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October 2014


Vol.: XLVII, No. 04, October 2014
ISSN 1800-1122


* 42nd Year of Publication *

Eng. W J L S Fernando
Eng.Tilak De Silva
Eng. W. Gamage

From the Editor ...

- President (Chairman)
- Past President
- Chairman, Library&
- Editor Transactions
- Editor SLEN

Eng. (Prof.) K. P. P. Pathirana

Eng. (Prof.) T. M. Pallewatta
Eng. (Dr.) U. P. Nawagamuwa
Eng. (Prof.) (Mrs.) N. Rathnayaka
Eng. (Dr.) D. A. R. Dolage
Eng. (Miss.) Arundathi Wimalasuriya
Eng. (Dr.) K. S. Wanniarachchi

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

120/15, Wijerama Mawatha,
Colombo - 00700
Sri Lanka.
Telephone: 94-11-2698426, 2685490, 2699210
Fax: 94-11-2699202
E-mail (Publications):
The statements made or opinions expressed in the
Engineer do not necessarily reflect the views of the
Council or a Committee of the Institution of
Engineers Sri Lanka, unlessexpressly stated.



Control Systems in Hybrid Energy
Renewable Power Systems: Review
Eng. S M Wijewardana

Assessments of Irrigation Water

Requirement from DeduruOya Left Bank
Canal to Supplement DeduruOya left Bank
Irrigation Demand
Eng. D S Sampath,
Eng. (Prof.) S B Weerakoon,
Dr. B K Mishra and
Dr. Srikantha Herath


Effect of Bed Roughness on Submerged

Hydraulic Jumps
Eng. Y Dilrooban,
Eng. K Imasalan,
Eng. K Sujana and
Eng. (Prof.) K P P Pathirana


Airport Curbside and Parking Area
Operations at BIA Analysis of User
by :
Eng. S D B Galagedera,
Dr. H R Pasindu and
Prof. J M S J Bandara


New Dynamic Battery Model for Hybrid
Vehicles and Dynamic Model Analysis Using
Eng. S M Wijewardana

Micro Automobile Manufacturing

Though automobile assembly in Sri Lanka started as early
as the middle part of the 20th century, a Sri Lankan
designed, developed and manufactured car was only
produced in 2001. Named Micro Privilege this mini car
was produced by Micro Cars Ltd., which commenced
operations in 1995. Now, Micro Cars has evolved in to a
major automobile manufacturer in Sri Lanka, producing
and assembling compact cars, sedans, vans, luxury SUVs,
large trucks, buses & even world renowned super luxury
cars. The entrepreneur has created employment and
opportunity to gain high level technical skills for the youth
of Sri Lanka while entering the country into the global
auto manufacturing fraternity.
Facts contributed on invitation by:
Dr. Lawrance Perera
Micro Holdings

Historical Timber Structures in Sri Lanka: A

Review on Pekada, Kenimandala and MadolKurupawa
Eng. C Jayawardana,
Eng. K Peiris and
Eng. S Wijesinghe


ENGINEER, established in 1973, is a Quarterly

Journal, published in the months of January,
April, July & October of the year.

All published articles have been refereed in

anonymity by at least two subject specialists.

Section I contains articles based on Engineering

Research while Section II contains articles of
Professional Interest.


Universal Science Part IV

Eng. S D S Deshapriya


New Approach for the Success of Yala

Cultivation in Dry Zone under Drought
Eng. R M B Rajakaruna


The above Paper was placed First in the Over 35

years of age Category at the Competition on Eco
Efficient Water Infrastructure for Sustainable
Development/Management 2012/2013
Sponsored by: St. Anthonys Industries Group
(Pvt) Ltd.


Design of Sewerage System in Kirulapone

for Colombo Municipality
Eng. (Miss) Shahina M Mysan and
Eng. (Dr.) Ananda Ranasinghe
The above Paper was placed Second in the Over 35
years of age Category at the Competition on Eco
Efficient Water Infrastructure for Sustainable
Development/Management 2012/2013
Sponsored by: St. Anthonys Industries Group
(Pvt) Ltd.


Hydro Electricity Driven Drip Irrigation

Systems; Potentials and Constrains in Sri
by: Eng. P Samitha Karunarathna
The above Paper was placed First in the Under 35
years of age Category at the Competition on Eco
Efficient Water Infrastructure for Sustainable
Development/Management 2012/2013
Sponsored by: St. Anthonys Industries Group
(Pvt) Ltd.



In 1885 when Karl Benz first developed an internal combustion engine
propelled vehicle he would have never thought that his invention would have such a
colossal impact on humanity, both as a gift and a bane. Present development of the
mankind, based on personal comfort, consumerism and convenience was aided in no
small way by the automobile which has impacted on all social levels. On the other
hand, fossil fuel combustion by products as well as other pollutants form
automobiles have created a near calamity in the global environment as well as critical
sustainability issues.
With that being said, it is glaringly obvious that ownership of an automobile
is a social status symbol that had lately being pushed to the proportion of a necessity.
Given the human nature, nowadays everyone tends to desire a personal automobile
and our country is no exception. Added with the fact that all imported autos involve
expenditure in foreign exchange for capital, fuel and spares it really makes economic
sense to manufacture our own. If one wishes to stack social factors such as creating
jobs, encouraging local equipment supplying industry and national pride, the
argument becomes even stronger.
It is within this background that we have to view the rapidly developing local
automobile manufacturing and assembling industry. Though the economy of scale in
production might not permit us to produce a totally local product, a substantial local
component could be injected to justify national contribution and sustain the industry
in economic perspective. As has been already done, tapping foreign markets for
customized autos is an effective way of alleviating the economy of scale problem.
To be a truly Sri Lankan product we should endeavour to incorporate our
national heritage of environmental friendliness into our automobiles, through
innovations making them low cost but acceptable quality, low maintenance but
functional design, and less environment polluting. This could be the fore preparation
for the next energy crisis, which invariably has to come. What Henry Ford did with
the model T and Ferdinand Porsche did with the Volkswagen in the 20th century, we
should be able to do in the 21st.

Eng. (Prof.) T. M. Pallewatta, Int.PEng (SL), C.Eng, FIE(SL), FIAE(SL)

Editor, ENGINEER, Journal of The Institution of Engineers.




ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [1-16], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Control Systems in Hybrid Energy Renewable Power

Systems: Reviews
S M Wijewardana

During the past couple of decades extensive research has been conducted in
renewable energy hybrid systems. As a result, wind solar hybrid energy systems have become more
popular and limelight of sustainable energy research. At present, the technology in this area has been
developing very rapidly in the manufacturing sector producing new equipment with many patent
rights. The main aim of this review paper is to re-examine the application of control systems used in
hybrid energy systems and opportunities for further research identified.
Algorithms, Control, Fuel cells, Fuzzy logic, Hybrid energy systems, Optimization,
Photovoltaic, Wind energy conversion.



centuries, biomass (wood) provided us with

heating and cooking for our homes while steam
engines, hydro plants and wind mills provided
us the power for our industries and daily
requirements as in [3],[4]. As at today, the
technology in this area has been developing
specially in the manufacturing sector producing
new equipment with many patent rights. These
technologies include power generation from
wind turbines (WT), on-shore and off-shore
wind farms, the evolution of the current
new technology to
optimize the conservation and delivery of
metering)[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]. In microelectronic
manufacturing sector the introduction of multijunction solar photovoltaic (PV) cells has
increased the efficiency of solar arrays from
20% to 43.5% [2]. Though, the intermittency is a
wave and solar
power;marine current energy has become one
of the most exciting emerging forms of
renewable energy. Unlike many other forms of
renewable energy, marine currents produce
consistent source of kinetic energy caused by
regular tidal cycles influenced by the phases of
the moon [10].

Adequate and affordable energy supply is a key

for global development and reduction in
poverty. Energy supply through the national
grid in a form of electricity has been a major
factor to decide ones quality of life. Noticeably,
this requirement was made by consuming more
depleting sources of fossil fuels. In return it
caused not only the shortage of coal, oil,
minerals and other energy resources, but also
polluting the environment. The consequences
are the gradual increase in global temperature
annually in an alarming rate with a huge
impact and danger to the livelihood of humans
and animals on the planet [1].
The aim of this paper is to review and examine
the current control systems and their future
developments mainly in standalone hybrid
energy systems (HES). Section-2 highlights the
general overview of renewable energy and the
structure of multi-energy hybrid power supply
systems. The application of control systems,
software packages and the optimization
algorithms used in designs has been discussed
under section-3. The section-4 briefly reexamines the application of control systems
used in HES for research purposes. The
conclusion is given in section- 5. Expansion of
the market, future trends and grand challenges
are given in section-6.


