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Based on Nonlinear Disturbance Observer *

Chengshan QIAN, Changyin SUN, Yiqing HUANG, Chaoxu MU, Jingmei ZHANG, Ruimin ZHANG

AbstractHypersonic Gliding Vehicle (HGV) is a new class

of hypersonic glider being developed. This paper designs a flight

control system for a Hypersonic Gliding Vehicle based on

nonlinear disturbance observers. Firstly, a nonlinear

disturbance observer (NDO) is used to estimate the unknown

disturbances; the influence of disturbances is estimated by the

NDO. Secondly, the NDO is integrated with a conventional

sliding mode controller to compensate the influence of

disturbances based on the estimate. Stability of the composite

closed-loop system is provided using Lyapunov theory. Finally,

simulation results present that the flight control system for the

HGV achieves excellent results.

largely uncertain[1-6].

This paper designs a flight control system for a HGV based

on nonlinear disturbance observers (NDO). Firstly, a NDO is

used to estimate the unknown disturbances. Secondly, the

NDO is integrated with a conventional sliding mode controller

to compensate the influence of disturbances based on the

estimate. Stability of the composite closed-loop system is

provided using Lyapunov theory. Finally, simulation results

present that the flight control system for the HGV achieves

excellent results.

I. INTRODUCTION

hypersonic glider being developed. It characterized by

sub-orbital velocities and cruising altitudes in the 20-80 km

altitude. A HGV is a maneuverable hypersonic reentry vehicle,

which can dispense a variety of payloads inside the

atmosphere. The HGV is to be launched into its suborbital

trajectory either by expendable boosters or reusable launch

vehicles. For example, the HGV can be launched by Small

Launch Vehicle (SLV) which is a low-cost quick-response

booster. It is a very unique vehicle. During the early part of the

flight, it acts like a spacecraft. In the middle phase, it re-enters

the atmosphere like the space shuttle, and in the latter stage, it

flies like an aircraft. One of the major control problems to be

encountered with such a vehicle is the scarcity of aerodynamic

data, and the likelihood of the model used for the guidance and

automatic pilot design to be largely uncertain. It poses a very

reference[7]. The equations of flight attitude angle

T

T

= [ , , ] and angle rate = [ p, q, r ] are considered in

this paper. It can be described by the following nonlinear

model:

(1)

= f f + g f M C

(2)

where f s = f , f , f ,

(No.91016004, 60974106), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation

(No.20110491335), Jiangsu Province Postdoctoral Science Foundation

(No.1101075C).

Chengshan QIAN is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China. He is with

School of Information and Control, Nanjing University of Information

Science

&

Technology,

Nanjing

210044,

China

(e-mail:

qianchengshan@163.com).

Changyin SUN is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China (e-mail:

cysun@seu.edu.cn).

Yiqing HUANG is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China (e-mail:

yiqhuang@163.com).

Chaoxu MU is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China (e-mail:

mcx1984@sina.com).

Jingmei ZHANG is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China (e-mail:

meizijingjing@163.com).

Ruimin ZHANG is with the Flight Control Research Center, School of

Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China (e-mail:

zhangrim@163.com).

= f s + gs

1573

f = ( qSC

f = ( qSC

f =

g cos cos tan qSC

+

+

V

MV

qSC

gs

tan cos

sin

=

sec cos

1 tan sin

0

cos

0 sec sin

p

p

p

f f = f p , f q , f r , where f p = I qr qr + Ip p + gl laero ,

r

f q = I prq pr + Iqq q + g mq maero , f r = I pq

pq + Irr r + g nr naero ,

T

x = f ( x ) + g1 ( x )u + g2 ( x )d

r

I pq

= ( I xx I yy ) I zz , Irr = g nr Izz , g nr = 1 I zz ,

pb

rb

Cl , + Cl , p

laero = qSb

+ Cl , r

,

V

V

2

2

and

qc

Cm,a + Cm,q

( CD, sin + CL, cos ) ,

maero = qSc

+ X cg qS

2

V

g1 ( x ), g2 ( x ) R n m .

