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2/18/2013

Bending theory

CE2182
07/02/13

Lecture Outline
Section properties: centroids
 Second moment of area
 Theory of bending


Assumptions
Second moment of area
Elastic section modulus

Section properties


Area of a section

Atotal = Ai


Centre of gravity and centroid

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Centroid


Position of centroid?

Second moment of area I




If

I yy =

bd 3
db 3
and I zz =
12
12

determine the second moments of area for


the shapes

Bending stress
When a beam is loaded,
it will deflect. At every
cross section internal
strains and stresses are
introduced.
 Their distribution across
the depth of the cross
section is not uniform
 Their distribution along
the length of the beam
is not uniform


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Bending stress
Lets assume that the
beam is made up of
different layers
 If there is no bond/
adhesion between the
layers they will deform
independently
 A real beam will deflect
without any relative
slipping between layers


Bending stress


Basic kinematic assumption


Plane sections though a beam taken normal
to its axis remain plane after the beam is
subjected to bending
The top fibres are in compression and the
bottom fibres are in tension.
The distribution of strains and stresses is
changes across the depth of the beam,
therefore there is a layer which is neither in
compression nor in tension!

Bending stress


The deformed shape of a


loaded beam is assumed
to be a circular arc with a
centre of curvature O
and radius R to the
neutral level of the beam.

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Bending stress
We will take a small
segment of our beam
ABCD
 Before loading
AB=AB and CD=CD
 After loading
AB<AB and CD>CD


Therefore we can draw a diagram of


the change in length (ds) of any layer

Bending stress

If we express the change in length/ original


length then that will give the strain
distribution across the depth of the beam

Bending stress

One of the important theoretical assumptions is


that the strain distribution is linear. Also, the strain
distribution in a layer is proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis

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Bending stress




For elastic analysis = E


Or the stress is directly proportional to
strain

Bending stress


The resultants of the stress blocks are


thus C and T, which act through the
centroids of the blocks (triangles)

Bending stress


The resultant forces are:


bd
= max
2
4
b d max bd

T = average stress x area= max


=
2
2
4
Therefore, T=C
C = average stress x area=

max b d
2

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Bending stress
T=C, acting in opposite directions,
therefore they form a couple

M =C

2d max bd 2d max bd 2
=

=
3
4
3
6

Example: Minimum height of a rectangular


beam with width 150mm if M=30kNm and
max bending stress is 30MPa?
M=

max bd 2
6

30 106 =

30 150d 2
;
6

d 2 = 40000

Bending stress : I


Lets have a look at an irregular cross


section

Bending stress : I
Force in the thin strip = b y
 Moment of that force about NA = b y y
y1
 Total moment of the forces = bydy


y2

The total moment M =

max
y1

because

y1

by dy
2

y2

max
y1

y1

Here,

I=

by dy
2

y2

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I for rectangular section




For a rectangular cross section


y1

I=

d /2

y3
d 3 d 3 bd 3
by 2 dy = b
= b + =
3
d /2
24 24 12
d /2
d /2

by dy =
2

y2

Elastic section modulus




Therefore to calculate the bending stress:


Myi
;
I
I
M = max
yi

i =

top =

Mytop
I

b =

Myb
I

In structural design an elastic section modulus


Z is used where
Z=

I
ymax

thus

M=

max
Z