Island of Sri Lanka which is surrounded by the

Indian Ocean can be blessed by tapping more
and more renewable energy resources from
offshore wind farms and from tidal farms. It is
encouraging to note that these projects were
initialised way back in 1999 with the
installation of first wind turbine in
Hambantota. According to the wind study

Renewable Energy/Alternative
Energy/Hybrid Energy

Renewable Energy (RE) has always been in

forefront and it is accepted that technological
advancement in this area would expand for the
implementation of the carbon footprint [2]. For

Eng. S M Wijewardana, B.Sc.Eng(Mech) (Moratuwa),

M.Eng(EEE)(Victoria), PGDip. Digital Control(Victoria),
PGDipEd (Victoria), C.Eng, MIE(Sri Lanka), PhD Student,
Queen Mary University of London



conducted by the National Renewable Energy

Laboratory (NREL), USA, the estimated wind
power energy that could be tapped is around
20,740 MWs [11].

systems together. However, when both sources

cannot provide sufficient power when the
demand is high, alternative back up sources
like battery storage systems or capacitor banks
provide energy for shorter durations until the
wind and solar systems come back to normal
operating conditions. Fig.1, shows a block
diagram of a generic hybrid power supply
system with a battery backup system.

Apparently these figures are

only for the
inshore wind farms around the specific coastal
belts. Hence, the real figures could be very
much higher than that of the NREL, US figures.
According to the Ceylon Electricity Board and
the Renewable Energy Authority websites from
Sri Lanka, there are no offshore large scale
wind farms and they are yet to be constructed.
The largest inshore wind farm is at
Seguwantivu, in Puttlam district managed by
Seguwantivu and Vidatamunai (Pvt.)Ltd. These
wind farms have 25 wind turbines in total and
with a total capacity of 800KW. They
generate 20MW to the National Electricity Grid
[12]. Penetration of the electricity supply from
these WTs to the grid faces number of
challenges; in particular, to ensure the power
balance, security of safe maintenance, computer
based remote control and automation systems
development, in addition to reactive power,
frequency, voltage variation, harmonics and
phase lock loop control (PLL) [5],[7],[8],[9].
In addition to the wind turbine generators,
discussed above, hybrid fuel cell (FC) motor
vehicles have added a new dimension to the
transportation industry in general. In future
instead of gasoline refill stations commuters
will have to turn to the hydrogen filling stations
or none as hydrogen is produced by the inbuilt
hybrid fuel cellelectrolyser units.

Figure 2 -Block diagram of a multi-energy hybrid

power supply system

The block diagram shown in Fig. 2. is a multienergy hybrid power supply system that can be
used to supply electricity to household
customers as a standalone system. (UC:
Ultracapacitor bank, FC: Fuel cells, WT: Wind
turbine, Solar-PV: Solar photovoltaic)
The economic conditions and the availability of
power sources can decide the topology and the
number of power sources to be combined [13].
Excess power from the system can be fed into
the grid for distribution or can be used to
produce hydrogen gas for storage by using the
electrolyser if proton exchange membrane fuel
cells (PEMFC) are used in the plant[14].

Solar PV





Solar irradiance



Control Systems in Hybrid

Energy Systems


Various control systems have been developed

and presented by many researchers to use in
hybrid energy systems (HES). Among them, as
solar PV systems are occupying a large area
due to low efficiency(16-20%) [2], cost
optimization with suitable maximum power
point tracking(MPPT) systems have been
utilised. Most researchers used the Perturb and

AC Load

Figure 1 -Block diagram of a generic hybrid

power supply system

Due to complementary nature of wind and

solar energy it is now customary to use both

Observe (P&O) algorithm, Genetic Algorithm

(GA) and Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO)
algorithms for maximum photo voltaic power
tracking (e.g.: pl. see: [15],[20]). Fuzzy logic(FL)
and fuzzy based algorithms were used in
[21],[22],[23],[24] and [25] for MPPT from solar
PV arrays and to calculate the optimum wind
turbine coefficient for maximum power output.
However, control systems to tackle the variable
nature of the wind energy, active and reactive
power control, voltage variation, harmonics,
frequency control are still being under
investigation by researchers with the intention
of succeeding low cost, maintenance free,
frictionless drives as they have to be operated at
very high altitudes and remote off-shore
Proportional integral (PI) and proportional
integral and derivative (PID) controllers have
been used extensively by many researchers to
control hybrid systems. Kabalci, E.;[15]
proposed a system to use either a PI controller
or an extended PI controller with an auxiliary
controller programmed with the Perturb and
Observe(P&O) optimization algorithm. The
output capacity of the wind turbine used in
their system for modeling was 2KW permanent
magnet synchronous generator(PMSG).PMSG
was preferred as it does not require brushes or
commutators and it does not have the problem
of cogging torque and robustness. Doubly fed
induction generators (DFIG) are normally used
for higher capacities (Mega Watt range)[9].
aerodynamically to suit variable wind speeds to
achieve optimum efficiency by tracking the
optimum tip-speed ratio. Therefore, the
generators rotor must be able to operate at a
variable rotational speed. The DFIG system
therefore operates in both sub- and supersynchronous modes with a rotor speed range
around the synchronous speed. The stator
circuit is directly connected to the grid while
the rotor winding is connected via slip-rings to
a three-phase converter. For variable-speed
systems where the speed range requirements
are small, for example 30% of synchronous
speed, the DFIG offers adequate performance
and is sufficient for the speed range required to
exploit typical wind resources[9].
The MPPT system proposed by Kabalci, E.
[15]was programmed by using P&O algorithm
to extract energy from 170W solar PV panels.
Energy from the wind turbine through the
PMSG was sent to the AC-DC conversion with
an uncontrolled full-bridge rectifier. Converter
outputs were then fed into a bus bar through an
interface to transform into the three phase

power supply. The system monitored the

harmonics produced[15].
Chen etal.[16] used a PID controller to control
the gas demand (hydrogen and air) to the fuel
cell (FC) hybrid system. A novel control
strategy was introduced by Haruni et al.[17] to
control a hybrid system comprised with WT,
electrolyser, FC, load side inverter, voltage and
frequency regulator. Same researchers then
developed a standalone hybrid power system
by using Solar-PV/FC/UC with a new power
controller [18]. Uzunoglus [19] system mainly
relying on solar-PV array which feeds
electricity to the electrolyser to produce
hydrogen to store for future storage and also
transfers electricity to the load. When the PV
system cannot meet the load demand, FC
system supplied electricity as a backup system.
When FC also cannot completely satisfy the
demand then the UC bank provided the
electricity to the load. The key feature of the
system was to introduce a MPPT system to
extract optimum power from the solar-PV array
by using the curve fitting technique algorithm
in Matlab. The pulse width of the switching
signal was determined using reference and
measured voltage to represent the characteristic
of the solar cell exponential equation. Then the
pulse width command and the carrier signal
were compared to obtain the switching of PWM
signals. Other key feature of the research was
that a main controller was used to control SolarPV, hydrogen storage tank pressure, UC and
the load.
Optimization study was carried out by Laidi,
etal. [26] using a hybrid energy controller
supplied by Torjan Battery company. The
difference between this research and the [19] is
that Laidi et al.[26] used Multi Objective
Evolutionary Algorithm and the GA to find the
optimization. Khan et al.[27] used two PID
controllers to control the hydrogen and oxygen
flow to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell
(PEMFC). In addition, Khan et al. [27]
presented the Laplace domain transfer
functions to model the UC bank and wind
turbine dynamics which is convenient to
implement as a dynamic model in Simulink
with the PID controllers.
Laplace domain dynamic transfer function for
UC(eq.1.) is given below:(Khan et al. [27])
s 1 / RC C

