
to determine the season of the campaign {Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 37,
127 f.) on the basis of the Sothis date, the new moon dates have been finally established by Meyer, which modify my series of dates by two days, but corroborate
entirely the season as I established it (Meyer, Abhandlungen der Berliner Akadentie,
1904, Aegyptische Chronologie, 49 f.).
*Also shown by the fact that the army reaped the grain harvest about Megiddo,
after having foraged upon it.
From the king's Karnak building inscription ( 608)

was at home in February after the campaign of the year 24; and
Harmhab decree (III, 58) shows that Thutmose III was accustomed to be at
home each year at the feast of Opet early in October after the summer's campaigning.
The campaign of the year 31 also began in April (469, 1. 9); the Syrian

we

see that he

the

campaign of Amenhotep II (78off.) and the Kadesh campaign of Ramses II


298

(III,

ff.)

also

fell

in the dry season (see Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache,

37 129).
y

^On a
for

it

pillar of the

Empire temple.

to a photograph, kindly loaned

It is

me by

dated "year

23"

am

Professor Steindorff, as

indebted
it is

still

unpublished. There is in Cairo a fragment of a stela (unpublished, no number)


recording the erection of this temple by Thutmose III {"building for him a temple
of white sandstone^'), and its endowment with offerings; but only the extreme ends
of eight lines are preserved.

am

indebted to Schaefer for a copy of

it.

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

417]

their backs, '5

the breath of

414.

do the dogs, that there might be given

as

to

them

life.

There

is

here further reference to j^ieking^s personal

army through

leading of his

Megiddo

179

battle.

Furthermore,

and

the mountains

we

see that

in

the

Libyans came

with tribute on the king's return from the campaign.

The

Annals narrate the campaign as follows:


At
415. Year

22, fourth

the Frontier in

month

Tharu

of the second season (eighth month),

^Tharu {T ^-rw) on the first


[extend] ^the boundaries of Egypt with might

on the twenty-fifth^ day

[his

victorious expedition to

majesty was

in]

Revolt in Asia

416. 9N0W,

(at) that

agreement,! each

man

period^ fthe Asiatics had fallen into] ^dis-

[fighting'^]

against [^his neighbor^]

happened ^that the tribes^


the people, who were there
"in the city of Sharuhen {^^-r^-h^-n)\ behold, from Yeraza^ {Y-r^-d^)
'3to the marshes of the earth,^ (they) had begun to revolt against his
^'Now^

it

majesty.

Arrival in Gaza, Feast of Coronation

417. Year 23,

first

(month) of the third season (ninth month), on

the fourth day, the day of the feast of the king's coronation, (he arrived)
'4at the city, ^the possession of the ruler ,^

*The day

Gaza^ (G

^-d ^-tw)

lacking in Lepsius and Bnigsch, but is preserved by Champollion's


early copy (Champollion, Notices descriptives, II, 154).

last

is

^Or: "Now, at the time of these ^events, during years'^;" there are traces of the
two words {m rnp'wt) at the end, before the lacuna.
^Restored from the determinative.
<iThat

is,

Maspero

from northwestern Judea to beyond the Euphrates.


{Recueil, II, 50,

and Struggle

but the text of Brugsch has fourth


at

Karnak

has

(1.

of the

7)

has third day,


moreover, the table of feasts on the south wall
of the Nations, 255

f.)

(Mariette, Karnak, PI. 14, h; Roug^, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 164)


" The first month of the third season, fourth day, the feast of the coronation

king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre {Thutmose III)."

( 594) gives the

same

Pylon VII

date.

^This is possibly a proper name, made up of a verb (in relative form) and a
noun, meaning: "Which the ruler seized" (nih' n p'> hk^ ?).
8 About 125 miles

from the starting-point in nine days.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i8o

[418

Departure from Gaza

418. [Year

23] ^sfirst

month

of the third season (ninth month),

the fifth day; departure from this place in might,

^^in

on

power, and

in triumph, to overthrow that wretched foe,^ to extend ^'the boundaries

commanded

of the third season (ninth month),

on the

of Egypt, according as his father,

Amon-Re,

'^had

that he seize.

Yehem

Arrival at

419. Year

23, first

month

sixteenth day, (he arrived) at the city of

Council of

420. [His majesty] ordered

Yehem (Y-hm).

War

^^a consultation with his valiant troops,

"That [wretched] enemy, [the chief] ^of Kadesh


(Kd-Sw)j has come and entered into Megiddo (My-k-ty)] he [^is there""]
He has gathered to himself the chiefs of [all] the
*^at this moment.

saying as follows:

(N-h-ry-n)j consisting of [the countries] of

Kode (Kdw),

["^fight

against his majesty!] *sin

Megiddo

Officers

421. They spoke in the presence of his majesty,


[we] should go
['come'']

upon

this road,

behind]

soman

it

[will]

^The king

of Kadesh.

^An idiom

for "dependent

cThe king's demand upon

is

Shall

likewise ?

not having fought?

33one road, behold,

is it,

that

While

there waiting, P"holdi]ing the

Will not horse come behind [horse'^ and

fighting while our [^rear-guardi]^


(^^ -rw-n^)

"How

^^which threatens to be narrow

*^and say that the enemy

'9way against a multitude.

man

(My-k-ty).*

."^

me

Advice of the

they

far as

^^thus he speaks, 'I

their horses, their troops,

have arisen to
Tell ye

and as

Naharin
^^the Kharu {H^-rw)^ the

countries [which are] ^^on the water of Egypt,^

is

our

[Tadvance-guardT]

yet standing yonder 32in

There are yet two


us, for it comes forth

upon" or

(other)
at

3ibe

Aruna
roads:

34Taanach

"subject to."

his officers is for information concerning the road,

as the subsequent developments show.

dSee

424,

1.

55.

The end is the restoration of Maspero (Recueil,


by that of Brugsch (Egypt under the Pharaohs, t^SS)f

Maspero, Recueil,

"rear-guard."

II, 52;

the determinative of

II,

men

52) suggested probably

is still

preserved after

'

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

424]

(T^-^^-n^-k^)j the other, [beholjd,

north of 2^fti {Dj-ty)^ so that

we

by a

(but) cause us not to go

come out to the north of Megiddo


proceed upon [the road] he desires;

difficult*

road."

King

Decision of the

422. Then

had

^ ^SFmessengersi concerning

Court, L. P. H.:

my

me, as

*'I [swear],

[nostrils]

as

Re

loves

design 39which they

[this]

what had been said

uttered, in view of

upon] 3sthe way

will [bring us

shall

36x^t our victorious lord

(My-k-ty).

it

i8i

l^yi the majesty of the

my

me, as

father

Amon,

are rejuvenated with satisfying Hfe,

proceed upon this road of ^aAruna {^^-rw-n^).

my

favors

majesty

who

will

upon those 43roads ye have mentioned, and let him


will 44among you, come in the following of my majesty.
Shall
think among those ^senemies whom Re detests
Does his majesty
ceed upon ^^another road ? He begins to be fearful of us,* so will

who

will

among

Let him

you, go

'

they
pro-

they

think."

Submission of the

Officers

423. 47They spoke before his majesty: ''May thy father Amon,
lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, ''grant thee life^.
^Behold, we
are the following of thy majesty in every place, whither [thy majesty]

proceedeth; '^as the servant

is

behind

[his]

master."

Departure jrom Yehem

424. 5o[TThen his majesty^]


5 1 that

[upon]

road'^

."

majesty, in

the entire

which threatened

"None

majesty] s^swore, saying:

my

commanded
shall

go forth

to
P"in

army

march^]

be [narrow.*^

His

the wayl] ^abefore

s4He went forth at the head of his army

himself, ^^showing [the wayi] ssby his (own) footsteps;


[horse], [Tiis majestyij^

[^to

horse behind^

being s^at the head of his army.

applied to the road upon which the great block for


It means "inaccessible" or
the el-Bersheh colossus (I, 696, 1. i) was brought.
"difficult;'* it is also used by Thutmose III of the celestial road of the sun ( 141).

*The same word (U

bVerb

lost.

cText has an
^Ci.

1.

^) is

Amon

wrongly restored here.

27, above.

*Lit., "steps of

marching."

^The army here enters

80r

the

mountain pass.

possibly :"['^/^e vanguard,^] being of the best of his army."

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i82

Aruna

Arrival at

425. Year

23, first

nineteenth day;
of

city

Aruna

month

of the third season (ninth

the watch in [safety]^


(^^ -rw-n^).^

under (the protection of my)

5 7 in

month), on the

the royal tent

Amon-Re,

father,

my

arms]^

>;.^C
fi^'

,,^->^4the

^^'in

jT^

sword

numerous

battle array

southern wing was in Taa[nach] (T^-^^ [-n ^-k

northern wing was on the ground south of

majesty cried out to them before

the

Mountains

426. [The enemy] went forth

The

of

majesty."
Battle in the

^3

at the

lord of Thebes, [who

6(my) father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, victorious

my

was

sS'^My majesty proceeded northward

went] 59before me, while Harakhte [strengthened

"^^over

[425

^7

wretched foe

^^they
^^

.^

fell;

^]),

^^His

behold, that

of [the city of]^ ^^ Aruna

(^^-rw-n^).
^Perhaps we should supply: "life, prosperity, and health," as in Ramses II's
march to Kadesh (1. i); but above, the said phrase is used after "tent," to express
the adjective "royal," and would hardly appear twice in the same phrase.

^Three days
tains, is reached.

twentieth

(1.

Yehem, Aruna, lying in the midst of the mounHere they spent the night of the nineteenth and marched on the

after the arrival at

58).

^Restored from

430,

1.

3.

<lMaspero {Recueil, II, 56) following Brugsch, supplies Megiddo here. This
is quite possible, but only on a different supposition from that of Maspero and
\ Brugsch, viz., that the position described here is that of the Asiatic forces, not of
I the
Egyptians, for the latter do not arrive "south of Megiddo" until long after
i^is ( 428).
Furthermore, it is quite impossible for the Egyptians to have had
their southern wing at Taanach, while defiling through the Megiddo road.
This
seems to have been the view in the translation in Petrie's History (II, 106), buf'no
mention is made of an encounter with the enemy in the mountains in the summary,
r p. loi. The passage is important, for it decisively determines (even without
supplying Megiddo above) the location of Megiddo against Conder's identification
with Mujedda*^. An Asiatic army which, we know, fought before Megiddo, has
j
its southern wing at Taanach, which is known to be Tannuk of today; it must
V follow that Megiddo is northward from Tannuk. See Breasted, Proceedings of

\
(

the Society of Biblical Archceology, 22, 96.

There was some encounter with the enemy here in the mountains, and this
moves the officers to urge calling in the straggling rear as soon as possible. This
encounter has escaped all the historians except Meyer {Geschichte, 239); cf. Maspero, Struggle of the Nations, 257: Wiedemann, Aegyptische
Petrie, History of Egypt, II, loi; etc.
^

There

publications.

is

a loss of

five lines here,

before

1.

69, but

it is

Geschichte, 347;

not indicated in the

THE ANNALS FIRST CAMPAIGN

429]

183

Danger

Rear

of the

427. Now, the rear of the victorious army of his majesty was at the
city of 7Aruna {^^-rw-n^), the front was going forth to the valley of

Then

7ithey filled the opening of this valley.

;^

[they] said in the

presence of his majesty, L. P. H.: ^a^gghold, his majesty goeth forth

with his victorious army, and


let

it

has

filled 73the

hollow of the valley;

our victorious lord hearken to us this time^ and

army and

for us the rear of his

come

forth to us behind;

barbarians; then

we

'4let

our lord protect

^^Let the rear of this

his people.

army

then shall they (also) fight against ^^these

shall not (need to) take

thought for the rear of our

His majesty halted outside and waited ^^there, protecting

77army."

the rear of his victorious army.

Exit from the Mountains

428. Behold, when the front had reached the

exit

upon

this road,

shadow had turned,*^ and when ^^his majesty arrived at the south
of Megiddo (My-k-ty) on^ the bank of the brook of Kina (Ky-n^), the
seventh hour^ was turning, (measured) by the sun.
the

Camp

in Plain of Megiddo

429. Then was set up the camp of his majesty, and command was
given to the whole army, saying: "Equip yourselves! Prepare your

weapons! for we^


of the chiefs

heart

advance to

fight

with that wretched foe in the

rxhereforei the king ^rested in the royal tent, the

morning."

watch

shall

'"affairs''^

were arranged, and the provisions of the attendants.

of the

army went about,

Watchful

Watchful

!^

One came

to say to his majesty,

the South

and North

saying, "Steady of heart!

Watch

"The

for

life

land

is

The

Steady of

at the tent of the king."

well,

and the infantry

of

likewise."

"Proper name ending in n.


^Petrie, History of Egypt, II, 106.

^It

was past midday.

new enumeration of twenty-eight longer lines begins


^The army here emerges in safety upon the plain in

<1A

twentieth,

and camps unmolested that

night, to

here.

the afternoon of the

go forth to battle in the morning of

the twenty-first.
f

About one o'clock

p.

m.

eThe

text has the impersonal

"one"

same rare phrase.


iLit., "Watchful of head,'" meaning "to be vigilant," e. g., of the king (Amenhotep III) on the architrave at Luxor: "the Good God who is very vigilant (lit.,
watchful 0} head) over the house of his father, Anton" (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III,
73i &;Lagain ibid., e); and often of the vigilance of a faithful ofl&cial.
^See 341,

1.

17, for the

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i84

Battle 0}

430. Year

430

Megiddo

(month) of the third season (ninth month), on

23, first

the twenty-first day, the day of the feast of the


to^ the royal coronation, early in the

given to the entire

army

to

move

morning, behold,
.

chariot of electrum, arrayed in his

new moon, ^corresponding

command was

3His majesty went forth in a

weapons

of war, like Horus, the

Montu of Thebes, while his


The southern wing of this army

Amon,

Smiter, lord of power; like

father,

strengthened his arms.

of his majesty

was on a hill south of the [brook of]* Kina (Ky-n^)j the northern wing
was at the northwest of Megiddo (My-k-ty)^ while his majesty was in
their center, with Amon as the protection of his members,
the valor
Then his majesty prevailed against them at the head
4of his limbs.
of his army, and when they saw his majesty prevailing against them
they fled headlong to Megiddo (My-k-ty) in fear,*^ abandoning their
horses and their chariots of gold and silver. The people^ hauled them
(up), pulling (them) by their clothing, into this city; the people of this
city having closed (it) against them [and QoweredTj ^clothing to pull
them up into this city. Now, if only the army of his majesty had not
given their heart to plundering the things of the enemy, they would have
[captured] Megiddo (My-k-ty) at this moment, when the wretched foe
of {Sid-l) Kadesh and the wretched foe of this city were hauled up in
haste to bring them into this city. The fear of his majesty had entered
^[Ttheir hearts"!], their arms were powerless, his serpent diadem was

'^

"

^victorious!

among them.
The Spoil

431. Then were captured their horses, their chariots of gold and
silver

were made spoil ;^

^Restored from 428,

1.

their

champions lay stretched out

like fishes

i.

^This shows that Thutmose has gone around Megiddo toward the west and,
having his army partially on the north of the city, has intercepted the enemy's
northern line of retreat; at the same time probably securing his own line of retreat
along the Zefti road (see 421, 1. 35). This position corroborates the position of
the Asiatics with their southern wing at Taanach on the day before the battle
(see 426, especially note).
This move must have been made by Thutmose in
the afternoon or during the night before the battle.
cLit.,

"with or in the faces

^Megiddo.

^Read
year 31,

1.

The two
ys-h

"one."

kings of Kadesh and Megiddo are meant.

k (Sethe, Verbum,

10 ( 470).

^Lit.^

of fear."

II,

700),

and compare the same phrase

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

433]

The

185

army of his majesty went around countBehold, there was captured the tent of that wretched
ing their portions.
.a
^
foe [in] which was [his] son
The whole army made
jubilee, giving praise to Amon for the victory which he had granted to
on the ground.

his son

victorious

on [^this day, ^giving praise^^]

They brought up

to his majesty, exalting his victories.

had taken, consisting of hands,


^
chariots of gold and silver, of

the booty which they

of living prisoners, of horses,

<^

The Rebuke
432. [Then spake his majesty "on hearing! the words of his army,
saying: **Had ye captured [this city] afterward, behold, I would have
^

given

has revolted
this

cities,

is

Re

this

within

day; because every chief of every country that

it;

capture of

and because it is the capture of a thousand


Megiddo (My-k-ty). Capture ye ^mightily,
.

g ^

mightilyi^

Siege 0} Megiddo

433. [THis majesty commanded^] the rofficersi of the troops to go


[""assigning toT| each his place.
They measured this city, ['"sur,

rounding

with an inclosure, walled about with green timber of

it"!]

His majesty himself was upon the

their pleasant trees.^

east of this city, ["inspect]ingi *


It

Its

was

name was made: "Menkheperre (Thutmose

^Or: "the
cCut

off

1.

with

its

thick wall.^

III)-is-the-SurrDunder-

7 is lacking.

of his majesty were exalting^

from the

fortification

[wa]lled about with a thick wall

^About a quarter of

all

etc.'*

slain.

<iAbout one-fourth of

1.

is

lacking.

Three or four words are lacking, probably: "[very


day" or something similar.

^The lacuna doubtless contained the exhortation

many

offerings to]

Re

this

to begin the siege.

kLI. 9-19 generally lack about one-third their length at the beginning.

^Thutmose

way (567).
(jbnr) literally

III describes the trees in his

own garden

of

Amon,

in the

same

trees are meant, as the word rendered "pleasant"

Possibly fruit

means "sweet."

iAbout one-third

line lacking.

iFive or six words are lacking.

^The same
temple ( 616,

1.

thick wall
11)

is

also referred to in the building inscription of the Ptah- /

and the fragment on

this

campaign

( 596,

I.

7).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i86

[434

People were stationed to watch over the tent of his

of-the-Asiatics.'*

whom

."*
was said: "Steady of heart! Watch
His majesty "[commanded, saying: "Let not ^on]e among them
[come forth] outside, beyond this wall, except to come out in order to

majesty; to

it

fknock^ at the door of their fortification."^

Now,
his

wretched army, was recorded on (each) day by

under the

upon a

and
name,

that his majesty did to this city, to that wretched foe^

all

""

title of:

roll of leather in

"

"

"

the temple of

(the day's)

Then

.^

Amon

its

this

day

it

was recorded

Surrender of Megiddo

434. Behold, the chiefs of


to

do obeisance^

to the

this

fame

country came to render their portions,

of his majesty, to crave breath for their

because of the greatness of his power, because of the might of

nostrils,

the fame of his majesty

bearing their

gifts,

^^the country^

came

consisting of silver, gold, lapis lazuH, malachite;

bringing clean grain, wine, large cattle, and small cattle

Kode^

''Each of the

of his majesty.

tribute southward.

to his fame,

(Kd-{'w)^

for the

army

among them bore

the

Behold, his majesty appointed the chiefs anew for

14

*Cf. 429, 1, 2 but there


Maspero, Recueil, II, 145.
;

^The lacuna

is

is

not room here to restore as there indicated.

slightly longer

than

So

this.

^Probably meaning to offer themselves as prisoners (Petrie, History of Egypt,


II, 108).

dThe king

of Kadesh.

word without the following connection seems doubtful; it means


"to sail, travel" and possibly refers to the fact that the king sailed each year to Syria
The whole
in the later campaigns; hence the title may have been: " Voyages, etc."
reminds one of the statement concluding the reign of each king in the Book of
The

Kings
f

first

(e. g.,

Kings 15:23).

Almost one-third

8The royal

line lacking.

secretary

Thaneni was apparently the one who kept

this record

(see 392).
^Lit., "to smell the earth.^*

^Almost one-third line lacking.


iCf.

1.

23,

420.

The

sentence

is

uncertain in the original, both as to text


it may possibly refer to their shipping

and meaning. As the Kode are coast-people,


the spoil to Egypt for the soldiers.
^Almost one-third

line lacking.

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

436]

187

Spoil of Megiddo
*

435foals; 6 stallions;

340

hands; 2,041 mares;^ 191


a chariot, wrought with gold, (its) '"pole"'

living prisoners; 83

young

of gold, belonging to that foe f a beautiful chariot,

wrought with gold,

belonging to the chief of '^[Megiddo];'^

wretched army;

rsuit^ of

total,

924^ (chariots)

belonging to that foe;^ a beautiful


the chief of
to his
silver,

Megiddo {M-k-ty)

a beautiful

200

7 poles of

297

,^

suits of

armor, belonging

{mry) wood, wrought with

Behold, the army of

belonging to the tent of that foe.


^"^

bronze armor,

bronze armor, belonging to

rsuiti of

wretched army; 502 bows;

majesty ]took
cattle,J

892 chariot[s] of his

large

1,929

cattle,

[his

2,000 small

20,500 white small cattle.^

Plunder of the Lebanon Tripolisy Megiddo, Etc.


436. List of that which was afterward taken by the king, of the
household goods of that foe who was in f the city of T| Yenoam ( Y-nwC D

-mw), in Nuges (Yn-yw-g-s^), and in Herenkeru {Hw-r-n-k^-rw)}

*The determinative sign of a foreign country


lacuna before the list.

me
and

is

the

first

sign at the

end of the

^This word (ssntwt) I have elsewhere translated "horses" for what seem to
sufficient reasons, but in this context we have a clear distinction between mares
stallions.

cThe king of Kadesh.


About one-third

^Restored from the

list

of

armor following.

line lacking.

^There must be 30 chariots therefore, mentioned in the lacuna, which would


probably be those of the officers or other chiefs.

KThe king

of Kadesh.

^^Here followed the


i

Almost one -third

iSheep

armor of the

officers,

as in the case of the chariots above.

line lacking.

^Goats

together at the southern end of Lebanon. That


Thutmose III marched to Lebanon after the fall of Megiddo is shown by the
fact that he built a fortress there ( 548, 1. i) just before returning to Thebes.
The

'These three

cities lay close

formed a political whole under a single ruler ("that foe"), and were given
as a whole to Amon by Thutmose III (557).
The location of these cities in the
plain of Megiddo (Petrie, Syria and Egypt, 14) is plainly due to overlooking the
other evidence (see Miiller, Asien und Europa, 200-3) though Petrie is undoubtedly
right in denying the identity of Nuges and Nukhasse, already opposed by Miiller
three cities

{ibid., 394).
If "that foe" refers to the king of Kadesh here, as it does elsewhere
throughout this inscription, we have an important indication of the extent south-

ward

of the territory of that king.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

i88

together with

all

the goods of those cities which submitted themselves,

which were brought

to ^'[his majesty: 474]

and

of theirs, 87 children of that foe

;^

38^ lords ([m-r^-y-]n^)

of the chiefs

and female

5 lords of theirs, 1,796 male

who were

Besides

18

^d

Kharu

flat

dishes of costly stone

and

men;

foe, 103

gold, various vessels,

a large (two-handled) vase (^-k^-n^) of the work of

(j^ ^-rw)^

h-) vases, flat dishes, (fpntw-) dishes,

ing-vessels, 3 large kettles (rhd'

Gold

with him,

slaves with their children, non-

combatants who surrendered because of famine with that


total, 2,503.*^

[437

in rings found in the

t),

[8]7 knives,^

hands

966 deben and i kidet.^ A


the head of gold, the staff with

rings,

amounting

various drinkto

784 deben .

and silver
in beaten work ^^

of the artificers,

silver statue

human

6 chairs

faces;

in

many

of that foe, of

ebony and carob wood, wrought with gold; 6 footstools^ belonging to them; 6 large tables of ivory and carob wood, a staff of carob
ivory,

wood, wrought with gold and

all costly

belonging to that foe,

it

foe, of

of

all

stones in the fashion of a scepter,

wrought with gold;

^^^a statue of that

ebony wrought with gold, the head of which fwas


f^ vessels of bronze,

lapis lazuli

much

inlaid""]

with

clothing of that foe.

Harvest 0} the Plain oj Megiddo

437. Behold, the cultivable land was divided into

fields,

which the

inspectors of the royal house, L. P. H., calculated, in order to reap their

*About one-third

line lacking.

^'Brugsch, 39.

cThe prisoners enumerated foot up to 2,029; hence 474 must have been
mentioned in the lacuna at the head of 1. 17. These must have included ^Hhat
foe and the chiefs who were with him" and probably others whom we cannot
identify.

dAbout one-third
is lost in this

^Hebrew,
*

line lacking;

the numeral belonging to the preceding objects

lacuna.
"jSiX

Restored from the 87 in

1.

17.

8191.1 pounds, total of gold in the preceding

list

of articles.

^235. 46 pounds.

About one-third

line lacking.

JIn Egyptian the

word {kny) often means a kind of open sedan

^Hdmw, Hebrew,
'From

D'^IH

this point on, four lines are

"^About one-fifth of the

again nearly complete.

line is lacking.

chair.

THE ANNALS: FIRST CAMPAIGN

439]

Statement of the harvest which was brought to his majesty

harvest.

from the

189

Megiddo (My-k
that which was cut

fields of

grain, ^^besides

2o8,2oo(+^)* fourfold heket of


as forage by the army of his majesty
t):

FRAGMENT ON THE SIEGE OF MEGIDDO*^


438.

The

which

inscription to

contained an account of the

first

this

fragment belonged

campaign and apparently

no more, so that it was doubtless recorded


this campaign before the others took place.
therefore, the oldest

of

Thutmose

Ill's

at the close of
It is

war

probably

and

records,

introduces an offering-list.

The

Insurrection

Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, at the overthrow^ of


439.
Retenu, the wretched *
anew for my father, Amon
the lands of the Fenkhu,

^^arrayed, ini hatred of

aries.^

their faces

who had begun

of

my

to invade

majesty.

my bound-

They

fell

upon

Megiddo.

*The possible uncertainty is not more than 200 more. This makes about
112,632 imperial bushels (of 2,218.19 cubic inches). It is impossible to say how
much an acre would yield at this time, but at twenty bushels to the acre, this harvest
covered a territory of nearly nine square miles. (Mr. Petrie's reckoning of 150,000
is based on an error in the original number of fovirfold heket; he has
280,500 (History of Egypt, II, 112), while the text gives only 208,200, or possibly

bushels

208,400.

^About

one-fifth line lacking.

For the continuation of the campaign,

record of "Feasts and Offerings," 541

see the

ff.

cSouth ( ?) wall in the Eighteenth Dynasty Karnak temple. It has been


partially published by Bnigsch {Recueil de monuments, I, XXVII, and again,
Thesaurus, V, 1187), and more fully by Dumichen (Historische Inschriften, II, 38).
I had also a photograph by Borchardt.
The inscription is in vertical lines, which
have been numbered backward by Dumichen and Brugsch (in Brugsch, Recueil
de monuments; Thesaurus, without numbers). An unknown amount is lost at
the top, 11. 17-21 are entirely lost, and only a few words are preserved at the bottoms
of 11. 13-16 and 22-24.
^^This dates the offering to

as the following shows, on the

Amon
first

as occurring after the defeat of Retenu,

and

campaign.

This is the insurrection referred to in 416. The battle of Megiddo


rapidly passed over, and 1. 5 begins the siege of Megiddo.

is

then

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

I90

[440

Siege 0} Megiddo

my

440. Then
^

majesty surrounded

they tasted not the breath of

their

"wall"'

with a wall,

it

life,

my

thick

surrounded in front of

came with bowed

the Asiatics of all countries

head, doing obeisance to the fame of

made

majesty.

Surrender of Megiddo

441. These Asiatics

fcame

forth^] to the

who were

fame

of

Megiddo ^
Menkheperre (Thutmose III), fgiven
in the wretched

" Give us a chance,* that

saying"!]:

'^

impost."

all

that

my

we may

life,

present to thy majesty [our]

majesty did in this land forever.

The Inhabitants Shown Mercy

Then my majesty commanded

442.
life

"

all their

goods, bearing

Further
led

443.
14

me

with every fragrant


as

wood

way

like

III.

'3

these

inclosed in
d 22

^7

I did this **

^3

victorious in all lands, shining

the living

of

March

c 16

TTyre""^ ^s

"

a goodly

to

them the breath

to give to

was

upon the Horus-throne

of

Re, forever.

SECOND CAMPAIGN (YEAR

24)*

This campaign seems to have been only a circuitous

444.

march through

Palestine

and southern Syria

(1.

25), to re-

and tribute of the dynasts. Far-off


Ass)n-ia also, which had now heard of the great victory of
the preceding year, sent gifts, which the scribe calls ^Hrihute^^
ceive the submission

(ynw) like that of Syria.


*Lit.,

"Give our

^The

line is

{P 3-r 3),

it

may

(Amenemhab,

1.

occasion.^*

broken just above this word; hence, although it spells Tyre


be the end of a longer word terminating in d ^-r ^, like Sn-d ^-r '
But see Miiller, Asien und Europa, 185.
11, 584).

cEnd shows determinative

of foreigners.

^Ll. 17-21 are entirely lost.

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 32,


31-28.
,

11.

32-39 =Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1166-68,

11.


THE ANNALS: SECOND CAMPAIGN

447]

445. [List of the tribute of Assur and

of]

191

the chiefs of Retenu in the

year 24.^
Tribute 0} Assur

446. The tribute^ of the chief of Assur {Ys-sw-r^)\ genuine lapis


lazuU, a large block, making 20 deben, 9 kidet; genuine lapis lazuli,
2 blocks; total, 3;^

and

pieces, [making] 30 deben; total, 50

deben and

9 kidet ;^ fine lapis lazuli from Babylon {Bh-r^)\ vessels of Assur {ys-

sw-r^) of

{hrtt-)

stone in colors,

^^very

many.

Tribute of Retenu

447. The tribute of the chiefs of Retenu: the daughter of a chief,


gold, lapis lazuli of t[his] country;^ 30 [Tslaves^]
(with) ornaments of

belonging
horses

P"to her^];

5 chariots,

65^ male and female slaves of his tribute;

wrought with gold, (with)

wrought with electrum, (with)

rpoles^ of

g'

103

fpolesi of gold ; 5 chariots,


t;

total, 10;

45 bullocks^

749 bulls; 5,703 small cattle; flat dishes of gold^ ^3 which


could not be weighed; flat dishes of silver, and fragments, (making) 104
("and!) calves;

deben, 5 kidet ;i a gold Hiorni (mk-r^-dy-n^), inlaid with lapis lazuli; a


^
bronze corselet (fp^-n-rw), inlaid with gold, Tornamented^

many

of

silver

in battle

1,718 (mn-) jars of honeyed wine;^

"

^ 24823 (nm-) jars of incense;


1 ^

g-f^ and

much

two-colored

^Brugsch (with sic!), Champollion, Lepsius, and Bissing, all have 40, in which
4 units have unquestionably been miswritten by the ancient copyist, for 2 tens
an easy error. Griffith does not give Burton's reading. The emendation to 24 is
certain from 1. 25, dated year 24.
but the text uses the same word as in the case
of the chiefs of Retenu.
It is at the head of the Ust, for it reached him early as
a result of the Megiddo victory in the preceding year.

^These

are, of course, only gifts,

cThis total of "blocks'*

is

thrust in between as a parenthesis.

^12.40 pounds.
So the texts of Champollion and Bissing.
*Or: "of the foreigners" (^^ ^tyw).

sThese 65 slaves are not among the tribute of Assur, as Miiller indicates,
being misled by Champollion Notices descriptives, 158 (Miiller, Asien und Europa^
278).

^So Lepsius, Champollion, and Bissing; Brugsch,


There

is

possibly a lost

word or even two

325.47 pounds.
^ About one-third of the line.

at the

'Or:

^iTwo

55.

end of the

line (22).

"wine and honey."


sorts of

^^'^

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

192

g' /,* ivory, carob

fire

wood,

all

wood,

mrw

[448

wood,^ psgw wood, many rbundlesi of

the luxuries of this country

his majesty's circuit, (where) the tent

was

^Ho every place

of

pitched.*^

Appendix

Year 24.

448.

List of the tribute brought to the

fame

of his majesty

in the coimtry of Retenu.

Second Tribute of Assur


.
449. Tribute of the chief of Assur (Ys-sw-r^): hforses']
'^A r If of skin of the M-}),^-w^ as the 'protection"' of a chariot, of the

wood;

finest^ of

igo{-\-x)

*'

wagons

wood, nhh ^wood,

343 pieces; carob wood, 50 pieces; mrw wood, 190 pieces; nhy and
*^
J
k^nk wood, 206 pieces; ^olive wood^,

THIRD CAMPAIGN (YEAR

IV.

The Annals

450.

25)*^

contain no account of the third cam-

was evidently a peaceful tour of inspection.


The record of its results required more room than the wall
of the Annals afforded, hence it was transferred to a chamber
in the rear of the temple, and recorded in a long series of
reliefs representing the flora and fauna of Syria, brought
paign, which

^Two
^Same
cLl.

sorts oi^g't.

as

"merywood."

24-28 lack considerably over half their length below.

dThe statement undoubtedly was


wherever he was in his circuit.
^Over half the

line is

that the tribute

to the king

wanting.

^Mswy, perhaps the leathern front of a


Europa, 278,

was brought

chariot.

