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Structural Analysis

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Bending theory

CE2182

07/02/13

Lecture Outline

Section properties: centroids

Second moment of area

Theory of bending

Assumptions

Second moment of area

Elastic section modulus

Section properties

Area of a section

Atotal = Ai

2/18/2013

Centroid

Position of centroid?

If

I yy =

bd 3

db 3

and I zz =

12

12

the shapes

Bending stress

When a beam is loaded,

it will deflect. At every

cross section internal

strains and stresses are

introduced.

Their distribution across

the depth of the cross

section is not uniform

Their distribution along

the length of the beam

is not uniform

2/18/2013

Bending stress

Lets assume that the

beam is made up of

different layers

If there is no bond/

adhesion between the

layers they will deform

independently

A real beam will deflect

without any relative

slipping between layers

Bending stress

Plane sections though a beam taken normal

to its axis remain plane after the beam is

subjected to bending

The top fibres are in compression and the

bottom fibres are in tension.

The distribution of strains and stresses is

changes across the depth of the beam,

therefore there is a layer which is neither in

compression nor in tension!

Bending stress

loaded beam is assumed

to be a circular arc with a

centre of curvature O

and radius R to the

neutral level of the beam.

2/18/2013

Bending stress

We will take a small

segment of our beam

ABCD

Before loading

AB=AB and CD=CD

After loading

AB<AB and CD>CD

the change in length (ds) of any layer

Bending stress

length then that will give the strain

distribution across the depth of the beam

Bending stress

that the strain distribution is linear. Also, the strain

distribution in a layer is proportional to the distance

from the neutral axis

2/18/2013

Bending stress

Or the stress is directly proportional to

strain

Bending stress

thus C and T, which act through the

centroids of the blocks (triangles)

Bending stress

bd

= max

2

4

b d max bd

=

2

2

4

Therefore, T=C

C = average stress x area=

max b d

2

2/18/2013

Bending stress

T=C, acting in opposite directions,

therefore they form a couple

M =C

2d max bd 2d max bd 2

=

=

3

4

3

6

beam with width 150mm if M=30kNm and

max bending stress is 30MPa?

M=

max bd 2

6

30 106 =

30 150d 2

;

6

d 2 = 40000

Bending stress : I

section

Bending stress : I

Force in the thin strip = b y

Moment of that force about NA = b y y

y1

Total moment of the forces = bydy

y2

max

y1

because

y1

by dy

2

y2

max

y1

y1

Here,

I=

by dy

2

y2

2/18/2013

y1

I=

d /2

y3

d 3 d 3 bd 3

by 2 dy = b

= b + =

3

d /2

24 24 12

d /2

d /2

by dy =

2

y2

Myi

;

I

I

M = max

yi

i =

top =

Mytop

I

b =

Myb

I

Z is used where

Z=

I

ymax

thus

M=

max

Z

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