Vstack s(1 RS / RC ) 1 / RC C


The symbol C is the capacitance and the RC, and

RS were defined as the series resistance and the
stray resistance, Vucap and Vstack are the input
and output voltages of the UC system.
Weijun et al.[28] designed a dual closed loop
control method to track the wind energy
changes and stabilize the system. Inverter
control system in this research acts as a main
controller for the WT/Solar-PV and the BS
system. Bhattacharya et al. [29], presented a
hybrid power system consisting of WT and
Solar-PV panels. The system used a central
controller and the simulation results were used
to validate the use of three solar panels.
Jitendraet al.[30] presented a paper on
modeling and simulation of Wind/Solar-PV
hybrid system using Simulink. Modeling
involved the voltage and frequency variation
control, number of household connections and
their power usage. Wang etal. [14] presented a
research paper on WT/Solar-PV/FC system
incorporating a MPPT controller for the SolarPV system, pitch angle controller and a power
controller for the WTG. Ciobotaru et al. [26]
presented a Solar-PV inverter control system
which was programmed and tested by
usingdSPACE software package. Also, Cibotaru
et al.[26] included a MPPT system in addition
to the Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) DC voltage
controller and a current controller. Fuzzy based
P&O algorithm was used by Sankaganesh et al.
[33] for MPPT of the solar-PV system.
Standalone WT/Solar-PV hybrid system was
presented by using HOMER software in the
paper presented by Badawe et al.[33]. FuzzyPID controller to control a WT/solar-PV hybrid
power system was presented by Fengge, et al.
[34]. Fuzzy intelligent controller in[34] was
used for the switching purposes and for charge
control in the battery storage system. PID
controller was used to control the pulse width
modulation. Since, the control system presented
by Fengge et al. [34]has a feedback loop for
battery charging and state of charge(SOC)
estimation, Fengges controller is more
preferable to use than, the Wangs [14]
controller though it has a fuel cell back up

review at the time of writing. Baghaee et al.[35]

published a research paper on designing a
novel multi-objective optimization algorithm to
minimize the objective functions. As the
research was more directed towards cost
optimization it will be discussed in a different
Fuzzy logic controller was
implemented by Mohammad et al. [36] by
using HOMER software. Fuzzy logic controller
directs the excess power of the hybrid system to
BS system and then to the electrolyser for
producing hydrogen gas for storage. Cost
optimization, analysis, energy management,
reliability studies were carried out by
researchers in [24],[37],[38], [39],[40], [41], [42],
etc. will not be discussed in detail as this paper
highlights the control system applications to the
stand alone HES. Eshita et al. [54]presented a
multilevel inverter control system, diode
rectifier and boost regulators to control the
rotor three phase connection from the DFIG
while the stator is directly connected to the
grid. Inverter controller with a 3-level neutral
point clamped (NPC) with 4 switches, antiparallel diodes and 2-diodes per phase were
used to extract the maximum power from the
WT. The system recorded low harmonics.
Imp= 0.9ISC
When many researchers used the Perturb and
Observe (P&O) algorithm, Genetic Algorithm
(GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
algorithms for maximum photovoltaic power
tracking [15],[20], Eshita at al. [54] used
equation (2) to compare theImp, panel output
current at maximum power point and ISC, short
circuit current of PV panel (pl. see [54] for more
Sukamongkol, et al.[55] presented a battery
charge controller to observe the SOC.
Comprehensive review covering the areas of
hybrid energy systems configuration, unit
sizing, bus connection, control and energy
management, future trend and challenges were
given in the review paper presented by [56].
Other review papers presented were [57],
[58],[59], [60],[61]. The review paper presented
by Nema, P., et al. [60] was more descriptive in
the areas of unit sizing, optimization and
mathematical modeling, while in [61] cost
optimizing, modeling and system selection was
reviewed. Review paper submitted by [59] was
focussed mainly on power management and
optimization algorithms, and then paper[58]
was extended towards the green building
designs and energy performance of green
buildings. Optimization methods, pros and
cons, future research, on-going work were

Optimal Fixed-Threshold Discharge Strategy

and a Fuzzy Discharge Controller was used to
system in Kathirvels [23] control system.
Important aspect of this research was to connect
the output power into 1KW Grid through three
phase breaker switching system and a bus by
monitoring the load voltage. Practical
implementation results were not available for

network based model for a hybrid energy

system was presented by Lin et al. [74].Lin
presented a fuzzy neural network (FNN) and a
neural network (NN) to compare the
simulations. NN model was similar to the one
presented by[73]. However, the proposed FNN
[74] is a general NN model with 3 layers and its
fuzzylogic system that has singleton fuzzifier,
defuzzifier. The difference between the two is
that [74] used an intelligent controller with
radial basis function network and improved
Elman neural network (ENN) for MPPT.

discussed in the review paper presented by

[57].WT/Solar-PV/BS hybrid system was
presented by Abdel-Salam et al. [63]. Newton
Rapson method was used for the system sizing
of WT, solar PV and the BS units.
Wavelet based load sharing and fuzzy logic
based control algorithm was proposed by
Erdinc, et al.[64]. Dynamic modeling of fuel cell
control system, UC bank, fuzzy logic controller
inference system, reference power tracker for
the FC system were the key features of this
research and the system was mainly designed
for electric vehicles. PID controller with an
ultrasonic sensor feedback loop was introduced
by Delimustafic et al.[65]. A novel control
strategy was presented by Uzunogh et al. [66].
DC/DC converters were designed for each
Solar-PV, FC, and the UC banks. Main
controller was used for the switching purposes
and was operated by a decision algorithm.
Fuzzy logic control system was proposed by
Shia, et al. in [67] for the solar- PV and WT
system. Hierarchical fuzzy controller algorithm
was presented for controlling the loading and
unloading of wind generator. P&O algorithm
based fuzzy logic controller was presented by
Safani et al. [68] while power management
controller was introduced by Lalit et al.
[69].Hybrid system modeling and simulation
studies using LabView was presented by Aissa
et al. [70]. Voltage controller for the wind
turbine generator, MPPT system and a AC/DC
converter with DC/DC converter configuration
was presented by Nabil et al.[71] by using a PI
controller for the inverter. Yuehua et al. [72]
presented a MPPT system for the WG and for
the Solar-PV system which was optimised by
using P& O algorithm.

Haruni, AMO., et al. [18] published a paper on

Novel Operation and Control Strategy for a
Standalone Hybrid Renewable Power System.
The system designed was to operate under two
The top level controls the energy
management and then regulates the power
depending on the wind and load conditions.
The second level was the load regulation when
unfavourable wind and inadequate storage of
power there to meet the requirement while
avoiding system blackout. Proposed structure
given was clearly presented with details and
Potamianakis, et al.[75] used an automatic
voltage regulator (AVR) to keep the constant
terminal voltage. Over excitation limiter (OEL)
was used to protect the field winding of
synchronous generator from unacceptable
steady-state field current. Load tap(LT)
changers have been used for bulk power
delivery transformers and mechanically
switched capacitors were used to keep the bus
voltage and the power factor at a desired level.
Unlike other PID, NN, Fuzzy Logic control
systems discussed above, the proposed system
in [75]which uses the switching systems,can be
identified as a cost effective and easy to
maintain control system. Onar, et al. [51] used a
main controller (similar to a main controller
concept as shown by Fig.3 later in this paper),
for their proposed Wind Turbine/SolarPV/PEMFC/UC hybrid power system. Overall
system configuration was given as a block
diagrams, in which the main controller was
used to control the output power of Solar-PV,
WT, FC and the UC bank. Depending on the
power demand of the microgrid in the
neighbourhood, main controller can decide
which source is reacting to meet the demand.
Toextract the maximum power output from
PEMFC, Solar-PV system and the wind
generator, the Genetic algorithm was used.
Setiawan, et al. [36] used a PID controller to
control a motor/pump which is pumping