pb

rb

Cn, + Cn, p

Y ,

naero = qSb

+ Cn , r

+ X cg qSC

2

2

V

V

nonsingular

MC = g f + Mr

is

the

g mq

norm-bounded

torque

vector;

gf

g q , a

g r , a

g p , r

g q , r

g r , r

x = f ( x ) + g1 ( x ) [ u + g0 ( x )d ]

D , a

sin + CL , r

(5)

The structure of the control system based on NDO is

shown in Figure 1. Where xr is the state vector of the

)

cos ) ,

g q , e = qScC

m , e + X cg qS CD , e sin + CL , e cos ,

g q , a = qScC

m , a + X cg

(4)

controller such that the influence of the disturbance d can be

attenuated to a specified level. Within this framework, a NDO

is required to estimate the influence of the disturbance. The

NDO is integrated with a conventional sliding mode controller

to compensate the influence of disturbances based on the

estimate.

where g p , e = qSbC

l , e , g p , a = qSbCl , a , g p , r = qSbCl , r ,

(

(C

qS

that

by the following

g p , a

g0 ( x ) R m m

g1 ( x ) g0 ( x ) = g2 ( x )

elevator-aileron, left elevator-aileron and rudder control

surface

respectively)

deflections

vector;

T

M r = [lTr , mTr , nTr ] is the control torque vector of the reaction

g p , e

= g q , e

g r , e

matrix

satisfies

g nr )

control

g f = diag ( g lp

(3)

,

disturbance,

respectively.

f ( x) Rn

n

of the plant.

g q , r = qScC

m , r + X cg qSCD , r sin ,

xr

gr ,e = qSbC

n,e + X cg qSCY ,e , gr , a = qSbCn,a + X cg qSCY , a ,

g r , r = qSbC

n , r + X cg qSCY , r .

and pulse modulation command of the RCS such that the

The nonlinear system of HGV can be divided into two

control loops: the fast loop and slow loop. The resulting

controller utilizes two-loop controller and provides robust

tracking of the required tracks. Angle rate = [ p, q, r ] is

T

the state vector for the fast loop and is called as fast state

vector; = [ , , ] is the state vector for the slow loop

T

Disturbances widely exist in engineering. The

disturbances concerned are supposed to be time-varying but

with bounded variation. When unknown disturbances are

considered, the fast loop and slow loop of HGV can be

described by the following nonlinear model:

stages. In the first stage, the controller is designed under the

assumption that there is no disturbance. All the existing

methods for designing a nonlinear controller can be used in

this stage. In the second stage, a nonlinear disturbance

observer is designed and then integrated with the previous

designed controller. Design of the controller is separated from

design of the disturbance observer. In principle, it can be used

to enhance the disturbance attenuation ability for any

controller.

A. Design of Nominal System Controller

The nominal system controller is designed under the

assumption that there is no disturbance.To design an

appropriate sliding mode controller, the angular velocity

vector required to provide asymptotic tracking of the

1574

considering angular velocity as a virtual control input to

the kinematics equation (1). This command angular velocity

profile c is then tracked by designing a suitable sliding

mode controller for the dynamic equation (2). Therefore, a

terminal sliding-mode model is designed as following[8-10]

s = e + as e + bs eqs / ps = 0

(6)

( x) =

Based on Assumption 2, there is

( x )

ed = d d d = z

x

x

initial state e (0) 0 , the dynamics (6) will reach e = 0 in

a finite time determined by

and Assumption 2, the disturbance observer (11) can

exponentially track the disturbance d if the nonlinear gain

(7)

c = g s1 c + as e + bs eq / p f s

ed = ( x ) g2 ( x )ed

ed = ( x ) g2 ( x ) [ z + ( x ) ] + ( x ) [ f ( x ) + g1 ( x )u]

(8)

( x ) [ f ( x ) + g1 ( x )u + g2 ( x )d ]

following[8,9]

= ( x ) g2 ( x ) d d = ( x ) g2 ( x )ed

=0

(9)

e = c and consider the equation (2), we obtain

(15)

the d tracking d is guaranteed. This completes the proof.