See also Miiller, Asien und

n. 3.

8An unknown animal.


^Or: "^with^ heads

of

wood."

Brugsch, neheb;

So Lepsius;

unknown.

JA few numerals and fragments of words are


Hrees^*' (or objects of

''Reliefs

and

which **J,000 various

wood) appear.

on the walls of the first chamber north of the second


Karnak (marked Y' on Mariette's plan, PI. 5); published by

inscriptions

(rear) sanctuary of

visible, in

Mariette, Karnak, 28-31.

THE ANNALS: FOURTH CAMPAIGN

4531

back from

this

They

campaign.

193

are accompanied by the

following inscriptions:*
451. ^Year

under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower


Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), living, forever. Plants which his
25,

majesty found in the land of Retenu.


*^'A11

plants that 'growl, all flowers that are in God's-Land'* [which

were found by] *his majesty when his majesty proceeded to Upper
Retenu, to subdue |JallT| the countrie[s,] ^according to the command of
his father,
-to

Amon, who put them beneath

from

his sandals,

[Jthe

year

i^]

myriads of years.
452. His majesty said: "I swear, as

Amon,

"engraved^ the excellent [deeds]

desire to put
(as)

them ^before

me] ^as

453.
it

my

^r

happened

My

^i.

father

to

my

my

^I

have not

majesty; I have

majesty hath done

Amon,

father,

this

from

in this great temple of

a memorial forever and ever."

FOURTH CAMPAIGN

V.

lost;

[loves

favors me, all these things happened in truth

written fiction as that which really

Amon,

Re

The account

of this campaign,

was not recorded on the wall

may have been put

if

any

existed, is

of the Annals,

and

elsewhere, like the third.

*The only other inscription of year 25 is a stela cut on the rocks of the Sarbfit
el-Khadem, and dated in the ^^year 25." Above is a relief showing Thutmose III
offering

a libation to "Hathor, mistress of malachite;" behind the king stands the


Ray" (R^y), who conducted the expedition hither. An inscrip-

"chief treasurer,

and praise of Thutmose III.


Below stands Ray again with an inscription in eight vertical lines, which has almost
wholly disappeared. The following may be discerned: **He appointed him at
the head of his army, to bring that which his majesty desired, of products of the lands
he exceeded that which was commanded
of the gods, malachite without number,
him, and that which was exacted
A reference to "the sea" (w^ d-wr) at the
end doubtless indicates the way in which the journey was made.
tion of eight horizontal lines contains only titulary

Vertical

tt>

line

on the east wall;

text, Mariette,

cEight vertical lines on the north wall,


left; text, Mariette, Karnak, 28.

<*Showing that T^-ntr (" God* s-Land")


inscription of

Thane ni

( 820),

Text has: "the souls of

and

my

left

is

in 888.

majesty."

Karnak,

of the door;

31.

numbered from

sometimes applied

to Asia;

right

same

in

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

194

VI.

The

[454

FIFTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR 29)*

campaign extended no farther northward


than the Tripolis of the southern Lebanon, and this was
The second and third campaigns were not aggresinland.
sive, and apparently did not push far north; the record of
the fourth campaign is lost, and it is not until the fifth, in
the year 29, that we have certain information of an advance
beyond the northern limits of the first campaign, and along
the coast. This fifth campaign begins with a new caption,
as if a new period of the wars had begun here, and it is
454.

first

clear that the revolt suppressed in the south in the year 23

was after six years not yet subdued in the cities of Zahi,
which the king had not yet visited. The wars in the Annals
are thus divided into two great groups, the

first

group being

and the second group, beginning in the year


29, being the wars in the north.
After the capture of a city the name of which is lost
(W^
), which was supported by troops from Tunip,
contained a sanctuary of Amon, and yielded rich plunder,
The
the king proceeded southward and captured Arvad.
rich gardens and fields, now in the season of fruitage, were
plundered, and the army spent the days in rioting and
feasting.
The king seized some Phoenician ships, and the
expedition returned by water. This had perhaps been done
by earlier expeditions, but the fifth is the first in which it is
in the south,

certain.

^The

text here returns to the

main sanctuary, where

the annals are resumed,

beginning at the jog in the north wall (see Mariette, Karnak, PI. 13). Only
the lower ends of the lines are still in situ, the rest having been barbarously
quarried out by Salt; this section is now in the Louvre. Text of Louvre

and part

Auswahl

Urkunden,
Karnak,
1-6;
XII, 11, 1-7; lower ends of same lines, Mariette,
both,
13, 11,
Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1168-70, 11. i-7=Bissing, Statistische Ta/el, xxvii f^

section

U. 1-7.

of lines in situ, Lepsius,

der wichtigsten

THE ANNALS: FIFTH CAMPAIGN

458]

195

Introduction

455. ^His majesty commanded to cause that the victories which his
father [Amon] had given him should be recorded upon the stone wall in

made anew

the temple which his majesty

by

setting

name,^ together with the plunder which


majesty brought therefrom. It was done according to [all the com-

forth each! expedition]t>


his

Amon,

ffor his father

mand which

its

his father, Re,

gave to him^]

Campaign in Zahi
456. ^Year

29.

Behold,

majesty was

[his]

countries revolting against him,

on the

fifth

Unknown

Capture of

subduing the
victorious campaign.
[in Za]hi

City

)e
(W^
457. Behold, his majesty captured the city of Wa
This army offered acclamations to his majesty,^ giving

praise to

^[Amon] for the

victories

which [he gave

to] his son.

They

were pleasing to the heart of his majesty above everything.

Amon

Sacrifices to

458. After
ing[s], to

this his

majesty proceeded to the storehouse of offer-

give a sacrifice to

calves, fowl,

(Thutmose

[""for

the

who

III),

life,

Amon and
prosperity,

giveth

^Horizontal line at the top;

Megiddo campaign, 407,

1.

to

life

cf.

Harakhte^ consisting

and health

(1.

5,

Menkheperre

forever.

same beginning

in the introduction to the

3 (=Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31,

^Excepting the word "expedition," this part


duction

of^i]

of oxen,

is

also

6,

ff.).

broken out in the Intro-

407).

^Apparently this means by


numbered: see year 29.
^Restored from 407,

Young shows

that the

1.

its

number,

for

from now on the expeditions are

6 (=Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 31,

name ended

in

t.

About

five

h,

1,

6).

or six words are lacking.

^As after the battle of Megiddo.

XV) makes the obvious comparison with the menpresence of the gods of Egypt in "Dunip" {Amarna Letters, ed. Winckler,
in the Amarna letters.

gBissing {Statistische Tafel,


tion of the
41, 9, 10)

^Seven or eight words are lacking.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

196

[459

Spoil of the City

459. List of the plunder taken out of this city, from 3 the infantry of
that foe of Tunip {Tw-np), the chief of this city, i; (T-h-r-)^ warriors,
329; silver, 100 deben;^ gold, 100 deben;^ lapis
of bronze and copper.

lazuli,

malachite, vessels

The Return Voyage


460. Behold, ships were taken
slaves,

male and female copper,


;

laden with everything, with

lead, '"emery"', (and) ^everything good.

Afterward his majesty proceeded southward*^ to Egypt, to his father.

Amon-Re, with

joy of heart.

Capture oj Arvad

461. Behold, his majesty overthrew the


with

its

grain, cutting

down

all its

pleasant

city of
trees.*^

Arvad

{^-r^-ty-wt)^

Behold, there were

found fthe products^ of all Zahi. Their gardens were filled with their
fruit, stheir wines were found remaining in their presses as water flows,
their grain

on the

sand of the shore.

was more plentiful than the


The army were overwhelmed with their portions.

terraces^ '"upon

">;

it

Tribute on This Expedition

462. List of the tribute brought to his majesty on


51 slaves, male
oil,

470 {mn-)

and female; 30 horses; 10

flat

this expedition:

dishes of silver; ^incense,

jars of honey, 6,428 {mn-) jars of wine, copper, lead, lapis

lazuH, green felspar, 616 large cattle, 3,636 small cattle, loaves, various

*Text has only "


hr;" I am indebted for the restoration to Erman; see also
MuUer {Asien und Europa, 360, n. 5).
^24.37 pounds.

cThe return of the king

is here prematurely narrated.


It was, of course, by
water, as the preceding context shows that Phoenician ships were seized for the

purpose.

^See

433 (Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 32,

1.

20) where the

same was done

for

Megiddo.
ff., who makes the passage too difficult;
Proceedings
the
Society
and Piehl,
of
of Biblical Archceology, 1889-90, 376, whose
emendation is not necessary. Precisely the same figure, with the same grammatical construction occurs in Papyrus Harris (IV, 213 and 216 = 7, ^^ ^^^ ^> 6)-

Cf. Bissing, Statistische Tafel, 16

*The sloping

fields of the

mountain

side.

THE ANNALS: SIXTH CAMPAIGN

464]

(njr t-) loaves, clean grain in kernel and ground

All good fruit

Behold, the army of his majesty was drunk and

of this country.

anointed with

197

oil

^every day as at a feast in Egypt.

Vn.

SIXTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR 30)*

This year the expedition went by water and landed


at Simyra,^ the most convenient port for reaching Kadesh.
This city had been the leader in the great coalition of re463.

Megiddo in the first campaign seven


years before. It was doubtless also constantly supporting
revolt in the Phoenician coast cities, as Tunip had done in the

volters, defeated at

preceding year (29), causing the king to direct his forces


Finally in the year 30 the king succeeded
thither in that year.
in reaching the source of the disturbance, capturing

severely punishing

He

assisted.

Kadesh,'' a feat in which

returned to his

fleet at

and

Amenemhab

Simyra, proceeded to

Arvad and punished it as in the preceding year. On his


return to Egypt he took with him the children of the native
princes to be educated in friendship toward Egypt, that they

might be sent back gradually to replace the old hostile generation of Syrian princes.

Year

464.

30.

Behold, his majesty was in the land of Retenu on

the sixth victorious expedition'^ of his majesty.

^Lepsius,

Karnak,

13,

Tajel,

7-9.

11.

Auswahl

11.

7,

Urkunden, XII, 11. 7-9, and Mariette,


Thesaurus,
8; Brugsch,
1170, 1171,11. 7-9; Bissing, Statistische
der wichtigsten

^This is not stated in the Annals, but as he returned to the coast at Simyra,
and as Simyra was the port nearest Kadesh, the objective of his campaign, there
can be little doubt about the place of landing.
cAlthough it still remained the center of S5Tian rebellion and revolted
again in year 42 ( 531, 532). Amenemhab refers to both conquests ( 585 and
589^-).

dThe word

is

in this case determined with a ship indicating the

manner

in

which the king proceeded to Syria (cf. Wiedemann, Zeitschrift der Deutschen
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 32, 128; also Bissing, Statistische Tajel, 19).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

198

Punishment
465. (He) arrived at the

down

cut

Sywi,^
city of

[465

Kadesh and Arvad

of

Kadesh (Kd-Sw), overthrew it,*


grain.
(He) came to the land of

city of

groves, harvested

its

III

its

arrived at the city of Simyra (D^-my-r^), arrived at the

Arvad

(^-r^-t-wt), doing likewise^ to

it.

Tribute

466. List of the tribute ^brought to the souls of his majesty by the
chiefs of

Retenu

in this year.

Capture oj Children of Chiefs

467. Behold, the children of the chiefs (and) their brothers were
brought to be in strongholds in Egypt.^ Now, whosoever died among
these chiefs, his majesty

would cause

his son to stand in his place.

of the children of chiefs brought in this year:


slaves,

and

male and female; 188 horses; 40

{x-\-)2^ persons;

chariots,

List

181

^wrought with gold

silver (and) painted.

SEVENTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR

VIII.

The king

468.

31)^

again directs his attention to the coast

and it is clear that he proceeds thither by


water, first capturing UUaza, a coast city in the vicinity of
Simyra, when he receives the tribute and homage of the
cities of Phoenicia,

submissive Syrian kinglets.

from harbor

He

then sailed along the coast

and laying up

to harbor, forcing submission,

*The language does not unequivocally state the capture


capture is clearly stated by Amenemhab ( 585, 11. 13, 14).

of the city, but

its

^This fragmentary name must indicate the country north of Kadesh, for,
according to Amenemhab ( 584), Thutmose went to Senzar on this Kadesh campaign.

cAs he had done to Kadesh.

^They were kept


explained in 402;

^The

first

^Lepsius,

Karnak,

13,

Tafel,

9-17.

11.

11.

confinement or dwelling at Thebes,


also Muller, Asien und Europa, 268.

in a special place of

cf.

part of the

Auswahl

number

is

broken out.

der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,

9-i6 = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1171-73,

11.

11.

9-1 7

9-17, and Mariette,

= Bissing,

Statistische

THE ANNALS: SEVENTH CAMPAIGN

47i]

199

in each the necessary supplies for his garrisons

and

his

After receiving reports on the harvest

future operations.

where he found messengers


bringing tribute from the southern tribe of the Genebteyew.
The record here appends the annual taxes of the Nubian
of Retenu, he returned to Egypt^

Wawat.
Year

469.

31, first

(month) of the third season, day

3.

List of

that which his majesty captured in this year.

Capture of Ullaza
470. Booty brought from the city of Ullaza {^n-r^-tw)^ which is
i^ of
upon the shore of Zeren (rpV-w^),* 490 living captives; [3]
"

the son of that foe of


I

total,

ment

Tunip

(^ Thv-n[p\)

chief of the

"

1,

who was there,

Twenty-six horses; 13 chariots, 'and their equipthe weapons of war. Verily, his majesty captured this city

494 persons.

of all

in a short hour,

and

all its

property was spoil.

'^

Tribute of Submissive Princes

471. Tribute of the princes of Retenu,


to the [souls] of his majesty in this year:
of this country;

72

wrought with

silver;

silver,

"the equipment of

li

"woods

1;

their

weapons

total,

of

19 chariots,

war; 104 oxen

276; 4,622 small cattle;

^ 41 golden bracelets, figured

native copper, 40 blocks; lead,

with

*^slaves,

do obeisance
male and female;
to

761 deben, 2 kidet;

172 calves and cows;

with bullocks;^

who came

together with all their produce

and

all

the fine fragrant

of this country.

aAs corrected by Bissing,

Statistische Tafelj 22.

It

has the determinative of

a body of water.

^Hnty.
6 ( 431), and "Hymn of Victory,"
Cf. Sethe,
the identical phrase in Ahmose-si-Ebana, I. 21 (15).

cCompare a

similar phrase in year 23,

1.

9 (657);
Verbunij II, 70.

1-

^Numeral

lost.

i85.5 pounds.
^Cf. Lepsius,

Denkmdler^ III, 32,

8Not more than

five

I.

33,

words lacking, and about the same in

1.

12.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

200

[472

The Harbors
472, Now, every harbor^ at which his majesty arrived was supplied
with (n/r-) loaves and with assorted loaves, with oil, incense, wine,
honey,

abundant were they beyond everything,

f[ruit]

beyond the knowledge of his majesty's army; (it) is no fiction, ^^they


remain in the daily register^ of the palace, L. P. H., the Hst of them not
being given in this inscription, in order not to multiply words^ and
in order to furnish ^their circumstances'" in this place

Harvest

of

*^

Retenu

473. The harvest of the land of Retenu was reported, consisting of

much
wine,
it

to

clean grain, '^grain in the kernel,*' barley, incense, green


fruit,

oil,

every pleasing thing of the country; they shall^ apportion

the treasury, according as the impost of

33 various
this country,

the

is

counted

together with green ^stonei, every costly stone of

and many stones

^^of rsparkle"';^

[all the]

good

[things] of

this country.

*That these are the harbors on the Phoenician coast, there is no doubt. The
word is a feminine noun (mny'wt) from mny^ ''to land,'* and sometimes has a ship
as determinative (Papyrus Anast., IV, 15, 4).
Some of the supplies with which
these mny'tut were equipped were ships and spars ( 492).
These cannot apply to

When we

always Lebanon chiefs who furnish


the supplies, the conclusion is clear.
A new meaning is thus given the words of
Abdkhiba of Jerusalem: "As long as ships were upon the sea, the strong arm of
the king occupied Nahrima (Naharin) and Kas" (Babylonia) (Amarna Letters^ ed.
Winckler, 182, 32 f.). This observation throws a flood of light on Thutmose Ill's
campaigns, and shows that his military operations were later regularly conducted
from some harbor as a base. He therefore employed his navy in these campaigns
to a far greater extent than we had supposed, regularly transporting his army to
Syria by water, and even probably conducting the above campaign by water,
sailing from harbor to harbor.
See note, 483, 1. 24.

inland stations!

^Hrwy't.
(III, 63,

1.

The word

4), indicating

notice that

is

rare,

it

is

but occurs also in the Decree of

Harmhab

a writing containing laws.

^Meaning, perhaps, that there is room on the wall only for offering the circumstances under which the spoil was taken, without enumerating the same.
dOver one-third of the line is broken out, and this is the case with each line as
far as

1.

35.

Not ground.
^The tense shows that we have here the very words of the government

scribe's

books.

KThe word has the fire determinative; same word in forty -second year, 1. 14,
533j and Papyrus Harris three times (not four, as given in Piehl's Dictionnaire, 21,
Hence Bissing's conjecture that it means a
22), each time referring to costly stones.
founder's mould of stone is impossible (Bissing, Statistische Tafel, 28).

THE ANNALS: EIGHTH CAMPAIGN

476]

201

Tribute of the Genehteyew

474.

When

his majesty arrived in Egypt, the messengers of the

Genebteyew {Gnh' tyw) came bearing their tribute, consisting of myrrh,


Tgumi
6
10 male negroes for attendants; 113 oxen ^^(and)

343; besides vessels laden with ivory, ebony,


skins of the panther, products

230 bulls;

calves;

total,

Impost of Wawat

of Wawat; 31
475. [List of the impost of Wawat (W ^-w > /)]: 5
oxen and calves; 61 bulls; total, 92; ^^besides vessels laden with all

things of this country;

In

this year the

paign of his Asiatic wars,


country.

Wawat,

likewise.

EIGHTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR 33)*

IX.

476.

the harvest of

king carries out the greatest camviz.,

the conquest of the Euphrates

He has been long preparing for

in the preceding

it,

campaigns, overthrowing Kadesh in the Orontes valley,

subduing the coast

cities,

and

for his garrisons

and

filling

them with provisions

The

his future operations.

story

is

unfortunately briefly told, and not always chronological.

The voyage
the Orontes

to

Simyra,^ and the long march thence

and

The crowning

to the Euphrates,

down

are entirely omitted.

act of the campaign,

the erection of his

and another in the


vicinity beside that of his father, Thutmose I, is immediThe operations which led to this culmination
ately narrated.
While marching
are then recorded in the meagerest words.
northward, plundering as he went, probably not far from
the Euphrates, he meets the king of Mitanni, defeats and
boundary

^Lepsius,
13,
11.

11,

tablet east of the Euphrates,

Auswahl

der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII,

i7-28 = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1173-75,

11.

11.

17-29; Mariette, Karnak,

17-29 = Bissing,

5'/a/j5/wc/je Tafel,

17-29.

^He must have landed

Pylon VII
Orontes valley
by Damascus seems

at Simyra, for, according to the fragment of

Ketne was

( 598) he conquered Ketne on this


behind Simyra (Meyer, Aegyptiaca. 68; Pe trie's location of
to me impossible.
See Syria and Egypt, s. v.).

campaign.

in the

it

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

202

drives

him

field.

Amenemhab mentions

[477

a great booty on the battle-

in flight, capturing

three battles on this campaign,

which the last, that at Carchemish, is probably, the one


here mentioned in the Annals. Probably Carchemish marks
the northern limit of the advance in this campaign, and the
two other battles mentioned by Amenemhab occurred on

of

the

march

The king

thither ( 581, 582).

then crossed the

Euphrates, set up his boundary tablets, and, as he marched

was met by the subordinate princes, who immediately submitted and brought
Even far-off Babylon sends gifts, which, of
their tribute.
course, the king calls tribute, and also the Hittites, who here
southward

make

to

Niy on

their first

that the

appearance

Lebanon princes

plied with provisions

On

his return, he

in history.

shall

It is

now arranged

keep the king's harbors sup-

an expedition of his to Punt arrives


with magnificent returns from ^^God'^s-Land.^^ The impost
of

the king's return,

Wawat

is

Year

477.

paid as usual.
33.

[he] arrived

Behold, his majesty was in the land of Retenu;


.

Boundary Tablet on
478. [He

set

up a

tablet] east of this

the tablet of his father, '^the king of

kere (Thutmose

the Euphrates

water ;^ he set up another beside

Upper and Lower Egypt, Okheper-

I).

Battle in

Naharin

479. Behold, his majesty went north capturing the towns and laying
waste the settlements of that foe^ of wretched Naharin {N-h-ry-n^)
*^

*This

is

narrated out of

its

place before the tribute of Babylon

Hittites.

^This
cSee

is

the Euphrates; see also note

Amenemhab,

^The king

583,

of Mitanni.

11.

8, 9.

on

pursuit,

11.

18, 19.

and the

THE ANNALS: EIGHTH CAMPAIGN

482]

he fpursuTjed after them an


looked ^^behind him, but (they)
tain goats;

fled,

iter (ytr)^ of

sailing;

^forsooth,^ like a

yea, the horses fled

203

'"herd"'

not one
of

moun-

The Booty

of:

480. fList of the booty taken^] among the whole army, consisting
princes, 3; ^their wives, 30; men taken, 80; 606 slaves, male and
those

female, with their children;

who

surrendered (and) their wives,

(he) harvested their grain.

Arrival at

Niy

481. His majesty arrived at the city ^'^of Niy (Nyy), going southward, when his majesty returned, having set up his tablet in Naharin
(N-h-ry-n^),^ extending the boundaries of Egypt.*^
Tribute of

482.

Naharin

brought to his majesty by the chiefs of

[List] of the tribute

and female; 260 horses; gold, 45


deben, ^ kidet;^ silver vessels of the workmanship of Zahi (D^-hy)
[chariots] with all their weapons of war; 28 oxen, ^scalves,
this country:

^^513 slaves, male

and bullocks; 564 bulls; 5,323 small cattle; incense, 828 (mn-) jars;
every pleasing [thing] of this country;
sweet oil and [green oil]
all fruits in

quantity.

^In view of the parallel passage in the Semneh stela of Amenhotep III, where
the words, *^ytr of sailing," are followed by a numeral, the word must be the linear
measure, ytr, and not the word ytr, "river." Hence the rendering of Miiller
{Asien und Europa, 254): "er (iiberschritt) den Fluss des Rundf ahrens ( ?) " must
be given up. There is no statement of a crossing of the Euphrates here, but that
Thutmose III really crossed this river is stated on his Constantinople obelisk
" ThtUmose (III) who crossed the Great Bend
(Lepsius, Denkmdler, HI, 60, W,)
of Naharin (N-h-r-n) with might and with victory at the head of his army" (631).
That this crossing of the river was on this campaign is not to be doubted, and the
second tablet of 1. 17 was therefore set up on the "east" of the Euphrates. A
further striking corroboration of the crossing is in the "Hymn of Victory" (656,
:

11.

7, 8).

^k

rare

New

Egyptian

particle,

m-dwn;

cf.

Erman, Neuagyptische Gram-

matik (94, 2).


cAs above narrated.

^The remainder

of the

campaign must have been very

the lacuna (about one-third of the line).

Nearly eleven pounds, troy.

brief, as it

occupied only

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

204

[483

The Harbors
483. Behold, 24these harbors were supplied with everything according to their dues, according to their contract of each year, together with

Lebanon* {R ^-mn-n) according to their contract of each


2 unknown ^birds^;
year with the chiefs of Lebanon {R ^-mn-n)
i every day.
4 wild fowl *Sof this country, which
the impost of

"

Tribute of Babylon

484.
lazuli,

The

tribute of the chief of Shinar (S ^-n-g-r

4{+x) deben;

lapis lazuli;

of real lapis lazuli;

and

^^15 kidet;

real lapis

24 deben; lapis lazuli of

artificial lapis lazuli,

Babylon (B-b-r^)

^) -^

vessels

a ram's head^ of real

Tribute of the Hittites

485. The tribute of Kheta (H-t^) the Great, in this year: 8 silver
rings, making 401 deben ;^ of white precious stone, a great block;
(P-gw-) wood

freturningTI to Egypt, at his

^^Naharin {N-h-ry-n

^),

coming from

extending the boundaries of Egypt.


Products of Punt

486. Marvels brought to his majesty in the land of Punt in this


gold, 155 deben, 2 kidet;
year: dried myrrh, 1,685 heket;^ gold
134 slaves, male and female; 114 oxen, ^Sand calves; 305 bulls;

419

cattle; beside vessels

every good thing of

total,

laden with ivory, ebony, (skins) of the panther;

[this]

country

*The harbors lying at the foot of the Lebanon along the Phoenician coast would
naturally be supplied by the Lebanon princes. It is to be noted that these supplies
were collected as "impost" (not "tribute"), and probably by an Egyptian officer,
as was the "impost" of Nubia.
by Brugsch {Or. Oase, 91) with the biblical Shinar (5w c r),
an identification which was overlooked in favor of Meyer's identification with
Singara. Meyer {Aegyptiaca, 63) now sees in S^-n-g^^ the Sanhar of the Amarna
letters {Amarna Letters, ed. Winckler, 25, 49), which also leads him to recognize
Shinar in both, although Brugsch's identification of S ^-n-g-r ^ with Shinar seems
not to have been noticed.
^Identified long ago

cText really has "face," but the wall paintings show complete heads in such
cases.

<i97.74 pounds.

^Or possibly "from"


preposition
^

is

m, "from."

About 223! bushels.

(hr);

it

is

noticeable that in the year 38 ( 513) the


here; but see 616, 1. 9.

Hence perhaps an expedition

THE ANNALS: NINTH CAMPAIGN

49o]

Impost

205

Wawat

of

487. [Impost of Wawat]:


20;* 44 oxen and calves; ^950 bulls;

13

male [negro]

total,

slaves;

total,

104; beside vessels laden

with every good thing of this country; the harvest of this place likewise.

NINTH CAMPAIGN (yEAR 34)^

X.
488.

The king

confines himself this year to

more

little

than a voyage of inspection to Zahi, receiving the surrender

and the

and Cyprus.
The harbors are stocked with supplies as usual, including a
of submissive towns,

fleet of

tribute of Retcnu,

foreign vessels laden with timber.

The annual impost

of

Kush and Wawat

is

recorded as

usual.
489.

Year

Behold, his

34.

majesty was in the land of

Zahi

(P^-hy).

Surrender of Zahi Towns

he surrendered

490.

fully

List of 3othe towns captured in this year:

to
2

his

majesty with

towns, (and) a town which

surrendered in the district of Nuges {^ n-yw-g-s^)\

brought to his majesty

silver

deben, 8 kidet;^

and gold; golden

""silveri

total, 3.

taken captive 90, those

dered, their wives s^and their children

wrought with

vessels of this

rfeari.

f 40 horses;

Captives

who

surren-

15 chariots,

and gold in rings, 50^


country and rings, 153 deben;
vessels

50 small goats; 70
asses; a quantity of {P-gw-) wood; ^armanyis chairs of black wood
(and) carob wood; together with 6 tent-poles, wrought with bronze and

copper

;^

326 heifers; 40 white goats;

wood

set

with costly stones; together with every fine

13,

aSeven other persons therefore were mentioned in the lacuna.


^Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII, 29-37; Mariette, Karnak,
11. 29-35 =Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1175-77, 11. 29-2 7 = Bissing, StatisHsche Tafel,

11.

of this country.

29-37.

cOnly the number is lost; von Bissing gives no lacunadAbout twelve and one-quarter pounds, troy.
*About thirty-seven and three-tenths pounds.
fThe fragment marked 11. 55-62 (in Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII) nearly fills out completely the gap between Lepsius* text and Mariette's
(see Mariette, Karnak, 13).
sPossibly ''many'' belongs here, which might then give "many tree-trunks.'*


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2o6

Tribute of Retenu

[491

* horses; 31
491. Tribute of the chiefs of Retenu in this year:
(H-jc) [chariots,] wrought with silver and gold, and painted; 70(^ + 31]

male and female; gold, 55 deben, 8 kidet; various silver vessels


deben, 6 kidet; gold and silver;
the workmanship of the country,

slaves,

33of

(mnw-) stone;

vessels of every costly stone; native copper, 80 blocks;

lead, II blocks;
r

'^

colors,

13 oxen and

100 deben; dry myrrh, rfeldspari; green Tstone^

calves; 530 bulls; 84 asses; bronze

a quantity

wood; numerous vessels of copper; incense, 693 {mn-) jars; 34sweet


oil and green oil, 2,080 {mn-) jars; wine, 608 {mn-) jars; 3^ chariots of

of

(/ ^-gw-)

wood, carob wood,

riogs^ of

every

wood

of this country.

The Harbors Supplied


492 Behold, all the harbors of his majesty were supplied with every
good thing of that rwhichi piis] majesty received [in] Zahi {D^-hy),
consisting of Keftyew ships, Byblos ships, and Sektu {Sk-tw) ships^ of
cedar laden with poles, and masts, together ^swith great trees for the
.

^id

of his majesty.

Tribute of Cyprus

493. Tribute of the chief of Isy {Ysy) in [this year]: 108 blocks of
pure copper (or) 2,040 deben; 5(+^) blocks of lead; 1,200 ^pigs^^ of
lead; lapis lazuli,

no deben;

ivory,

Impost

oj

Kush

494. Impost of Kush the wretched: gold, 300


negroes ;2 the son^ of the chief of Irem {Yrm)
^

*Only the number

is

wood.

tusk; 2 staves of

{-^-x)

deben; 60

36total, 64;

oxen,

lacking.

t>The three strokes may, of course, be the plural strokes.

cW. M. Miiller {Asien und Europa, 339) inserts a lacuna between the initial
5 of this word and the end; but a glance at the neighboring lines (Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden, XII; and Mariette, Karnak, 13), especially 56
The place
( = 32), will show that there is room for only the 5^-sign in the lacuna.
is unknown.
See also Bissing, Statistische Tafel, 1. 34.
dSome construction of wood.
^Nws; see Papyrus Harris, passim.
^About 408 pounds.

^Maspero has daughter {Struggle

^Persons of some
of the Nations, 267;

sort.

so also Petrie, History

0} Egypt, II, 118).

iThree persons must have been mentioned in this lacuna; but Bissing, Statistische Tajel, has no lacuna.

THE ANNALS: TENTH CAMPAIGN

498]

calves,] 180; total, 275;

[95;

and

besides [vessels] laden with ivory, ebony

products of this country; the harvest of

all

207

Impost of

Kush

likewise.

Wawat

495. The [impost] of Wawat; gold, 254^ deben; 10 negro slaves,


oxen, and calves [besides vessels laden with]
male and female;

37every good thing of [this country].

TENTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR

XI.

35)^

was now tlie second year since tlie invasion of


Naliarin, and the Icings of tliat region had revolted.
Thutmose marched thither from the Phoenician coast, defeated
the rebels who had united under some prince who is called
496. It

This

the "/^e oj Naharin.'^

The

Aleppo.

allies

may have been

were defeated

in a battle at Araina,

possibly in the land of Tikhsi, as mentioned by

(587,

1.

19),

and Thutmose took great

of the Syrian princes

not mentioned

the impost of

as usual;

Year

497.

is

on the tenth

35.

it

spoil.

Amenemhab
The tribute

was doubtless paid

Kush and Wawat

are noted.

Behold, his majesty was in the land of Zahi {D ^-hy)

victorious expedition.

Revolt in

When

498.

the king of

Naharin

his majesty arrived at the city of Araina {'^-r'^-y^-n^)^^

behold, that wretched foe [of Naharjin (!JS[-h-r\y-n^) had collected


horses

and people;

[his]

They were numerous

earth.

^Sof the ends^ of the

majesty

they were about to fight with his

majesty.

^The numeral may have contained more hundreds;

as

it is,

it

amounts to

61.91 pounds.

^Lepsius,
31, a,

11.

Tafel,

i-3

11.

Auswahl

= Brugsch,

37-41; Denkmdler, III,


37-44, and 1. 2 =Bissing, Statistische

der wichiigsten Urkunden, XII,

Thesaurus, 1177-79,

11.

11.

37-44.

cNot Aruna, as sometimes supposed; it is an unidentified city, but was perhaps situated in the land of Tikhsi, where Amenemhab ( 587) mentions a
battle.

dLit.,

"hinder parts;" see Thutmose Ill's

"Hymn

of Victory" ( 661,

1.

20).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2o8

Battle in

[499

Naharin

499. Then his majesty advanced [to fight]* with them; then the
arffry of his majesty furnished an example of attack,^ in the matter*^ of

and taking.^ Then his majesty prevailed against [these] bar39of Naharin
barians by the souls of [his] f[ather] A[mon]
seizing

They

(N-h-r-n^).

headlong, falling one over another, before his

fled

majesty.