Neural network control strategy was used in

LI-Jifang et al. [73] with the use of LevenbergMarquant algorithm. Multi-energy hybrid
power supply controller is connected to all sub
units of power sources including storage units,
rectifiers, converters (DC/DC) and inverters.
The neural network structure was constructed
with input layer(five inputs), hidden layer(nnumber of hidden layers) and with an output
layer (four outputs). Activation function used
for all four neurons is Sigmoid function and the
function used: f(x)= 1/(1+e-x). Learning rule
used for the system was the back propagation
algorithm until the desired outputs were
reached. Initial weight calculations were
performed by using the forward pass and
activation function. The same configuration
was applied to all three sources of WT, Solar PV
and the energy storage unit. Another neural


water from a pre-treatment chamber to a

desalination plant as described in the research

or Solar-PV arrays. Runge-Kutta numerical

integration method was used for simulations.
Huang, etal.[79] published a research paper on
WT/Solar-PV hybrid system. Hu and et
al.[79]used the MPPT control method by using
the principle of variable step Perturbation
Algorithm. Simulink had used to verify the
system suitability. Hybrid systems use many
tracking methods to find the maximum power
point to operate: fixed voltage tracking method,
power feedback method, disturbance observer
method are some of them. The proposed
method employs the controlling total output
power of wind and Solar-PV to track the each
sources maximum power.
Qi, Y.,et al. [80]also proposed a high efficient
mode optimal control method for the
scheduling curve of the hybrid system and
minimum charge-discharge times of the battery
have been taken as objective functions. SOC of
the battery and the charge rate of the active
power have been taken as constraints. Overload
state of the battery was monitored by output
energy and by the current. The system was
validated by using Simulink. Three levels of
control procedures and working according to
the power regulation plan of each station was
noticeable in the design. Energy management
of Wind/Solar-PV/BS hybrid system with a
consideration of memory effect in battery was
presented by Mousavi, et al. [80]. Each
subsystem of wind generation, Solar-PV array
and the battery system was modeled using
Matlab. Then the system was controlled by a
charge controller by remembering the wind and
solar energy output given at any instant to the
charge controller. Linear short term prediction
method was employed within the controller
with wind and solar energy available at any
instant to gain cost optimization to the system.
It was recorded that PSO algorithm and the
fuzzy control method have led the battery
charge and discharge more reliable and cost
effective. But none of the experimental details
were available for reference at the time of

Liang, W., and Littler, T., [77] published a

research article on modal extraction for wind
turbines using moving window subspace. The
method developed was for wind turbine model
identification using the Multivariable Output
Error State-Space (MOESP) identification
algorithm. It was further modified into a fast
moving window QR decomposition (QR
factorization: Q and R are matrices) and
propagator method from array signal
processing, yielding a moving window
subspace identification algorithm. Initially the
algorithm assumed the order of the system. For
the purpose of extracting modal information
the turbine was modelled as a Linear Parameter
Varying (LPV) system. The non-linear system
was approximated as a piecewise time invariant
system in consecutive data windows.
Numerical simulations show that the moving
window algorithm can track the model
information. The method identifies as low
conventional batch subspace identification. It is
interesting to note that Liangs [77] presentation
has not so far validated or tested by Block
Lanczos or by PowerDynamics. Supervisory
controller was introduced by Kalantar, et
al.[21] to capture maximum energy from
WT/Solar-PV hybrid system. It is an adaptive
feedback linearization controller that calculates
the reference powers for the battery regulator
controller, microturbine controller, and dump
load controller based on subtraction of load
power from sum of WT and PV array powers.
In order to compare the operation of the
adaptive controller, fuzzy and a PID controllers
were used. The simulation results for 50s (50
was selected for ease the calculation for fuzzy
controller) proved that Lyapunov adaptive
controller performed better than the Fuzzy and
PID. The standard of the research work, state of
the art applications are highly commendable
and overall, it was a very good research paper
in this context. Qi, W., et al.[78] introduced a
supervisory predictive control system for the
standalone Wind/Solar-PV hybrid system. It
was a supervisory model predictive control
(MPC) system for the optimal management and
operation of hybrid standalone system. The
method computes a power reference for the
wind and solar generators at each sampling
time while minimizing a suitable cost function.
The power references were then sent to two
controllers which drive wind turbine generator

Meenakshi, et al.[81] published a research

article on an intelligent controller for a
Standalone hybrid energy system. The system
comprised with a standalone wind driven selfexcited induction generator (SEIG), Solar-PV
array, DC/DC converter, battery bank, DC/AC
inverter, AC/DC rectifier to the induction
generator. Neuro-controller was used to track
the maximum power points of the wind and
solar arrays. Matlab/Simulink has been used to

wind turbine with a doubly fed induction

generator (DFIG), diesel generator, UC bank
and a Solar-PV array. Coordination control
algorithms were proposed to balance the power
flow between AC and DC grids and to maintain
both DC and AC voltages. Mathematical
models for the Battery storage system, PV
array, WG, Boost converter were given in the
work with control system block diagrams.

study the dynamic model. The neuro controller

was trained with 150 simulations data using
Back Propagation Algorithm. The Outputs of
the controller are the duty ratios of the chopper
and firing angle of the controlled rectifier.


Research article presented by Wandhare, et

al.[53]introduced a control system to reduce the
effect of intermittent solar radiation and wind
velocity in hybrid Wind/Solar-PV system
without losing MPPT. Researchers proposed a
power conditioning unit to control the output
power from the WT/Solar-PV system to
eliminate the disturbances and supply constant
output when both wind and Solar-PV supplies
change randomly and unexpectedly. The
design incorporated a high energy capacity UC
bank to overcome this situation. The introduced
control system did not affect the MPPT system
associated with each source. The control
strategy used was an inner fast current loop
and an outer slow voltage correcting loop for
both the grid side voltage source inverter (VSI)
and for the UC converter. The researchers
elaborated that the proposed system minimized
the disturbances of the input current loops of
VSI control and it does not introduce any
harmonics in the system.
Important research article was published in
modeling and analysis of emulator for
distributed generation sources smart grid using
digital signal controller by Andrew, XRI., et al.
[86]. Scope of this research was to design a
dynamic modeling system to various
components of a standalone hybrid system and
present the simulation results. In addition they
proposed a centralised digital signal controller
(DSC) to introduce to the system when many
renewable sources are providing energy to the
grid. The TMS320F28335 digital Signal
Controller was used to program the system.









Delimustafic, et al.[82] introduced a control

system to monitor the water level of a storage
tank system. The tank water level control was
achieved by a PI and a PID controller. Effective
energy distribution and a reliable power supply
were achieved by using switched logic
architecture. Their research also included the
analysis of power converters using parameters
generated by simulations results. Use of a GUI
for data monitoring, control and supervision
within the SCADA system was a key feature in
this research. PowerSim software was used to
model and simulate the AC/DC converter and
the DC/AC converter.
Mtshali, et al.[83] published a paper on
Simulation and modelling of WT/Solar-PV/BS
hybrid standalone power system. Novel
controller was designed to supply load power
at least from one source.


Figure 3 -Main control centre to control a

hybrid energy system.

Patsios, C., et al.[84] presented a paper on

control and analysis of hybrid renewable
energy-based power system. Proposed system
was a WG/Solar-PV/FC hybrid energy system
and the FC was there to supply power when
the WG and Solar-PV systems cannot meet the
demand. UC bank was included in order to
withstand rapid power fluctuations in the
system when the power demand and supply
changes very rapidly. The simplicity and the
neat presentation of the paper was very
commendable and the mathematical modeling
is very clear and explicit. Liu, X., et al.[85]
published a research paper on a hybrid AC/DC
Micro-Grid. The designed system included a

Gupta, SC., et al.[52] presented a research

article on optimal sizing of a Wind/Solar-PV
hybrid system. The paper presented a
computational model for optimal sizing of the
WT/Solar -PV hybrid systems. Loss of power
supply probability (LPSP) index, total life
cycle(TLC) cost have been used as indices for
evaluation of different topologies of the hybrid
system. Matlab energy balance calculation
method was used to verify and validate the


Kolhe, et al.[87] presented HES by using the

software package TELELAB. The system
comprised with a WT/Solar-PV array, and a
battery storage system. Remote monitoring and
a control system with necessary data interfaces
were proposed in this paper. Data recording
and monitoring was done through a data
logger. The proposed system can operate
remotely through internet connections and the
system behaviour can also be monitored from
remote locations. PLCs, data loggers, sensors
and cameras were part of the system for data
input and monitoring.
Jahdi et al.[88] presented a research article on
renewable hybrid Grid-Connection using
converter interfaces. The proposed research
explored the connection considerations of wind
Solar-PV hybrid systems to the grid. While
many researchers used Simulink, HOMER and
ETAB software packages were used by Jahdi et
al. [88] for the simulation studies. The research
also pointed out the practical problems they
faced when it was connected to the grid.
Distributed generation (DG) causes harmonics
into the system and reduce short circuit
During power failures DG
systems function as independent power supply
units and hence, causes dangers to the
repairmen. Within the network with the current
traversing back and forth, can cause voltage
variations which can increase appreciably as
opposed to the case where normally current is
flown in one direction only from high to low.
Remedial actions were also discussed in the

Hybrid centralised and distributed control

paradigm strangely uses two or more
centralised controllers to communicate the local
controllers of each source. However, out of
many control methods discussed so far, it is
understood that the best control method is to
use an intelligent, fast, economical centralised
and local controllers. Literature review noted
that though the wind energy systems are
rapidly expanding still not economical
compared to fossil fuel power supply systems.
The grand challenges are for fool proof smart
operation of the grid, use of low cost digital
smart metering not vulnerable to software
hackers, data protection of the consumers. In
general, it was noted that the control and power
management is easier when these RE systems
operate at individual basis as micro grids than
connecting to the main grid. The way forward
is to tackle the technological problems to
penetrate the RE power supply systems to the
grid and the research alone cannot overcome
these challenges/barriers unless governments
spearhead to subsidise wherever possible to
reach the renewable portfolio standards by 2030
and by 2050.