(10)

B. Design of NDO

To estimate the unknown disturbance d , a NDO is

the following assumption is imposed.

Assumption 3: Consider the nonlinear system (3), its

coefficient matrix of rows and columns are the same. In other

word, n = m = 3 . Therefore, g1 ( x ) R 33 , g2 ( x ) R 33 ,

d R3 , z R3 , d R3 , ( x ) R3 , ( x ) R 33 .

suggested as[11-13]

z = ( x ) g2 ( x ) [ z + ( x ) ] ( x ) [ f ( x ) + g1 ( x )u]

d = z + ( x )

According to Theorem 1, the estimation d can converge to

q /p

M C = g f 1 c + a f e + b f e f f f f

(14)

Proof: Putting equations (3), (11) and (12) into (13) leads

to

q / pf

(13)

ps

a (0) ( ps qs )/ ps + bs

tf =

, i = 1, 2, 3

ln s ei

a s ( ps q s )

bs

f = e + a f e + b f e f

(12)

derivative of the disturbance, the following assumption is

imposed.

Assumption 2: The change of the unknown disturbance d

eqs / ps = eqs / ps , eqs / ps , eqs / ps ,

( x )

x

(11)

d R m is the estimation of the unknown disturbance d .

Theorem 2: Consider the nonlinear system (3) and NDO

(11) satisfying Assumption 3 and Assumption 4, when the

nonlinear function ( x ) is chosen as

x c3

x c1

x c2

( x ) = 1 x1 + 1 2 x2 + 2 3 x3 + 3

c3

c1

c2

(16)

and satisfies

1575

observer error ed converges to the origin, where i > 0 , ci is

positive odd integer, i = 1, 2,3 .

Proof: From Assumption 3 and Assumption 4, we know

that g2 ( x ) is positive definite matrix. Consider a candidate of

Lyapunov functions as

V=

1 T

e d g 2 ( x ) ed

2

1

1

T

= edT g2 ( x) ( ( x) ) g2 ( x)ed edT g2 ( x)( x) g2 ( x)ed

2

2

Consider

)

(

1 1 + x1c1 1

0

0

( x )

( x) =

0

2 1 + x2c2 1

0

=

x

0

0

3 1 + x3c3 1

(18)

(20)

the origin. This completes the proof.

IV. COMPOSITE CONTROLLERS FOR HGV

During an HGV reenters atmosphere, it is hard to

recognize the unknown disturbance. It is necessary to design a

flight control system for the HGV based on NDO. After the

nonlinear disturbance observer is designed as in (11), it is

integrated with a sliding mode controller to compensate the

influence of disturbances. The structure of the flight control

system for HGV is shown in Figure 2.

ds

MC

d f

is

the

initial

rate

vector;

initial velocity; The required instructions of attitude angles are

c = 9 , c = 0 and c = 7 . The deflection angle of aero

control surfaces limiting is 30 . The disturbance moment d

is supposed as

T

c are the required instructions of attitude angles; d , d

and d are the tracking attitude angles under the controller

without NDO; NDO , NDO and NDO are the tracking

attitude angles under the same controller with NDO; ed , ad

and rd are the deflection angles of aero control surfaces

11

1.2

10

of HGV can be described by the following

8

7

6

5

NDO

3

t/s

(21)

1576

NDO , d, c /deg

NDO, d, c /deg

= f s + gs + d s

= f f + g f M C + d f

angular

are the deflection angles of aero control surfaces under the

controller with NDO.