Booty of the King

500. List of booty which his majesty himself brought away from these
barbarians of Naharin {N-h-ry-n^'):

bronze

deben

oV] armor;

[fsuits

Army

Booty of the

501. List of booty which the army of his majesty brought away

from

41

bows

2o(+:x;)

chariots,

954[+^] (mn-)

^^

cosmetic

Kharu

gold
fire

work

captures

a chariot,
silver,
;

of

(ybht'y-) stone, eye

of

Kush

502. Impost of the wretched Kush: gold, 70 deben,


oxen, calves,

*This seems to have been omitted here.


^Pieh^ suggests:

226

armor

wood.

Impost

male and female,

of

21 (mn-) jars

^Fringsi, bracelets,

wild goats,

'^suits'i

wrought with gold and


44

jars

60 chariots;

(Palestine)
f

43

together with
oil,

of
^^2

in other [rcountriesTI

wrought with gold;


sweet

13 bronze

i^ inlaid corselets;

bronze helmets for the head

made

180 horses;

10 living prisoners;

[these foreigner]s:

Cf. the

kidet; slaves,

[besides vessels

Megiddo

battle

"pendant une suspension du pillage" (Sphinx,

(1.

i,

429).

II, 109).

^I^n as in ^tn-n-mdw t.

^Numeral

lost.

The block containing the tops of 11. 42-54 in Lepsius, Auswahl der wichtigsten
Urkunden, XII, should be pushed to the left at least the width of three lines. This
is evident from the text in Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31, a, and Brugsch, Thesaurus^
1178-84, with which we begin a new numbering of the above block.
f After

the transfer of above block as above noted, the tops of

course wanting.

^Probably several

lines are

^Numbered according

wanting here.

to Lepsius,

Denkmaler,

III, 31, a.

11.

42-44 are of

THE ANNALS THIRTEENTH CAMPAIGN

5o8]

209

laden] ^with ebony, ivory, all the good products of this country, together

with the harvest of [Kush, likewise].^

Wawat

Impost of
503. [Impost of Wawat]

34 negro slaves, male and female;


94 oxen, calves, and bulls; besides ships laden with every good thing;
the harvest of

Wawat,

XII.

[likewise].

ELEVENTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR

36)

TWELFTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR

37)

504. Lost.
XIII.

505. Lost.

THIRTEENTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR 38)^

XIV.
506.

The king

Lebanon region

directs

of

Nuges

jugate the local princes,

attention

his

to

again, where he

who

is

the

southern

obliged to sub-

controlled the road northward

between the two Lebanons at the seaward bend of the


Litany River. The regular Syrian tribute and the supplying of the harbors are mentioned, as usual; followed for the
first

time by the tribute of Cyprus and Arrapachitis, later

known

The products of Punt are


impost of Kush and Wawat.

as an Assyrian province.

then followed by the usual


507. [Year

7,%.

Behold, his majesty was in

^on the

thir-

Behold, his majesty was overthrowing

teenth victorious expedition.


^ [in]

Nuges

the district of

{^ n-yw-g-s^).

Booty of Nuges District

508. List of booty which the army of his majesty brought away

from the

Nuges: 50
with [their weapons]

district of

the region of

of

living captives;
^of

Nuges

war;

horses;

3 chariots;

people who surrendered of

^Bnigsch's restoration (Thesaurus, 11 79) to


is mentioned in the next paragraph.

Wawat

is

an

error, as the harvest

Wawat

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 31,

a,

11.

^Nearly one-quarter line lacking.

3-io = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1178-81,

11.

2-9.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2IO

[509

Syrian Tribute

509. Tribute which was brought to the fame of his majesty in this
year: 328 horses; 522 slaves, male and female; 9 chariots, wrought
with silver and gold; 61 painted (chariots)

a necklace of real

total, 70;

a (two-handled ^-k^-n^-)

lapis lazuli

head of a Hon,

dishes; heads* of goats,

vase; 3

work

vessels of all the

flat

of Zahi

copper, 2,821 [deben], 3^ kidet; of crude copper, 276 blocks;


lead, 26

(sj't-) oil,

asses; 5

incense, 656

blocks;

1,752 (mn-) jars;

(/jiw/)-jars;

wine, 156 (jars);^

all

oil

and green

12 oxen;

oil,

46

heads of ^tooth ivory; tables of ivory (and) of carob wood;


bronze spears, shields, bows,

white (mnw-) stone, 68 deben

sweet

weapons

of war;

sweet

wood

of this country,

all

the

good

product(s) of this country.

The Harbors Supplied


510. Behold, every harbor was supplied with every good thing
according to their agreement of each year, in going [northward or]^
southward; the impost of Lebanon (R^-mn-n)^ ^likewise; the harvest
of Zahi, consisting of clean grain, green

oil,

incense, [win]e.

Tribute oj Cyprus

511. Tribute of the prince of Isy {Ysy): crude copper

horses.*

Tribute oj Arrapachitis

512. Tribute of the country of Arrapachitis {^-r^-rlff in this year:


slaves, male and female; crude copper, 2 blocks; carob trees, 65 logs;

and

all

sweet woods of his country.

Product of Punt

513. [Marvels] brought^ to the fame of his majesty from Punt:


dried myrrh, 240 heket.

^The word hnn

(written out phonetically at

"face," as the graphic writing might indicate.


^Text has omitted the word.
^Restored from 1. 13, fourteenth expedition.
dprom which the harbors were supplied.
f

Probably

^-r 3-r-/>-^

= Arrapachitis,

is

meant.

end of

1.

6)

means "head,"

not,

^Lit.^ "spans.'*

See Miiller, Asien und Europay

279-

gin the year 33 the gifts of Punt are introduced by the words: "Marvels
brought to his majesty, etc., (see 486); hence restoration. There is no expedition
this time, as the preposition is "from," not "in," as in 486.

THE ANNALS: FOURTEENTH CAMPAIGN

5i8]

211

Impost of Kush
514. Impost of the wretched Kush: gold, 100 [+:x:]* deben, 6 kidet;
36 negro slaves, male and female; iii oxen, and calves; 185 bulls;
total, 306 (sic!),^ besides vessels laden with ivory, ebony, all the good
products of this country, together with the harvest of this country.

Impost of
515. Impost of Wawat:

[gold],

Wawat

2,844 [deben,

kidet]; 16 negro

male and female; '^77 oxen and calves; besides

slaves,

[vessels]

laden

with every good product of this country.

FOURTEENTH CAMPAIGN (YEAR

XV.
516.

39)''

This campaign was introduced by an excursion

to punish the raiding

Egypt, also referred

Bedwin on the northeastern frontier of


to by Amenemhab ( 580), after which

the king proceeded northward, to receive the usual Syrian


tribute

and ensure supplies

for the harbors.

Defeat of Shasu

517.

Year

39.

Behold, his majesty was in the land of Retenu on

the fourteenth victorious expedition, after

[his]

going

[to defeat] the fallen

ones of Shasu {$^-sw).

Syrian Tribute
518. List of [the tribute

"229

horses;

deben,

2 flat dishes of gold;

kidet;

197 slaves, male and female;

of]

together with rings (of gold), 12

real lapis lazuli, 30 deben; a flat dish of silver; a

(two-handled) vase (^-k^-n^) of silver; a vessel with the head of an ox;

325 various vessels (of silver): together with silver in rings, making
made [with] "white costly
1,495 deben, i kidet ;^ a chariot
stone, white

(mnw-) stone; natron, (mnw-) stone,

stones of [this] country; incense, sweet

2646

[-{-x jars];

^There

is

room

oil,

green

all

the various costly

oil, (sf't-) oil,

honey

wine, 1,405 (mn-) jars; 84 bulls; 1,183 small cattle;^

for several

hundreds more.

should be 296, the scribe has made an error of 10.


cLepsius, Denkmdler, 31, a, 11. 10-14 ^Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1181, 1182, 11. 9-13.
The hundreds may be increased indefinitely.
^364. 43 pounds.
*So Lepsius; Brugsch, 1193.

bThe

total

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

212

bronze

and the perfume of

^Hhe pleasant
good products of

;*

together with all

[519

this country,

this country.

The Harbors Supplied


519. Behold, every harbor was supplied with every good thing
according to their agreement of each [year];^ in going northward
[the harvest] '^of Zahi, consisting of clean grain, incense,

the

The fragments

tribute -list of

oil,

w[ine]

FIFTEENTH CAMPAIGN^

XVI.
520.

likewise; the harvest of [Lebanon]^

[or soult^ward]'^

of the wall at this place shov^ only

Cyprus and the impost

of

Kush and

Wawat.
^[Year 40j

.s

Tribute oj Cyprus

521. [Tribute of the

40 bricks;

lead,

^The

line is

wanting.

scribe has omitted the

^Restored from

{Ysy): ivory, 2 tusks; copper,

brick.

^Nearly half a

chief] of Isy

1.

1.

7, p.

210.

thirteenth expedition.

7,

^Lebanon and Zahi

word "year;" restored from

are regularly mentioned together in connection with the

harbors.
eAll the rest (about nine-tenths) of the line

the north wall, and

is

the inscription here turns to the

wanting;
left,

it is

the last line

on

to follow the west wall (the

back of Pylon VI) southward to the door. It doubtless concluded with the impost
of Kush and Wawat, which could not have occupied more than the rest of this line.
continued on the back of Pylon VI, The visitor on the
lower third (or less) of these twenty vertical lines on
the pylon (north of door) is preserved; hence the first date is lost, and unfortunately
The text in Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 30, a
also all the others on this wall section.
= Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1182-85. The fragment certainly contains data from
three different expeditions; it must remain somewhat uncertain whether the first
of the three is the conclusion of the fourteenth expedition in year 39 or part of a
It seems probable that the long lacuna (nearly the whole 1. i,
fifteenth in year 40.
west wall) contains the conclusion of the fourteenth expedition, which must otherwise have occupied more space than either of the campaigns before or after it.
Line i of the west wall, therefore, begins the fifteenth exjjedition. Miiller {Asien
und Europa, 54) sees difficulties in this arranggment, which are not apparent to
f

The Annals

are

now

spot will notice that only the

me.

See further notes on text.

sContained the tribute of some unknown country, probably Retenu;


restored date is almost certain.

the

THE ANNALS: SIXTEENTH CAMPAIGN

525]

213

Impost of Rush
522. Tribute of
this year:

oxen

[Impost of the wretched Kush

.*

gold, 144 deben, 3 kidet;

loi negro slaves, male

in]

and female;

.b

Impost of

Wawat

35 calves; 54 bulls; total, 89;


523. [Impost of Wawat]:
besides vessels laden ^[with ebony, ivory, and all the good products of
.^

this country^]

SIXTEENTH CAMPAIGN

XVn.

524. Tlie record contains only tribute-lists.

[Year

Tribute

41.^

2 rings.

of]

Tribute oj Retenu

525. List of the tribute of the chiefs of Retenu, brought to the fame
of his majesty in 5[this year]^
of

rflint^,

bronze spears

[Tribute of
logs;

4o[-h:x:]

.^

in] this [yea]r:

184 large cattle;

a sword

blocks

small

ivory,

cattle

1^

tusks;

carob wood, 242

^ ^incense likewise.

Tribute of the Hittites

Tribute of the chief of Kheta (H-t^) the Great, in this year: gold
8

^Contained the tribute of some unknown country followed by the impost of


Kush, for "tribute of" at end of 1. 1 cannot refer to Kush, for which bk'iv, "impost"
Kush is certain from the negroes in the list.
is always used.
^.See

note

f,

p. 212.

cAt least this is the usual continuation.


country intervenes in the following lacuna.

dAs the impost of Kush and

Wawat

Possibly, the tribute of

usually concludes the year's

some other

list, it is

evi-

dent that we should begin another year at this point, as usual, with Retenu; probably year 41.

So Lepsius;

Brugsch has

**

second time."

^Brugsch's restoration, "this land"

is

not according to the parallels.

bSo Lepsius; Brugsch, 26.


*Probably the tribute of another country, also,

is lost

in the lacuna.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

214

III

[526

Impost oj Kush
526. [Impost of Kush^ the wretched in this year; gold, x-\-\ 94^
deben, 2 kidet; 8 negro slaves, male and female; 13 male (negroes),
brought for following ;

Impost
527. [Impost of Wawat]:

and

79 bulls;

calves;

total,

of

.d

oxen,

total, 21;

Wawat
35 oxen
besides vessels laden with ivory

gold, 3,144^ deben, 3 kidet;

114;

IO_

SEVENTEENTH CAMPAIGN^

XVIII.

528.

The

last

campaign, which happened not

the year 42, shows the old king,

now probably

years of age, suppressing a revolt of

who

are

supported

by

auxiliaries

marched from the northern coast

later

over seventy

Tunip and Kadesh,


from Naharin. He

of Syria, after capturing

the coast city of Erkatu,^ directly against Tunip.

subjugated

it,

than

Having

he then marched up the Orontes against his

old enemy, Kadesh, whose prince led the allied forces, which

Thutmose

III

had routed

at

nearly twenty years before.

Megiddo on the first campaign,


There was a stubborn defense,

but, according to the narrative of

and

Amenemhab,

the walls

was taken by storm ( 590).


From it and surrounding towns great plunder was secured,
among which were the Naharin auxiliaries and their horses.
of the city were breached,

it

^Restored from the character of the tribute.


^Lepsius, 83.

Brugsch, 86; the photograph indicates 94 as probable.

cAs pedessequii.

^Restored after

dSee note

f,

^766.35 pounds.

fifLepsius,

Denkmdlery

p. 212.

III, 30, a,

11.

539.

10-20 = Brugsch, Thesaurus, 1183-85,

11.

10-20.
l^Erkatu ('^-r-k^-iw) must have been on the coast somewhere between the
mouth of the Orontes and the Nahr el-Kebir. As it is the same as Irkata of the

Amarna

have landed at

upon

was not

from Simyxa. Thutmose maySimyra, as be had evidently often done before, and hence he marched

Letters

(see 529, note),

it

the "coast road'* against Erkatu.

far

THE ANNALS: SEVENTEENTH CAMPAIGN

532]

Long tribute-lists, the harbor supplies, and


Kush and Wawat conclude the Annals.

215

the impost of

Overthrow of Erkatu
529. [Year 42.]^

the

Fenkhu {[F]nh-w).

Behold,^ his

majesty was upon the coast road, in order to overthrow the city of
Erkatu^ f r-k ^-tw) and the cities of "^
Kana {K ^-n ^)
;
this city

was overthrown, together with

its districts.

Overthrow of Tunip
530. (His majesty) arrived at Tunip (Tw-np^), overthrew that
harvested

its

grain,

and cut down

its

groves

"

city,

the citizens of

the army.

Overthrow

of Cities of

Kadesh

District

531. Behold, (he) came in safety, arrived at the

district of

Kadesh

(Kd-Sw),^ captured the cities^ therein.

Booty of Kadesh District

532. List of the booty brought from there


wretched Naharin {N-h-ry-n^)

its

who were

d Qf ^j^g

'3

as auxiUaries

among them,

*Here a new year should begin for the same reason as in 1. 4; see note. That
number should be 42 is clear from the date in the last line of this section; see

note, 540.

^Read

yst instead of

"Anton"

incorrectly restored

by Harmhab.

cThis important name is given by Lepsius as ^ r-k ^-n-tw, inserting an n before


tw; in this he is followed by Brugsch, who evidently published (Thesaurus, V,
1 183) an old copy of his made from Lepsius; for the original (in the photograph) shows no trace of n and no room for it. The signs are perfectly preserved,
and the feet of the eagle in ^ ^ practically touch the head of the w-bird in tWj
leaving absolutely no room for n in the vertical column between k ^ and tiv.
Neither

is

there

any

trace

on the back of the eagle of n

(horizontal).

This

makes the identity of our word, with Irkata of the Amarna Letters a certainty.
See also Eduard Meyer, Festschrift fiir Georg Ebers, 69, n. 2 and compare above
;

528, note.
<iSee

note

To

strike

f,

p. 212.

of Arvad, unless, of course,

*He

is

must have been well to the north


Thutmose's northward march is lost in the lacuna.

Tunip on turning

therefore

inland, Erkatu

marching up the Orontes.

^Including, of course,

Kadesh

itself.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2i6

691 people;*

together with their horses;

29 hands ;^

[533

44

horses;*^

.d

14

Unknown Country

Tribute of

[List of the tribute of

533

in this year:

295 slaves, male and

68 horses; 3 golden flat dishes;^ 3 silver flat dishes;^ (twohandled ^-k^-n^-) vases, 3;^ ^sparkling"* stones,^ together with silver

female;

15

Tribute of

Tunip?

lead, 47
534. [List of the tribute (or booty) of ^Tunipi^]:
bricks; lead, 1,100 deben; colors, ^emeryi, all beautiful costly stones of

bronze

country;

this

weapons of war

armor;

^suits^ of

^^

pleasant [things] of this country.

[all the]

The Harbors Supplied


535. Behold, every harbor was supplied with every good thing
according to their agreement of each year; the harvest of this country
.^

'^[likewise]

Tribute of

536. [The tribute of


of bulls, J

together with

making 341 deben,

making 33^

kidet, a fine

Unknown Country

{t

2 kidet;

^-gw-)

wood

flat

genuine lapis
staff,

dishes,

lazuli, i

native copper

heads
block,

^^

*So Lepsius; Bnigsch, 690; photograph, 691.

^Of

the slain, as usual.

cSo Lepsius; Brugsch, 48; photo shows room for a


^See note

f,

much

larger

number.

p. 212.

So Lepsius; Brugsch, 195.


^It is possible that these are

simply plurals without numerals.

sSame word {wdh)

1.

in 473,

15, q. v.

and

note.

^Above (1. 12) some captives were taken from Tunip, but the spoil of
Tunip is perhaps not yet enumerated. Among the following list the rare emery
occurs, which is found in the spoil taken from the Tunip auxiliaries in the
" (year 29, 461); hence this list may here belong
unknown city of "PFa
to Tunip.

Possibly another nation has been introduced in the lacuna; see note
p. 212.
i

iMeaning that the

bulls'

heaas were a decoration upon the

vessels, as depicted

in the reliefs.

^Lepsius, 41; Brugsch, 33; he

is

f,

sustained by the photograph.

THE ANNALS: CONCLUSION

54o]

217

Tribute of Tinay

537. [The tribute of the


h-ty)^ vessel of the

iron,^

4 hands of

work

silver,

chief] of

Tinay {Ty-n ^-y) :* a

silver

Keftyew {Kj-tyw), together with


making 56 deben, i kidet;
of

(if

'^-w '-

vessels of
.

Impost of Rush
538. [The impost of the wretched Kush in this year]:
[besides vessels laden] with every good thing of this country; the harvest
of the wretched Kush, Hkewise.

Impost of
539.
ao

The impost of Wawaf^


f

nthe harvest of

Wawat

in this year: gold, 2,374 deben,

kidet,

Wa]wat.

XDC.

CONCLUSION

540. Behold, his majesty commanded to record the victories which


he won from the year 23s until the year 42, when this inscription was
recorded upon this sanctuary;'^ that he might be given

life

forever.

^So Lepsius; Brugsch, Ty-n-my.


^See Bissing, Zeitschrijt fiir dgyptische Sprache, 34, 166, who identifies this
with the suibdu (of stone) mentioned in an Amarna letter (Winckler,

vessel

Antarna

Letters, 393,

1.

61).

^By 3.
Over 578 pounds.
dQne wa has been omitted in Lepsius' text.
^See note f, p. 212.
gQf course, 22 or 23 is to be read, the reading is based on: (i) our knowledge
of the date when the campaigns began; (2) the fact that 22 is clear and there is only
room in the possible lacuna for one unit more (3) the fact that the list of offerings
;

from the Asiatic wars ( 541

This date, as well as


which both Lepsius and Brugsch give 32), has
been the subject of much discussion. The following remarks of Mariette in a
letter to de Rouge which have been mostly overlooked, should settle the question
{Revue archeologique, 1860', N. S., I, 32):
"La premifere de ces deux dates, k la v^rite, est un peu detruite; mais la
planche de M. Lepsius rapporte fidelement I'arrangement des chiffres, et vous
voyez qu'il n'y a place Ik que pour Tan 22, ou I'an 23;
Quant k la
date donnee pour la derniere de ces campagnes, elle est celle de la quarante-deuxi^me annee du regne de Thouthmes. Comme cela arrive frequemment pour les
textes graves en relief trbs-mince sur le gr^s, I'un des chiffres dix a presque disparu
par une sorte de dissolution spontanee de la pierre et il est evident que si M. Lepsius
a fait sa publication sur un estampage, il a dH lire 32. Mais le chiffre qui tend k
s'effacer est encore parfaitement clair, et c'est sans contredit Pan 42 qu'il faut
" These statements are confirmed by the photograph, although the
voir
space for the fourth ten (in 42) is absolutely smooth.
ff.)

also begins in the year 23.

the terminal date ''year 42** (for

^Sh-ntr, with masculine demonstrative.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2i8

FROM THE CONQUESTS*

FEASTS AND OFFERINGS


541. In this inscription
feasts

and additional

Thutmose

the period of his splendid conquests in Asia.


therefore, begins with his return

paigning ceased.^
occurrence of the
to

Lebanon

new

III records the

which he established during

offerings

the year 23, and continues

[541

till

from the

The

record,

campaign in
when his cam-

first

the year 42,

In order to connect the record with the


first

campaign,

after the fall of

it

goes back to the march

Megiddo,

refers to

a fortress

and proceeds then to his return and


landing at Thebes. All this leads up to the establishment
of three great "Feasts of Victory," for which it furnishes

which he

built there,

the motive.

After fixing the calendar of these three feasts,

with the

of oblations to be offered at their celebration,

lists

the king proceeds to the gifts which he

made

to

Amon

at the

voyage to southern Opet, which are exceedingly

feast of his

and numerous, including the three cities just captured


in the Lebanon, fields and gardens, slaves, precious metals
and stones, and the doubling of some of the old offerings
It would seem as if this feast was the first cele(11. 5-14).
brated by the king after his return from the first campaign,
for it is among its gifts that the acquisitions of that campaign

rich

appear.
*Wall inscription ia the Karnak temple on the back of the south half of Pylon

VI (Baedeker, plan opp.

It therefore

p. 239).

by

its

position (as well as

by

its

con-

shows that it is really a continuation of the Annals, which are concluded at


It is in vertical lines, and
the door on the back of the north half of the same pylon.
as a considerable amount of the pylon is lost at the top clear across, the tops of all
the lines are lacking. Published by Lepsius, (Denkmdler, III, 30, b) and Brugsch
(Recueil des monuments, I, 43, 44; last five lines omitted). Lepsius offers a more
accurate text, but not so full in indistinct places. I collated the Berlin squeeze for
the important historical portion (11. 1-6) and a photograph by Borchardt for the
tent)

whole.

^The date
by the
tablet,"

list

of the beginning

is

clearly

shown

in several places;

that of the

and Nubian slaves, which continues 'Hill the recording


stated at the end of the Annals ( 540) to be "year 42

of Asiatic

which

is

end

of this

FEASTS AND OFFERINGS

544]

The

542.

FROM CONQUESTS
Amon, now

other offerings due to

creased, are then successively enumerated

(11.

219

richly in-

14-25),

and

the long inscription closes with the king's exhortation to


the priests, like that to the priests of

be true

Abydos (97

ff.)

to

and to offer the mortuary oblations


which follows.

to their duties

due him, a

543.

of

list

splendid array of these gifts

reliefs in the corridor of the

are the two

Karnak

stantinople (629

obelisks,

ff.),^

depicted in a wall

is

Annals.

Chief

one of which

and two pairs

is

among them
now at Con-

of flagstaves for the

temple facade, of course of cedar, tipped with electrum.

But the

relief

array of

varied

chests,

shows the widest range of temple furniture:

temple doors;

besides ornaments

chiefly elaborate necklaces;

bronze,

silver,

The

exquisite

and

costly

vessels;

for

the

altars,

divine

and

statue,

the whole series being of gold,


especially lapis

stones,

lazuli.

vessels bear the general inscription:

Very numerous; from the yearly dues


544.

The purpose

of the gifts

is

(htr).

indicated

by such accom-

panying inscriptions as the following:

Over a

jar:

(Of) alabaster;

By

filled

with pure ointment of the divine things.

rich necklaces:

Ornaments

of the

**

Appearance

Festival;"*^ amulets

upon

the divine

limbs.

aOn

the south wall of the passage south of the sanctuary; published

by

Champollion, Monuments, IV, 316, 317; partially by Rosellini, Monumenti, Text,


opp. p. 125; and Rosellini, Monumenti Civili, 57; partially by
Burton, Excerpta hieroglyphica, 29; and Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1185 fif.; and
see Birch, ArchcBologia, XXXV, 155.
III,

first

I,

plate

^In the relief, this obelisk bears the complete dedication, of which only the
half is preserved on the original in Constantinople.
See Breasted, Zeitschrift

dgyptische Sprache, 39, 55


be found.

jiir

cWhen

ff.,

and

infra, 630,

the god appears in procession.

where the entire dedication

will

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

220

545.

The

[545

source of the gifts also appears thus:

Over armlet, necklace,


(Of) gold, and

much

etc.:

ornaments of his majesty.

costly stone;

Over a vase:
(Of) costly stone, which his majesty
of his

own

to the design

heart.*

546. Before these gifts,

on the

right,

Amon

them from Thutmose III on the

receiving

are the words:


life like

547. It

sits

left,

enthroned,

before

whom

that he

may be

Presentation of

given

made according

monuments by

the king

Re, forever.^

is

clear

and the following document


Thutmose Ill's conquests in Asia

from

that the beginning of

this

marks a sudden and profound change in the cultus of Amon,


occasioned by the enormous and entirely disproportionate
wealth which from now on is poured into his treasury. We
see here the beginning of that power and wealth to which
the most remarkable witness is the Papyrus Harris (IV,
182-412).
Fortress tn
^

548.

majesty built in his victories^

his*^

the

in the land of

name

of

which

is:

Lebanon

Retenu (Rtnw) as a

among

the chiefs of

"Menkheperre (Thutmose

fortress

which

Lebanon (R-mn-n)j

III)-is-the-Binder-of-

the-Barbarians."

^The making of these vessels is depicted in the tomb of Menkheperreseneb,


accompanied by the same remark ( 775), showing that they were really designed
by Thutmose III himself, and that the fact was thought worthy of remark there as
well as here.
He says the same thing in 164, 1. 43.
^There are other such short inscriptions of a single word or more, but they are
as yet inadequately published. One is of especial interest. Over an offeringtable

made

of four ktp-signs, precisely like the great alabaster altar recently found

at Abusir, are the words: "{Of)

cThe

text has

Megiddo

shining^ alabaster of Hatnub."

"my."

<^These victories in the


after the

Lebanon must have been won on

first

the expedition

victory, for they are here referred to as preceding the king's

return to Egypt from that expedition (1. 2). The three cities which he captured
Of the
in the Lebanon are enumerated in the First Campaign, 1. 16 ( 436).
historians only

to

Lebanon.

Brugsch (Geschichte, 328) and Meyer (240) have noted

this

march

FEASTS AND OFFERINGS

552]

FROM CONQUESTS

221

Arrival in Thebes

549. Behold, he landed at Thebes,^ his father, Amon, being


My majesty established for him a ''Feast of Victory "^ for the
first

when my majesty

time,

arrived from the

first

victorious expedition,

<=

overthrowing wretched Retenu (Rtnw) and widening the borders of


Egypt in the year 23,^ by the victories which he decreed to me, leading

First Feast of Victory

550. [The

first

the

first

^]

"Feast of Victory" was celebrated at (the


feast of

Amon,

in order to

make

it

feast)

of five days* dura-

tion.s

Second Feast of Victory


551. The second ''Feast of Victory" was celebrated at (the feast):
"Day-of-Bringing-in-the-God,"^ the second feast of Amon, in order to

make

it

of five days' duration.

Third Feast

The

552.
of

Amon

was celebrated at the fifth


" Gift-of-Life,"^ the day of i 4

third "Feast of Victory"

in (the temple)

[in order to

of Victory

make

of

it

'^five

feast

days' ^ duration].

^Squeeze and photograph.


shows, there were three "Feasts of Victory;** but the first is
On these feasts, see Breasted, Zeithere referred to as celebrated on his arrival.
fif.
schrift jur dgyptische Sprache, 37, 123

^As the next

c 408

line

dBrugsch has "22," which

flF.

is,

of course, an error.

Amon.

(^The
of

restoration

Amon, with which


KLit.,

"in order

is

the

to

only the name of the Feast


feast of victory coincided, being unknown.

certain
first

from the other

cause that

it

feasts;

take place during (m)

5 days."

^This is the feast mentioned by Piankhi (IV, 836, 1, 26), who gives the date
as the second of Hathor, which thus determines the date of the second Feast of
Victory.

iThis

is

the

name

{hnk't-<^ nlf) of the

mortuary temple (Memnonium) of

on the west shore at Thebes (cf. Recueil, XIX, 86-89). It stood at


the northeast end of the Une of temples (see Baedeker, "Necropolis of Thebes,"

Thutmose

III

opp. p. 254); as the earliest known reference to this building, it is particularly interesting, because it shows that already in his twenty-third year, Thutmose Ill's
mortuary temple was complete and in use (see also Lepsius, Denkmdler, Text,
III, 139).

that

JThe name of the Amon Feast here followed, the order being
in the first two feasts.

different

from

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

222

III

[553

Offerings for the Feasts of Victory

553. [My^ majesty established] a great oblation for the "Feast of


Victory," which my majesty made for the first time, consisting of bread,
beer, bull-calves, bulls, fowl, antelopes, gazelles, ibexes, incense, wine,
fruit,

white bread, offerings of everything good

Amon^s Voyage

to

Luxor

554. [Year 23, second^ month] of the first season, (day) 14, when
the majesty of this august god proceeded, to make his voyage*^ in his
southern Opet (Luxor)
for this

day

my majesty estabHshed for him a great oblation

at the entrance into Luxor, consisting of bread, bull-calves,

bulls, fowl, incense, wine, ^

he (Amon) gave me, in order to


order to
linen,

make

{wm' t-)

order to

make

him

for

linen;

from the

first

his storehouse,

fill

of the victories
"

royal linen (h), white (pk'

peasants

the harvest, to

to the goodly

fill

"

peasant-serfs, in

t-)

linen, {Ihr'w-)

performed the work of the


the storehouse of

which

my

fields, in

father

[Amon]

way.
Gifts of Slaves

555. Statement of the Asiatics, male and female, the negroes and
negresses, which my majesty gave to my father Amon, from the year 23
until the recording of this tablet

(^ ^-rw)

upon

this sanctuary:^

i>578 Syrians

^Having enumerated the three feasts, with


celebration and the oblations to be offered.

^The numeral

their dates, he

now proceeds

to the

it can be clearly proven to be two.


Sprache,
See Breasted, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische
37, 125 f. This date is very important, as it shows at what time Thutmose III was already in Thebes on his return
from the first campaign, the length of which is thus determined. See the calendar

is

of the campaign in

cThis

is

partially

broken out; but

409.

the beautiful ceremony of the god's voyage in his sacred barge, called

Thebes " Userhetamon " (for a description of the barge made for this purpose
by Ramses III, see IV, 209). It was probably on the above occasion that the officer
Amenemhab officiated (see his inscription, 809, 11. 33, 34). It was on the day
of the return to Karnak from this voyage, called the " Day-oj-Bringing-in-the-God,^*
It therefore continued for five days
that the Second "Feast of Victory** began.
after the return, during which the Second Amon Feast also continued (see Zeitat

schrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 37, 126).

<iThe " [spoif] from the

first, etc.,"

was probably mentioned as part of the

oblation.

eThe concluding words of the annals are: "from the year XXI[II] until the
year [XIXXXII, when this tablet was recorded upon this sanctuary;^' hence the year
42 was probably also the year when the feast inscription was recorded.

56o]

FROM CONQUESTS

FEASTS AND OFFERINGS

223

Gifts of Cattle

and north: 3 loan-cows of the cattle of


Zahi; i loan-cow of the cattle of Kush; total, 4 loan- cows; in order to
draw the milk thereof into jars of electrum each day, and to cause (it)
of the south

556.

to

be offered

[to]

my

father ^[Amon].
Gift of Three Cities

My

majesty gave to him* three

Retenu the Upper:


Nuges {^n-yw-g-s^) was the name of one, Yenoam {Y-nw- ^ ^ -mw)
was the name of another, Herenkeru (Hw-r-n-k ^ -rw) was the name of
557.

The dues

another.

divine offerings,

Wmpost

consisting of the

my

[of]

father

cities in

Amon

Gifts of Precious Metals


^

558.

of the fiscal year,^ the

and Stones

all P'thingsi] of silver, gold, lapis lazuli,

malachite.

My majesty presented to him gold, silver, lapis lazuli, malachite, copper,


bronze, lead, colors, '"emery,! in great quantity, in order to

monument

my

of

father,

Amon.

make

every

II.

Gifts of Poultry

My

559.

majesty formed for him flocks of geese to


Behold,

pool, for the offerings of every day.


2 ^ fattened geese

12

my

former offering to

Amon

the (sacred)

majesty gave to him

each day, as fixed dues forever, for

|Tthe

fill

my

father,

Amon.

consisted^ of various

loaves, 1,000.