Integration of large onshore and off shore wind

farms to the national grid have created several
technical challenges as discussed above. The
technical challenges faced today are, grid code,
smart grid power supply systems, pitch control,
generator side and the grid side control for
voltage stabilization, harmonics, frequency
control, reactive power control and safe
The literature shows that the majority of
commercially available wind turbine generators
are directly driven and directly connected to
the grid. The future trend is also towards the
direct drive grid connected wind turbine
generations. Though the cost of the power
electronic converters is getting cheaper, the
system reliability will increase by eliminating
the gear boxes and the power electronic
converters. Also the system efficiency will
increase because of the losses in the gear boxes
and the power electronic converters are
eliminated. Permanent magnet synchronous
generator(PMSG), field excited synchronous
generator(IG) are three candidates for such
applications. As permanent magnet excitation
eliminates the excitation losses, PMSG are

It has been observed that general strategy used

for controlling HE systems have been
categorised into centralized, distributed, and
hybrid control paradigms. Noticeably, in all
three cases, each energy source has its own
local controller except in a few research
publications, which decides the point of
operation depending on the environmental
conditions or according to the statistical data or
loss of load probability (LOLP). Functionality of
the centralised controller is to control each local
controller. This type of controller can fail
quickly (single point failure) as it has to get and
send lot of information at once from local
controllers for decision making. The distributed
control paradigm (method) seems to have
overcome the singlepoint failure, as the
controllers made to communicate each other
and come to a global compromised decision.
These systems use intelligent algorithms, fuzzy
logic, neural networks, optimization genetic
algorithms or their hybrid combinations.

Re-examine the Application of

Control Systems Used in Hybrid
Energy Systems.

promising candidates for the electricity

generation. The direct drive, grid connected
induction generators and PMSG are intended
for fixed speed operations. When the PMSG
generator is connected to the grid, the speed is
determined by the grid frequency and is
constant. When the torque to the generator is
increased (sudden blow of wind), the generator
will produce electromagnetic force to resist an
increase the speed. Sudden blow of wind can
exert large stresses on the wind turbines drive
train. However, IG allows a small change of
speed with the change of torque transferring to
the generator and lower stresses and wear and
tear of the drive train. As the IG and the PMSG
machines have similar stators, the cost
difference is mainly due to the rotor. As the cost
of the magnetic materials is higher than that of
aluminium, induction generator is cheaper than
the PMSG for the same power rating. But,
PMSGs have higher efficiency compared to IGs.

performance comparison, controllers stability

are very specific areas that have to be
addressed in a in a different perspective than in
a review paper. This also includes the modeling
and simulation studies of distribution networks
analysis of smart grid, consumer connections,
grid control and load balances.

5. Conclusion
Stand- alone hybrid systems with minimum of
two energy resources are more suitable to
supply electricity in remote areas to off-grid
applications. This paper focussed mainly on the
control aspect of standalone hybrid systems. As
a result of the review, it was found that
WT/Solar PV/BS systems are very popular. For
stand-alone applications fuel cells combined
with wind turbines have the drawback of low
efficiency due to electricity-hydrogen-electricity
conversion process and the FCs are used only
as backup systems similar to BS systems. But,
WT/FC systems economically perform better
than the WT/BS systems. To achieve the best
combinations of components sizing, most
researchers used multi-objective evolutionary
algorithm (MOEA), Genetic Algorithm and the
Partical Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques.
computational time, researchers still prefer to
apply Fuzzy-PID controllers in many hybrid
control systems.

DFIG are popular as they can be directly

connected to the grid. However, DFIGs have
wound rotor IG where the stator directly
connected to the grid and the rotor via slip
rings is connected to the grid through a power
converter mostly with a 4 quadrant AC to AC
converters. Still, as the generator has to be
connected to the turbine with a gear box it is
always susceptible to the mechanical efficiency
loss. Therefore, PMIG is viable as it has high
efficiency compared to other types (No gear
box).It has an advantage over electrically
excited synchronous generator that does not
require extra DC source for rotor excitation.
But, as the size of the wind turbine increases the
size of the magnets also increases. Therefore,
the PMIG are much suitable for KW range wind
turbine generators and the DFIG are suitable
for MW range wind turbine generators and
large scale wind farms[157].Research areas
open in this context can be the application of
fuzzy controllers and neural networks for
system identifications. Fuzzy-PID controllers
perform accurately reducing the cost of the
hybrid systems as stand-alone units. Though
some researchers proposed the neural network
models, sliding mode control and Lyapunov
functions with the Kalman Filters. They are
very much suitable to apply in the aerospace
industry with observable, uncontrollable
systems. For hybrid energy systems, they are
still at the experimental stage and yet to be
assessed with the economic viability. Critical
analysis of control systems associated with the
wind turbine generators: DFIG, PMIG,
switched reluctance generators and their


Future Trend and Grand

Challenges in Hybrid Energy

The future trend is towards the construction of

independent power plants with the use of wind
turbines and hydrogen fuel cells. Within the
next 5 years the technology and the
commercialization in this area will be massive
and Germany has already started establishing
green energy power supply plants [102].
Commercialization has been restricted as
expensive platinum was needed to make the
catalyst, and Association of Fuel Cell
Manufacturers is now developing low-cost
ceramic minerals to overcome the problem.The
application of artificial intelligent systems and a
single controller to control the system than
modular control systems are the way forward
in this area.
Use of magnetic levitation concept in
automobile industry and construction of
magnetic super-fast highways to replace the
motorways can be within the reach during the


next 40-60 years (authors prediction).

Application of magnetic suspension, gearless
transmission and magnetic bearings for high
capacity offshore wind generators is also a
promising area for further research.
Future vision in this context has been
prognostic on DC distribution systems and to
develop more household appliances that run on
DC power and complete rewiring of houses to
accommodate DC power supply systems.

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The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Assessments of Irrigation Water Requirement from

Deduru Oya Left Bank Canal to Supplement
Deduru Oya Left Bank Irrigation Demand
D. S. Sampath, S. B. Weerakoon, B. K. Mishra and S. Herath
Rainfall in Deduru Oya basin has a significant temporal variation and thus the
Deduru Oya carry flash floods during rainy season and very low flows during dry season. The
Deduru Oya reservoir under construction at the upstream of the existing RidiBediEla anicut will be
useful to regulate discharge of the Deduru Oya for better utilizing the basin water resources especially
for irrigation. The multi-purpose Deduru Oya reservoir project with a reservoir of a capacity of 75
Million Cubic Meters (MCM), augments water resources in 136 existing tank based irrigation systems
in the Deduru Oya Left Bank through a Left Bank (LB) canal and also diverts water to the Iginimitiya
tanking the Mee Oya basin through a Right Bank (RB)transbasin canal. This study develops a model
for water management in LB canal development area and for the assessment of diversion requirement
from the Deduru Oya reservoir through the LB Canal to supplement LB irrigation demand.
Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is used for runoff
estimations and CROPWAT model is used to estimate crop water requirements. Water Evaluation
And Planning (WEAP) model is used for water balance simulations in Deduru Oya LB canal
development area and to calculate water requirements from LB canal for the period of recent 10 years.
The study reveals that the annual water requirement from the LB canal for 100% cropping intensity in
the proposed 3000 ha irrigable area in LB canal development area varies from 26 MCM to 41 MCM.


