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Study Guide: Chem 225


Safety Rules
1. Wear eye protection at all times
2. Know the locations of the eye was stations
3. Know the location of the fire extinguishers
4. If your clothing catches on fire, roll on the floor to smother the
5. Know the locations of the lab safety showers
6. Know the locations of the emergency exits
7. Do not eat, drink, or smoke in lab
8. Do not take chemicals or equpemtn out of lab
9. Bare feet and sandals are not permitted
10. Wear clothing that does not exposed your skin to chemical
11. Do not touch door handles, cell phones, notebooks, with gloved
12. Never work alone
13. Do not pipette by mouth
14. DO not contaminate reagents
15. Waste chemicals should be placed in the appropriate containers
16. Cleanliness
17. Maintain a quiet environment
18. Inform your instructor immediately about any medical issues
that arise
19. Do not use cell phones, laptops, in lab
Information Resources
A. physical Property Data
Glassware and equipment
Thermometer adapter


Heating Mantle:

Abbe refractometer:

Mel temp

4. Molecular Models
be able to identity the compound represented by a plastic molecular
Functional group test
Beilstein test = tests for the presence of halogens (Br, Cl, I)
o Bunsen burner green light Halogen present
Bromination Test = tests for presence of isolated double bonds
o The compounds is colorless and we add Br-Br (orange color)
to it. If colorless, then isolated double bonds are present
TLC test = tests for presence of aromatic
o Put in TLC plate, dark spots = aromatic
Iodoform Test = tests for the presence of methyl ketone
o Yellow precipitate = iodoform
o A positive result occurs when the brown color of the iodine
fades and the solution turns a cloudy yellow as the iodoform
Boiling Points
There are 3 important trends to consider.
The relative strength of the four intermolecular forces is: Ionic >
Hydrogen bonding > dipole dipole > Van der Waals dispersion
forces. The influence of each of these attractive forces will depend
on the functional groups present.
Boiling points increase as the number of carbons is increased.
Branching decreases boiling point.
Simple Distillation

Melting Points
How to set prepare a smaple for MP
How to use Mel-temp
Be able to rationalize and predict mixture MP
Rf = Distance traveled by compound/ Distance traveled by solvent
Organic compounds spotted on the surface of the plate separates
based on polarity
o More polar = stays in the bottom (Look for H bonds)
o More nonpolar = goes higher up the plate
Gas Chromatography = separation based on differences in BP
o Percentage of component in mixture = (area)/(total area) X
o Retention increased = BP increases