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# 2/18/2013

Bending theory

CE2182
07/02/13

Lecture Outline
Section properties: centroids
 Second moment of area
 Theory of bending


Assumptions
Second moment of area
Elastic section modulus

Section properties


Area of a section

Atotal = Ai


## Centre of gravity and centroid

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Centroid


Position of centroid?



If

I yy =

bd 3
db 3
and I zz =
12
12

## determine the second moments of area for

the shapes

Bending stress
it will deflect. At every
cross section internal
strains and stresses are
introduced.
 Their distribution across
the depth of the cross
section is not uniform
 Their distribution along
the length of the beam
is not uniform


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Bending stress
Lets assume that the
different layers
 If there is no bond/
layers they will deform
independently
 A real beam will deflect
without any relative
slipping between layers


Bending stress


## Basic kinematic assumption

Plane sections though a beam taken normal
to its axis remain plane after the beam is
subjected to bending
The top fibres are in compression and the
bottom fibres are in tension.
The distribution of strains and stresses is
changes across the depth of the beam,
therefore there is a layer which is neither in
compression nor in tension!

Bending stress


## The deformed shape of a

to be a circular arc with a
centre of curvature O
neutral level of the beam.

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Bending stress
We will take a small
segment of our beam
ABCD
AB=AB and CD=CD
AB<AB and CD>CD


## Therefore we can draw a diagram of

the change in length (ds) of any layer

Bending stress

## If we express the change in length/ original

length then that will give the strain
distribution across the depth of the beam

Bending stress

## One of the important theoretical assumptions is

that the strain distribution is linear. Also, the strain
distribution in a layer is proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis

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Bending stress




## For elastic analysis = E

Or the stress is directly proportional to
strain

Bending stress


## The resultants of the stress blocks are

thus C and T, which act through the
centroids of the blocks (triangles)

Bending stress


bd
= max
2
4
b d max bd

## T = average stress x area= max

=
2
2
4
Therefore, T=C
C = average stress x area=

max b d
2

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Bending stress
T=C, acting in opposite directions,
therefore they form a couple

M =C

2d max bd 2d max bd 2
=

=
3
4
3
6

## Example: Minimum height of a rectangular

beam with width 150mm if M=30kNm and
max bending stress is 30MPa?
M=

max bd 2
6

30 106 =

30 150d 2
;
6

d 2 = 40000

Bending stress : I


## Lets have a look at an irregular cross

section

Bending stress : I
Force in the thin strip = b y
 Moment of that force about NA = b y y
y1
 Total moment of the forces = bydy


y2

max
y1

because

y1

by dy
2

y2

max
y1

y1

Here,

I=

by dy
2

y2

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

y1

I=

d /2

y3
d 3 d 3 bd 3
by 2 dy = b
= b + =
3
d /2
24 24 12
d /2
d /2

by dy =
2

y2



Myi
;
I
I
M = max
yi

i =

top =

Mytop
I

b =

Myb
I

Z is used where
Z=

I
ymax

thus

M=

max
Z