Irrigation Water Requirement, Deduru Oya Project, Hydrological Modeling, WEAP


Main impacts of the climate change on water

resources in Sri Lanka are the unusual variation
of rainfall with time, high intensity rainfalls and
increase of ambient temperature[12, 19]. Out of
these, the changes of rainfall and temperature
affect the irrigated agriculture. Irrigated
agricultural systems need to be resilient to such
effects in order to avoid crop failures.

With the increase of population, demand for

food increases and areas under irrigated
agriculture continue to increase all over the
world [4]. As the supply of water for all needs
is only through the dynamics of hydrologic
cycle, careful management of the limited water
resources under increasing demand of water for
irrigation and other multiple uses is utmost
important. Extreme climate changes that are
evident in the world seriously affect water
sources and hydrologic cycle [17].

In the case of ancient irrigation systems, there

are number of resilience features such as
distributed storages in small reservoirs (tanks).
So they are more resilient to climate change
compared with modern systems. It is important

Area of cultivation has been increased to the

maximum in modern irrigation systems in
order to maximize the agricultural production
under given water source. However, changes in
climatic patterns frequently have caused a
reduction in seasonal water availability and
hence affect the cultivation [8]. Seasonal water
shortages in drought years seriously affect the
cultivations under modern major irrigation
schemes [17]. Failure to manage the water
sources in an effective manner which leads to
the reduction of irrigated agriculture will affect
the society and the economy of the country [8].

Eng. D. S. Sampath, BScEng (Peradeniya), AMIE(Sri

Lanka), Temporary Research Assistant, Dept. of Civil
Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Eng. (Prof.) S. B. Weerakoon, BScEng(Peradeniya),
MEng, DEng (Tokyo), FIE(Sri Lanka), Int. PE SL, C. Eng,
Professor of Civil Engineering, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Dr. B. K. Mishra, BScEng(Chennai), MScEng
(Kathmandu), DEng (Kyoto), Project Researcher, University
of Tokyo, Japan
Prof. Srikantha Herath, BScEng (Peradeniya), MEng
(AIT), DEng (Tokyo), Senior Academic Programme
Director, UNU-IAS, Tokyo, Japan



them are inherited from ancient time. Major

tributaries of Deduru Oya are RatwilaEla,
Kospothu Oya and Dik Oya in the upper basin
and Maguru Oya, Hakwatuna Oya and
Kimbulwana Oya in the middle basin and
Kolamuna Oya, ThalagalaEla in the lower basin
(Figure 2).

to incorporate the resilient features of the

ancient systems to modern irrigation systems to
improve their resilience under changing climate
[21, 22].
With the recognition of importance of resilient
irrigation systems, the mosaic irrigation
systems inherited from the ancient times
augmented by diversions from perennialrivers
is being paid attention now. The Deduru Oya
LB canal of the Deduru Oya reservoir project is
one example of such development [22]. The
assessment of availability of water resources in
the existing irrigation systems and the
diversion requirement from the river is
important for optimal water management in the

Rainfall is the only source of water and there

are no transbasin diversions into or out of the
basin at present. The rainfall in the basin has a
significant temporal and spatial variation.
Annual rainfall ranges from 2600mm in the
upper basin to 1100mm in the lower basin.
From the annual rainfall about 50% is received
during inter monsoon months (March, April,
October& November), about 35% during
months (May to
September), while remaining 15% during
Northeast monsoon months (December to
February) [18].

Deduru Oya Basin

Deduru Oya basin which has an area of 2620

km2 ranging from 0m to 1280m MSL is the sixth
largest river basin in Sri Lanka extending from
Chilaw in the west coast to the central hills. The
Deduru Oya has a length of 115 km and flows

The Deduru Oya carries flash floods during

rainy season and very low flow during dry
season and it releases about 1600 MCM of

Figure 1-Location and Topography of the Deduru Oya Basin

water to the sea annually [7]. There are several
anicuts across it to divertwater for irrigation
but there is no single reservoir intercepting the
Deduru Oya except the reservoir at
Thunmodara being constructed under Deduru
Oya project (Figure 2). There is strong need to

through Matale, Kurunegala and Puttalam

districts. Location of the basin and topography
is shown in Figure 1.
The basin contains a large number of small and
large tanks used for irrigation, and most of



The Deduru Oya LB canal which flows through

three District Secretariat (DS) divisions namely,
Wariyapola, Kobeygane and Hettipola, will
supply water to augment 136 existing storagebased ancient irrigation systems in the LB of the
Deduru Oya (Figure 2). The 44.1 km long LB
main canal has a discharge capacity of about 7.1
m3/s at beginning. There are four branch canals
from the LB canal. These canals pass through
number of small tanks(Figure 2). There are
about 17Level Crossings along the LB main
canal formed by small tanks. There are Control
Point Outlet (CPO) points along LB main canal
and branch canals to release water for
agricultural purposes. Distribution of minor
tanks located under main canal and branch
canals are shown in Table 2. Most of these
irrigation tanks are under cascade systems and
inherited from ancient time.

regulate Deduru Oya flow for its optimum use

especially for irrigation during lean season.

Deduru Oya Reservoir Project

Deduru Oya Reservoir Project which is amultipurpose water resource development project
Department aims primarily to improve the
livelihood of farmers in part of the North
productivity of land through irrigated
agriculture. Other purposes of the project
include enhancement of reliable sources for
domestic and industrial water supply schemes
and regulation of the flow to enhance diversion
to RidiBendiEla and to control downstream
floods[18]. The project includes construction of
a dam across Deduru Oya to impound a
reservoir of a capacity of 75 MCM, two canals at
the RB and LB and instalment of a hydropower
plant at the downstream of the dam. RB canal is
a transbasin canal to augment water supply to
Iginimitiya reservoir which is located in Mee
Oya basin. It is proposed to develop 1000 ha
along the transbasin canal and 4115ha at the
Mee Oya basin. An area of 3000 ha under
RidiBendiEla scheme will be benefited by
regulated water supply from the Deduru Oya
reservoir (Table 1) [18].

Table 2- Number of Tanks in Main Canal and

Branch Canal

Table 1- Details of Existing and Proposed

Irrigable Areas by Deduru Oya Reservoir
area (ha)
area (ha)













Canal Name

Number of tanks

Main Canal


Branch Canal 1


Branch Canal 2


Branch Canal 3


Branch Canal 4



This paper describes the water balance study of

the irrigation tanks augmented by the LB canal.
Irrigation water requirements from the LB canal
for LB irrigation development area to achieve
100% cropping intensity were estimated under
different scenarios.

Hydro energy will be supplied to the national

grid by using a 1.5MW plant installed at the
downstream of the dam [18]. The downstream
release of the reservoir is necessary for
RidiBendiEla diversion and downstream
environmental flows.



Figure 2-Deduru Oya Reservoir and LB Canal





development area consisting of rain-fed tank

irrigation systems.

The methodology followed is summarized in a

flow chart as shown (Figure 3). For all minor
tanks augmented by the LB canal, catchment
areas, land use patterns storage capacities,
command areas, natural streams, geological
features and cascades were identified by using
relevant GIS data and digitizing techniques.

2.1. Rainfall Runoff Modeling

Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic
Modeling System (HEC-HMS) version 3.0.1
developed by US Army Corps of Engineers in
USA was used as the rainfall runoff model [24].
The HECHMS supports both lumped
parameter based modeling as well as
distributed parameter based modeling and has
been tested for tropical catchments[1].

Topographic, geologic and land use data were

collected from the digital data of the Survey
Department of Sri Lanka. ArcGIS 9.3 was used
for spatial analysis of the Deduru Oya LB

Data collection;
Land use, Geology, Topography data, Minor tank
detail, Soil data, Rainfall and runoff data

Hydrological modeling;
HEC-HMS model for application to small
catchment in the LB region

Hydrological model application to each

irrigation scheme;
To generate daily runoff into each tank from
their respective catchments for 2000-2010 years

Estimation of irrigation crop water

requirement using CROPWAT
Development of Water Evaluation and Planning
Model (WEAP) for LB irrigation area

Estimation of irrigation requirement for LB canal

for different scenarios
Figure 3-Methodology
region. Major soil type in Deduru Oya basin is
reddish brown earth[9, 14].