Ancient Offerings Increased

My

560.

majesty

commanded

various loaves after the arrival of


the

first

my

majesty from smiting Retenu on

victorious expedition, in order to gain favor^ in the great house

(called):

''Menkheperre (Thutmose III)-is-Glorious-in- Monuments."

13

an increase

3^

to multiply this offering of 1,000

from the daily income

various

of that

which was formerly.

632

of every day, as

Amon.

^Lit.,

"the work {impost) of the affairs of the year"

cBrugsch, 3; photograph,

2.

dOf the god.


^This
754, note.

is

the

name

of

Thutmose

Ill's

Karnak

halls;

see 599, note,

and IV,

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

224

Gifts of

[561

Lands

561. I took for him numerous fields, gardens, and plowed lands,
of the choicest of the South and North,* to make fields, in order to offer

him

clean grain^

^^
.

Further Offerings

562.

yearly; consisting of loaves, bull-calves, bulls, fowl,

good thing of the dues

incense, wine, fruit, every

My

of each year.

majesty established divine offerings, in order to gain the favor of (my)

Harakhte, when he

father,
for]

him a

rises *s

divine offering of barley, in order to perform the ceremonies

therewith, at the feast of the

the month);

and as a

new moon,

plow the barley

at the feast of the sixth

day

(of

daily (income) of each day, according to that

which was done in Heliopolis.


to

nay majesty [estabHshed

my

Behold,

majesty found

it

very good

^^

in

Offerings for Obelisks

divine offerings for four great obelisks*^ which my


563.
majesty made for the first time, for my father [Amon], consisting of

various loaves, and 4 {ds-) jars of beer, which were for each one of these
obelisks; 25 (loaves) of bread, i (ds-) jar of beer.
Offerings for Statues

564. My majesty added divine offerings for the


the opening of this portal.

statues*^ of ^^

Evening Offering
565.

My

majesty founded for him an evening offering of bread,

beer, fowl, incense, wine, loaves, white loaves, offerings of every

thing each day.

My

good

majesty added for him increase of things in

18.

^Sinuhe's land in Palestine

^he

is

described in the same words

(I,

496,

1.

80).

connected with the Southern Op)et festival continue to this point.


The gifts of slaves (11. 7, 8) are brought down to the end of the campaigns (year 42),
but he goes back again after that to the return from the first campaign, mentioning
the three cities in I^banon captured on that campaign (1. 9) and mentioning the
return

(I.

gifts

12).

cSee 623
<iln

1.

27

ff.;

it is

also Legrain, Annales, V,

written phonetically.

preserved in the temple (see

604).

which arrived too

late for \ise here.

These are the statues of the older Pharaohs,

FEASTS AND OFFERINGS

1 569]

FROM CONQUESTS

225

Feast of Peret-Min

566.

My

majesty founded an offering for the feast of the "Going-

Forth-of-Min " consisting of oxen, fowl, incense, wine, loaves, everything good; 120 "heaps* of offerings supplied with everything;" for the

sake of the

prosperity,

life,

and health

the addition of 6 great jars (hbn'

an increase

of that

f)

My

my

majesty.

of wine ^

commanded

['each'']

year as

which was formerly.

A New
567.

of

majesty

made

for

Garden

him a garden

for the

first

time, planted

with every pleasant tree, in order to offer vegetables therefrom for divine
offerings of every day,

that

which

which was formerly

my

majesty founded anew as increase of

with maidens^ of the whole land.

Wise Administration
568. Behold,

my

majesty

made

every regulation which I made, for


presider over

every monument, every law, (and)

my father, Amon-Re,

Karnak, because I so well knew

his excellence, resting in the midst of the

that

which he commanded

be, of all things

as he

which

commanded.

father,

who

his fame.

body ;^ while

to do, of the things

lord of Thebes,

knew

was wise

in

**

which he desired should

ka desired that I do them for him, according


heart led me, my hand performed (it) for my

his

My

fashioned me, performing every excellent thing for

father ^^[Amon]

My

majesty found

excellent things,

all

while enlargin g monuments, as a record for the future

my

by en actments^*^

by purifying, by regulations, by supplying with offerings this house of


my father, Amon, lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak; ^wheni passing

by

23

his desire every day.

Feasts of the Seasons

569. Behold,

my

majesty supplied with offerings the feasts of the

beginning of the seasons yearly, and of the appearance (of the god)

^These are the heaps so often seen in the


^Lit.,

of

reliefs.

See

I,

785 and note h.

"beauiies" (nfr'wt).

^Meaning where the most secret affairs of the god were, as it is frequently said
the king, "Ae knows the bodies,^* or that which is in the bodies of men, that is,

their thoughts.

<^Or possibly:

"by recording

for the future in documents.^*


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

226

my

therein in the midst of the house of

Karnak, after^

my

Amon, presider over


were made there, con-

father,

majesty found that offerings

sisting of libation, incense, ^^

[570

the dues of each year.

Truth of the Record


570. I have not uttered exaggeration, in order to boast of that which
I did, saying: **I have done something," although my majesty had not

done
tion

I have not

it.

done (anything)

might be uttered.

have done

to people, against

this for

saying something which was not done;

which contradic-

my father =^5[Amon]

because he^ knoweth heaven,

and knoweth earth, he seeth the whole earth hourly. I swear^ as Re


loves me, as my father [Amon] praises me, as my nostrils are filled with
^^
satisfying life, I have done this

Instructions to Priests
-Qq

^d

5171,

careless concerning

ye vigilant concerning your duty, be ye not

any of your

be ye pure, be ye clean concern-

rules ;

ing divine things, '"take heedi concerning matters of transgression,

guard your heart

lest

your speech

^^

steps therein!.

my

to

monuments which

I have

forth ^ before, for I

made

made.

man

^looking to his

own

statues, for the rwell-beingi of

the

"

\ every

Bring ye up for

festive his house;

t-)

Hnen

^^

offer

a garden anew; give ye

me

ye to

me

shoulders of

ning of the seasons with bulls;

came

my

mortuary oblations of

of all fruit, for I consecrated


beef, for I

ye for

fill

that which

put on the garments of

statues, consisting of {h-) Hnen, for I filled the

{pk'

me

me

endowed the begin-

the altar with milk, let

my statues
according as I supplied those who were before me;^ bring forth my
statues on the day when your hands row,^ giving praise hd^ my father.

incense be

'9

tables of silver

and gold

give ye to

*In addition to that which he found aheady being offered.

^This must be Amon, who, says the king, sees and knows everything and

would detect a

lie.

^Compare the oath on Hatshepsut's obelisk (318).

^Compare

similar instructions to the priests of

Abydos (97ff.).

The

which follow are the mortuary offerings for the king, to which he exhorts the

^The

offerings.

*The statues of the

earlier kings, set

up

in the temple.

3ln the periodic voyage of the god upon the Nile or sacred lake.

lists

priests.

BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB

574]

He

will

227

which I have made in


anew daily as an increase of that which was before: 3,305^

count

30

it

for the Twell-beingi of that

various loaves of the divine offering; 132 (ds-) jars of beer; of grain,

two white loaves;

nd^^ oi

(ht-^^-) fowl 31

h-) herb; 2

many<i Qpi-^^

2 {mn-) jars of wine;

i^h^-) jar of beer;

(*

-)

fattened
of incense;
of

nd^^ of dates;

fowl; 5 vesselfuls

^
4 {pg-) vessels of honey; 2 {mn-) jars
^; i
white loaves of dk, 15 white loaves in oblations;

roasts of fresh fat;

32

fattened (Jtt-^^-) fowl; 1,100 '"matedi

6 ibexes;

(/j/-<^^-)

9 gazelles;
fowl; 258 flocks of

125
(i(/-)

birds; 5,237 flocks of 'matedi birds; 1,440 (jars) of wine; incense.

Offerings for

Four Obelisks

33

incense
572. (For the) four obelisks: incense, 318 white loaves;
104 heket of [in]cense, making 334 pd't of incense; 21

(mn-) jars of green incense; 5 heket of myrrh; 236 bull-cakes; 258


dressed-geese cakes; 24 obelisk-cakes; 562 white-loaf cakes; 34

573. Restoration^ which the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,


Zeserkheperure, Setepnere (Harmhab) made, for his father,
lord of Thebes, that he might be granted

life

through him

like

Amon-Re,

Re, forever.

BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB^
574.

This inscription

adventures of an

officer

is

an account

of the services

named Amenemhab on

and

the Asiatic

*Brugsch's text stops here.

^These

lists

contain

the following version

^Apparently an

dThere

is

is

many

uncertain things which require special investigation;


merely given for the sake of completeness.

unknown measure

of bulk (see also

a "two** after "fowl'* which

is

159,

1.

37).

not clear, possibly ''pairs."

These are cakes in the shape of the top of an obelisk; in the Berlin Kahun
papyri occur pyramidion (hnbn) loaves of white bread. The other two varieties
were doubtless also made in the shape indicated by the name.
f

This refers to the re-insertion of Amon's name throughout the inscription by

Harmhab,

after its erasure

by Amenhotep IV.

^Engraved upon the walls of his tomb in the necropolis of Thebes, which was
noted by ChampoUion {Notices descriptives, I, 505, Tomb 12; hence not "discovered" by Ebers, as he stated (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen
Ebers, however, did discover and publish the text:
Gesellschaft, 30, p. 391).
first in Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprctche, 1873, 3-9 (corrections by Ebers and


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

228

[575

campaigns of Thutmose III (11. 3-32), and his subsequent


favor and service under Amenhotep II ( 807 ff., 11. 32-46).
It forms a very important supplement to the Annals of

Thutmose

III,

but unfortunately does not insert the dates

of the campaigns nor follow a chronological order.

The old soldier seems to have narrated to some scribe,


who recorded them, the more important incidents and adventures of his career as they occurred to him, without

attempt at order, beyond the involuntary association of


events that belong to the same campaign.

This narrative

he had engraved beside his own figure on the wall of


his tomb, as he is represented standing in the presence of

Amenhotep

II, to

whom

this recital of his life is evidently

directed.

Beginning with a battle in the Negeb (year 39),


he proceeds to three battles in Naharin, and the capture
575.

Senzar (year 33), followed by the capture of Kadesh


(year 30).
The name of the next country (
h^) is

of

mutilated,

and

this is followed

by a

battle in Tikhsi (prob-

ably year 35), and the elephant hunt at Niy (year 33);
while the whole series concludes, as it should, with the siege
of

Kadesh on the

year 42.

last

Arranged

in

campaign of Thutmose III


chronological order,

in the

Amenemhab

records the following campaigns:

Sixth Campaign, Year 30

Capture of Kadesh (585).


again by Chabas, MSlanges Sgyptologiques, III, Pis. XVI(from Zeitschrift filr dgyptische Sprache, corrections by Stern, ibid., 1875,
Again by Ebers more accurately in Zeitschrift der Deutschen
174).
orgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 30, 391-416 and 3 plates; ibid., 31, 439 ff.; very incorrectly also by Virey, " Sept tombeaux The bains de la XVIII^ dynastie," in Memoires
de la mission frangaise au Caire, V, 238-40; corrections by Sjoberg, Sphinx, I, 18Stern, ibid., 63, 64);

XVII

20.

See

also

Piehl,

O-CXXVII, P and
for a careful scale

Inscriptions,

I,

CIX, F-CXIII, G, and

Pis.

pp. 87-92. I am indebted to the kindness of Mr.


copy of the inscription, which adds some new readings.

CXXV,

Newberry

BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB

577]

Eighth Campaign, Year

^;;^

Capture of Senzar; three battles


84,

and

588),

and elephant hunt

Tenth Campaign, Year

229

at

in

Niy

Naharin

581-

( 588).

35

Battle in Tikhsi (587).

Fourteenth Campaign, Year 39


Battle in the

Negeb

( 580).

Seventeenth Campaign, Year 42


Siege of

Kadesh

( 589)..

Following the campaigning

a feast at Thebes, possibly


that of the fourteenth of Pakhons, on Thutmose Ill's return

campaign (550). The death of the old king


then narrated with the date, from which we may compute

from
is

is

his first

the exact length of his reign

fifty- three years,

ten months,

and twenty-six days.


576. This biography affords us fleeting glimpses of the
arduous tasks which beset the remarkable campaigns of
Thutmose III, of which the Annals offer us little or nothing.
The first campaign in Naharin (year 33) brought three successive battles in which Amenemhab distinguished himself;
of these the Annals mention only one, without referring to
the place where it occurred.
577. These adventures of Amenemhab are, of course,
typical of a host of others, which fell to the lot of the Egyptian soldier in Syria.
Some of them found place in folktales, and one has survived in the story of the capture of
Joppa by Thutiy, one of Thutmose Ill's generals,* whose
^Part of the reverse (the first three pages) of the British Museum papyrus,
known as Harris 500. Text first published by Maspero, Etudes egyptologiqices, I,
Pis. I-III, with transliteration and notes, pp. 53-66; it had already been translated

by Goodwin, Transactions 0} the Society of Biblical Archceology, III, 340-48; then


by Maspero, ibid., I, 53-66; paraphrase based on Maspero by Petrie, Egyptian
Tales, II, 1-7.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

230

[578

vouched for by his tomb and other contemporaneous monuments of his.* The manuscript of the story is
reality is

about 200 years


578. Besides

later.

his

Amenemhab's tomb conshowing him in the exercise of

biography,

tained a series of scenes

certain of his functions as a deputy of the army, especially

introducing the officers of the commissariat to the king to


report

( ?)

on the maintenance

His tomb also

of the army.^

contains other references to his career, like those inserted

among

his titles:

Attendant of his lord on his expeditions in the countries of the


south and north, not separated from the Lord of the

Two Lands

on

the battlefield in the hour of repeUing millions of men.*^

He was

Thutmose III, and may


who was the royal nurse,

evidently a favorite of

have owed his favor to his wife,


possibly of

Thutmose

III himself.

Introduction

579.

The

officer,

Amenemhab; he

says:

'"I was the very faithful one of the sovereign, L. P. H., the wisehearted of the King of Upper Egypt, the excellent-hearted of the King

Lower Egypt. I followed *my lord on his expeditions in the northern


and the southern country. He desired that I should be the companion
of his feet, while he was 3upon the battlefield'^ of his victories, while his
of

valor fortified the heart."

^A

list

of

them

in

Maspero, Etudes egyptologiques,

Bibliothhque egyptologiq*4e, IV, 35 ff.


The tomb is
been known to the natives early in the last century,

^This scene
that of

is

I,

68

f.

See also Deveria,

now unknown, but must have


when it was plundered.

repeated in the tomb of Pehsukher, whose office was similar to


de la mission frangaise au Caire, V, 289).

Amenemhab {Memoires

^Memoires de

la mission frangaise

au

Caire, V, 245.

<iRestored from text in Zeitschrift jiir agyptische Sprache, 1876, 100, 1. 2.


Piehl has preceded me in this restoration, ibid., 1885, 61, where the particle ty,
"while," introducing a nominal clause, was not yet understood (it has nothing to

do with mn, "remain").

BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB

583]

Battle in

231

Negeb

580. "I fought hand to hand in the land of ^Negeb (N-g-b^).^


I brought off three men, Asiatics, as living prisoners."
Battle in

581.
off three

"When

his majesty

men from

came

Naharin
to

the fight there;

Naharin (N-h-r-n)^ sj brought


set them before thy majesty as

living prisoners."

Battle in

Wan

hand to hand (on) that expedition in the


land of 'The-Height-of-Wan' (W-'^-ny on the west of Aleppo {H^r^-hw). I brought off ^13 Asiatics as living prisoners, 13 men; 70
living asses; 13 bronze "spears"';'^ the bronze was wrought with gold
582.

6''

Again

I fought

"
Battle of

Carchemish

Again I fought (on) that expedition in the land of Carchemish


9
{K^ -ry-k^ -my-^ -^^).^ I brought off
as living prisoners.
I
583.

**

^This is clearly the Hebrew Negeb = "50m^A country;''* the fourteenth campaign of the Annals was against the Bedwin (Shasu) of this region.

^The following

three battles all took place

on a campaign

in Naharin, probably

that of year 33 ( 476-87), as he later mentions another in Naharin,


correspond with that of year 35.

by

Miiller {Asien

und Europa, 259

which would

with the heights (Mons


Casius) on the south shore of the seaward stretch of the Orontes by Antioch. But
ijt {^^ height") does not mean "Ufer," and Mons Casius could have been much
more easily identified by the scribe by mentioning the Orontes, rather than the
distant Aleppo.
Evidently some height not far from Aleppo is meant, for which
c
Gebel Sim an (2,700 feet high) answers admirably. It is but slightly north of west
of Aleppo, but the Egyptian did not carry a compass, and any traveler of today
would speak of it as west of Aleppo, and refer to his table of bearings for the exact
direction.
But there is a ruin by Dani directly west of Aleppo, on a height of nearly
1,100 feet, which will do equally well.
^Identified

f,),

^The rendering of Brugsch {Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 1873, 144):


"13 Wurfspiesse von Eisen und mit Gold ausgelegt," is entirely unjustifiable.

The

material (hsmn) precedes as usual; then follows the object


ynb, which is some article of which each of the thirteen captured

made

men

of

it,

viz.,

carried one.

Bronze helmets are mentioned in Annals (year 35, 1. 41), and perhaps it is not an
accident that "ij inlaid corselets and ij bronze suits of armor" are also mentioned
in the Naharin campaign of year 35, 1. 41 ( 501).
*This was on the northern march described in the Annals

( 479,

1.

18).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

232

[584

crossed over the water of Naharin (N-h-r-n), while they were in

hand, to

a great reward;

I [set]

list

them before

thereof:^

my


"

He rewarded me

lord.

my

with

."

Battle in Senzar

584. "I beheld the royal victories of the King Menkheperre (Thutmose in), given life, in the country of Senzar {Sn-d^ -r^)^^ when he

made a

[great] sl[aughter]

^^[among] them.

before the king, I brought off a

honor;

list

thereof:

hand

two
^^

hand

I fought

He

there.

gave to

me

hand

to

the gold of

silver rings."

Capture of Kadesh
585. "Again I beheld his bravery, while I was among his followers.
[He] captured [the city of] ^^Kadesh (Kd-Sw) ;^ I was not absent from
the place where he was; I brought off two men, lords (m-r^ -y-n^)y
as [living prisoners; I set them] ^^before the king, the

Lands, Thutmose

(III), living forever.

He

bravery, before the whole people


gold:

a lion; 2 necklaces, 2

flies,^

gave to
^^list

Lord

me

of the

Two

gold because of

thereof:

of the finest

4 arm rings."

Campaign in Unknown Country

my

586. "I saw

lord

^7

in

in

^*Ha

in the country of the ends^ of [^the earth""]

Then

was raised

to

be the

"

"

his

forms

{H^

of the army, like

^Ahmose, son of Ebana, had a similar adventure,


^Restored from

all

).

."

see 11.

16.

1.

Amarna Letters, it is the modern Kal^at Seidjar on the Orontes


below Hamath; see Meyer (Festschrift filr Georg Ebers, 71), Miiller (Asien und
cZinzar of the

Europa, 185, n. 3), and Maspero {Struggle 0} the Nations, 264).


the year 33, on the Naharin campaign.

^This occurred in the year 30 (see Annals,


^Apposition with

*^

It

was taken

in

465).

lords."

See Breasted, Proceedings 0} the Society of Biblical Archeology, March, 1900,


Ebers' corrected text (in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesell7 f.
schaft, 30, Taf. II, 1. 16) has ^ df, an error for ^ yj^, as in 1. 21.
gSee Annals, year 35, 1. 38 (498), and "Hymn of Victory" (661, 1. 20).
This was probably on the march from the coast to Naharin, on the second campaign
against that country.

BIOGRAPHY OF AMENEMHAB

59o]

233

Battle in Tikhsi

587. ^9" Again I beheld his victory in the country of Tikhsi {Tythe wretched, in the city of

l^-sy)

hand

hand

to

my

^^Then

arm

588. ^2" Again

Two Lands

fought

^I

).

men, as

the gold of honor;

rings, 2 flies, a lion, a

Hunt

list

female slave,

Niy

He hunted

did in Niy (Nyy).

and

among them, which fought


was

in

which the Lord

beheld^] another excellent deed

[JI

the sake of their tusks

while he

slave."

Elephant

of the

{Mr-yw

me

lord gave to

golden necklaces, 4

and a male

I brought off Asiatics, 3

therein before the king.

living prisoners.

thereof:

Mero

"

engaged the largest which was

^^i

">.

120 elephants, for

against his majesty;

I cut off his

hand*

alive ^^[before] his majesty, while I stood in the water

Then my

between two rocks.^

and

gave

lord rewarded

me

with gold; ^s[he]

3 changes of clothing."

Siege of Kadesh

589. ''The prince of Kadesh^ sent forth a mare^ ^^before fthe


rthem,! she entered among the army. I pursued
armyi]; in order to

after her ^^on foot, with


off

her

god

tail,

I set

He

for

endued

it

my

*^it

my

sword, and I ripped open her belly; I cut

before the king; while there was thanksgiving to

gave (me) joy,

it

filled

my

body, Cwithi) rejoicing, he

limbs."

Assault on Kadesh
=^9"

590.

His majesty sent forth every valiant

order to pierce the wall for the

^Doubtless the trunk

is

first

man

time, which

of his army, in

Kadesh had made.

meant.

^He was perhaps pursued by

the

wounded

elephant,

and took refuge between

the rocks.

cOn
tioned by

the last

campaign of Thutmose III

in year 42 ( 531)

and

the last

men-

Amenemhab.

^FoT the purpose of exciting the stallions of the Egyptian chariotry and thus
confusing their line of battle but Amenemhab leaps down from his chariot, and,
pursuing her " on foot," slays her. See Borchardt, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache,
;

31, 62

f.

^The preposition

is

incomplete.

^The phrase occurs not infrequently, denoting the thanks

Amenemhet (I, 520, 1. 14)


was the king who gave thanks.

faithfulness of a servant; e.

merely indicates that

it

g.,

of a king for the

The impersonal form


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

234

I 3owas the one

other before

y-n
of

^)

it,

me

who
did

pierced

(it).

it,

went

lords, as living prisoners.

being the
forth, I

Again

first

no

of all the valiant;

brought

my

[591

off 312

men,* {m-r^ lord rewarded me because

with 3aevery good thing for satisfying the heart, of the king's-

presence."

Feast at Thebes

591 *' I made this capture while [I] was an officer of the navy
^ [Qiis vessel""]
I was the chief
was the commander of
.

33l

"

associates 34on the voyage

when

all

the land

was

3s''Lk)j the

at his beautiful Feast^ of Opet,

in acclamation."

Death
592.

oj

ThiUmose III

king completed his lifetime of

in valor, in [migh]t, 36and in triumph;

from year

of the second season, the last day^ (of the


of]

of his

37King Menkheperre (Thutmose

III),

many

years, splendid

to year 54, third

month) under

triumphant.

month

[the majesty

He mounted

heaven, [he] *^joined the sun; the divine limbs mingling with him

to

who

begat him."

[Concluded 807-809]

FRAGMENTS OF KARNAK PYLON


593.

From

tlie

VII

data thus far given by Legrain,

it is

im-

possible to put together all the fragments heretofore found;


^Apposition,

^This is perhaps the celebration of the Feast of Southern Opet on the fourteenth
of Paophi, after the return from the first campaign ( 550), which Amenemhab
here relates after the campaigns exactly as the inscription of Feasts and Offerings
continues the Annals.

cThat

is

the thirtieth of the seventh

month (Phamenoth)

as he

was crowned

on the fourth of the ninth month (Pakhons), he lacked one month and four days
of concluding his fifty-fourth year, dying on the seventeenth of March, while his
would have been completed on the nineteenth of the following
April (his coronation day coming over thirteen days earlier than when he was
crowned fifty-four years earlier). If born before his father's accession, as seems
probable, he was at least eighty-four years old at his death.
fifty-fourth year

dThis phrase is rendered by Brugsch (Zeitschri/t fiir dgyptische Sprache, 1873,


134): "es ging unter die Sonnenscheibe," for which he gives excellent reasons;
but in Ineni (46, 1. 4), the pronoun "he" is expressed, rendering B's translation
impossible.
See also IV, 988 E and 988 G.

^Fragments of a great granite doorway some forty feet high through the center
of Pylon VII (Baedeker's plan), the northernmost of the southern pylons, were

FRAGMENTS OF KARNAK PYLON

595]

VII

235

but even from the fragments the great historical value of the

monument

evident.

is

It

contained a record of Thutmose

an explanation of the sources of the


materials used on this pylon and other good works in

Ill's military career as

costly

the

Kamak

temple.

It begins

with his coronation, passes

Thutmose II, and furnishes our most imporThurmose Ill's coregency with Thutmose 11,^

to the reign of

tant proof of

whom,

as his predecessor, he officially calls his

was customary on the monuments


Pharaohs.

The

^^

father y^^ as

in referring to deceased

record then proceeds to the

first

the battle of Megiddo, the siege of Megiddo,

campaign,

its

capture,

and the disposal of the prisoners and plunder


Whether the succeeding campaigns were now
in Karnak.
taken up is uncertain. In any case, the record now included
some account of the important eighth campaign, of the year
33, when Thutmose III first conquered the Euphrates country.
With some omissions of mutilated portions, necessitated
by the exceedingly fragmentary character of some of the
the prisoners,

material, the fragments are as follows:


First Fragment'^

594. Year i, first month of the third season (ninth month), the
fourth day, occurred the coronation of the king's-son
.

Second Fragment^
595.

^before

the sovereignty of the

me

Two

There was assigned to me


Lands upon the throne of Keb, the office
into the

found by Legrain in September-October, 1901, and published by him in the


Annates du Service, II, 272-79, IV, PI. III. The inscription is in vertical lines, of
which there were at least fourteen, computed by Legrain to have had a combined
Of all this the surviving fragments conlength (if set end to end) of 200 meters.
tain but a small fraction.

*A lintel block, found by Petrie

at

Abydos in 1902 (Abydos,

I, PI.

LXI,

LXIV,

and p. 30), shows their two names together, as having been coregent during work
on the Eighteenth Dynasty Abydos temple.
^Legrain's E. 279.

^See Annals, 417.

^Legrain's combination of several fragments, 276, 277.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

236

[596

by the side of my father, the Good God, King of Upper and


Lower Egypt, Okhepernere (Thutmose II), given life forever
of Khepri

Spoil of First

Campaign

s
it with
596. His majesty commanded to build stone
electrum. The divine shadow was the hkeness of a ram, whose name

was made:

Monuments."

''Menkheperre

place of the lord of the gods

All

gold, [every] costly stone,


to"!]

its

when

^[""captured

Amon

besieged

it* like

Lo,

my

went

victorious

cam-

put in

with a firm rampart.

As

terrible lion.
.

it

the favorite

his majesty

first

decreed to him

front of their wall, surrounding

is

were of electrum,

vessels

Retenu, to repel the northern countries, on his

paign, which

It

My

majesty

him who ""came^ upon it by night,

for

majesty carried

wives of that van-

off the

quished one, together with fhis"^ children, and the wives of the chiefs

who were [there,


women

together with their] children.


9

name

the

brought into the temple of

my

My majesty placed these

of another.

father,

Amon,

Their impost was

as the dues of Retenu

these wives of the vanquished chief of


IO_

made

this

equipment

to overlay

ning-of-the-River " (named):


II

My

Egypt, extending the boundaries, forever.

-of

majesty

Kadesh

12.

[a barge] of the

**Userhet,"^

with

^11

when my majesty returned from

hewn

[of

"Begin-

cedar]

[products] of the northern countries,

these countries.

Third Fragment^
their horses

597.

who came

my

to fight

majesty

impost.

their

Lo,

into the temple of

my

commanded

Lo,

the great chiefs of this country

my

[father]

Amon

Amon.

Then

dues as yearly

majesty furnished an example of might.

^Meaning, of course, Megiddo; the preceding being a reference to his siege


works; compare Annals, 433, 11. 9-1 1.

^For ** Userhetamon." Of course, we are to read h^t instead of Legrain's


/; see Lateran Obelisk (838).
According to Legrain, these sections of seven lines belong
to 11. 8-14, presumably referring to his numbering of the second fragment; but they
are too far separated from that fragment to be here placed in connection with it.
They evidently refer to the king's prowess in some battle.
^Legrain's,

I,

274.

GREAT KARNAK BUILDING INSCRIPTION

6oo]

my own

with

sword, in the midst of

anew

stood before [me]

for

my

237

Bekhu (Bhw).^
father, Amon.

None

Fourth Fragment^
598.

of

Ketne {Kd-n

^)

on the eighth victorious campaign,

.^

to repel

GREAT KARNAK BUILDING INSCRIPTION^


599.

This inscription contained the record of Thutmose

Ill's buildings, erected after the beginning of his wars.^

particular,

it

recounts the erection of one of his extensive

additions to the east end of the great


inscription

is

In

Karnak

temple.

The

unfortunately badly mutilated, only the intro-

we

ductory lines being preserved, but


the erection of

Thutmose

see that

Ill's splendid

it

recorded

colonnaded halls

and sanctuary, which form the eastern extension of the


Karnak temple;^ for it was a building so extensive that an
old shrine of Nun had to be removed farther eastward.
600. There was a reason, hitherto overlooked, for the
erection of these eastern halls by Thutmose III, which
*With a foreign determinative.
^Legrain's G, 279.

cThere are two more


to making bows.

lines, of

which the

first

seems

to contain

some reference

found by Mariette in the great Karnak temple, now in


Cairo; fragments of only seventeen lines are preserved; text: Mariette, Karnak, 12.

^A

large granite stela,

^The record of

his

Theban

buildings before his wars

is

contained in the great

coronation inscription ( 131 ff.). Of his buildings elsewhere, he has left but
slight record: a fragmentary dedication at El Kab (Lepsius, Denkmaler, Text,
IV, 37); a similar fragment at Erment {ibid., IV, i); and a record of his share in

Benihasan (Rouge, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 149), which is


Further building records also in 609-22; 637-43.
of religious character.

the Pasht speos at


chiefly
f

According to an altar found at Karnak,

this building

was

called:

"ilfew-

kheperre-is-Glorious-4n-Monuments'' (Zeitschri/t filr dgyptische Sprache, 1879, 137).


An altar with the same inscription was reported at Salonichi {ibid., 1868, 78 ff.),
and is possibly identical with the first. See also 560 for the only other occurrence
of the

was

This name of Thutmose Ill's sanctuary


in use in the reign of Takelot II, 650 years later (IV, 753).

name

still

in

Thutmose

Ill's time.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

238

6oi

must be noted here. The colonnaded hall built by Thutmose I between his two pylons (IV and V) formed the
entrance-hall to the Karnak temple, and at this time was
the largest hall in the building, the only one sufficiently

which took
as king by the

large for a procession of the god, such as that

when Thutmose III was installed


Now, this hall had been rendered unfit

place there
priests.

for use

by

Hatshepsut's strange insertion of her obelisks there (304);


it now stood roofless, with a small group of six columns at
its

Of these, four were the original cedar


Thutmose I, which Thutmose III now renews,

northern end.

columns

of

recording the renewal on one of them, as follows:^


601. ^He (Thutmose III) made

Amon-Re,

erecting for

him

[4

(it)

as his

monument

columns] of sandstone

for his father,

set

up^

[in]

the

fa renewal of that which""] his ffather had made"!], the


Good God, Lord of Offering (viz., Thutmose I), shaped of cedar.*^
My majesty faddedi]^ 4 columns to the two columns in the north side,
^and that which
established with
together 6; wrought with

hypostyle, as

was brought because


which

countries,
stone.

The

my

of the

father,

height thereof

great august portal,^

fame

of

my

majesty, being impost of

all

Amon-Re, assigned to me, shaped^ of sandwas made 30 cubits,^ on both sides of the
throughout. They illuminated Karnak

^Published by Piehl, Actes du 6*^' congrhs international des orientalistes tenu


en 1883 a Leide, IV^' partie, section 3, pp. 203-19. The text is badly broken,
and unessential fragments have been omitted.

^Read: smn.
cThis reference

and shows

that

is

the

Thutmose

first

mention of wooden columns

I built his hall

in

with cedar columns.

an Egyptian temple,
(See my New Chap-

ter , 31, note b).

dPiehl.

That

and

is,

the two columns of stone already inserted

by Thutmose

I (

100

note).

Three passive participles agree with "^ columns,^*


lished,^* and "shaped."
This mention of the material is
f

of cedar"

(1.

KOver

i), referring to the

wooden predecessors

fifty-one feet.

^Northern portal; see plan.

New

Chapter, 13.

viz.,

"wrought,^* "estab-

in contrast with

of the four

new

"shaped

stone columns.

GREAT KARNAK BUILDING INSCRIPTION

6o2]

together with figures of

God

(viz.,

to ruin

Thutmose

my

majesty, and figures of

Behold, as for that which was found^ going

I).

among them, my majesty

established

that this temple might be established

upon

their four pillars, as a

the lord of eternity;

favors me,^ I

of that

my

which

it

monument,

with sandstone, in order

like the heavens,

great, excellent

abiding

and useful

of granite, ivory, of sandstone,

I swear as [Re] loves me, [as

of the Beautiful-faced (Ptah).

