You are on page 1of 16

CIVIL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

KT 40901
ENVIRONMENTAL AND TRAFFIC LAB
EXPERIMENT TITLE
NON-SIGNALIZED JUNCTION ASSESSMENT
DATE OF CONDUCTED
28 SEPTEMBER 2014

DATE OF SUBMISSION
29 DECEMBER 2014
PREPARED FOR
DR. NURMIN BOLONG / TANG ZI SHENG

PREPARED BY
NAME

MATRIC NO.

CHIA TAI HAW

BK11110055

OZZA WAHIDDAH BINTI UMAR PANDIH

BK11110247

NEVALL CHARLES JOSEPH

BK11110206

RASYIDAH MAMUT

BK11110255

Technical Report Marks Distribution

Format (20%)
Result and Analysis (25%)
Discussion (25%)
Conclusion (15%)
References (15%)
Total (100%)

TABLE OF CONTENT
Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 OBJECTIVES

3.0 APPARATUS

4.0 PROCEDURE

5.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS

6.0 CALCULATION

10

7.0 DISCUSSION

14

8.0 PROPOSED DESIGN

15

9.0 CONCLUSION

16

10.0 REFERENCES

16

1.0 INTRODUCTION
An intersection is the junction at grade of two or more roads either meeting or crossing. An
intersection may be three-way (a T junction), four-way (a crossroads), or have five or more
arms. Busy intersections are often controlled by traffic lights or a roundabout.
Nowadays, traffic congestion has become a problem that often haunts road users in
Malaysia. The rapid growth of the automobile industry with reasonable prices cause the
people of Malaysia are racing to buy vehicles made in Malaysia. This resulted in the
increasing number of vehicles on the road and cause traffic congestion.
As road networks increased in density and traffic flows, management on the flow of
traffic across the junction became crucial. Work done is needed to minimize the delays and
improve the safety of road users. The way to improve it is by traffic control devices, such as
stop signs and traffic lights. In this particular study, an assessment on T-junction located at
UMS Library is conducted.

Figure 1.1 Location and Direction of non-signalized T-junction in UMS.

2.0 OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the suitability of traffic control and safety.
2. To propose innovative operational and safety improvement at the T-junction.
4

3.0 APPARATUS
Stopwatch, paper and pen (to record data), safety vest

4.0 PROCEDURE
1. The site location is identified and traffic movements for the identified intersection are
sketched.
2. The data collecting sheet is prepared before conducting the test.
3. The numbers of vehicles turning left, right and go straight at selected approach is
counted. Typical duration of interval is 15 minutes.
4. The data is collected until time duration of one hour is achieved.
5. The data collected is analyzed and level of service for all direction is determined.

5.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


A non-signalized T-junction in front UMS library is chosen as our assessment location to
evaluate the suitability of traffic control and safety.
From UMS library
Traffic Flow in Morning Session
To Left
Time

Motorcycle

Car

To Right
Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle

Car

Heavy
Vehicle

0900-0915

0915-0930

0930-0945

0945-1000

13
Total

3
16

Traffic Flow in Afternoon Session


To Left
Time

Motorcycle

Car

To Right
Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle

Heavy
Vehicle

Car

1200-1215

1215-1230

1230-1245

1245-1300

23

11

Total

34

Traffic Flow in Evening Session


To Left

Time

Motorcycle

Car

To Right
Heavy

Motorcycl

Vehicle

Car

Heavy
Vehicle

1600-1615

11

1615-1630

1630-1645

13

1645-1700

61
Total

5
66

From DKP 1
Traffic Flow in Morning Session
To Left

Time

Motorcycle Car

Straight

Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle Car

Heavy
Vehicle

0900-0915

10

0915-0930

0930-0945

0945-1000

47

Total

48

Traffic Flow in Afternoon Session


To Left

Time

Motorcycle Car

Straight

Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle Car

Heavy
Vehicle

1200-1215

26

1215-1230

31

1230-1245

12

46

1245-1300

36

43
Total

170
213

Traffic Flow in Evening Session


To Left

Time

Motorcycle Car

Straight
Heavy
Vehicle

Heavy

Motorcycle Car

Vehicle

1600-1615

25

1615-1630

10

28

1630-1645

13

1645-1700

22

113

Total

135

From UMS roundabout


Traffic Flow in Morning Session
Straight

Time

Motorcycle Car

To Right

Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle Car

Heavy
Vehicle

0900-0915

21

0915-0930

13

0930-0945

11

0945-1000

72
Total

29
101

Traffic Flow in Afternoon Session


Straight

Time

Motorcycle Car

To Right

Heavy
Vehicle

Motorcycle Car

Heavy
Vehicle

1200-1215

17

1215-1230

15

1230-1245

22

1245-1300

13

90

40

Total

130

Traffic Flow in Evening Session


Straight

To Right
Heavy

Time

Motorcycle Car

Vehicle

Heavy
Motorcycle Car

Vehicle

1600-1615

1615-1630

11

1630-1645

16

1645-1700

11

11

83
Total

17
100

Table 1.1 Total Vehicle Volume of Each Session


Session

From Library

From DKP 1

From

Total

Roundabout
Morning

16

48

101

165

Afternoon

34

213

130

377

Evening

66

135

100

301

From the table above, the total vehicle volume for afternoon session is the highest followed
by evening session. The traffic flow is the lowest during morning session because the
assessment is conducted on Sunday. Hence, peak session which is the afternoon session is
chosen when analyzing the data collected.