HEC-HMS model is calibrated and verified for

the Tittawella tank in Kurunegala District
which has rainfall and runoff data [23]. Daily
observed rainfall, runoff and evaporation data
are available for the period of May 1995 to
March 1997[11]. This catchment is in the same
ago-climatic region and hydrologically similar
to the catchments of the tanks in Deduru Oya
LB canal development area. The catchment area
of Tittawella tank is 2.95 km2. The longest water
course is 1800 m long and catchment slope is
0.82%. The tank has a capacity of 0.31MCM.

Inflows to the irrigation tanks in LB

development area are not available and
therefore a rainfall - runoff model was
developed to estimate the direct inflows to the
tanks from their own catchments. Irrigation
water requirements for the command area of
each tank were calculated by using CROPWAT
model. WEAP model was applied to compute
water requirement from LB canal for the LB



Major soil group is reddish brown earth and

soil depth is more than 120 cm.

requires the constant loss rate and initial loss to

be specified. These represent physical
properties of the watershed and land use and
the antecedent condition. The soil moisture
accounting loss method uses five layers to
represent the dynamics of water movement in
and above the soil. The layers include canopy
interception, surface depression storage, soil,
upper groundwater and lower groundwater.
The soil layer is subdivided into tension storage
and gravity storage [24, 27]. Implementation of
both loss methods requires the soil properties
of the sub basin. According to soil type and
catchment properties in the basin, an initial loss
of 30 mm, and a constant loss rate of 1.0 mm/hr
and catchment imperviousness of 10% were
used in initial and constant loss method. Above
parameters were able to produce the best fit
against observations. Parameters used for soil
moisture accounting loss method are shown in
Table 3.

Normalized Objective Function (NOF), Nash

Sutcliffe efficiency (R2NS), and percentage bias
(b) values were used as quantitative measures
for the skill of simulations. These parameters
are used to analyze goodness of fit [5, 6, 10,

Eq 1

Eq 2

Eq 3

Table 3- Summary of Parameters Used in Soil

Moisture Accounting Loss Method

are observed discharge,

simulated discharge, number of the observed or
simulated data points, and mean of the
observed discharge respectively.


HECHMS model was calibrated for isolated

rainfall events and also for continuous rainfall.
Observed daily rainfall and discharge during
Oct-Nov 1995 was used for event based model
calibration. Skill metrics for simulated river
discharge with observed were computed and
the best fit was obtained by adjusting model
parameter values for moisture loss, runoff
transform method and base flow processes of
the HEC-HMS model. The rainfall and
discharge in Oct 1996 and May 1995 were used
to validate the calibrated event based model.
Rainfall and discharge data during Sept to Nov
1995 period was used to calibrate the
continuous simulation of the model while 3
months, 1 year and 23 months time series
during Sept to Nov 1996, Sept 1995 to Aug 1996
and May 1995 to Mar 1997 were used to
validate the continuous model simulations.


Canopy (%)

Surface (%)

Soil (%)


Groundwater 1 (%)


Groundwater 2 (%)


Canopy storage (mm)


Surface storage (mm)

Max infiltration (mm/hr)




Soil storage (mm)


Tension storage (mm)


Soil percolation (mm/hr)


Groundwater 1 storage (mm)


Groundwater 1 percolation

The event based simulations employed the

initial and constant loss method to compute
infiltration loss while continuous simulations
used the 5layer soil moisture accounting loss
method. The initial and constant loss method
assumes that the maximum potential rate of
precipitation loss is constant throughout an
event. The initial and constant loss rate model


Groundwater 1 coefficient (hr)


Groundwater 2 storage (mm)


Groundwater 2 percolation
Groundwater 2 coefficient (hr)




Clark unit hydrograph was selected as

transformation method where Time of
Concentration and Storage Coefficient are the
parameters to be defined in Clark unit
hydrograph transformation. The storage
coefficient is used in the linear reservoir that
accounts for storage effects [24]. In this case,
time of concentration and storage coefficient
were selected as 3hr and 2hr respectively for
the Clark unit hydrograph.

each growth stages were used for the

CROPWAT model to calculate CWR. Hydro
meteorological data are available at the
Department of Meteorology [13]. Rainfall data
were selected according to Thiessen polygon
method. Computations of irrigation water
requirements were made using 60% application
efficiency and 75% conveyance efficiency. Land
soaking and tiling requirement were also taken
into account [18].

Recession base flow method was employed for

both event based and continuous simulations.
The recession constant was set to 0.76 and ratio
to peak was set to 0.5 while the initial discharge
was set to 0.05 m3/s after simulating several
trials. These base flow modeling parameters
were used as calibration parameters.

2.3. Water



The WEAP model developed by the Stockholm

Environment Institute (SEI)operates at a
monthly step on the basic principle of water
balance accounting. The WEAP model
represents the system in terms of its various
sources of supply (e.g. rivers, groundwater, and
reservoirs), withdrawals, water demands,
transmission, waste water treatments and
ecosystem requirements [26].

2.2. Crop Water Requirements

CROPWAT 8.0 software developed based on
the FAO guidelines, is used for calculation of
Crop Water Requirements (CWR) and
irrigation requirements from climatic and crop
data. The program also allows the development
management conditions and the calculation of
scheme water supply for varying crop
patterns[3, 20].

The model comprises two distinct systems [25];

For the calculation of CWRs, CROPWAT needs

data on evapotranspiration(ETo), rainfall, crop
data and soil data. CROPWAT allows the user
to either enter measured ETo values, or to input
data on temperature, humidity, wind speed
and sunshine, which allows CROPWAT to
calculate ETo using the Penman- Monteith
formulae[2, 3].

processes(e.g., evapotranspiration, runoff
and infiltration) to enable assessment of the
availability of water within a basin.

Simulation of anthropogenic activities

superimposed on the natural system to
influence water resources and their
allocation (i.e., consumptive and nonconsumptive water demands) to unable
evaluation of the impact of human water

WEAP is a practical tool for water resources

planning and it can address a wide range of
issues, e.g., sectoral demand analyses, water
conservation, water rights and allocation
priorities, groundwater and stream flow
simulations, Reservoir operations, hydropower
generation, pollution tracking, ecosystem
requirements, vulnerability assessment, and
project benefit-cost analyses [26].

Rainfall data are used with CROPWAT to

compute effective rainfall data as input for the
CWR and scheduling calculations. Crop data
are needed for the CWR calculations and soil
data to calculate irrigation schedules. Whereas
CROPWAT normally calculates CWR and
schedules for 1 crop, it can also calculate a
scheme supply, which is basically the combined
CWR of multiple crops, each with its individual
planting date[2, 3].

All system information including irrigation

demand, water releases data are input into the
current accounts. The current accounts are the
data set from which scenarios are built.
Scenarios explore possible changes to the
system in future years after the current account
year. A default scenario, the Reference
Scenario carries forward the current accounts
data into the entire project period and serves as

CWR was calculated assuming that 105 day low

land paddy is cultivated. It was calculated
using CROPWAT for paddy crop on monthly
Wariyapola and RidiBendiEla station in year
2000 to 2010, Mahailuppallama reference crop
evapotranspiration rates and crop factors for



a point of comparison for other scenarios in

which changes may be made to the system

WEAP model was setup to Deduru Oya LB

development area consisting of 136 rain-fed
minor tanks. 150 demand sites, 189
transmission links, 106 diversions and 13
directly feeding demand sites were used in the

WEAP consists of five main views which are

called Schematic, Data, Results, Scenario
Explorer and Notes. Schematic is spatial layout
and this graphical interface used to describe
and visualize the physical features of the water
supply and demand system.

LB main canal and its branch canals were

modeled by diversion links. Waterways
between paddy fields and minor tanks were
modeled by transmission links. Direct feeding

Figure 4- Schematic Diagram

2.4. Setting up of the WEAP Model

ways between LB canal and paddy fields were

modeled by transmission links. Diversion of
water from LB canal to a tank or from tank to a
tank is modeled by diversion link. Different
Supply preference and Priorities were used
to model the diversion link and transmission

A WEAP project is used to investigate water

balance in the LB canal irrigation area of
Deduru Oya basin for the period from 2000 to
2010. The year 2000 was selected as the current
accounts year or base year for this analysis.
Using ArcView 9.2, digital data was analyzed
and GIS vector file was prepared for LB canal.
Vector file was added as a map layer in
schematic view. LB development area was
modeled by using required elements such as
reservoirs, diversions, demand sites and
transmission links. Figure 4 shows the part of
the schematic diagram.