Amon,

my father Amon,
my father, the Good

sandstone, painted with figures of

of

like

239

made

father

it]

anew

in the north side, being

for

silver,

my

father,

an increase

had made.

602. Til US the north

end

of

the hall, the end where

Thutmose III had been stationed when he was proclaimed


king, was repaired by him, but the south end was still without
columns and roofless., and the obelisk -bases had usurped
the room of eight columns, over a third of the entire colon-

The

nade.

hall could not

be made

fit

for great ceremonials,

with the obelisks preventing the replacement of over a


third of the roof.

Thutmose

III therefore built a

masonry

sheathing around each of the obelisks, covering the inscrip-

and desisted'' from any further attempt


to restore the hall where he had been raised to the throne.
But as such a great ceremonial h)^ostyle was of course intions of Hatshepsut,

dispensable,

he built the splendid colonnaded halls

standing at the other or east end of the temple.

still

On

his

return from the second^ campaign, in the year 24, the building

was begun, and on the

Mekhir, that

thirtieth of

the latter part of February,

is,

some two months before

in

his

departure for S)n:ia on the third campaign, the brilliant


aRead: gmy't?
^Restored from the
inscription, 318,

cThis
the south

is

clear

end

<iNot the

1.

common form

of royal oath,

e. g.,

Hatshepsut's obelisk

2.

from the

fact that his son

Amenhotep

II,

erected the columns of

( 805).
first

campaign, as I have incorrectly stated in Zeitschrift

tische Sprache, 39, 61.

fiir

agyp-

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

240

[603

On

celebration of the foundation ceremonies took place.

from the third campaign, in the year 25, the


building was sufficiently far advanced to record on the
walls of one of its chambers, the plants and flowers which
he brought from Syria* in that year (45of.).
his return

The

603.

architraves of the building bear the following

dedications :^

made

'^He

(it)

as his

monument

for his father,

Amon-Re,

lord of

Thebes, erecting for him an august central h)rpostyle^ anew, of

fine

white sandstone (variant, fine Hmestone of Ayan).

Another form of
to

Thutmose

Til's

this dedication is

an epitheton attached

name:

EstabHshing the house of his father, Amon-Re, of

fine

white Hmestone

of Ayan.

Another dedication designates the halP in the


temple which was set apart by Thutmose III for the mor604.

tuary service of his ancestors.


making

for

It is as follows:

them a great dwelling

of myriads of years,

anew^^ of fine limestone of Ayan, shining like the horizon of heaven,


established as an eternal work.

names

of his fathers, to increase their offerings,

""^

was

His majesty commanded to record the

to establish for

and

to fashion statues

them divine offerings anew, as increase

of

[what

formerly].

605.

access,

^This

In one of the chambers to which

Thutmose had recorded on


is

the earliest extract

were, of course,

made

from

this hall

the walls a

his annals; the extracts

list'

gave

of the

around the sanctuary

after the conclusion of his campaigns,

^Lepsius, Denkmaler, Text, III, 31; ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, II,


162; and Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 1313.
159
f.,

^Preceded by the titulary of Thutmose III.

^Hryt-yb.

^Z in Mariette's Plan {Karnak,

^Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 1313;

PL

ChampoUion, Notices

V).
descriptives, II, 168;

Mariette, Karnak, 32, h; titulary and usual introduction are omitted.

80r: "/or the


i

This

first

Removed by
is

the

h"o/

timer

Prisse to Paris,

famous Karnak

list

where

of kings.

it

their bodies ?

now
See

is,

I,

"

in the Bibliothbque Nationale.

p. 197, note a.

GREAT KARNAK BUILDING INSCRIPTION

6o7]

Pharaohs, his ancestors

and whose statues were

who were worshiped


set

up

in

it.

241

in this temple,

It is to this list that

the dedication inscription refers.

This ancestral character of the temple

is

also referred to

Thutmose III, which designates


the temple as "a monument jor his father, the king of Upper
and Lower Egypt, Thutmose I, and a monument of his
fathers, the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt."
The architect in charge of these great additions was the
first prophet of Amon, Menkheperreseneb, who briefly recounts his connection with them in his tomb inscriptions
in another inscription^ of

(772ff.).

The

great building inscription

on our granite

stela is as

follows

The Oracle
606.

'

The king

himself

commanded

according to the statement of the oracle,^ to execute

who

those
to

my

on earth
Amon-Re,

are

father,

horizon, adorning for

My majesty desired

in

him

this

put in ^writing,

monuments before
make a monument

Karnak, erecting a dwelling, beautifying the


Khaftet-hir-nebes, the favorite place of

father 3from the beginning,

him upon

to

to

Amon-Re,

block of enduring

lord of Thebes.

stone,'^ exalting

made

and magnifying

it

my
for

greatly,

water to the shrine of Nun, on arriving at his seasons.

since

Old Buildings Removed

him according to (his) desire, I satisfied him by


made for him (as) at first, building ^a shrine at the east of

607. I built
that which I

it

for

*Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 13 15.

^he

Thutmose III complete.


cThis is doubtless the same as the oracle in the Punt inscriptions ( 285, I. 5,
nd't-r ^) commanding the expedition.
So also Thutmose III is building in response
to

an

usual titulary of

oracle.

dMariette states that this tablet is of "granite gris" (Mariette, Xarwa^, Texte,
47); so that rwd't cannot mean '^sandstone" here.

^As Brugsch has supposed (Egypt under the Pharaohs, p. 180), this temple, or
shrine of Nun, was in the way of enlarging the Amon-temple.
It seems, therefore,
to have been taken down and rebuilt farther eastward.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

242

my

Behold,

this temple.

[6o8

majesty found the encircUng wall of

mud

fl removed the wall oV] mud [brick,] in order to extend


I cleansed it, I overthrew its ruinous (parts) and removed
*this temple. ^

brick,

was by its side, which went up 5[rtoi] the house.


I built this place where the encircling wall was, in order to erect this
Karnak. I made (it) anew,^ I fulfilled
monument upon it
that which was prescribed, I did not appropriate the monument of
the inclosure, which

My

another.
one,

my

majesty spake this in truth for the information of ^every

abomination

great

really.

know

speak

to

is

that he

is

there

lies,

no

is

fiction

in

pleased therewith,*^

Foundation Ceremonies

My

608.

be prepared

majesty ordered that the ^foundation ceremony^ should


measuring- line upon this monument.

'to extend the

second month of the second season, the

day of the tenth feast


After

throne.

this, I

of

Amon

last

in

proceeded

^af teri

day

(of

god marveled

monument, which

god rejoiced in

this

his majesty

He

set his

rfori the

majesty before him at

^The majesty of this


majesty] of this god pro-

had exacted.

monument

[the

ceeded; the beautiful feast was celebrated


to

^Amon the god profeast.


The majesty of

(my) father,

god ['assumijed the station

this

extension of the [measuring- line].


this

In the year 24,


the month), on the

the god rested Con"!) his great

ceeded at his going to celebrate this his beautiful


this

New Moon,

day of the Feast of the

the approach oi^ the

""at

ffori

my

Then I went

lord.

do the extending of the measuring-Hne upon that which

He

^before him.

led

^^

1^

the

first

feast of extending the line.

Behold, the majesty of this revered god desired to do the extending of


the Hne himself

^By a
^Or:

slight

^'for

the

"

1^

emendation of the

^Lit., ''the line extension,'* as in

^viz.,
1.

7,

^See Brugsch {Thesaurus, VI, 1290

^Over one-half

line.

line.

all

with the truth; a

made.

idea.

following.

f.).

KLess than one-third

The remaining

common

line.

short ends of eight lines

with this building, but offer nothing decisive by which to identify


iPartially broken.

that he

text.

first time.'*

^About one-third

"

iNearly two-thirds

still

have to do

it.

line.

^See Brugsch {Thesaurus, VI, 1291); I do not understand the passage, and his
explanation does not seem to me probable.

6o9]

INSCRIPTION OF KARNAK PTAH-TEMPLE

243

His majesty rejoiced exceedingly when he saw the great marvels which
a
^3
his father [Amon] had performed for him.
j^y heart
dilated at every beautiful approach to begin this monument, enduring
b all the

^4

names

who

Karnak and of
a
the gods and goddesses 's
^11 the people made jubilee.
^ electrum, which [my majesty] made for him
After this '^
of the great gods

17

are in

BUILDING INSCRIPTION OF THE KARNAK PTAH-

TEMPLE
609.

This inscription records how Thutmose III found

the Ptah-temple, just north of the great hypostyle in Karnak,


built of brick, with

wooden columns and

to ruin.

The

offerings,

was the return from the

doorposts, falling

occasion of rebuilding, or at least of


first

new

campaign, and the

inscription contains interesting references (616) to the in-

vestment and capture of Megiddo on that campaign.


the plunder thus obtained the temple

was

also

From

newly and

As this temple was one of the stoppingAmon, when his processions moved out from the

richly furnished.

places of

Karnak temple, on

all feast

days, offerings are provided for

Amon

on such occasions (615, 617). At such times also


the lay priesthood was to receive an offering, as well as the
royal statue which was carried in procession (618); and
the usual daily offering was made to Ptah (6ig), increased
by certain new offerings now established for the first time
^Over two-thirds

^About

line.

three -fourths line.

^The remainder

of the tablet

About four-fifths line.

must have contained

at least as

many more

lines

as the above.

Large gram'te stela 1.50 m. high, 0.74 m. wide, and 0.32 m. thick, found in
the Ptah-temple at Thebes; now in Cairo, thus far without number.
It was published and translated by Maspero, Comptes rendus de Vacademie des inscriptions
et belles-lettres, 1900, Tome I, 113-23, with facsimile plate; and again by Legrain,
AnnaleSy III, 107-11. I had also a copy of the original, kindly loaned me by
Schaefer.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

244

6io

These were further increased on the king's return


from a subsequent campaign late in September (621).
With offerings for Mut-Hathor (622), the inscription closes.
These offerings are all ^' for the sake oj lije, prosperity,
and health^ of the Pharaoh; that is, they are the official
sacrifices in his behalf, which were begun as soon as a king
was crowned (cf. 57).
610. The stela was badly defaced, when the persecution
of Ikhnaton caused the chiseling out of the entire relief
and every occurrence of the names of other gods. This
defacement is important as showing that the persecution of
Ikhnaton was not confined to Amon.
The restorers of
Seti I at Thebes were so accustomed to inserting the name
of Amon that they have here inserted it where the titles
clearly show that Ptah was original.
611. The dedication inscription on the wall of the Ptah( 620).

temple also attributes the building to Thutmose III, of

whom

says:*

it

[He made

as his

(it)

monument]^

face, lord of ''Life of the

erecting for
of

him

new cedar

was

Lands," presiding over the great seat

the house of Ptah

anew

[of] fine

of the best of the terraces.

Lo,

before.

Two

for his father, Ptah, the beautiful of

my

majesty found this house of brick

sandstone, established as an eternal work,

monument

down

more beautiful than

His majesty commanded to make for him

ancestors.

612.

It is

white sandstone, doors

,^

Our

made

the middle of which

is

is

of the

temple of

this

an abiding
makes for him.

to flourish,

which the Son of Re, Thutmose

stela inscription

it

(III),

surmounted by a

relief,^

the following record of Seti I's

restoration
^Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, ii88
Annates, III, 98, 99.

^The
Legrain

is

= L.epsius,

Denkmdler, Text,

restoration in Lepsius, Denkmdler, Text,

is

III,

not correct;

7=Legrain,

and that of

impossible.

cName

of Ptah erased

^This entire

relief

by Ikhnaton;

see Lepsius, Denkmdler, Text, III, 8.

was chiseled out by Ikhnaton.

INSCRIPTION OF KARNAK PTAH-TEMPLE

6i5]

Restoration of the monument, which King

Menmare

245

(Seti I)

made,

in the house of his father, Ptah.

On

Thutmose

III offers wine to Ptah.

Behind
the king is the divine wife {hm't ntr) Sityoh (S^'t y^ h)^^
On the left, before the same god, Thutoffering ointment.
mose III, offering a libation of water, is followed by the
same princess,^ again offering ointment.
The inscription below the relief is as follows:
the right,

Introduction

Thutmose

613. *Live Horus


of-His-Wall, in Thebes, given

life

New

commands

Temple

that there be built the temple of

Ptah-South-of -His- Wall, in Thebes, which

a station (w^

is

hy t)

my

of

]^ on the day of "Bring-

Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, wherein he [


ing-in-the-God," and all his feasts ^during the
father,

the treasury of the south {tp rsy)


of brick

beloved of Ptah-South-

forever.

Building the
614. *My= majesty

III,

Lo,

and wooden columns, and

^My

go to ruin.

majesty

year,

when he proceeds to

my majesty found this temple built

its

commands

doorway

of

wood, beginning to

to stretch the cord

upon

this

temple anew, erected of fine white sandstone, and the walls around

work enduring

of brick, as a

new cedar

doors of

for eternity.

^My

of the best of the terraces,

majesty erected for

mounted with

copper, ''corresponding to^ {hjt) the house of Ptah anew, in the

my

^Never was done for him the

majesty.

New
615.
before.

My

majesty

made him

I overlaid for

^The name

Equipment

him

oj the

rich,

like,

before

my

it^

it

Asiatic

name

of

majesty.

Temple

and I made him greater than

his great seat with electrum of the best of

perhaps wrongly restored, and Maspero afl5rms he has seen


traces of the name Merytre; but of this Schaefer saw nothing.
is

^Her name is here original.


cThe text has a Honis-hawk on the standard, used

for the first person

when

the king speaks, in the rest of the inscription.

^We

expect some verb like "rests" or "turns aside," but the text shows only
the verb ^^ give" and a very small lacuna.

^On wooden columns


fThat

is,

in a temple, see 100.

the walls of the temple inclosure.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

246

the countries.

^AU

were of gold and

vessels

silver,

III

[|6i6

and every splendid,

costly stone, clothing of fine linen, white linen, ointments of divine

ingredients, to perform his pleasing ceremonies at the feasts of ^the

beginnings of the seasons, which occur in this temple,

when my majesty

caused him to proceed, to assume his throne.

Campaign

Offerings on Return from First

6i6. I

filled his

temple with every good thing, with oxen, geese,

my

incense, wine, offerings of ^all sorts of fruit, at the return of

from

Retenu (Rtnw), on the first victorious campaign,


Amon, gave to me, when he gave to me all the allied

(hr) the country of

which*

my

father,

countries of Zahi^ (P^-hy), ^shut

up

majesty entered their hearts, (they)

fell,*^

reached them, there was not one

'^who

I snared
wall, to

them

in one city.

The

fear of

my

when I
among them.

(they) slunk back;


stirred (wtwt)

around them with a rampart of thick

by the fame of "my father,


a prosperous way by all his good designs,

their nostrils of the breath of

into

life,

my majesty. He has made great the victories

which he has wrought for

my

left

in one city, I built

Amon, who guides me


of

majesty

majesty above (those

New

of)

any king who has been

Offerings for

before.

Amon

617. '3My majesty commanded that his altar should be supplied


with every good thing.

My majesty commanded that offerings be added

anew for my father, Amon,

in

Karnak, ^^when he rested there

of offerings supplied with everything," for the

God " and

every feast of

Amon,

being^

for the sake of the Hfe, prosperity,

"heaps

day of *'Bringing-in-the-

an increase

and health

of

of

what was before,

my majesty .

^This relative clause (rdyn ny yt y) is common. Maspero^s rendering, " Je fis


en effet ces dons k mon p^re, etc.," is possible only by overlooking one of the n's.
'

^This shows the wide extent of Zahi, evidently far beyond the limits of Phoenicia.

cThe

text has

been restored here, and

may

be corrupt;

"fell"

{J}r)

may

be

the particle "then, so J*

dSome verb like "deprive."


This

is

a cultus term for a kind of oblation.

Emend after 1. 19.


sAmon is here wrongly

See

566.

line.
1.

to

19;
1.

an erasure extending over from the next


The ancient restoration "my majesty" (hn-y) is quite right, as is shown by
Maspero (Comptes rendus, 1900, I, 115) corrects the restoration, and appeals
restored in

19 as supporting his correction; but his quotation of

1.

19 overlooks hn.

INSCRIPTION OF KARNAK PTAH-TEMPLE

62o]

Offerings for the Priesthood

618. Now,

^5

when

and Royal Statue

the majesty of this august god

one cause a "heap of

his offering (yh't), let

247

with

is satisfied

offerings, supplied with

everything" to be issued to the lay priests of the temple of

my

father,

Karnak; ^^and 6 ''heaps of offerings, supplied with everything"* and with bread of^ the ''Coming Forth" (to be issued) before
the statue of miUions of years of my majesty, which follows to this temple,
which is in the domain of the majesty of ^'this august god, for the sake
of this offering, *=the name of which is: "Menkheperre-is-Grcat-in- Offer-

Amon,

in

ings."

Offerings for

Ptah

619. Now, when this statue is satisfied with this offering, there shall
be issued for the temple of ^^Ptah, lord of truth, South-of-His-Wall, in
Thebes, according to the measure of the customary^ offering, which

is

in this temple.

New
620.
ings

My

anew

commanded

majesty has moreover

for

my

to

found divine

father, ^^ep^ah-South-of-His-Wall in

60 various loaves,

sisting of

Offerings jor Ptah

of the daily offering of every day, as

of that

for the sake of the

of

life,

*Now, when the god


be placed before

[this]

statue of

my

my

which was before,


majesty.

with his offerings,

is satisfied

majesty,

Thebes, con-

vegetables, bread

2 jars {ds) of beer,

an increase
prosperity, and health

offer-

when

let this '"offering"'

the lay priesthood of

My majesty

the temple of Ptah-South-of -His-Wall, in Thebes, go forth.

["commandsT] ^ *Ho have executed every contract of the court, for his
father, Ptah-South-of-His-Wall, in

*This

is

to separate

Amon

Thebes

in

interpreting the loaf as determinative of the whole group;

it,

as

Maspero

does,

and read

^*six loaves

from the bread

Karnak.

it is

possible

of, etc."

^Or: "for the Coming Forth;" in which case the parenthesis must be inserted
bread {to be issued) for the Coming Forth, etc."
after ** bread" thus: "
cThis relative clause, as the gender shows, does not belong to "offering," but
The order of words above is as in the original, which is very conto "templet"
fused.
Such royal statues are depicted in reliefs "following" in procession to the
temple.

dFor another example of

ni,

377,

The

1.

this use of this

word

(jntt),

see 798;

14.

restorer has absurdly inserted

Amon

'The restoration has probably omitted

this

here before Ptah!

word.

and

the Treaty,


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

248

Further Addition

621. First (month) of the

My

day.*

to

Ptak's Offerings

season

first

[621

month), twenty-sixth

(first

majesty hath founded for him: ^^a bull,

(mnw)

jars

of

wine, 2 geese, 4 great


^, 5 measures (dny t) of fruit, grain for 6 white
loaves, 2 [bundles of vegetables],^ 20 (P 6-) jars and 10 (ds-) jars of
"

from the

beer, 5 table fowl, =*32oo various loaves of the divine offerings

house (pr) of Amon, 4 measures of incense,


the sake of^ the

*^for

prosperity,

Offerings jor

My

20 white loaves,

and health of Pharaoh,


the presence of this god ^^every day.

life,

annual dues, burned in

622.

cakes,

Mut-Hathor

[majesty commands] to have executed every contract of

the court for Mut-Hathor, mistress of Thebes, on the day of the


the-Feast," which takes place ^ on the last day of the third
third season (eleventh month).
offerings oV]

fixed as

*'

Altar-of-

month

of the

*5[My majesty] has [founded ^divine

jars of wine, i goose, 2 great

^,

4 measures {dny

of fruit, grain for four white loaves, 2 bundles of vegetables, 2

(P 6-) jars

of beer. ^^5 table-fowl, 25 [various loaves of the divine]^ offerings,

of the garden,

and every

plant,

burned^ in the presence of

t)

"

^^

this goddess,

every day.
2

7[It is]

in this

my [majesty] who

good hour

Texactlyi, in

who makes anew

*This

does

all

which

the things to be done in this house


is

the burning.

It is

my

majesty

about the twenty-third of September and was, of course, the time of


the king's return with the plunder from some campaign of the preceding summer
(see

409

is

ff.)-

^The numeral has been corrupted

cTo be

restored from

1.

in the restoration.

25.

<iMaspero restores: nw = "o/;" but the context demands the usual connection,
viz., "for the sake of (hr-d ^ d ^), etc.," which Schaefer read; and this is shown by the
photograph to be correct.

^Maspero has "f6te de

but the phrase ''cause to be" is usual for


See Zeitschrijt fiir dgyptische Sprache, 37, 124 f.,
occurs three times, and the Elephantine appendix to the Ama,da stela,
faire etre;"

the taking place of a feast.

where

it

798.
f

Restored from

kA

1.

23.

participle referring to the entire preceding series of offerings;

above in

1.

23.

the

same

OBELISKS

624]

249

OBELISKS
In celebration of the usual jubilee on the thirtieth
anniversary of his being proclaimed crown prince, and on
623.

recurrences^ of the same feast,


series of at least

Thutmose

seven ^ obelisks, of which

III erected a

were

five

in

Thebes and two in Heliopolis. The first of these feasts


must have taken place in his thirtieth year as king, because
his proclamation as crown prince was coincident with his
He had no prospect of succeeding until he
coronation.
was crowned. These obelisks are chronologically important, and bear inscriptions, some of which possess great
historical value.
I.

we

624. If

KAENAK OBELISKS
now
Kamak;

exclude those of Hatshepsut, there are

no obelisks erected by Thutmose III remaining in


for that of Thutmose I which he appropriated was not

by Thutmose III (see 105, 86 ff.), but only inIn the year 42, however, he had already
scribed by him.
erected in Karnak four obelisks, for which he decreed offerWhether he later erected more, we cannot
ii^gs ( 563, 572).
tell, but it can hardly be an accident that other sources also
refer to four at Karnak, two being recorded by the king

erected

aA record

on the second of Pauni in year 33 is


Inscriptions, II, 47; again less
Egyptian
(Sharpe,
found in a tablet at el-Bersheh
The monument is now destroyed.
accurately, II, 33).
^That

is

of the celebration of a jubilee

Mentioned

in texts at

Karnak

....

(Includes Constantinople obelisk)

Lateran obelisk

Heliopolis obelisks

Total
7
HI. There
Thutmose
by
completed
The Lateran obelisk was, of course, not
A new obelisk of
is a small obelisk of his at Sion house; see Birch, History, 102.
"Thotmes" (not stated which one) is mentioned in Egypt Exploration Fund
See Breasted, "The Obelisks of Thutmose III
Archaeological Report, 98, 99, 22.

Egypt" {Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache, 39, 55-61).


Legrain's recent discoveries at Karnak (Annales, V) arrived too late for use here.

and His Building Season

in

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

250

tomb

himself and two mentioned in the

The former two


III

is

and

Puemre

( 382

are represented in a relief* where

presenting to

in gold

of

silver

Amon

[625

Thutmose

a magnificent array of costly

and the

Among

like.

obelisks each inscribed with

etc.,

titles,

ff.)

gifts

these appear two


of

Thutmose

III,

followed on the one by the words:

He made (it) as his monument [for his father, Amon, lord of Thebes],^
erecting for

him two

great

and mighty

obelisks of granite;

the pyra-

midions (being) of electrum; at the double facade of the temple.

As

the inscription

tomb

is

different

from that upon the obelisks

Puemre, they must be a different pair."^


The inscriptions in the tomb of Menkheperreseneb also
refer to ^^many obelisks and flagstaves^^^ erected by him for
in the

Thutmose
625.

of

III at Thebes.
scarab,^ issued in celebration of the erection of

obelisks in Karnak, bears the words:

Thutmose

III,

whose obelisks abide

in the

house of Amon.

In addition to these four, for which we. have chiefly


scriptional evidence,

Thutmose

III

had

at least

in-

one more

^In the corridor of the Annals in the great Karnak temple; published by
Champollion, Monumenis, IV, 316, 317; partially by Rosellini, MonumerUi Storici,
Text, III, I, plate opposite p. 125; partially by Burton, Excerpta hieroglyphica, 29,
and Bnigsch, Thesaurus, V, 1185 flf.

full,

^Brugsch and Rosellini represent this as erased, but Champollion has


having doubtless inserted it from similar dedications.

it

in

cSee Ineni ( 103, 1. 8); Lepsius says of the obelisk in tomb of Puemre: "das
pjrramidion ist gelb gemalt," of course representing electrum (Lepsius, Denkmdler,
Text, III, 244). On the other obehsk the same inscription with the variant "obelisks'* (for the dual).

iNone of these can be the Lateran obelisk, for it was not one of a pair; but the
Constantinople obelisk is one of the first pair above mentioned, for the position,
of the representations and the wording of the inscriptions tally exactly (the only
difiference is the omission of dsr-h ^ m; in the Golden Horus name in the Karnak
relief).
See Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 39, Tafel III, i and 2 (opp. p. 56),

and

p. 57.

^Virey,
^Berlin,

Memoires de

No

la mission frangaise

au

Caire, V, 209,

3530, Ausfuhrliches Verzeichniss des Berlhier

1.

15.

Museums,

417.

OBELISKS

626]

obelisk in Karnak, which has

from

original site, viz., the

its

itself

survived, though far

Lateran Obelisk.

LATERAN OBELISK^

II.

626.

251

This obelisk has had an interesting

history.

It

was

intended by Thutmose III probably for the forecourt before


his southern pylon (VIII) in

But he apparently
but before it was erected

Karnak.^

had reached its site,


or inscribed. There it lay for thirty-five years in ^Hhe hands
^^
until it was piously erected and properly
of the craftsmen
inscribed with Thutmose III^s dedication, etc., by his grandson, Thutmose IV, who adds also his own inscription with
an account of the monument's history thus far. It is herein
died after

it

distinctly stated that this

was

erected.

*"

The

is

the

first

next date of

time that a single obelisk


its

history

is

that of

its

by Constantius in the Circus Maximus at Rome in


357 A. D. In 1587 it was discovered there broken into
three pieces, and was set up on its present site in the next
year by Pope Sixtus V.
The inscriptions of Thutmose III occupy the middle
erection

*In the piazza of the Lateran in Rome published in Interpretatio Obeliscorum


Urhis .... digesta per A. M. Ungarelliunij Romae, MDCCCXLII, Tab. I;
Birch, Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, 2d ser., II, 228; de Horrack,
Revue ArchSologique, N. S., 1864, IX, 45 (incomplete); Marucchi, Gli obelischi
;

egiziani di

Roma, Tav.

and

II.

^Thutmose III says it was set "? the forecourt of the temple over against
Karnak;" Thutmose IV refers three times to its location: (i) when found it was
lying "on the south side of Karnak;" (2) it was erected "in Karnak;" (3) it was
erected "at the upper portal of Karnak." Taken altogether, these data show that
in No. 3 the southern entrance through Pylon VIII is meant, and there the obelisk
There is a reference to the same portal in the inscription of Beknekhonsu
stood.
In both cases the same
(III, 567, 1. 5), where it is also called the "upper portal."
word (hr) is used for "upper." It is unusual in this sense, viz., referring to the
river, but occurs twice in the same way in the inscription of Zoser (Sehel, 11. 16
and 30).
cHence

it

was not paired with the Constantinople

{Aegyptische Geschichte, 365).

obelisk, as

Wiedemann

states

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

252

lines, those of

much from

Thutmose IV the side

lines. ^

All have suffered

by the papal architect

restoration

[627

at the last

erection.
Dedication {South Side)

627
ment for

Thutmose
Amon-Re, lord
^

his father,

{wb

obelisk in the forecourt

Karnak, as the

^)

He made

(III).

(it)

of Thebes, erecting for

of the

monu-

as his

him a

single

temple over against (r-h

w)

beginning of erecting a single obelisk in Thebes;

first

that he might be given

life.

North Side
(Thutmose IH), son of Amon, of his body, whom Mut
bore to him in Ishru, of the same hmbs as he who fashioned him, Son of
Re, Thutmose, Beautiful of Form, beloved of Amon-Re, lord of Thebes,
given

life,

Re.

like

East Side

(Thutmose

628

Amon; making
made, who were

his

III), rich in

monuments

monuments

in the house of

greater than that which the ancestors

before; exceeding that which ever was, not resembling

was made
Re, Thutmose, Ruler

the likeness of anything that

in the house of his father,

that the son of

of Heliopolis,

through him

may

Amon,

be given

life

{nj).

West Side

(Thutmose

He

Karnak.

sends

III),

Amon

while his (Amon's) heart

is

''Enduring in Kingship."*^
celebration of

the

this

Amon, when he

rises in

to rest in the house, *'Bearer-of- Diadems,"

monuments of his beloved


Cause him to endure and to repeat for
glad at the

son,

thee

life.

CONSTANTINOPLE OBELISK^

III.

sius

praises

milHon of jubilees; Son of Re, Thutmose,

Beautiful of Form, given

629.

who

This obelisk was removed by the emperor Theodo-

from Eg)rpt

^These

latter will

to Constantinople.^

It

originally

be found under his reign (8302.).

^Full five-name titulary, as in 143

ff.

cSecond name of Thutmose III.


din Constantinople, published by Lepsius, Denkmdler,

Egyptian Inscriptions,

stood

II, 65.

Only the upper portion

^Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte, 365.

is

III,

preserved.

60;

Sharpe,

obelisks

63t]

somewhere

The

Karnak,^ and is shown with its fellow in a


in which the king offers the pair to Amon.

in

there,

relief

253

exact location of these obelisks, or of the pair erected

by Puemre,

doubtless indicated by an inscription on a


fragment of a sphinx found near Thutmose Ill's southern
is

pylon (VII) at Karnak, which reads:


obelisks of stone

one on each side of iV^ {Annates, IV,

meaning the door

evidently

^^He presented two

The

of the pylon.

9),

inscriptions

on the Constantinople obelisk^ are as follows:


Dedication {South Side)

630

<=

(Thutmose

Amon-Re,

his father,

III)

he made

lord of Thebes;

erecting ^[for

obelisks of red granite, the pyramidions of electrum;

given

life,

like

monument for
him very great

as his

(it)

that he

may be

Re, forever].

North Side
(Thutmose

III),

of Neit, Divine Mother, to

whom Atum
be king;

reared as a child, in the arms

who has taken

lord of jubilees (hb-sd)

extent of time;

all

lands, the

East Side

(Thutmose III), lord of victory, binder of every


land, who makes his boundary as far as the Horns of the Earth, the
marshes as far as Naharin (N-h-r-n)
631

West Side

(Thutmose

III),

who

crossed

the

and with victory


making a great slaughter [among them]
Taharin (N-h-r-n)^ with might

at

"Great Bend" of
the head of his army,

*See 624 and note.

has shown that this obelisk must have


been very high. He would for this reason identify it with the great obelisks of
Thutiy's inscription ( 376), but those obelisks belonged to Hatshepsut, and, as
we have seen, the Constantinople obelisk is certainly one of those shown in the
^Petrie (History of Egypt, II, 131

Karnak relief ( 624 and


cFuU titulary except
dThe Karnak
eThis

is

the

ff.)

note).
last fifth

name.

relief ( 543) furnishes the lost

campaign of the

conclusion of this dedication.

thirty-third year.

See 477

ff.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

254

[632

LONDON OBELISK^

IV.

This obelisk, with

632.

III

its

now in New York,


Removed to Alexandria,

fellow,

stood in the temple of Heliopolis.

they were erected before the temple of the Caesars there, in

13-12 B. C.,^ by the Roman*" (?) architect Pontius, while

The London

which had
fallen early in the fourteenth century, was removed thither
It is
in 1877 and landed in England in January, 1878.
Barbaras was

prefect.

obelisk,

"^

68 J feet high (Petrie, History oj Egypt, II, 127).


633. Its inscriptions^ are not of great historical importhe dedication

tance;

Thutmose
father,

as follows:

is

(III)

he made

as his

(it)

monument

for his

Harakhte, erecting for him two great obelisks; with pyramidion

of electrum, at the fourth^ occurrence of the jubilee (hb-sd), because he

so

much

[given

loved Tiis father.^

life]

through him

May

the

Son

of Re,

Thutmose

(III),

be

(/).

^Stands on the Thames embankment in London; published in Description^


Antiquites, V, 32, 33 (partially and badly); Champollion, Monuments, IV, 445, 446;
Burton, Excerpta hieroglyphica, 51; phototype, Gorringe, Egyptian Obelisks;
Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 11, 30 (dedication only); King, Cleopatra's Needle (London, 1886).

^The current date, 22 B. C, is an error, to be corrected from the revised


text of Merriam {The Greek and Latin Inscriptions on the Obelisk-Crab, by A. C.
Merriam, New York, 1883) on the bronze crabs which were inserted under the
obelisks at their re-erection. Those under the fallen London obelisk had, of course,
disappeared; on a claw found under the other (New York) obelisk, and now in the
Metropolitan Museum (New York), both the Greek and Latin versions are preserved.