6.0 CALCULATION
Assuming standard road condition:
Lane width = 3.4 m
Lateral clearance = 0.6 m
Interchange per kilometer = <0.3 m
Free flow speed (FFS)
FFS = BFFS fLw fLC fN fID
FFS = free-flow speed (km/h)
BFFS = base free-flow speed, 110 km/h (urban), 120 km/h (rural)
fLw = adjustment for lane width (km/h)
fLC = adjustment for right-shoulder lateral clearance (km/h)

10

fN = adjustment for number of lanes (km/h)


fID = adjustment for interchange density (km/h)

Parameters

Direction

Reference

From UMS
library

From DKP 1

From UMS
roundabout

BFFS

120 km/h

120 km/h

120 km/h

Rural Area

fLw

2.1

2.1

2.1

Table 6.3

fLC

Table 6.4

fN

Table 6.5

fID

Table 6.6

FFS

117.9 km/h

117.9 km/h

117.9 km/h

Peak Hour Factor (PHF)

PHF =
V = hourly volume for hour of analysis
V15 = maximum 15 min flow rate within hour of analysis
4 = Number of 15 min period per hour
Parameters

Direction
From UMS library

From DKP 1

From UMS roundabout

34

213

130

V15

46

16

PHF

1.42

1.16

2.03

11

Heavy Vehicle Adjustment Factor (fHV)

fhv =
fHV = heavy vehicle adjustment factor
ET, ER = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/ buses and RVs
PT, PR = Proportion of trucks/buses and RVs in traffic stream

Parameters

Direction

Reference

From UMS
library

From DKP 1

From UMS
roundabout

Heavy Vehicle

0%

4.23 %

6.15 %

PT

0.0423

0.0615

%/100

ET

2.5

2.5

2.5

Table 6.7

Er

No RVs

fhv

1.0

0.94

0.92

Flow rate (vp)


vp =

vp = 15-minute passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h/ln)


V = hourly volume (veh/hr)
PHF = peak hour factor
N = number of lanes in one direction

12

fHV = heavy vehicle adjustment factor


fp = driver population adjustment factor (Assume driver is commuter=1.0)

Parameters

Direction

Reference

From UMS
library

From DKP 1

From UMS
roundabout

34

213

130

PHF

1.42

1.16

2.03

fHV

1.0

0.94

0.92

fp

vp

23.94
pc/hr/ln

195.34
pc/hr/ln

69.61
pc/hr/ln

One lane

Commuter

Density (D)
D=
D = density (pc/km/ln)
vp = flow rate (pc/hr/ln)
s = average passenger car speed (km/hr)
Parameters

Direction

Reference

From UMS
library

From DKP 1

From UMS
roundabout

vp

23.94

195.34

69.61

117.9

117.9

117.9

0.20 pc/km/ln

1.66 pc/km/ln

0.59 pc/km/ln

Service

Figure 6.2
13

7.0 DISCUSSION

Based on the results, in the morning, the traffic flow from UMS library is very low
compare to those from DKP 1 and from UMS roundabout which is only 16. Meanwhile the
traffic from DKP 1 is lower than UMS roundabout with only 48 cars compare to 101 from the
roundabout. The total car from UMS library is low because there were still less people going
to the library as well as leaving it. Total car from roundabout is more because it connects
the main entrance to UMS, to the hostel and new DKP and also the junction to the library
and DKP 1. Apart from that, the total number of cars on the three junction increases
drastically especially from DKP 1 that is 213, 34 from UMS library and 130 from UMS
roundabout. In the evening, the value increases from UMS library with 66 cars and while for
the DKP and from UMS roundabout, the value decreases to 135 and 100 cars respectively.
Level of Service (LOS) express the performance of a highway at traffic volume less
than capacity. Based on the results for the roads studied, the LOS is at level A. This means
that the road has the highest quality of service than can be achieved. The travel conditions
are completely free flow and the only constraint on the operation of vehicles for the road
studied is the geometry of the road which is windy and the existence of the road hump and
also the individual driver preferences. LOS A also gives the meaning that motorists are able
to travel at their desired speed and the need for passing other vehicles is well below the
capacity for passing.
Since the road also being used by pedestrians to cross to other side, the road hump
is made on the road from DKP 1 to slow down the car from that side to give the pedestrians
the chance to cross the roads and also giving some time for the cars from UMS library to go
out form the junction and entering it. Besides that, the road hump is also made on the road
from UMS roundabout with the same function.
The road can be upgraded by adding some traffic sign such as the Yield or Stop sign
to warn drivers to be extra alert and careful and be considerate to the other road users such
as pedestrians. The Yield sign is suitable to be placed at junction so that driver that wants
to go out from the junction can alert with the cars coming from the straight road. Zebra
marking should also be added for the road to accommodate pedestrian to cross the road
safely.

14

Figure 1: The Yield sign

8.0 PROPOSED DESIGN


Table 1 Guideline for type of crossing required, JKR

Pedestrian Volume at Traffic Volume (1 way) at Type of Crossing


peak hour

peak hour

< 50

<1000

Ordinary level crossing

50-100

100-2000

Signalised level crossing

100

2000

Overhead
crossing/underpass

Based on observation, the pedestrian volume at peak hour is less than 50. According to JKR,
the type of crossing should be designed is ordinary level crossing. This designed suit the
capacity of junction during peak hour where traffic flow is free with low volumes.

15

9.0 CONCLUSION
In a nut shell, all the level of service for this junction is classified as service A which
indicates free flow traffic from all the direction.

10.0 REFERENCES

Arahan Teknik Jalan 8/86. A guide on Geometric Design of Roads. Kuala Lumpur: Public
Work Department Malaysia.

J. Garber, N., & A. Hoel, L. (2001). Traffic and Highway Engineering. US: The Wadsworth
Group.

16