(23)

following: M = 1250kg is the HGV mass; (0) = 2 ,

(0) = 1 and (0) = 3 are initial attitude angles;

Mc = Mc M

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

(0) = [ 0, 0, 0 ]

V = edT g 2 ( x ) ( x ) g 2 ( x )ed

(22)

influence of disturbances, where u is the control output of the

nominal system controller. The control law based on NDO for

HGV can be described by the following

(19)

= f s + gs ( + gs1 d s )

1

= f f + g f ( M C + g f d f

c = c ,

Consider the fact of the HGV, we know gs and g f are

invertible. Therefore, equation (21) can be described by the

following

(17)

1

Then V = ( edT g2 ( x )ed + edT g2 ( x )ed )

2

NDO

d

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

3

t/s

[8]

12

eNDO ,ed/deg

10

8

6

NDO

c

0

eNDO

20

ed

[9]

10

0

-10

[10]

-20

30

-30

t/s

[12]

rNDO

rd

20

rNDO ,r/deg

10

0

-10

-20

aNDO

-30

ad

0

[11]

30

aNDO ,ad/deg

3

t/s

[13]

2

0

-2

-4

t/s

t/s

based on NDO for the HGV achieves excellent results.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

This paper proposes a flight control system for a

Hypersonic Gliding Vehicle based on NDO and terminal

sliding mode control. The NDO can estimate the unknown

disturbances and the influence of disturbances is estimated by

the NDO. By the reasonable integration, the NDO is

integrated with a conventional sliding mode controller to

compensate the influence of disturbances based on the

estimate. The effectiveness of the proposed method is

demonstrated by the simulation results.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

Characteristics and Glide-Back Performance of Langley Glide-Back

Booster". in Proc. 22nd Applied Aerodynamics Conf. and Exhibit.

Providence, RI, USA: 16-19 Aug. 2004, pp. 1-17.

[2] E.M. Yong. "Study on Trajectory Optimization and Guidance

Approach for Hypersonic Glide-reentry Vehicle", Ph.D. dissertation,

Changsha: National University of Defense Technology, 2008.

[3] S.J. Song. "Speed Storm: Depth Secrets of American Falcon Rapid

Global Strike and Space Launch Program ". Modern Weaponry, 2008,

vol. 12, pp. 20-29.

[4] V. Morio, F. Cazaurang, P Vernis. "Flatness-based Hypersonic

Reentry Guidance of a Lifting-body Vehicle". Control Engineering

Practice, 2009, vol. 17, num. 5, pp. 588-596.

[5] S.H. Walker, C.J. Sherk. "The DARPA/AF Falcon Program The

Hypersonic Technology Vehicle #2 (HTV-2) Flight Demonstration

Phase". AIAA 2008-2539, 15th AIAA International Space Planes and

Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conf., Dayton, Ohio, 28 April 1 May 2008.

[6] M.P. Kleiman. "High-speed air vehicles designed for rapid global

reach". AFMC News Service, 27 January 2006.

[7] C.S. Qian, Q.X. Wu, C.S. Jiang, ea al. "Atmospheric Reentry

Modeling of Aerospace Vehicle Dynamics for Conceptual Design

Studies". Journal of Astronautics, 2008vol. 29, num. 2, pp. 434-439.

1577

[8] X. Yu, Z. Man." Fast terminal sliding mode control design for

nonlinear dynamic systems". IEEE Trans Circuits Systems Part I, 2002,

vol. 39 , num. 2, pp. 261-264.

[9] G.Y. Huang, C.S. Jiang, Y.H. Wang. "Research of Terminal Sliding

Mode Control Based on Fast Fuzzy Disturbance Observer for UASV

Re-entry". Journal of Astronautics, 2007, vol. 28, num. 2, pp. 292-297.

[10] G.Y. Huang, C.S. Jiang, Y.L. Xue. "An adaptive terminal sliding

mode control and its applications". Journal of Aerospace Power, 2008,

vol. 23, num. 1, pp. 156-162.

[11] W.H. Chen. "Harmonic Disturbance Observer for Nonlinear

systems". Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control,

2003, vol.125,num. 1, pp. 114-117.

[12] W.H. Chen. "Disturbance Observer Based Control for Nonlinear

Systems". IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2004, vol. 9,

num. 4, pp. 706-710.

[13] W.H. Chen, D.J. Balance, P.J. Gawthrop, et al. "A Nonlinear

Disturbance Observer for Robotic Manipulators". IEEE Transactions of

Industrial Electronics, 2000, vol. 47, num. 4, pp. 932-938.

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