Merriam's copy reads:

L IH

KAI^AP^

BAPBAPO^ ANE0HKE
APXITEKTONOYNTO^
TTONTIOY

A[N]NO XVIII CAESARIS

BARBARUS PRAEF
AEGYPTI POSUIT
ARCHITCTANTE PONTIC

(Ligatures and missing portions of broken letters I have not indicated).

same as the "Pontios" of the fountain


Obelisk-Crab,
(Merriam,
47), he was an Athenian.
clf he be the

t^See

in the garden of

Maecenas

Gorringe.

by Thutmose III; the side lines by Ramses II.


f On the Thames embankment, in 1901, I could see only three strokes of the
numeral; nor (with an opera-glass) could I discern room for a fourth; but Brugsch
read it when it was prostrate (Thesaurus, V, 1130) as four.
^The middle

lines are

OBELISKS

J 636]

255

NEW YORK OBELISK*


was removed to New York^ with
V.

634. It

and success by Lieutenant-Commander

skill

Gorringe,*" landing

Unfortunately, the dedication inscription'^

in July, 1880.
illegible,

admirable

is

and the others contain only the conventional praise

They

of the king.

are as follows:
East Side

635. Horus: Mighty Bull, Shining in Thebes; Favorite of the Two


Goddesses; Enduring in Kingship like Re in Heaven; Born of Atum,

Lord

Son

of Heliopolis,

of his body,

they fashioned in the Great

House

whom Thoth

fashioned;

in the beauty of their

whom

hmbs, knowing

would exercise a kingship enduring forever, King of Upper and


Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), beloved of Atum, the
great god, and the divine ennead; given life, stability, and satisfaction,
that he

hkc Re, forever.

North Side
636. Horus: "^Taking^ the white crown; King of Upper and Lower
Egypt, Menkheperre;

Golden Horus:

satisfied in smiting the rulers

of the countries ^approaching^ him, according as his father. Re, has

decreed for

him

victory^ against every land,

his arms, in order to

mose

(III)

and might

of the

widen the boundaries of Egypt; Son

sword by

of Re,

Thut-

New

York. See introduction to London Obelisk; published


in Description, Antiquites, V, 32, 33 (incomplete); ChampoUion, Monuments, IV,
444; Burton, Excerpta hieroglyphica, ^2; Gomngey Egyptian Obelisks; Moldenke,
The New York Obelisk (New York, 189 1).
^
^Central Park,

^For

its earlier history,

see 632.

cSee his excellent account of the achievement in Egyptian Obelisks, by H.


Gorringe (New York, 1882). It contains useful descriptions of the transport of

and other

the

London,

are

dThe inscriptions
by Ramses II, as
eThis

Paris,

is all

of

Thutmose

in

London.

III occupy the middle lines;

two separate Hues, "Born

the side lines

and the words ms and Thoth, appearing together


be joined as "Thutmose," although they belong to

in one cartouche,

below, are perhaps intended to


the

obelisks.

fashioned," above.

fSee Lateran Obelisk, north side, right line (831).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

256

[637

MEDINET HABU BUILDING INSCRIPTIONS^


637.

The

small Eighteenth Dynasty temple of Medinet

Habu, on the west shore

at Thebes,

larger buildings later erected around

is

that

it

by the

so shut in
it is little

noticed

by the modern visitor. It was begun by Thutmose I. Although Hatshepsut certainly had a share in it, the dedication
inscriptions attribute its erection to Thutmose III, but refer
to an earlier temple on the spot, meaning the work of Thutmose I. They are as follows:
He made

638. ^

monument

as his

(it)

for his father,

Amon-Re,*^ king of gods, making for him a great temple upon the
district of the

Amon;"'^
life,

West

of

Thutmose III

of fine white sandstone;

(called):

" Splendid-is-the-Seat-of-

that he might therefore be given

forever.

He made

639

as his

(it)

monument

for his father,

Amon, lord of Thebes, presider over " Splendor-of-the- West," erecting


for him a splendid adytum of fine white sandstone, ('"in^) his accustomed
place of the

first

beginning.

might therefore be given


640.

majesty established

beginning to

fall to

it

it

anew, that he

forever.

erecting for

beginning, establishing
it

life

My

him

his splendid seat of the first

as an eternal work, his majesty having found

ruin; that he might be given

life like

Re, forever.

making for him " Splendor-of- the- West," to shelter its lord and these lords of the district of Thamut {T^ -mw t)
641.

See Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI,

^The following
have omitted in

all

i304-=-6.

three texts are from Lepsius, Denkmaler, III, 38,

the full fivefold titulary of

Thutmose

c,

and

d.

III.

cChiseled out and restored.

dOr:

Amon4s-Splendid-in-Throne^' (as to his throne), Ymn-dsr-ys't. It is


abbreviated as dsr-ys't, and probably also as Ymn-dsr on a set of foundation
deposit tools (Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 1298, 1299). Another name of the temple
or district

*'

is

" Splendor-of-the-West."

^Titulary and introduction are omitted.

On

this

mdler. Text, III, 156, as Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 38, d,

form see Lepsius, Denkis wrongly reconstructed.

Rouge, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 130, and Dilmichen, Historische Inschriften, II, xxxvi; titulary and introduction omitted as above.
The other two are also
from the same sources.
f

NUBIAN WARS

644]

He made

257

*'Chamber-of- the- Cemetery" for his fathers, the lords of

the splendid region

He made

" Possessed-of- Eternity " for his father Ptah-Tatenen of

**Lord-of-Life"

HELIOPOLIS BUILDING INSCRIPTIONS

A round-topped

642

relief

stela^ bears in the

showing Thutmose

Below the

Harakhte.

III,

relief is

upper two-thirds

offering

an oblation

to

the following inscription:

Year 47, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt:
Menkheperre; Son of Re: Thutmose (III), [living] forever.
His majesty commanded
of stone-work, for his father
Heliopolis, the house of

643.

muse

to encircle this

Re-Harakhte

Re

temple with a thick wail

forever,

when he cleansed

.^

doorpost"^ in Cairo bears a dedication of

Thut-

III, as follows:

He made
making

for

(it)

as his

monument for his father Atum,

him a doorway of benut (bnw't)

lord of Heliopolis,

stone, (called):

"Pure-are-

the-Ofiferings-of-Menkheperre-Beloved-of-the-Gods-of-Heliopolis."

NUBIAN WARS
The

Thutmose Ill's conquests in Nubia


are very meager although he had evidently been early active
there, as is shown by his building of the Semneh temple
( 167 ff.), yet the first mention of a Nubian campaign is
in his fiftieth year, when in passing through the canal at
the first cataract he was obliged to clear it of stones, as
644.

records of
;

recorded in his inscription, cut there at the time ( 649


*Two

others add:

^'for the father of his fathers, all the

ff.).

gods of the splendid

and "for his father, Amon-Re."


^Stela found by Lepsius at Heliopolis; limestone, 96 cm. high, now in Berlin,
No. 1634. Published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 29, h; I had also my own
photograph of the original, and the copy for the Beriin dictionary.
cOne line, and perhaps more, lacking.

region;''

<iSharpe,

Egyptian Inscriptions,

II, 34.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

2S8

[645

commemorated his victories


in Nubia by having engraved upon the front of each tower of
one of his pylons^ at Karnak a list^ of seventeen names of
towns and districts captured there. Over one list is a
645. Besides this, the king

relief,^

now

in

a very fragmentary

state, representing

king sacrificing his Nubian foes before Amon.


is

The

the

scene

accompanied by the words:


rbringingl the living prisoners to Egypt, all their herds

He

being led to Egypt.

has

filled

the storehouse of his father, the lord

of the chiefs '^whomi

of gods with

kings have not done

it

he has Tconqueredi.

His name shall abide

(before) in this land.

The
for-

ever and ever.

Over the other

was a

list

similar inscription,

now

too

fragmentary for translation.

and much fuller list was placed by the


king in duplicate, one on each of the two towers of the sixth
Karnak pylon, a list which contains no less than 115^
names of the towns and districts of the Nubian regions conquered.^ One of these lists was surmounted by a relief
showing the Nubian god Dedun leading and presenting to
Thutmose III the towns, etc., enumerated in the list. Over
646.

both the

further

lists is

the following inscription:

Nubian Troglodytes of Khenthennofer, whom his majesty overthrew, making a greats slaughter among
them, (whose) number is unknown, and carrying away all their subjects
List of these south^ countries, the

as living captives to Thebes, in order to

fill

the storehouse of his father,

^Bouriant does not indicate clearly which pylon


of the sanctuary,

is

meant, but says

it is

in front

^Daressy, Recueil, XI, 154, 155.


t'South of door.

^^Mariette's 116

^Mariette, Karnak, 22, 23;

is

an

error.

Maspero, Recueil, VII, 99, 100; Golenischeff,


and Taf. VI; Diimichen, His-

Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 1882, 145-48,

torische Inschriften, II, 37;

the

Brugsch, Thesaurus, VI, 1544-53.

'The duplicate has "south and north/" but as the two lists are duplicates, and
Nubian god Dedun presents them to the king, "north" is certainly an error.
e" Great"

is

from the duplicate.

NUBIAN WARS

649]

Amon-Re,

lord of Thebes.

according as his father,

647. Finally,

on

Lo,

all

259

lands are the subjects of his majesty,

Amon, has commanded.

his southern pylon (VII) at

Karnak, the

king recorded a table of nearly, and possibly more than,

400 names of towns, districts, countries, etc., conquered in


Nubia. ^ It was accompanied by the same inscription as
is

too

known

little

cluded in these

Thutmose

The geography

on Pylon VI.

that over the lists

to determine the limits of the territory in-

lists,

and

it is

uncertain

how

As

Ill's conquests extended.

II reached the extreme southern limit at

able that

Thutmose

thither,

they did not include Napata.

if

648.

captives

wars at

gave to the temple of


of

Amon

On

old

prob-

way

prepared the

tomb

of Ineni refers to

and

living captives,

the wretched,

all countries,

King Thutmose
is

by the king
I.

649.

it is

which

was over-

his

as yearly dues, for the sake of the

The above document


offerings placed

least

Amon, when Kush,

thrown; together with the tribute of

and health

Napata,

the negroes, given from chiefs

for divine offerings of

perity,

his

up the Nile
son Amenhotep
far

from Nubia:

spoil

among

"

Ill's

short inscription^ in the

and

Nubia

of

majesty

life,

pros-

III.^

corroborated by a record of such


in the

Karnak temple

( 541

ff.).

CANAL INSCRIPTION*^

this expedition into

Middle Kingdom canal

of

Nubia, the king found the


Sesostris

III

(I,

642

fif.)

Karnak, 24-26;

Maspero, Recueil, VII, 97-99; GoldnischefiF,


Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 1882, 145-48, and Taf. VI; Brugsch, Thesaurus,
VT, 1544-53 (where material from this list is combined with others, especially the
115 names of Pylon VI).
^Mariette,

Q-130, and p. 105.


cPiehl's copy has I^pr-k ^-R
which would be Sesostris
^Piehl, Inscriptions,

I,

129,

<^,

lipr-k ^-R

made only

I;

but tnn of

has certainly fallen out, as offerings ^'Jor the sake 0} the

life, etc.,**

Mnwere

for living kings.

on the rock of the island of Sehel, at the first cataract. It was discovered
by Mr. E. C. Wilbour in 1889, and published in Recueil, XIII, 202 f.; again,
inaccurately, in de Morgan, Catalogue des monuments, 85, No. 18.
<*Cut

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

26o

Stopped up, although

Thutmose

it

(74!?.).

III

had been cleared by

He

ordered

it

[650

his father,

and was

cleared,

He

able to sail through without trouble on his return.

up a record

of the clearance, beside that of his father

in the identical language;*

put

and

he also made the fishermen of

Elephantine responsible for the yearly clearance of the passage in the future.
650. Year 50, first (month) of the third season (ninth month), day
22, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), given

life.

His majesty commanded to dig

he had found

this canal, after

stopped up with stones, (so that) no ship sailed upon

down-stream upon

The name of

it,

it.

He

it^

sailed

his heart glad, having slain his enemies.

this canal is: '*Opening-of-This-Way-in-the-Beauty*^-of-

Menkheperre-Living-Forever."

The

fishermen of Elephantine shall

clear this canal each year.

INSCRIPTIONS OF NEHI, VICEROY OF

II.

Nehi held the

651.

Kush,

in the

office of ^^King's-son,^^

KUSH

or viceroy of

second half of the reign of Thutmose III (see

61), beginning not later than the year 23,

when he

erected

Thutmose Ill's record of victory at Wadi Haifa (411 ff.).


He was evidently in charge of the alterations in the Semneh
temple, later undertaken by Thutmose III.
A mutilated
inscription

'^

of his in this temple speaks of

in restoring the

monument

^^

bringing stone
oj eternity

^This probably indicates that we are not to understand literally the identical
statements made by his father as to his actually sailing on the canal. Thutmose III
was now an old man of eighty years at least, and it is impossible that he should
have accompanied the expedition himself.
^Lit., ''after his finding (infinitive)
cit

is,

of course, the

name by each

it.*'

same as the Middle Kingdom

canal, but

is

given a

new

king.

dQutside, south wall, Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 47, a, below, at the right of
the door; the "governor of the sotUh countries," whose name is lost on the left of
the door, belongs to the Ramsessid period, as he is adoring Ramses III.

NUBIAN WARS

653]

261

[Governor of the] south [countries],

Another record^ of his on the


the northern addition,^
652.

The

Nehi

(Nhy).'*^

latest portion of the building,

too fragmentary for translation.

is

grotto at Ellesiyeh'^ dates from the fifty-second

year^ of Thutmose III, and contains the following inscription^ of

Nehi:

Bringing^ the tribute of the south countries, consisting of gold, ivory,

and ebony,
sole

[by] the hereditary prince, count,

companion, satisfying the heart of the

wearer of the royal

seal,

Horns of the
the divine limbs; com-

liing at the

Earth,^ having access to the liing, pleasant to

panion, approaching the mighty sovereign, vigilant for the lord of the
palace, king's-son, governor of the south countries, Nehi.

He

saith:

**I

am

gold, giving tribute to

a servant useful to his lord,

house with

consisting of the impost of the south countries;

comes forth in the presence of

"whosei praise

filling his

his lord;^ the king's-son,

governor of the south countries, Nehi."^

Another

and titles,
Semneh.
III.

653.

Thutmose

Nehi, containing only his

inscription^' of

is

on the island

of Sai, one

name

hundred miles above

OFFERINGS FROM THE SOUTH COUNTRIES^


relief

III,

shows

who

Amon

enthroned, and receiving from

stands before him, a great array of offer-

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 56, a.

^See Sethe, Uniersuchungen,

I,

cLepsius, Denkmdler, III, 45,

^See Sethe, Untersuchungen,

I,

21

f.

e.

23, n. i.

^Lepsius, Denkmdler, III, 46, c = Champollion, Notices descripHves,

^The

inscription of course

I,

80.

accompanied a representation of the Nubians bring-

ing the tribute before Nehi.

8See Index.

l^Read: nh}.

^This inscription has been understood by Wiedemann as belonging to the


tomb of Nehi; for he refers {Aegyptische Geschichte, 362) to this inscription to
prove the statement that the Tomb of Nehi was at Silsileh (confusion with Ellesiyeh?).
The tomb of Nehi is unknown, as far as I have been able to find.
iLepsius, Denkmdler, III, 59,

^A

h.

with inscription in one of the rear rooms in Thutmose Ill's portion


of the Karnak temple; Champollion, Notices descriptives, II, 165 f.
relief

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

262

[654

ings, including cattle, fowl, flowers, bread, all sorts of fruit,

together with metal libation-vessels, necklaces, amulets,

The whole

pendants.

is

and

accompanied by the following

inscription
654.

Good God, Lord

of the

Two

Lands, King of Upper and

Lower Egypt, Menkheperre; he made (it) as his monument for his


father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, [making] for him divine possessions,
presenting to him all divine offerings, and very great feasts, which his
majesty made for the first time as an increase of that which was before
giving an oblation of vessels of very plentiful rfullnessi; necklaces,

amulets, and pendants of real^ electrum, brought to his majesty from

may

that he

the south countries as their yearly impost;

live forever.

HYMN OF VICTORY^
655.

At the

top,

occupying over one-fourth of the

stela,

Thutmose III,
Theban necropolis,
to Amon, with the

are two scenes of worship, in each of which

accompanied by the goddess

of

the

Khaftet-hir-nebes (hft't-hr-nbs^j offers

usual superscriptions.

The hymn
mainder

was

itself

*=

in twenty-five lines

of the stela,

is

later partly copied

the great

here

style,

the best specimen of

by

Karnak temple^

The hymn

is

its class,

re-

and

scribes of Seti I for the wall of


in

which

this tablet

was

set up.

of sufficient historical importance to be included

although due allowance must be


it is

occupying the

made

for

its

rhetorical

a very helpful supplement to the Annals.

^Text has m^, "new.^*


black granite tablet 180 cm. in height, discovered by Mariette in a chamber
northwest of the main sanctuary room of Karnak, now in Cairo. Text: Rouge,
from a copy by Deveria, Revtie archeologlque, N. S., IV, 18612, opposite p. 196; MariMariette's text is
etta, Album photographique, PI. 32; Mariette, Karnak, PI. 11.
very incorrect and must be compared with the photograph.

^A

cThe whole of both scenes was hammered out by Amenhotep IV, and has then
been restored.

Du

^^Copied by ChampoUion, Notices descriptives, II, 96, republished by Maspero,


genre epistolaire, 90, and Guieysse, Recueil, XI, 64, 65. See III, 117.

HYMN OF VICTORY

656]

263

656. ^Utterance of Amon-Re, lord of Thebes:


Thou comest to me, thou exultest, seeing my beauty,

my

son,

my

avenger, Menkheperre, living forever.

1 shine for love of thee,

My

heart

*is

glad at thy beautiful comings into

my

temple;

(My) two hands furnish thy limbs with protection and

How

pleasing

my

have established

have worked a marvel for thee;

3 thee

in

I have given to thee might

have

Thy

my

thy pleasantness toward

is

body.*

dwelling,

and

victory against all countries,

thy fame (even) the fear of thee in

set

life.

lands.

all

terror as far as the 4four pillars of heaven;

I have magnified the dread of thee in all bodies,


I have put the roaring of thy majesty

The

among

the

Nine Bows.

chiefs of all countries are gathered in thy grasp,

si myself

have stretched out

my

two hands,

bound them for thee.


have bound together the Nubian Troglodytes by

I have
I

tens of thousands

and thousands,

The Northerners by hundreds


^I

have

Thou

felled thine

of thousands as captives.

enemies beneath thy sandals,

hast smitten the

'hordes'' of rebels

according as I

commanded

thee.

The

earth in

length

its

and breadth. Westerners and Easterners are

subject^ to thee,

^Thou tramplest

None

thy heart glad;

presents himself*^ before thy majesty,

While I

Thou

all countries,

am

thy leader, so that thou mayest reach them.

hast crossed the water of the Great

r-n) with victory,

Bend^

of ^Naharin

(N-h-

with might.

^Referring to the king's adornment of the divine image as prescribed by the


ritual.

^Lit.,

"are under the place of thy

^Exactly the same phrase


59), III, 86;

it is

<iEuphrates.

is

found

explained by the

On

facej'*

for "subject."

in Seti I's Syrian

Tombos

the obelisk of

an idiom
tablet,

Thutmose

11.

campaign

(Recueil, XI,

11, 12, 73.

III in Constantinople the

same

phrase is applied to him: " who crossed the Great Bend 0} Naharin (N-h-r-n) with
might and with victory" (631). This statement is therefore not merely poetic
hyperbole, and coincides with the Annals, 477fF.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

264

[657

657. I have decreed for thee that they hear thy roarings and enter
into caves;

have deprived their

have

9l

My

nostrils of the breath of life.

set the terrors of

thy majesty in their hearts,

serpent-diadem upon thy brow,

consumes them,

it

'

makes* captive by the hair^ the Kode-folk,

It

devours those

'It

who

are in their marshes with

Cut down are the heads of the Asiatics

(^ ^

its

flame.

mw)^ there

is

not a rem-

nant of them;*^
Fallen are the children of their mighty ones.
'^I

have caused thy victories to circulate among

My

serpent -diadem gives light to thy dominion.

There

is

no rebel of thine as

all

lands,

far as the circuit of heaven;

They come, bearing tribute upon their backs,


"Bowing down to thy majesty according to my command.
I have made powerless the invaders who came before thee;
Their hearts burned, their limbs trembling.
658.

^3i

have come, causing thee to smite the princes of Zahi {D

K)

them beneath thy feet among their highlands.


have caused them to see thy majesty as lord of radiance.

I have hurled
I

So that thou hast shone in their faces


(^^4i

have come, causing thee

Thou

hast

made

'^I

image.

to smite the Asiatics,^

captive the heads of the Asiatics of Retenu.

have caused them

VJWhen thou

my

like

to see thy

takest the

majesty equipped with thy adornment,

weapons of war

in the chariot.

have come, causing thee to smite the eastern land.

Thou

hast trampled those

I have caused

When
659.

it

^^I

them

who

to see thy

are in the districts of God's-Land.

majesty

scatters its flame in fire,

and

a circling

like

gives forth

its

star,^

dew.

have come, causing thee to smite the western land,

Keftyew (Kf-tyw) and Cyprus (Ysy) are in terror.


I have caused them to see thy majesty as a young bull,

^This phrase is explained in Annals, year 31,


see Sethe, Verbum, II, 700.
^" Hair"
tablet,

11.

is

without determinative;

it

1.

10,

470, note; for ys-h^k,

occurs with determinative on

6, 7, 71, q. v.

cLit., "their

^Ymyw-st't.

remnant

is not.**

^^^mw.

*See

I,

511,

1.

2.

Tom bos

HYMN OF VICTORY

66i]

Firm

265

of heart,^ ready-horned, irresistible.

have come, causing thee to smite those who are in their marshes,
The lands of Mitanni (My-t-n) tremble under fear of thee.
^71

them

I have caused

Lord

to see thy majesty as a crocodile.

of fear in the water, unapproachable.

have come, causing thee to smite those who are in the isles;
Those who are in the midst of the Great Green (Sea) hear^ thy roar660.

^^I

ings.

have caused them

Who
^9l

upon the back

rises

majesty as an avenger {nd'

ty)

of his slain victim.

have come, causing thee to smite the Tehenu (Libyans),

The isles of the


I

to see thy

Utentyew*^ are Csubjecti) to the might of thy prowess.

have caused them to see thy majesty as a fierce-eyed

Thou makest them

lion,

corpses in their valleys.

661. =I have come, causing thee to smite the uttermost ends of the
lands.

The
I

Great Circle (Okeanos)

circuit^ of the

is

inclosed in thy grasp.

have caused them to see thy majesty as a lord of the wing,

Who

seizeth

upon

"1 have come,

much as he desires.
those who are in front^ of

that which he seeth, as

causing thee to smite

their

land.

Thou

hast smitten the Sand-dwellers as living captives.

them

I have caused

Lord

to see thy

majesty as a southern jackal,

of running, stealthy-going,

who

roves the

Two

Lands.

*^I

have come, causing thee to smite the Nubian Troglodytes,

As

far as

"

1^

(tbey) are in thy grasp.

*See a bead of Amenhotep II, bearing a bull, with the words:


(Petrie, Historical Scarabs, XVIII, No. 11 19); not uncommon.
^Lit.,

"Firm

0} heart"

"are under thy roarings"

^Wtntyw; unknown.
^Lit.,

" That which the Great Circle encircles."

^A designation
^This

is

of the

hawk.

in contrast with the "hack-lands" of

1.

20;

Maspero's rendering,

a conjecture which ignores the word "land"


The text thus conMnritten here with a single stroke, very easily to be overlooked.
Chabas {Etudes sur
trasts the nearest and the remotest Asiatic enemies of Egypt.
Vantiquite historique, 183) emends to read the same as the word for river- and

"duars"=

protected inclosures,

harbor-mouths {h

e^

='/,

name

wt) under

of

is

Ramses

III.

an uncertain Nubian country.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

266

I have caused

them

to see thy

[662

majesty as thy two brothers,^

two arms for thee in '^v[ictoryi]


662. *3Thy two sisters,^ I have set them as protection behind
The arms of my majesty are above, warding off evil.
I

have united

their

I have caused thee to reign,

my

thee,

beloved son,

Horus, Mighty Bull, Shining in Thebes,

whom

I have begotten, in

[uprightness of heart] *=.

me

^'Thutmose, living forever, who hast done for

my ka

that

all

desired

Thou

my

hast erected

dwelling as an everlasting work,

Enlarging and extending

The

great

(it)

doorway

more than the past which had been.


.

*sThou hast feted the beauty

of

Amon-Re,

Thy monuments are greater than (those of) any king who has
When I commanded thee to do it, I was satisfied therewith;
upon the Horus-throne

I established thee

Thou

shalt continue life

been.

of millions of years;

TOMB OF REKHMIREd
663.

This tomb

of the Empire.

is

the most important private

The

monument

scenes and inscriptions on

its

walls

and narrate the career of Rekhmire, who was prime


minister, or vizier, of Egypt and governor of the residence

depict

aHonis and

dA

Set.

^Isis

and Nephthys.

^See

138,

1.

i.

Shekh Abd el-Kurna, on the west shore at Thebes;


it attracted attention as early as 1819, when some scenes were copied by Cailliaud,
and later published in " Recherche s sur les arts et metiers, les usages de la vie civile
et domestique des anciens peuples de I'Egypte, de la Nubie et de I'Ethiopie," par F.
Cailliaud (Paris, 1831-37). Later various scenes were published by Wilkinson,
Manners, I, PI. IV, etc.; Champollion, Monuments, 161, 164 F.; Rosellini, Monucliff-tomb in the hill of

menti Civili, 52-54; Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia (London, 1835), 328; Lepsius,
Denkmaler, III, 40, 41, and Text, III, 270 f.; Prisse, Histoire de Vart igyptien,
1863 (plates not numbered); Piehl, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 113, 114, pp.
The first attempt to pubhsh the entire tomb was made by M. Ph. Virey.
92, 93.
It was published by him in 1889 {Memoir es de la mission jrangaise au Caire,
V, "Le Tombeau de Rekhmara"), but his work is so incomplete and incorrect, both
in the drawings and the texts, that it is unusable; indeed, Virey himself translated from

the great inscription

on the duties of the

monument steadily deteriorated during the


being made to preserve it in its entirety, until

priceless
effort

it

vizier

backward

last century,
it

was

Thus

this

without a serious
rescued by Mr.

finally

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

J 665]

267

during the latter half of the reign of Thutmose III, the

He came

period of Egypt's greatest power.


family, having succeeded his uncle

and as

his career

of eminent

in the vizierate, ^

Woser

brought him the highest post in the state

during the most stirring years of Thutmose Ill's great conquests, he has put

the fullest

known

much

of

it

in his

We

tomb.

find in

it

source for the study of the constitution of

and the administration of the Pharaoh's government under the Empire, beside the best known representations in color of the peoples and products of Punt, Kef t yew,
Retenu, and Nubia.
664. Incidentally, Rekhmire also throws light upon the
character of Thutmose III. After modestly remarking
of himself that ^^ there was nothing of which he was ignorant
in heaven, in earth, {or) in any quarter oj the nether worldf^^
and again: "/ was a noble, second to the king;^^ he says of
the king: ^^Lo, his majesty knew that which occurred; there
he was Thoth in
was nothing which he did not know
^^
enjery thing, there was no ajjair which he did not complete,
the state

I.

665.

The

APPOINTMENT OF REKHMIRE AS VIZIER^


following

inscription

appointment to the highest

office

narrates
in the

Rekhmire's

kingdom.

The

Newberry, who published the first instalment of his complete copies in 1900 {The
From this careful work,
Life of Rekhmara, by Percy E. Newberry, London, 1900).
for which we are much indebted, the following translations have been made; the
plate numbers referred to are always those of Newberry's work.
*For a full account of his life, see Newberry, 13-20.

^He

is,

of course, referring to the affairs of his ofl&ce,

taken from a long

and

to political matters.

inscription, too fragmentary for full trans-

These extracts are all


lation (Pis. VII and VIII).
cPls. IX and X.
I had also the fragmentary copies of the same text in the
tombs of Woser and Amenhotep (Newberry, 34), for which I am indebted to the
kindness of Mr. Alan H. Gardiner. They fill up some lacunae and furnish some
corrections, cited as "Dupl.," but I have not added this remark merely to indicate
[Later: Mr. Gardiner has now published the text
the filling up of a lacuna.
and duplicates, with an excellent rendering and commentary (Recueil, XXVI),
from which I have incorporated a number of valuable points in the above.]

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

268

[666

shows Thutmose III enthroned, before whom, in


accordance with the statement of the inscription, Rekhmire
relief

The king then

appears for appointment. ^


tions regarding the

gives

administration of his

him

instruc-

Unfor-

office.

which occupy twenty long lines,


are very fragmentary, and at the same time extremely

tunately, these instructions,

The following version omits a number of passages


which may not be safely rendered, and even so translates
much more than can be understood, without a longer comobscure.

mentary than

it

that the vizier

impartial

but

(1.

to

still

possible to offer here.

is

is

exhorted: to legal

the

8), just

(1.

be seen

(1.8),

and

15) decisions; not to be excessively forbidding,

keep himself aloof from the people

finally, that his office is really to

to

It will

instructions

given

18, 19);

be administered according

22).

(1.

(11.

The

instructions

are

remarkably humane in temper and show a surprisingly high

As they present

appreciation of justice.
of Egyptian government,

is

it

they are so fragmentary and

the fundamentals

greatly to be regretted that

These were appar-

difficult.

ently the conventional instructions customarily delivered at

the appointment of every vizier, for they were delivered


to

Woser, the uncle of Rekhmire, at his appointment, and

also to

Hapu,

vizier

under Thutmose IV. ^

666. ^Regulation laid upon the


were brought to the audience-hall,
vizier,

Rekhmire,

'^

be presented

["Tiis

ffor"!]

4His majesty spake before him:


hall of the vizier;
it is

vizier,

Rekhmire.

majesty^]

commanded

appointment for the

fTake

sbe watchful over all that

bitter'^ is

he,

when he

*His figure has been intentionally erased.

^Newberry, Rekhmara,

cName

p, 34.

intentionally erased

^See Gardiner.

from the wall.

officials

that ^the
first

time.

heed""] to thyself for the


is

done therein.

a supporf^ of the whole land; behold, as for the

not sweet, behold,

*The

addresses

vizier,

Behold,

behold, he

is

copper

is

'^of

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

669]

he, a wall of gold for the house of his


his face

toward the

Behold, he

is

not one setting

and councilors, neither one making

officials

Behold,

of all the people.

269

7a

he [does] good for him; behold

man is in the

dwelling of his lord,

does not

[he]

[brethren]

for another.

667. Behold, the petitioner of the South, [the North] and the whole
land, shall come, supplied
thyself,^ to

do everything

do everything according

he

may

and wind

not

he

of the responsible ofiicer, [^utVi

senger^ as the one stating


as the speaker; he

is

it;^

reported ^water

unknown

not one

"or an

known

it is

is

lifting

an

^by the speech of his mes-

by the side of the responsible officer


up the voice, a messenger petitioning

Then one

official.

the safety^ of

lo, it is

not brought in because of the speech

is

he

for

that

of all his doings, behold, his deeds shall not be

deeds;

Do

when he has

official,

it

in accordance with law;

is

to the right thereof.

Behold, as for an

just.

which

after that

to

be

8;^ayest thou see to

shall not

be ignorant of his

do things according

official to

to the

^
by doing that which is spoken by the petitioner
668. ^slt is an abomination of the god to show partiality. This is
the teaching: thou shalt do the like, shalt regard him who is known

regulation,

him who
him who is far

to thee like
like

is

unknown

'^an official

he flourish greatly in the place.


thy head

when he

to thee,

speaks.

As

Thou

for

him who draws

him when thou

the head

near to

then shall

hast

who

near,

which he

let

saith in

him hear

fhat

man

unjustly, but be thou enraged

show

forth the

fear of thee; let one be afraid of thee, (for) a prince is a prince of

if

Lo; the true dread of a prince

afraid.

man show

forth the fear of

a^An ethical dative

m^k

is to

him a myriad

do

^^justice.

of times, there

which might be omitted in the

translation.

whom

Behold,
is

some-

Dupl. has

nk.

bOr: " Tell


<iln
is

on

Lo, they will say, the petitioner

concerning that about which one should be enraged;

is

will

669. ^^Be not enraged toward a

one

a petitioner, nor nod

^^the things

shalt punish

him who nods

i^avoid^

is

like this,

not

account of which thou punishest him.


loves

who does

Do

approach to thee, do not


speaking.

and him who

1.

it

13 there

not, {for)
is

he

is, etc'*

a reference to an unjust

^Lit.,

vizier

"refuge."

Khety, but in what connection

uncertain.

^For a similar antithesis of tkn, "be near," and w^y, "be far," see Hierat.
Papyrus aus den koniglichen Museen zu Berlin, II, 36, 1. 8.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

270

Be not known
a man."^

thing of violence in him.

''He

not say:

(only)

is

670. *He who speaks a


Lo,

thou shalt do thy

desire to

do

Now,

as thou doest justice.

office,

justice

the people, he

scribe of justice," shall one say of him.

fHe who

dispenses^

man

Behold, a

the vizier.

is

there shall be a

^^justice before all

shall be in his office, (as

long as) he shall do things according to that which

Lo, a

man

is

Do

told him.

Lo,

thereof.

fearful
is

"

when he

not

let

one

thy

is

shall act according to that

^^that thou

in

Do

which has been

knowest the law

thou according to ^that which

*4

lo,

given to him.

the king loves the

to the proud-hearted i'^

more than the proud-hearted.

given! to thee;

Lo, one shall

Lo, one shall say of the

as for the hall, wherein thou boldest hearings

broad-hall therein

shall

shall go forth according to his docket,^

lie

"A

and they

to the people;

*'

chief scribe of the vizier:

[670

DUTIES OF THE VIZIER^

n.

most important inscription known on the


organization of the state under the Eighteenth Dynasty, is
671. This, the

unfortunately

Newberry

fill

Two

incomplete.

out

many of

duplicates^

found

by

the lacunae, but the last fifth of the

text is very fragmentary.

This

especially unfortunate,

is

by

most

intelli-

and deals with functions easily understood.


672. The inscription is an outline of the duties

of the

as the latter part of the inscription

is

far the

gible

vizier, of the greatest interest.

arrangements for the


his office

is

After prescribing the external

vizier's daily sitting in his ^*/^a//," as

termed, the document proceeds to the daily

conference of the vizier with the king, and, immediately


^This

is

the

same advice given by Amenemhet

I to his

son Sesostris

I (I, 479,

11.3-5).

^See Duties of Vizier,


cLit.,

683,

"mighiy-hearted."

1.

14.

dPls. II

From the tomb of Woser, belonging to


and the tomb of Amenemopet, belonging

reign;

berry, 25

f.).

and HI.

Thutmose

Ill's

II's reign (see

New-

the early part of


to

Amenhotep

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

672]

subsequent to

and the

this,

271

the daily reports of the chief treasurer

each other, and of the chief

vizier to

officials to

the

These daily duties are now followed by a long list


of exceedingly varied functions to be discharged by the
There seems to be
vizier, making in all at least thirty.
no logical order in the enumeration, and the varied character
of the list will be evident from a reading of the marginal
heads, which may serve in lieu of a table of content here.
vizier.

It will

be seen that the vizier

and that

He

all

grand steward of

is

all

Egypt,

the activities of the state are under his control.

has general oversight of the treasury, and the chief

treasurer reports to him; he

he

judiciary;

is

is

chief justice, or

head of the

chief of police, both for the residence city

and the kingdom; he is minister of war, both for army


and navy; he is secretary of the interior and of agriculture,
while
that
is,

all

may

general executive functions of state, with

not be classified, are incumbent upon him.

no prime function

indeed,

operate through his


it

must be

this office

to

whom

The

offer

is

in

mind

only person other than the king

he owes any respect

he seems to

which does not


a veritable Joseph, and

which the Hebrew writer has

in the story of Joseph.

There

of the state

He

office.

many

is

the chief treasurer, to

a daily statement that

all is

whom

well with the

Such power is, of course, possible only


in a highly centralized state, and Egypt is shown by this
inscription to be in the Empire simply a vast estate of the
Pharaoh, of which the vizier is chief steward. The vizier's

royal possessions.

functions

distributed

are

promiscuously

throughout

the

document, as follows
I.

II.

III.

Judiciary (675, 681, 685-6, 688-91, 700, 704, 705).

Treasury (676, 680, 706, 708).

War {^^y^

'93-95' 702).

iNavy (710,

687).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

272

IV.

[673

Interior (677, 687, 697, 707).

Agriculture (698, 699).

V.

General Executive (692, 701, 703).


VII. Advisory and Unclassified (678, 679, 682, 684,
696,709,711).
VI.

673. It

impossible to discuss this inscription v^ithout

is

raising the question of


fact that

it is

known

its

and exact character. The


two other tombs also, would

origin

to exist in

was not an informal enumeration of the


vizier's duties drawn up by himself especially for his tomb,
but a close examination of the document itself shows that
it could not possibly have been a state document to the
decrees of which the vizier was amenable. It was evidently
no more than we have suggested, viz., a list of the vizier's
It
duties, compiled by himself, for recording in his tomb.
must, of course, have been based upon the existent laws,
from which it may, in places, contain extracts. In any
suggest that

case,

it

contains the purport of certain of the laws in force

at the time,

docket,

it

some

are

of which, like those regulating the criminal

very interesting and

important.

The

only

other surviving example of the laws of Egypt are in the

Decree of Harmhab
undoubtedly

rolls

^'^

45 ff.), for of the "^o skins


containing ^^this law which is in his hand^^
(III,

mentioned by our inscription, nothing has ever been found.


Such law was, of course, the codified fiat of the Pharaoh,
as

is

evident in the Decree of

The language
and demonstrates how
674.

of

of

the

Harmhab.
document

is

very

helpless our incomplete

difficult,

knowledge

the Egpytian dictionary leaves us as soon as

we

pass

from the conventional language of the few classes of monuments familiar to us, to some untrodden path. Especially
the legal enactments of the

abound

in technical terms,

first

half of the inscription

most of which are

totally

unknown

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

676]

to

These render a

US.

many

273

translation

final

impossible,

in

places.
External Arrangement 0} the Sitting

675. 'Arrangement of the sitting* of the governor of the (residence)


city, and vizier of the Southern City, (and) of the court, in the hall of the

As

vizier.

for every act^ of this official, the vizier while hearing in the

he

hall of the vizier,

shall sit

upon a

chair, *^ with

a rug upon the

floor,

and a dais upon it, a cushion^ under his back, a cushion under his feet,
upon it, *and a baton at his hand; the 40 skins shall be open before
a
him. Then the magnates of the South^ (shall stand) in the two aisles
before him, while the master of the privy chamber is on his right, the
"receiver of income^ on his left, the scribes of the vizier at his (either)

hand; one^ rcorrespondingi


place.

One

to another, with

is

none being heard

messenger of the

at his proper

be heard after another, without allowing one

shall

behind to be heard before ^one

"There

man

each

at

who

my

who

is

one in front says:


hand," then he shall be taken by the
is

in front.

If

vizier.^

Intercourse 0} Palace with Outside

World

676. There shall be reported to him the seaHng of the sealed chambers
shall

up

to (that)

hour and the opening of them up

be reported to him the

^This is not the


paragraph.
^Lit.,

title

"every doing"

There
of the South and

to (that) hour.

affairs of the fortresses

of the entire document, but refers only to the opening

(inf.!).

cEvidently a particular kind of chair called phdw, a word not occurring elsewhere.

dErman; original has W, "a


common on Egyptian furniture.
This word (hm) is new; it
are depicted in the accompanying

skin" evidently meaning a leathern cushion so


"Back" is, of course, a euphemism.
has the determinative of leather.

The 40

hm

scene lying on the floor before the vizier (712).


Erman suggests they may have been the leather cases in which the rolls of the
papyrus were preserved; but such state documents were written on leather, e. g.,
the records of
f

Only

the

Thutmose

III ( 433)-

magnates of the South, as the

vizier

with

whom we

are dealing

is

the southern vizier.

e"One"

refers to the entire

company

before him; each shall occupy his proper

place with reference to the other.

l^Meaning that as soon as a petitioner in front sees no one before him {"cU
his hand"), he may say so, and be taken to the vizier by his messenger.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

274

The going

North.

out of

all

[677

that goes out ^of the king's-house shall

be reported to him; and the coming in of


house shall be reported to him.*

all

that

comes

into the king's-

Now, as for everything going

in (and)

eveiything going out on the floor of the court, they shall go out (and)

they shall go in through his messenger,

who

shall cause (them) to

go in

(and) go out.
Reports of Overseers

The
to him

677.
report

overseers of hundreds

and the overseers

of

to

shall

Pharaoh

678. ^Furthermore, he shall go in to take counsel on the


the king, L. P. H.,
in his

and there

shall

house every day.

be reported to him the

He

shall

affairs of

affairs of the

go in to Pharaoh, before

the chief treasurer; he^ shall wait at the northern flagstaff.


vizier shall

^^^

their affairs.

Daily Report

Two Lands

Then

the

come, proceeding from the gate of the great double facade.


Report of Treasurer and Vizier

Then

to

Each Other

meet him (the


vizier) and shall report to him, saying: "All thy affairs are sound and
prosperous; every responsible incumbent has reported to me, saying:
All thy affairs are sound and prosperous, the king's-house is sound and
679.

^the chief treasurer, he shall

come

to

prosperous*"
saying:

court

is

Then

the vizier, he shall report to the chief treasurer,

^"All thy affairs are sound and prosperous; every seat of the

sound and prosperous.^

There have been reported

to

me

*The '' king' s-house" is a whole, of which the "court" is but one part, in which
Entrance to the "king's-house" was only reported to the vizier,
king
lived.
the
while entrance to the " court" could be gained only under conduct of his "messenger."
^Mr-lprp.

cThe

chief treasvirer;

facades, with flagstaves,

iOn a fragment in

the front of the palace

was decorated,

like the

temple

and near one of these the treasurer is to wait.


the Louvre (without a number) is a relief showing a

line

of twelve priests: three of the "first order" three of the "second order" three of the
Over their heads are fragments of
"third order," and three of the "fourth order."

two

lines, as follows:

''

in the temple of

Amon, in Most-Splendid-of-Splen'

(name of Der el-Bahri temple), hy the High Priest of Amon in 'Most-Splendidof-Splendors,' Senu (Snw)y triumphant
of Amon and of Hathor, Mistress
They praise thee, they love thee, for all thy affairs are sound and prosof Thebes.
perous in this temple." The High Priest of Hatshepsut's temple of Der el-Bahri
is thus eulogized in the formal terms for a faithful officer's report.
See the same
words in the report of the lay priests at Illahun, Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache,
dors'

37 97-

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

682]

275

the sealing of the sealed chambers to this hour (and) the opening of

them

by every responsible incumbent."*

to (this) hour,

Daily Opening of the King*s-House


680. Now, after each has reported to the other, of the two

officials,

then the vizier shall send ^to open every gate of the king's-house, to
cause to go in
wise,

by

all

that goes in, (and) fto go out^]^ all that goes out like-

his messenger,

who

shall cause

among

Irregularities

681. Let not any


If there

in his hall.

It is the vizier

Let not any

who

official

reported ftoT]

be put in writing.

to

the Princes

be empowered to judge ^against a superior^

official

be any assailant^ against ^any of these

he shall cause that

his hall, then

it

shall

he'^

be brought

officials in

to the judgment-hall.

punish him, in order to expiate his

have power to punish in his

him every judgment which

is

fault.

There shall be
against the hall, Twhen he
hall.

repairs thereto.

Duties and Treat^nent of the Vizier^s Messengers

682 As for every messenger ^whom the vizier sends with a message
for an official, from the first official to the last, let him not be Tswervedi,
and let him not be conducted; the official shall repeat his vizierial message
while he stands before ^Hhe official, repeating his message and going
His messenger shall seize the mayors and village
forth to wait for him.
.

sheiks for the judgment-hall; his messenger shall give the fregulationT]
his

messenger gives answer, saying:

a message for the

official so

and

so;

**I

have been sent "with

he caused that I be conducted, and

be seen that the vizier reports on the

court" while the treasurer


Now, the vizier possesses the reports concerning
reports on the " king' s-house."
the '^king's-house" (mentioned in 11. 3 and 4), by which he is enabled to control
Similarly, if we possessed a list
the report of the treasurer on the "king's-house."
find
that he received daily reports
doubtless
of the treasurer's duties, we should
on the matters of the "court" by means of which he was enabled to control the
vizier's report on the "court," which the vizier conducted directly by means of his
*It will

^'

messenger.

^The publication shows no lacuna, but

the sense

demands

cSk.

^The confusion

of pronouns

*The messenger.

is

also in the original.

the inserted phrase.


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

276

he caused that something be entrusted

to

Hear

me.*

[683

""the affair'

of this

expiate those things, about which there has been

official

by the vizier in
ment than by cutting

gation

^^his hall, in every "^crime^,


off

liti-

with greater^ punish-

a limb.
Criminals

683. Now, as for every act of the

and as

for every

vizier,

one who shall

while hearing in his hall;

fhe

He who

thing concerning which he hears him.

the charge*^ at ^^his hearing, which takes place

He who

entered in the criminal docket.

is

shall record""] every-

has not disproved

\ then

it

be

shall

in the great prison,^ not

able to disprove the charge of his messenger, likewise;

when

their

case comes on another time, then one shall report and determine whether
it is

in the criminal docket, '^and there shall be '"executed'' the things

concerning which entry was made, in order to expiate their offense.

Loan

of Vizier's

Records

684. As for any writing sent fby the vizier^ to] any hall, being those
which are not confidential,^ it shall be taken to him^ together with the

documents of the keepers "^thereof under seal of the (sdm'w-)


and the scribes thereof after them; then he shall open it; then
has seen
(But)

if

it, it

officers,

after

he

shall return to its place, sealed with the seal of the vizier.

he furthermore ask for

^"^a,

confidential writing, then let

it

not

be taken by the keepers thereof.

Summons

of Petitioner

685. Now,^ as for every messenger whom the vizier sends on account
of

any

petitioner,

he shall cause that he go to him.

"ptd upon my neck." This message evidently furnishes the formula


to be used by the messenger in reporting the replies of the officials to whom he
has been sent.
Lit.,

^Erman;
cLit.,

lit.,

"with an increase upon punishment

"warded

^On our
^Of the

off

the evil."

scanty knowledge of the prisons, see Spiegelberg, Studien, 64

ff.

vizier.

f Lit.,

"wrapped up."

sThe

official

^On

this

37 38.

by, etc."

desiring to consult the document.

and

the following paragraph, see Gardiner, Inscription of Mes,

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

690]

277

Real Estate Cases

686. Now, as for every petitioner to the vizier concerning lands, he


shall dispatch him (the messenger) to him, in addition to a hearing of

^Hhe land-overseer and the local council* of the '"district.'"^ He shall


decree a stay for him of two months for his lands in the South or North.

As

which are near

for his lands, however,

the court, he shall decree a stay for

which

him

according to law; (for) he shall

is

ing to this law which

is

Southern City and to

to the

of three days, being ^^that

hear every petitioner accord-

*^

in his hand.

Reports of District Officials

687.

who

It is

he who brings in the

sends them out; they report

[to]

officials of

him

the district;

it

is

he

the affairs of their districts.

Wills, Etc.

688. Every property-list^

is

brought to him;

it is

he

who

seals

it.

Settlement of Registered Boundaries

689.
for every
shall

who administers the 'gift^-lands^


petitioner who shall say: "Our boundary

*It is

he

examine whether

it is

under the

in all regions.
is

unsettled;" one

seal of the official thereof;

he shall seize the seizures^ of the local council

who

As

unsettled

then

it.

Treatment oj Unregistered Boundaries

690. Now, as for every remarkable case,^ and everything pertaining


thereto;

do not look

^P^d^'t.

**at

Whether

anything therein.

this is

under the charge of "messenger "

a hearing before the vizier or a local hearing


is not clear.

cThe verbal form {sdmtf) seems


dSuch a property-list

is

to

be incorrect.

frequently a

will.

A will, with

the registration docket

preserved to us; it reads: "(Date); Done in the


office (lit., hallyof the vizier in the presence of the governor of the city and vizier Khety,
by the seal-scribe of the people' s-bureau, Amenemhet-Ameny.*' A remark, probably
indicating the payment of the tax on the transfer, follows (Griffith, Kahun Papyri^
of the vizier's office

PI.

XIII,

11.

9-12).

upon

it, is

The document

is

from the Middle Kingdom.

be the divisible lands held by


tenantry as distinguished from indivisible tracts held by nobles {Zeitschrift fUr

These lands

(irj)

are thought

agyptische Sprache, 39, 36).

^Meaning?
sUnregistered land ?

Erman.

by Moret

to

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

278

Manner

One

691.

shall

after

he puts

(it)

of Petition

put every petition^ in writing, not permitting that he

Every petitioner

petition orally.^

to the king shall

L. P. H.,

who

he

It is

who

is

be reported to him,*^

in writing.

Intercourse between Court

692.

[691

and Local Authorities

dispatches every messenger of the king's-house,

sent to the

mayors and

village sheiks.

It is

he

who

dispatches ^^every circuit messenger, every expedition of the king's-

house.

he

It is

who

acts as the one

who

[in]

the South

and North,

and Abydos {T^ -wr). They shall report


to him all that happens among them, on the first day of every fourmonth season; they shall bring to him the writing thereof, in their hands,
the Southern Frontier {tp rsy)

together with their local council.

Mustering King's Escort


693.

*3it is

he who gathers the troops, moving in attendance upon

the king, in journeying northward or southward.

Garrison of Residence City

694.

It is

he

who

stations the rest

who remain

in the Southern City,

(and) in the court, according to the decision in the king's-house, L. P. H.

Army

General

Orders

695. The commandant of the ruler's table^ is brought to him, to


his hall, together with ^^the council of the army, in order to give to them
the regulation of the army.

Advisory Functions

696. Let every


vizier, to

office,

from

first

to last, proceed^ to the hall of the

take counsel with him.


Felling Timber

697.

It is

he

who

dispatches to cut

down

trees according to the

decision in the king's-house.

^Lit., "petitioner,'* strange as it

seems; hence "he'* in the next clause.

cphe

^Egyptian: "by hearing."

^A
table.

vizier.

commandant who delivered game and supplies for


Middle Kingdom the nomarchs also had such officers.

district

In the

Lit.,

"every

first office to

every last

the prince's

ojfice."

^Only the determination of a verb of motion occupies the place where the verb
should be.

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

705]

279

Water-Supply
698.

he who dispatches ^^the

It is

official stafif, to

attend to the

water-supply* in the whole land.

Annual Plowing
699.

he who dispatches the mayors and

It is

village sheiks to

plow

for harvest time.

Overseers of Labor?

700.

he who fappoints^ the overseers of hundreds in the hall of

It is

the king's-house.

Town

Audience for
701.
sheiks

Authorities

he who rarrangesi the hearing of the mayors and

It is

who go

forth in his

village

name, of South and North.

Administration of Fortresses

702. *^Every matter

is

reported to him; there are reported to

and every

the affairs of the southern fortress ;

Nome
703.
it.

It is

he who makes the

"

"

of every

is

for seizing

it is

and

he who "hears "


scribes to carry

^'The records of the nome are

he who hears concerning

It is

nome;

rdistricti soldiers

out the ''administration'' of the king.


his hall.

which

Administration, Boundaries, Etc.

he who dispatches the

It is

arrest

him

the boundary of every nome, the field

all lands.
^

1,

all

It is

he

in

who makes

divine offerings^

and

every contract.

Record of Depositions, Etc.

704.

he who takes every deposition;

It is

rejoinder

when a man comes


Appointment

705.

It is

when any

for

argument with

comes

is

he who hears the

his opponent.^

of Courts for Special Cases, Etc.

he who appoints every appointee

litigant

it

to

him from

^^to the hall of

the king's-house.*^

judgment,

It is

he

who

hears every edict.

aSee

I,

407,

1.

^Temple income.

6.

"comes to words with his second:' This evidently refers to argument


See Gardiner, Inscription of Mes,
of plaintiff and defendant before the vizier.
cLit.,

36, 37-

dHe appoints members


king's household

is

of special

concerned.

comts

for cases

where a member of the

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

28o

[706

Sacred and Royal Revenues in Residence City and Court

706.

he

It is

divine offering.
gives

it

to

him

the court.

It is

"

hears concerning the "Great Beauty" of every

he*

who

every

it is

crown possessions.

in the Southern City, (and) in

under his

he who hears

It is

seal.

he who makes the distribution of the tribute to the

The

that

every

^^it

him

great council shall report to

[all]

Qist^ is

It is

he who

sichief steward, together

lands^

with the great council (d^d^t wrt).

which a

dues

he who

It is

it.

opens the gold-house, together with the chief treasurer.


inspects the tribute of

their

brought to 3othe judgment-hall, and every

is

offering to the judgment-hall, he shall hear concerning

all bulls, ""ofi

who

income, and

levies all taxes of the

he who seals

It is

every matter;

who

It is

he who makes the Qists

of'

made.

Canal Inspection (?) in Residence City


707.

It is

he who inspects the rwater-supplyi (swrty on the

every ten-day period

"

3 2 concerning

first

of

every matter of the

judgment-hall.

Revenues from Local Authorities


708. The mayors, village sheiks, and every

Every

all their tribute.

district supervisor,

man

and every

hundreds, they shall report to him every litigation

him furthermore, monthly, in order


The treasurers and the (kf^ yh-) officials shall
shall report to

ObservcUion of Sirius and

709.
shall

the rising of Sirius,

shall report to

"

"

him.

It is
.

of the Nile.

the king

*Read: ntf.
^This function of the
of wall scenes in this
<=See

is

with the army,

( 760

requisition

34

made upon

of the king's-house to

it is

he

who makes

vizier is depicted with great detail in

tomb

There

Navy

he

When

33they

"

who exacts the ships for every


he who dispatches every messenger

It is

of]

to control the tribute.

be reported to him the high (Nile)^

710.

[""overseer

High Nile

and the

Administration of

him,

report

a splendid

series

ff.).

Florence Stela, No. 1774.

tomb of Min {Memoires de la mission }rancontext is unfortunately broken.


The following is

^Similar duties are referred to in the

gaise

au Caire, V,

visible:

"
0} the

368), but the

concerning the affairs of the king's-house, condticting the work

high Nile"

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

714]

3sReport

is

made

to

him by

all

the navy, from the highest to the lowest.

of the keeper of

"

who

is

281

the officials of the head of

It is

he*

who

seals the edicts

dispatched with a message of

the king's-house.

Method

of Reporting to Vizier

711. Every report shall be reported to him by ^^the doorkeeper of


the judgment-hall,

who

reports ^on his part^ all that he (the vizier) does

while hearing in the hall of the vizier.

THE SITTING OF THE VIZIER^

ni.

Scene

712.

The
him

before

vizier sits

Magnates of the South^^ and the ^'scribes


two rows on each side of the central aisle;

are the

of the vizjer,^^ in

enthroned at one end of the hall;

^^

in this aisle, directly in front of the vizier, are the forty rolls

of the law
petitioners

(see

down

675,

1.

the aisle,

2).

Two

deputies are leading

and outside are other deputies

or door-keepers receiving the petitioners as they arrive.


Inscription
Sitting, in order to

713.

by the hereditary

(mr t-ntr-)

hear the petitioners, in the hall of the

vizier;

prince, count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion,

priest, chief of the six courts of justice,

faction in the whole land;

a mouth giving

satis-

(sm-) priest, ^master of every wardrobe"",

judging justly, not showing partiality, sending two

men

forth satisfied,

judging the weak and the powerful, not 'T^ringing sorrow^ to the one
petitioned him;

satisfying the heart of the king before the

Two

who

Lands,

prince before the people, companion approaching the sovereign, favorite


of

him who

is

in the palace.

IV.

The

RECEPTION OF PETITIONS^

has unfortunately almost


entirely disappeared
it portrayed the reception of petitions,
from the people, regulated in the "Duties of the Vizier '^
714.

following

scene

(685 and 691).


*Text has /; I emend to

ntf.

^Pl. IV.
See the description of the sitting in the first three lines of the preceding inscription (675).
cPl.

XV.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

282

[715

Scene

Rekhmire stands leaning upon his staff, while scribes


pass out among the people, where they receive and register
complaints and petitions. Over Rekhmire is the following:
Inscription

715. Going forth over the land every morning to do the daily favors,
to hear the matters of the people, the petitions of the South and the
North; not preferring the great above the humble, rewarding the
oppressed

"

^,

bringing the evil to

him who committed it by


;

[Rekhmire].

INSPECTION OP TAXES OF UPPER EGYPT

V.

These important scenes,* representing the only taxlists we possess, show the local officials of Upper Egypt
paying their dues {yp 'w) to the vizier. Just what part of
the total revenues of Upper Egypt these dues formed,
but that they were only a part is
it is impossible to state;
For the inscription clearly indicates that they are
certain.
only the dues exacted from the local officials (as a tax upon
their offices), and not the taxes paid by the people, for
which we find a different designation (bk'w), from that
employed here. This tax {yp w) upon the officials is the
one remitted by Harmhab (III, 63). It was collected by
the vizier, while the tax (hk'w) upon the people was, of
It is noticeable
course, collected by the chief treasurer.
716.

'

that the vizier has charge of these revenues (yp'w) only


in

Upper Egypt, showing

clearly the extent of his fiscal

There was, of course, another


Egypt from below Assiut to the sea.^

jurisdiction.

Owing
it is

vizier for

Lower

a large portion of the lower rows,


impossible to summarize and determine the total income

to the loss of

and VI. They are published for the first time by Newberry, having
been passed over by all previous students of the tomb. We are therefore much
indebted to him for their rescue.
^A rehef at Berlin, for example, shows the two viziers (No. 12411); see additional references, Newberry, 17, n. 3, and a full statement, Gardiner, Inscription
It is probable that the office was not divided before the Empire, and
of Mes, 33.
probably not before Thutmose III.
*Pls.

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

7i8]

283

crown from this source in Upper Egypt. Gold,


silver, cattle, and linen form the most valuable items; of
the others many are uncertain, and have therefore only

of the

been transliterated. The list begins with the fortresses of


Bigeh and Elephantine at the first cataract, and extends
Some of the place-names are unas far north as Assiut.
known, and have been merely transliterated below. The
the first from the cataract
list is divided into two parts:
to Thebes, and the second from Thebes to Assiut; that is,
the first above, the second below Thebes.
ABOVE THEBES

A.

Scene

Rekhmire, at the right, receives the local officials,


who advance in four lines, bringing their dues.* Over
their heads are inscribed their titles, the names of the towns or
localities to which they belong, and the amounts of their dues.
717.

Over Rekhmire
Inspection of the taxes {yp' w) counted to^ (the credit of) the hall of
the vizier of the Southern City, and counted against the mayors, the
town-rulers, the district officials, the recorders of the districts, their
scribes,

and

their field-scribes,

who

are in the South {Tp-r^y)

with Elephantine and the fortress of Bigeh


of ancient time,

by the hereditary prince

Commandant
tress of

*There are

of the for-

Bigeh

{Sn-mw t)

beginning

made according to the writings


^

[Rekhmire].

Tax

Official and Place

718.

20 deben of gold
5 good hides
apes; 10 bows
20 large staves of ^cedar^

wood

preserved; of five of these the inscriptions


with names and dues are lost. Besides this, at least three more, with their inscriptions, have been lost in the lower row; that is, nearly one-fourth of the officials
with their dues are lost. How many names of locaHties are lost is uncertain.
thirty -one officials

still

prepositions "^o" or *^ }or^^ (n) and "against^* (r) are correlative,


and antithetic, the first being the preposition of advantage, the second of disadvantage. This is precisely as in Arabic, where It and dlti^y) have the same reladebt is (owing) to me" (lit., "to me is a debt") is
tion; thus: li ddynUn

^The two

<=

="A

dldyyd ddyniin ='* I owe a debt" (lit., "against


36 (I, 320) for the same use of yp n, "count to."

opposed

to:

See Uni,

1.

'^

cOmitted

titles.

me

is

a debt").

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

284

Commandant

40 deben of gold, tribute weight

of the for-

Elephantine

tress of

[719

Tax

Official and Place

719.

III

chest of (w/-) linen

6 deben of gold, in tribute weight

Scribe of the recorder of

a pedet of raiment
a large rbolti

Elephantine

Kenbeti of Elephantine

deben of gold; 2 pedet of raiment; a large ^bolt^; i chest of


{mt-) linen

Scribe of Elephantine

720.

Recorder of

Ombos

Scribe of the Recorder of

Ombos
Kenbeti of

721.

Mayor

of

Ombos

Edfu

deben of gold;

deben of gold;
deben of gold, in tribute weight

w)

oxen {ng

^'

3 large bolts;
deben of silver, in tribute weight

4 deben of gold, in tribute weight


I ox; I two-year-old
8 deben of gold, tribute weight
a great Ijolt^

His scribe

Recorder of Edfu

Town-Ruler of Pr-mr-yw^

gold (amount

?)

ox

deben of gold

chest of {mt-) linen;

oxen

4 deben of gold

722.

Mayor

of

Nekhen

deben of
ox

two-year-old

3
2

deben of gold, in tribute weight


bead necklace [Jof^ gold]
oxen

chest of {mt-) linen;

Kenbeti of Nekhen

{d

lost,

top row)

(Name

lost,

top row)

*An uncertain town.

chest of

W-) linen

Garments,

(Name

silver

2 {pdt-) bolts

(Linen) i great {sm


gold (amount ?)

t-) '"bolt"'

{wn-dw-) ox, 2 yearlings


Gold, linen
I

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

728]

285

Tax

Official and Place


f

723.

Town-Ruler

of

Esneh
,

of silver

8 of gold
2 oxen; grain, linen
2 deben of gold

i deben of

Scribe of the Islands of

Esneh
f

silver

bead necklace ^of gold

I
V

(wn-dw-) ox,
(d ^ W-) linen
I

yearling; linen

2 chests of (mt-) linen

Kenbeti of Esneh*

grain
"^

724.

Recorder of Gebelen

2 calves, 2
I

oxen (s^)

deben of gold; J deben of

silver

725.
Scribe of the District of

Gold, bead necklace, linen, year-

"

lings;

two-year-olds;

(num-

bers lost)
.

deben of gold
30 pigeons
nb-tm /
2

726.
Scribe of the Islands
which are in the South

=*

<^
<

{tp-r^y)
\

2 oxen, 5 yearlings
I chest of (mt-) linen

'

727.

Recorder of Hermonthis

lo^nb-ttn^'t
I

Scribe of the Recorder of

Hermonthis

of

the

Gold (amount

(d

chest of (mt-) linen

40 pigeons

District

Hermonthis

5 firstlings of the year


2 oxen, 5 yearlings
V.

Grain, honey
4 deben '"of gold
I

Kenbeti of the District


of

lost)

W-) linen
2 deben of gold
I

chest of (mt-) linen

Scribe of

deben of gold

Hermonthis

deben of silver
bead necklace

''of'

gold

chest of (mt-) linen


(d^'w-) linen
I

728.

Recorder of House of
Hathor (Pr-Hthr)

(Lost)

^Only the end of the name is preserved. In the second row next to Esneh
He brings gold (amount ?),
there is another Kenbeti, whose place-name is lost.
I chest of {mt-) linen, 2 heket of grain, and i heket of grain (sic!).

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

286

The scene

is

[729

BELOW THEBES

B.

729.

III

the

same as before.^

Over Rekhmire
Inspection of the taxes (yp' w) counted to (the credit of) the hall of
the vizier of the Southern City (and) counted against the mayors, the
town-rulers, the district officials, the recorders of the districts, their
scribes

and the

of their fields,

from above Koptos

to

below

S[iut],

by

[Rekhmire],

the hereditary prince

Tax

Official and Place

deben of silver
3 deben of gold

730.

in the midst of the

City (Thebes)

chest of (mt-) linen

2 two-year-olds

3 yearlings

731.

chest of (mt-) linen

Honey
3 heket of grain
3 yearlings

Scribe of the District of

Rs-nft

3 two-year-olds

ft

full-grown (oxen)

gold (amount

732.

3
I

of Cusae
V

of Cusae

ate

the

lost)

bead necklace

deben of gold
bead necklace ^oP gold

deben
deben

of gold

of silver

*The two lower rows have mostly disappeared; twenty-four figures of officials
Of these twenty-six,
visible, and the tribute of two more is partially preserved.
dues of one are totally lost, while five more figures (at least) with their dues

have also disappeared; thus the dues of about


lost;

the

number

of place-names lost

(if

any)

one-fifth of the officials

is

uncertain.

have been


TOMB OF REKHMIRE

737]

287

Tax

Official and Place

deben of silver
i deben of gold
10 measures of {y

733.

Kenbeti of the District of


of Coptos
V

734.

'

h-)

gram

heket of grain

(hbn't-) jar of honey;

deben of gold

calves

of silver

(y

Kenbeti of the District


of

h-)

gram

10 heket of grain

Dendera

(hbtf

t-)

jar of

honey

5 calves

two-year-olds
V

735.

'

5
I

ox

deben of gold
deben of silver, tribute weight

200 {kw-) loaves


1,000

'

{s}}t-)

loaves

Mayor

-3 wan
10 sacks of

Haturt-Amenemhet {jpt-wr t-Ymnm-h''

of

t)

5 calves

3 yearUngs
3 two-year-olds
2 (full-grown) oxen

736.

Recorder

oiW^

h-ys'

500 pigeons

i deben of gold
I

chest of (mt-) linen

(hbnt) jar of honey

two-year-old
bolt of {d ^ -W-) linen

t
\

Scribe of the Recorder of

W^h-yst
737.

cattle
5

deben of gold

heket of

(3>

Recorder of Diospolis
Parva (Ht-sfpm)

^ -)

grain

measure of {y ^ h-) grain


I measure of (sw t-) grain
3 measures of southern grain
I measure of southern grain
I

pigeons, linen

Scribe of the Recorder of


Diospolis Parva

grain

(tb-)

(many items

deben of gold

lost)

'

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

288

III

[738

Tax

Official and Place

738.

deben of gold

{mt-) linen

Recorder of Abydos

W-) linen
I Qihnt-) jar of honey
I two-year-old
I deben of gold
3 two-year-olds
I deben of gold
I bead necklace ^of^ gold
I heket of grain
2 heket of southern grain
{d

His scribe
Scribe of the District of
of Abydos

Kenbeti of Abydos

<

oxen
6 deben of gold

739.

i deben of
(y

silver

h-) bread, 20 (kw-) loaves


"

Mayor

10 sacks of
10 ^nh-tm'^'t
2 heket of grain
50 heket
10 heket of grain

of Thinis

(hbn't-) jar of

honey

5 calves

6 yearlings
3 two-year-olds
2 (full-grown)

oxen

740.

Scribe* of the District of


the city of Min (Akh-

deben of gold
deben of silver
bead necklaces fof
r

[gold]

200
2 heket of grain

mim)

''

calves
two-year-olds
I

741.

Recorder of Itfit
His scribe

3 heket of southern grain


I measure of grain
I

(full-grown) ox

honey
(full-grown) oxen
(hbn

t)

jar of

heket of southern grain


10 measures of {sw't-) grain

742.

Mayor

of

Pr-Hr

(wn-dw) ox

two-year-old

(Sw-) rolls

^Behind him was a

and

cattle;

the gold,

if

figure

any,

now

is lost.

lost,

with considerable tribute of grain, bread


may also belong to Akhmim.

This

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

747]

289

Official and Place

Tax
1,000 (5^^) loaves
(sw't-) grain
3 measures of grain
southern grain
2 heket of grain
10 (kw-) loaves
I (hbtf /-) jar of honey

743.

Mayor

ttn'^t

744.

yearling

(full-grown) ox

deben of gold

heket of grain

chest of (mt-) linen


chest of (d ^ W-) linen

chest of (mt-) linen

chest of (d

[deben] of gold

Scribe of the District of

Scribe of the Recorder of f


Siut*
\

745.

W-) linen

Grain
I

(hbn'

t-)

jar of

honey

Kenbeti of Siut

VI.

746.

In

RECEPTION OF DUES TO THE AMON-TEMPLE^


this scene

products of the
of

Amon.

The

field,

is

represented

tlie

reception of

tlie

including honey, due to the temple

products of a Punt expedition and the

annual tribute of North and South, so often recorded in the


Annals, are mentioned.
Scene

747.

Rekhmire, with his

at the right.

bPls.

XII-XIV.

behind him,

is

enthroned

Before him, in three registers, are

and servants, presenting,


^There are two

suite

scribes, the

storing, recording,

name

occurring with each.

officials

and preparing

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

29

Egypt and her tributary

for use the products of

Throughout

[748

countries.

this scene are distributed the following inscrip-

tions:

Over Rekhmire
*

748. Reception of grain {y

h)

and honey

White House of
Amon], by virtue

in the

the temple; sealing of all treasures in the [temple of

by the hereditary prince,

of his office of master of secret things;

the vizier, Rekhmire.

Over Grain Scene


749. Reception of grain (y

h) in the [temple of

Over Trituration

in

of

Amon].

Grain

Pounding grain (y ^ h) in the White House of the [temple of Amon],


order to make an oblation [at] every feast, which his majesty estab-

Hshed anew.

Over Flour-Sifting

"Haste thee every matter

Servants of the date-storeroom.

thou shalt cause that we be praised."

Over Bakers

Making Qoavesi
safely

and well the baking

of the cake.

Over

Men Doing

750. Speech of the


heart,

prince!

Doing

for the oblation of the divine offerings.

fleet- captains:

^^Thyi every matter

overflowing with the tribute of

all

Reverence

"According
is

to the desire of thy

very good; the treasuries are

countries:

oil,

incense, wine,

Punt bags and sacks bearing every good


thing
in a myriad of hundred thousands, for King Menkheperre
(Thutmose III), given life. May thy favor with his ka be every day.

everything, all the products of

Over

Men

Carrying Tribute

751. Introduction of wine into the storehouses (wd^) by the

Rekhmire.

Reception of the tribute of the South country, together with

the tribute of the Northland before

On
Gold-houses of the temple.
gold-house.

vizier,

Rekhmire.

the Storehouses

Storehouse {wd) of the temple.

Double

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

754]

291

INSPECTION OF DAILY OFFERINGS AND OF MONUMENTS*

VII.

Scene

Rekhmire,

752.

men

lines of

(figure

stands inspecting two

with food-offerings, and two rows of statues

of the king, behind

and

erased)

which are weapons, temple

furniture,

utensils.
Inscription over Rekhmire

Inspection of food of the divine offerings of every day; inspection of

and the beautiful monuments, which he executed for the Sovereign, the Good God, Lord of the Two Lands, Menkheperre (Thutmose III), given Hfe forever, for the temple of Amon, and the temples
[Rekhmire].
by
which are in his
his

Vin.
753.

who

We

are

INSPECTION OF CRAFTSMEN^

here see Rekhmire

making

inspecting

for the temple of

Amon

the

artificers,

various vessels,

from the precious metals and other


materials captured in Thutmose Ill's wars in Asia.

doors, furniture, etc.,


costly

Scene

Rekhmire stands leaning on his staff; behind him are


his suite, and before him are long lines of craftsmen in
leather, wood, stone, and various metals, busily engaged
Over them are the following inscriptions:
at their work.
Over Rekhmire
,^ in order to cause every
754. Inspection of every craft
man to know his duty according to the stipulation of every affair, by the

hereditary prince, count,

who

gives the regulation to the prophets,

who

directs the priests to their duty, governor of the (residence) city, chief
of the six courts of justice,

api.

XXII.

tPls.

cThe lacuna here and


indicate that the

Rekhmire.

name

XVI-XVIII.

at the beginning of the following inscription


of Amon had been erased in both places.

would

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

292

III

[755

Over Gold Weighing


''Reckoning^ of the gold
daily stipulation.

number

Their

is

in order to fulfil all business of the

myriads of hundred- thousands;

Rekhmire.

before the vizier

Over Goldsmiths and Silversmiths

Making all vessels for the divine limbs; multiplying vases of gold
and silver in every (Style of) workmanship that endures forever.
Over Coppersmiths
755. Bringing the Asiatic copper which his majesty captured in the
victories in Retenu, in order to '^cast"' the [two doors*] of the temple of

Amon in Karnak.

pavement was overlaid with gold like^ the horizon


of heaven; by the governor of the (residence) city, and vizier.
They say: ''The king, beautiful in monuments, Menkheperre (Thut-

mose

He

Its

III), given life forever;

repeats

monuments

(as)

he

is (so)

they are forever

in the house of his father."

Over Cabinet-makers

Making

chests of ivory, ebony, carob wood,

of the best of the terraces;

by

this official

who

meru wood, and

of cedar

gives the regulation, guid-

ing the hands of his craftsmen.

INSPECTION OF SCULPTORS AND BUILDERS

rX.

756.

The

*=

heavier works of the Amon-temple are here

under inspection by Rekhmire. Of particular interest are


the Semitic foreigners, who appear among the brickmakers,
of the ^^ captivity which his majesty brought jor the works
This is, of course, precisely what
of the temple of Amon.^'^
was afterward exacted of the Hebrews.
*These words are in Virey's copy {Memoires de la mission frangaise au Caire,
V, PL XV), but had been lost before Newberry's was made.
^Lit.,

"in

likeness to"

for the simple "like" (my).


cPls.

XX and XXI.

(msn'tr), a circumlocution not uncommonly used

TOMB OF REKHMIRE

759]

293

Scene

Rekhmire stands leaning on his staff, his suite behind


him; and before him, at work, are stonecutters, sculptors,
brickmakers, and builders. The inscriptions are as follows
Over Rekhmire
757. Inspection of
causing every

man

all

works

know

to

Amon

of divine offerings of

his way,

by

Karnak;

virtue of his ofl&ce as chief of

works; by the hereditary prince, count,

who

establishes laws in the

temples of the gods of the South and North

By

in

[Rekhmire].

Bricklayers^

The layer of brick who brings the


the very numerous
758.
building with ready
in his duty, causing vigilance
field,^

I"

fingers, skilled*^

";

among

the Tconqueredi,^

who hear

the sayings of this

official, skilful in

fThey say^]: *'He

bui[lding] of works, giving regulation to their chiefs.

us with bread, beer, and every good sort; he leads us, with

["supplies!]

a loving heart for the king, amiable

King Menkheperre (Thut-

mose III), who builds the sanctuary of [^the gods'"]; may they grant to
him a reward therefor with myriads of years.
The taskmaster,^ he says to the builders: "The rod is in my hand;
be not idle."

By

Brickmakers^

759. Captivity which his majesty brought, for the works of the
temple of Amon.

By
Laying the brick,
of

Amon]
aPl.

^A

of

XX.

Bricklayer

in order to build the storehouse

The beginning of the

inscription is very difficult

wh^-hr, and

temple

<iThe captives of

war shown

^The adjectives now


Wy-rs-d ^ d^

lit.,

in the

same scene

refer to the prince.

"

he

1.

and a

little

doubtful.

12).

h^-hr are not uncommon, meaning "experienced,

instructed, skilful."

gSome

[in the

Karnak.

similar reference to a "clay-field" in Ineni ( 106,

<^Wn-hr,

anew,

who

causes to be vigilant.'*

of these are clearly Semitic foreigners.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

294

By

760

Builders

Let us do the pleasure of

Let your hands build, ye people.

this official

monuments of his lord in the house of his father Amon.


upon them, abiding, permanent, for both aeons of years.

in restoring the

His name

The

is

overseer of works, he saith to those bringing stone:

Let us lay

your hands, ye people.


"
1
c

This

[Jthe foundation""] of stone, of

work

RECEPTION OF FOREIGN TRIBUTE*

X.
760.

''Strengthen

is

one of the most important scenes preserved


Similar scenes will be found in other

in ancient Egypt.

Theban tombs, but none

contains so elaborate, detailed,

and extensive representations of the wealth of the Asiatic


peoples, which was now flowing as tribute into the treasury
The pride of the Egyptian vizier, which
of the Pharaohs.

him

led

to depict these official incidents in his career, has

thus been the means of preserving to us


civilization of Asia,

which on

its

much

of the early

native soil has perished

utterly.

Scene

761.

At the

carrying their tribute,


left.

At the head

tribute as

it is

Rekhmire, while the foreigners,


approach in five long lines from the

right stands

of each line

is

a scribe,

who

records their

deposited in splendid profusion before him.

Inscription

Reception of the tribute of the south country, besides the tribute


of Punt, the tribute of Retenu (Rtnw), the tribute of Keftyew, besides

the

booty of

all

countries

which the fame of his majesty, King

aThis scene has not yet been published by Newberry; I had only ChampoUion,
Notices descriptives, 1, 505-10; Brugsch, Thesaurus, V, 1 1 lo-i 13 (whose description
is taken bodily from ChampoUion); and the two plates in Wilkinson, Manners
and Customs, I, PI. II A and II B.

STELA OF INTEF THE HERALD

763]

Menkheperre (Thutmose
^ Rekhmire.^

A
heap

by the

brought;

hereditary

prince

shows the reckoning of ^Hhis great


electrum, which is (measured) by the heket, making

weighing scene
of

III),

295

*=

36,692^ deben.^^

ACCESSION OF AMENHOTEP

XI.

This scene

762.

describes

it

(op.

Hatsekhem

him "the

presenting to

but Newberry

Rekhmire after having


meet his new sovereign,

20) as showing

cit.,

sailed down-river to

not yet published,

is

II

to

royal insignia."

STELA OF INTEF THE HERALD


This splendid

763.

heraW^

of

Thutmose

was erected by the ^^ royal


whose important offices were the

stela

III,

following:
Hereditary prince and count, companion, great in love, count of

Thinis of the Thinite nome, lord of the entire oasis region, great herald
of the king.

^Titles, etc., of

^An

Rekhmire.

each of the five rows begins in each case: *^ Arrival in


To Keftyew is
peace, of the chiefs of X" (Punt, Retenu, etc., as the case may be).
added "and of the isles in the midst of the sea" and to Retenu: "all the northern
countries of the ends of the earth."
This introductory formula is followed by the
conventional acclamations of the foreigners; but these inscriptions are not readable
in Wilkinson's plates.
ChampoUion gives only the introductory formula of each
row, and Newberry's second volume containing these scenes has not yet appeared.
inscription over

cLepsius, Denkmdler, III, 39, d.

eNow

in the

Louvre (C.

26),

^About 8,943 pounds

being doubtless the

(troy).

finest stela in that great

6 feet high by nearly 4 feet in width, and of the finest


workmanship (see de Rouge, Notices des monuments, 84-89). It was published
by Gayet, Steles de la XIP dynastie, PL XIX, and the long inscription (partially)
by Brugsch {Thesaurus, VI, 1479-85). Owing simply to the name of its owner,
It has long
"Intef," it has always been attributed to the early Middle Kingdom.
been evident, both from its language and content, however, that it belongs to the
Eighteenth Dynasty. The discovery of Intef's tomb at Thebes by Newberry shows
collection.

It is nearly

Thutmose III.
Kingdom,
Middle
often
The important conclusions regarding the oases in the
drawn from this inscription (e.g., Maspero, Dawn, 432, n. 3, and ibid., 459, n. 3),
that this conclusion is correct,

are therefore to be given up.

and that

Intef lived in the reign of

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

296

Or

[764

again:
Hereditary prince and count, wearer of the royal

ion, favorite of the

Good God,

seal, sole

compan-

excellent scribe of computation, first

herald of the king.

Again
First herald of the judgment-hall (^rryt).^

would thus appear that the Oases, at least those of


the Theban region, were dependents of the Thinite princes,^
who have survived into the Eighteenth Dynasty and taken
It

office at the court of the

764.

The

Pharaoh.

stela contains,

in

formal

less

list

than the

"Duties of the Vizier" (6751!.), a similar statement of


the duties of the

^^

royal herald

^^

(whm-stny''

lit

^^

royal

This statement, far from being an


extract from the government archives, is but a random
reporter or repeater^'').

powers of the court

rehearsal, in a boastful style, of the


It is evident that his office is

herald.

only partially expressed

by our word herald, for the duties of the Egyptian herald


show him to have been of ministerial power and importance;
they were the following:
1.

The management

of the formalities

and ceremonies

and palace (11. 4-7, only part of 1. 5).


Communication of the messages of the people and

of court
2.

affairs of the

land to the king*^ G-

*A11 the above titles are

5)-

from the head of the

stela;

others will be found in

the following translation.

^For another Thinite prince, who was also lord of the

oasis, see

Recueil^

X, 141.
cSo in Ahmose-pen-Nekhbet

(11.

10 and 13), but in Intef's inscription

"whm-

n-Stny."
f^Here he

seems to cover the same ground as the

vizier (Duties, 4,

1.

5);

but

communicated
personal matters, of which we have an example in the brave deeds of Ahmose,
which are regularly reported to the king by the "royal herald" (9 ff.)

the vizier evidently reported larger affairs of state, while the herald

STELA OF INTEF THE HERALD

767]

297

Messenger of the judgment-hall (^ryt)^ or general


administrative office of the Pharaoh (1. 6).
3.

The communication

4.

to the people of all

on them by the Pharaoh (1.


The communication, both
5.

laid

countries, of the

same

(1.

8,

and

1.

amount
27 end).

7).

to

Egyptians and foreign

and

of their taxes,

This

commissions

verification of

but a specialization of

is

4.

To
To

be in general the mouthpiece of the palace (1. 9).


exercise a kind of police control, wherever the
7.
Pharaoh proceeded (11. 10-12).
765.^ This unsystematic list of powers is followed by an
6.

enumeration of Intef's good qualities


is

added, after an asseveration of

its

(11.

13-20), to which

truth

(11.

remarkable statement of the source of his success

20-22), a
(11.

22-24).

Finally, a rapid statement of the herald's duties

abroad

while accompanying the Pharaoh on his Syrian campaigns,

completes the inscription


this

24-27).

(11.

was Thutmose

instance,

III,

As

the Pharaoh, in

these brief references

are of the greatest interest, showing the herald, as they do,

preceding the great

commander from town

to town,

and

preparing his residence in the palaces of the S)Tian princes.


Intel's

Address

766. *He says: **0 ye that


priest,

live

to

Passers-hy

upon

every scribe, every ritual priest,

earth, all people (rfpy't), every

who

shall enter into this

tomb

of

and think not on death, if your native


gods shall favor you, if ye would not taste the fear of another land, 3if
ye would be buried in your tombs, if ye would bequeath your offices to
your children; whether (ye be) one that readeth these words upon this
stela, being a scribe; or one that heareth them, so shall ye say: *An

the necropolis;

offering

if

ye love

which the king

life,

gives, etc

>

11

Intel's Duties

767. 4For the ka of the hereditary prince, count, wearer of the royal
seal, sole companion, favorite of the king, as leader of his army, who levies

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE

298

III

768

and the soldiers, who counts the companions, who conducts the nobles, who makes the king's-confidants approach their places,
leader of leaders, sguide of millions of men, superior of advanced offices,
the official staffs

advanced

in place, excellent in the (royal) presence,

words of the people

who

who

(rhy't),

who

reports the affairs of the

discourses concerning matters in the secret place,

sends up the

Two

who

Lands,

enters with

good things and comes out with favor, ^who places every man upon his
father's seat, who makes glad the heart and favors the favorites, at whose
words the great

arise,

who

who

originates the regulations in the palace, L. P. H.,

man

to

7in

know

power

who

his duties,

in the great geat

the palace),

(i. e.,

every

who

['"great"']

silences the voice,

Good God, who conducts

which they do, who says: *'Let

and

it

be done," and

the people

it is

done on

which comes out of the mouth of a god; who

[the instant], ^like that

commands on the people (Jj-nmm' t) to number their work (impost)


the king, who fixes the rreckoning"" of every country, who furnishes

lays
for

who makes

the foot from the place of silence, the

counterpoise of the balances of the


to that

ry /),

gives the administration in the

who guards

originates honors,

(^

does the errands of the judgment-hall

the '"supplies! of their princes, great in affairs at the counting of the

heart of

knowing that which is in the


the king, L. P. H., the speaking tongue of him who is in

numbers, prepared
the palace

(i. e.,

to do,

the king), the eyes of the king, the heart of the lord of

the palace, the instruction of the whole land,

who

quiets the

"

from the

hostile,

who

binds the rebellious,

strong-armed toward robbers,

applying violence to them that apply violence, mighty-hearted against

who

the mighty-hearted,
high,

who ""shortens^

brings

arm "of him whose


'^cruel-hearted^, who causes the

down

the hour of the

the

evil-

hearted to perform the regulation of the laws, although his heart


unwilling, great in terror

"hearted,

who binds

among

criminals, lord of fear

the adversary,

the palace, the establisher of

its

and

laws,

is

among rebellious-

repels the violent, the safety of

who

quiets the multitude for their

lord, the chief herald of the judgment-hall, count of

nome,

is

Thinis of the Thinite

chief of all the oasis country, excellent scribe, solving writings,

Intef, triumphant.

Inteps Qualities

768. ^3The only wise, equipped with knowledge, the really safe one,

from the wise, exalting the craftsman, turning


back upon the ignorant, ^
in mind, very '"complete^ in mind, giving

distinguishing the simple


his

attention to hear the

man

-l

of truth, ^^void of deceit, useful to his lords,

STELA OF INTEF THE HERALD

77o]

accurate-minded, with no

lie

in him, experienced in every way, protector

of the seemly, hearer of his prayer, gentle

ceding for him,

299

who does according

toward the cold-hot one,

to his plans, not

inter-

^^the truthful,

understanding the heart,* knowing the thoughts, when nothing has

come
there

forth

from the

none,

is

speaking to wit: according to his thought;

lips,

whom

he hath not known, turning his face

him

him

to

that

who does ^
,**^not mild toward the rioquaciousi, but opposing him by doing
to
the truth, content with giving satisfaction, not exalting him that knew
not above him that knew, going about after the truth, giving attention to
^^for him who is without offense and for the
hear petitions, judging
speaks the truth, disregarding

that speaketh

lies,

"

free

liar,

guilt,

from partiaUty, justifying the

just, chastising the guilty for his

servant of the poor, father of the fatherless,

mother of the

orphan,

rdungeoni of the turbulent, protector of the weak,

fearful,

advocate of him

^^of the

who has been deprived of his possessions by one

stronger

than he, husband of the widow, shelter of the orphan fmakingl the
wee]^9per rejoice,
for

for

"

^1,

who

is

praised on account of his character,

whom the worthy thank god, because of the greatness of his worth,
whom health and life are besought by all people (rfpy't), great

herald of the judgment-hall, ^chief steward, overseer of the double


granary, leader of
offices report,

who

works of the king's L. P. H.

all

estate, to

whom

all

counts the impost of the leaders, the mayors and the

South and the North excellent

village sheiks of the

scribe, Intef, tri-

umphant.
Inters Asseveration

He

769.
there

is

there

is

no deceit therein;

no exception

was

my

Nor was

therein.

boast for myself with


that

my qualities, of which *^I have testified;


these were my excellencies in very truth,

says: ''Those were

lies,

but that was

office in the king's

the court L. P. H., that

was

my

ing of

my

*On

my heart which

affairs;

my

service at

rdutyi in the judgment-hall.

His

Success

caused that I should do

it,

by

its

lead-

my

its

dgyptische Sprache, 39, 47.


article, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache,

article, Zeitschrift fiir

'^On this remarkable passage, see


39> 47-

my

*3an excellent witness, I did not violate

it is

this passage, cf.

my

any likening of words to


color, ^^ which I showed;

L. H. P. estate, that was

Inteps Explanation 0}

770. ^It was

there

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE HI

300

speech, I feared to transgress

its

leading; I prospered

[771

on account

of

it

was excellent by reason of that which it caused that I


,*
should do, I was valuable by reason of its leading.
*Lo,
?4said the people, *it is an oracle of the gods, which is in every body.

exceedingly.

He

is

a counsellor,

whom

it

has led to the goodly way of achievement.*

Lo, thus I was.

Abroad

Intej^s Duties

Two

771. I followed the King of the


in the countries,

*s

the

Lands, I struck into his tracks

earth, I arrived at

my

its

end, being at the

was like the lords of strength,


and I captured like his brave ones. Every palace in a country
^^
before the troops, at the head of the army. When my lord
arrived in safety where I was, I had prepared it (the palace), I had

heels of his majesty, L. P. H.,

equipped

it

with everything that

valor

is

desired in a foreign country,

made

better than the palaces of Egypt, ^^purified, cleansed, set apart, their

mansions adorned, (each) chamber for


king's heart satisfied with that

which I

its

proper purpose, I

did,

made

the

numbered the

tribute of the rulers dwelling in every country, consisting of silver, gold,


oil,

incense, wine."

TOMB OF MENKHEPERRESENEB^
772

This tomb

Thebes.

tant at

Amon

under Thutmose III, was also ^^ overseer


the gold-house and overseer of the silver-house,^^ as

Priest^ of
of

one of the most interesting and imporMenkheperreseneb, besides being High


is

well as chief architect in the temple of


of the overseers of craftsmen.^^

tomb

As

Amon, and

treasurer,

he

is

^^

chief

depicted

and the treasure


from the mines of Africa; while as architect and chief of
the master-craftsmen, we find him in charge of Thutmose
in his

receiving the tribute of Asia,

Shekh Abd-el-Kurna at Thebes, published by Piehl, Inscriptions, I, PL 127 P-129 and 102-5; Virey, Memoires de la mission frangaise au
Caire, V, 197 ff.
I had also a copy of the building inscription, kindly furnished
me by Mr. Newberry.
*In the

cliff

of

^See his statue {Annales, IV,

was a son

of Rekhmire.

8, 9)

found at Karnak, according

to

which he

TOMB OF MENKHEPERRESENEB

775]

Ill's great

works

301

Karnak temple, recounted

in the

king's building inscriptions ( 599

in this

ff.).

Scene of Asiatic Tribute

773-

Two

forward splendid and

lines of Asiatics bring

richly chased vessels of gold, silver, etc.

The

Asiatics are

designated as ^Hhe chief of Keftyew, the chief of Kheta, the


chief of Tunip {Tnpw), the chief of Kadesh.^^
Before them
is

an

inscription:

Giving praise to the Lord of the

Two

Lands, obeisance to the Good


God, by the chiefs of every land.
They acclaim the victories of his
majesty; their tribute is upon their backs, being every [product] of

God's-Land:

silver, gold, lapis lazuH,

malachite, every splendid, costly

stone

line

of superscription contains the acclamations of

the Asiatics;

the bulk of

the sea ; thy fear


the lands of Mitanni (My-tn
chiefs are in caves

is

is lost:

it

in all lands.

Thou

hast overthrown

thou hast hacked up their

cities,

their

Reception of Gold

Another scene shows the deceased receiving shipments of gold, from the ^^ captain of the gendarmes of
774.

Coptos^^

and the ^'governor

of the gold-country of Coptos:^^

Reception of gold of the highland of Coptos, besides gold of Kush


the wretched, being the yearly dues

Inspection of

by Menkheperreseneb.

Workmen

Again we see the deceased inspecting the work of


the craftsmen, accompanied by the words:
775.

Viewing the workshop of the temple of [Amon], the work of the


craftsmen, in real lapis lazuli,

made

and

in real malachite,

after the design of his heart,* to

which his majesty

be ^monuments'' for his father,

^These very works are shown in the great relief depicting the presentation
of monuments to Amon by Thutmose III at Karnak ( 545), accompanied by the
same words, showing that Thutmose III himself furnished the design to the craftsmen.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: THUTMOSE IH

302

Amon,

776

in fthe house of AmonT|, abiding, flourishing as eternal works;

by the hereditary prince, count, pleasing the king as the establisher of


his monuments, chief of the overseers of craftsmen, chief of works in
He
the fhouse ofT| Amon, first prophet of [Amon], Menkheperreseneb.
says

A
*'I

inspected

when

the lord.

Shrine

King Thutmose

III, erected [a shrine,]

called *Thutmose-III-is-the-Wearer-of-the-Diadem-of-Amon,* of endur-

ing granite, in one block,* upon the Tcanali

^wrought with

electrum, the TialP being of sandstone, wrought with gold of the best of
the

wrought with gold."

hills

Second Shrine

776. "I inspected, when his majesty erected a great*^ shrine of


electrum (called) *Thutmose-III-is-Great-in-Love-in-the-House-of:

Amon.'"
Colonnade

"I inspected when

his majesty

Obelisks
I inspected

when

staves for his father,

work on

the

his

great colonnade,^ [wrought]

."

with electrum

**

made a

and Flagstaves

his majesty erected obelisks

Amon.

monuments.

and numerous

flag-

I pleased his majesty while conducting


I did these things, without being unpleas."

ant to the heart of

STELA OF NIBAMON
777.

This

mosids, and

official lived at

finally

Thebes under the early Thut-

became steward

of -Nebetu, one

of

*A monolithic chapel of granite, such as still exists, for example, at Edfu.


^The following is either a different building, the account of which began in
the preceding lacuna, or the hall in which the shrine stood.

cSo Piehl; Newberry, "beautiftil."


<iThis is doubtless the building at the east

may

end of the Karnak temple; but

be the attempted restoration of the hall dismantled for Hatshepsut's obelisks.


^Stela in his

by Bouriant,

tomb

in the hill of

Recueil, IX, 95-97.

Drah-abu-'n-Neggah, at Thebes; pubUshed

STELA OF NIBAMON

779]

Thutmose
His tomb

Ill's wives,

and

stela is chiefly

303

chief captain of the king's

fleet.

devoted to the usual mortuary

which he refers to his favor under


The name of Thutmose I
the first three Thutmosids.
but Nibamon
is evidently lost in one of the numerous lacunae
seems to have received gifts of land and cattle from this
prayers, in the midst of

king.

He

then says:
Favor under Thutmose II

778. ^7My lord, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Okhepernere
(Thutmose II), triumphant, repeated favors to me; he appointed me
overseer of the hall (^

^)

of the king.

Favor under Thutmose III


779.

My

(Thutmose
until I was

lord, the

King

III), given

at the front ;

life,

Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkheperre


repeated favors to me; he magnified ^^me
of

he appointed

me

as steward of the king's-wif e,

Nebetu (Nb't-w), triumphant. My lord, the King of Upper and Lower


Egypt, Menkheperre, ^^given life, repeated favors to me; he appointed
me to be captain of all the ships of the king. There happened no overI was not
sight of mine, nor was there found any neglect of mine.
associated with *evil, but I attained a revered old age, being in the

favor of the king's presence.

Then

follows a final prayer, addressed to the living.

REIGN OF AMENHOTEP

II

ASIATIC CAMPAIGN
780. Syria,

mose

III,

of course, revolted

and already

in his

on the death

second year

we

of

Thut-

find his ener-

on the march into northern Syria


Doubtless the harbor cities had also
to quell the rebellion.
rebelled, and hence the young king is forced to proceed
getic son,

Amenhotep

II,

by land. Leaving Eg)rpt in April, as his father had done


on the first campaign thirty-three years before, he had

May won a battle at Shemesh-Edom in


On the twelfth of May he crossed the
Palestine.

already in early

northern

He

Orontes, and gained a skirmish near the river.


brated a feast of thanksgiving to

Amon

days later (May 26) he arrived at


gates to

him and

received

cele-

and fourteen
Niy, which opened its
there,

him with acclamation.

he reached and punished the rebellious

city

June

of

Ikathi,

which was plotting against its Egyptian garrison. Somewhere in Naharin he set up his tablet of victory, ^ as his father
and grandfather had done before him. Here the sources fail,
and the further course of the campaign is unknown until the
king's return to Egypt; but it is clear that the coalition
against Egypt

was crushed

probably at the battle

in Tikhsi,

on the Orontes, for on his return in the autumn the king


brought back with him to Thebes ^^the seven princes who
were in the district of Tikhsi,^^ and sacrificed them himself
Early in the following July we find the
king in Nubia, arranging the completion of his father's
before

Amon.

temples at Elephantine and Amada.


*Turra inscription of Minhotep

( 800).

304

In both he

set

up a

ASIATIC CAMPAIGN

;82]

same

tablet bearing the

305

inscription, recording the building

and mentioning the seven princes, six of whom he says he


hanged on the walls of Thebes, and the seventh on the walls
At Napata or above it he set up a tablet
of Napata.
marking his southern boundary (800). It is perhaps on
his return from this last errand that he stops at Amada
for the foundation ceremonies of the temple.

The

said

Amada and

Elephantine

stelae,

another

Karnak, and a Karnak chapel are the only sources for


campaign. *
KARNAK STELA^
I.

Above

781.

is

relief in

king offering to Amon-Re.

this

two parts, each showing the


Between the two parts is a

vertical line of text recording the restoration of the

ment by Seti I,
Amenhotep III.

at

monu-

as on the Building Inscription of

just

Date and Introduction


under the majesty

782. ^[Tear 2^^

^Horus: Mighty Bull, Great of Strength;


^An

inscription

from a tomb

at

of:

Part of

Shekh Abd-el-Kurna probably

Atum;

refers to his

campaigns in calling the deceased "a follower of the king on his journeys on water
on land, and in every country; to whom has been given favors of the king' s-presencey
consisting of rings of electrum " (Piehl, Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache, 1883, 135).

^A pink

granite stela, found

by Champollion against the second of the southern

pylons at Karnak, in a deplorably fragmentary condition. Text: Champollion,


Notices descriptives, II, 185, 186 (only 11. i-io; 1. 9 is not omitted as indicated);
Maspero, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, XVII, 56, 57 (only 11. 3-10, copying
Champollion); Rouge, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 175, 176; Bouriant, Recueil,

XIII, 160, 161; Wiedemann, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archceology,


XI, 422, 423; a new fragment by Legrain, Annales, IV. The text is corrupt,
being full of errors, like the omission of the determinative (important emendations
by Erman, Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, 1889, 39-41). The reason for these
errors is the careless restoration of the text after its erasure by the emissaries of

Ikhnaton.

See Legrain, Annales, IV.

cThe tablet of Amada below ( 791 ff.), dated in year 3, speaks of an Asiatic
campaign already completed; it can hardly refer to any other than this campaign
to Niy.
Hence the latter would have taken place in the year i or 2, more probably the latter. The lacuna at the beginning of each line is four or five words long.

dThe complete

titulary of

Amenhotep

II.

EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY: AMENHOTEP

3o6

Favorite of the

Crowned

in

Two

Mighty

Goddesses:

in

II

Opulence,

[783

Who

is

Thebes;

Golden Horus: Who Seizes by His Might in all Lands;


^[King of Upper and Lower Egypt]
Opet: Okheperure,
of the Sword, Who Binds the Nine Bows;
Lord

Son

of Re, of his

Body, Lord of All Countries:

Amenhotep

(II),

Divine Ruler of Heliopolis, Giver of Life, Forever, lik