Demand sites along LB main canal are

numbered as D1 to D57. Demand sites along
branch canal 1 are numbered as D1_1 to D1_11.
Likewise all the demand sites were numbered.
If there are two demand sites up and down it
was numbered as D1_up and D1_down. When
there is a cascade with number of tanks it was
numbered as D3_4a, D3_4b. Demand site which
are locate left side of LB canal name as OFC.


shown in Figures 6 to 9 respectively. Figure 8

and Figure 9 depict graphical comparisons of
respectively for continuous simulation. The
study used the computed skill metrics of
simulated stream flow against observation as a
criterion to calibrate model parameters. Table 4
shows that the skill of simulations of calibrated
agree reasonably well
against observed discharges during both
calibration and validation periods in event
based and continuous simulation.

Areas name as OFC are located in higher

elevation than LB canal. Therefore water
diversion to OFC from LB canal under the
gravity is not possible. Proposed irrigable area
under LB main canal was named as D
expansion and irrigable area is 600 ha. Figure 5
shows above numbering system.
Water balance and reservoir operations are
embedded in WEAP model, was carried out in
monthly basis for each for individual basic for
each tank by considering reservoir capacities,
monthly inflows and irrigation demand.
Withmonthly inflow to all the tanks, each
irrigable area was modeled as a demand site.
For each demand site Annual activity level,
Annual water use rate, Monthly variation
and Consumption are required. Annual
activity level is area cultivated annually under a
particular tank. Annual water use rate is
amount of water used for a unit irrigable area.
Monthly variation is monthly share of annual
demand. Annual water use rate and monthly
variation are calculated from CROPWAT
results model. Percentage of inflow consumed
is the consumption.

Table 4- Computed Skill Metrics for Event

Based and Continuous Simulation


SeptNov 95
Nov 96













Sept 95Aug 96




May 95Mar 97




Calibrated HEC-HMS model applied to

generate daily inflows of respective sub
catchment of 136 minor tanks in LB
development area. Figure 11 shows the
Mellapoththa tank. Mellapoththa tank is the
very first tank which is proposed to augment
with the use of LB canal. Monthly basis Gross
Water Requirement (GWR) and respective
rainfall are shown in Figure 10.

Figure 5- Demand Site Numbering System

3. Results and Discussions

3.1. HEC-HMS Application

HEC-HMS model calibration and validation for

Tittawella tank using observed data of selected
peak events during Oct-Nov 1995 and Oct 96
and also using observed data of the continuous
period of Sept-Nov 95 and Sept-Nov 96 are










Simulated runoff

Discharge / (m3/s)

Observed runoff





Observed runoff


Simulated runoff









30-Oct-95 1-Nov-95












9-Nov-95 11-Nov-95










Figure 6 - Calibration of Event Based Simulation

Figure 7- Validation of Event Based Simulation


Discharge / (m3/s)




Observed runoff


Simulated runoff


















Figure 8 - Calibration of Continuous Simulation




Observed runoff
Simulated runoff




















Figure 9 - Validation of Continuous Simulation






Discharge / (m3/s)



Discharge / (m3/s)




Water height / mm

Inflow (MCM/month)




















Figure 11 - Monthly Inflows to Mellapoththa Tank


Figure 10 - Monthly Irrigation Water Requirement and Rainfall for Mellapoththa Tank



Inflow/( MCM/month)

GWR (mm/month) per sq.m

3.2. WEAP

distributed to demand sites for year 2009 are

shown in Figure 15.

With detailed irrigation demands analyses in

LB region, total water requirement and unmet
demand in LBLB have
have been
been investigated.
Proposed LB canal development area is 3000ha
including 2400ha existing irrigable areas.
CROPWAT and WEAP simulation results for
10 years on monthly basis from 2000 to 2010
for 100% cropping intensity under existing
tank based irrigation provides the monthly
irrigation requirement and monthly unmet
demands. Unmetdemand
demand isis water
water deficiency.
the variation
variation of
of total
total annual
Figure 12 shows
water requirement (supply requirement) and
total annual available volumes from existing
irrigation systems (supply delivered) during
area. area.
2000-2010 for
for the
theLB LB
results are based
on analysis
under Without
are based
on analysis
scenario. scenario.

Volume/ MCM




Comparison of
of Supply
Figure 13- Comparison
Requirement and Supply Delivered in 2009

The difference between irrigation

and delivered for 100% cropping intensity in
Figure 13 needs to be supplied by the LB canal
for year 2009.

Volume / MCM
Volume / MCM


When the LB development area is taken as

2600ha without proposed extension of 600ha of
irrigable area it is revealed that separate runs
annual unmet
varies from 15 MCM
28 MCM
the period
to 28in
in the
of 2000of 2010.
2000 This
This that
even at present
the importance
even atcondition
present and
and the
of LB diversion.
of LB diversion.


2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Figure 12 -Comparison of Supply

Requirement and Supply Delivered in LB

The present study uses only 10 years for

investigating water diversion demand from
2000 to 2010 due to changing climate
conditions and to demonstrate the model
long term
term forecast
capability. If we have long
rainfall data, the model with the calibrated
parameters can be used for long-term
projections of LB diversion demand of the
Deduru Oya reservoir
reservoir project.
project. The
The model
predictions will be useful for water
management and to plan water resources
Oya reservoir
development in the
the Deduru

According to Figure 12 there are unmet

demands in all
all the years
and Figure 14
the annual unmet demand during 2000-2010
periods distributed
distributed to
to demand
demand sites.
Annual unmetdemand
demand from
from 2000
2000 -2010
-2010 varies
26 MCM to 41 MCM for 100% cropping
intensity in the proposed 3000 ha irrigable area
under LB
When annual
of requirements
values ofvalues
and delivered
are itcompared
is revealed
is revealeditthat
supply is that
less than the requirement
all years
theis requirement
in all years in
from to year
2000 12).
to Accordingly
2010 (Figure
2010 (Figure
it is 12).
it is not 100%
to achieve
to achieve
under present condition.
2009 is the one
the period
one of
of driest
from 2000 to 2010 resulting an unmet demand
of 41MCM. Monthly unmet demands








Supply Delivered


Supply Delivered


Supply Requirement


Supply Requirement


















































































































































2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010







D expansion




Unmet Demand / MCM





Figure 14 - Unmet Demand from 2000 to 2010




Unmet Demand / MCM























































































































































D expansion

Figure 15 - Monthly Unmet Demands in Year 2009



4. Conclusions

The annual water requirement from LB

canal of the Deduru Oya reservoir to
achieve 100% cropping intensity in the LB
canal development area varies from 26
MCM to 41 MCM during 2000 to 2010
period when the existing tank based
irrigation systems are operational.
Model is useful to estimate the releases
from small tanks and required releases
from the LB canal into the tanks in order to
supplement irrigation demands for
different cultivation patterns in the
command areas of the respective tanks.
Model which is built using HEC-HMS,
CROPWAT and WEAP is a useful tool to
plan water resources development and
irrigation water management under
changing climate in the LB development
area of the Deduru Oya Project.

The authors would like to convey their sincere

gratitude to UN-CECAR program of United
Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, for the
Hydrological and meteorological data for the
study were obtained from the Department of
Irrigation and Department of Meteorology.


SrivastavaAnup K. and Srivastava, Shailesh K.

Irrigation Scheduling Through CROPWAT
and WEAP Software.


Cropwat Reference Manual, 2009.


De Silva, C. S.,Weatherhead,E. K., Knox,J. W.

and Rodriguez-Diaz,J. A., Predicting the
Impacts of Climate Change-A Case Study of
Paddy Irrigation Water requirements in Sri
Lanka, J. Agricultural Water Management,
Vol. 93, 2007, pp. 19-29.



Environmental Impact Assessment Report,

DeduruOya Reservoir Project, Centre for
Peradeniya, November2003.


Gnther Fischer, Francesco, N.,Tubiello, Harrij

van Velthuizen and David, A. Wiberg,
Climate Change Impact on Irrigation Water
Requirements: Effects of Mitigation, 19902080, J. Technological Forecasting & Social
Change, Vol. 74, 2007, pp. 1083-1107.


Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD).

(http:// Research/ LUC/
External-World-soil-database/) Visited Nov. 6,

11. Hydrology of Small Catchments, Volume II,

Hydrology Division, Irrigation Department,
12. Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis

Agrawal, A.,A Data Model with Pre and Post
Processor for HECHMS, Report of Graduate
Studies, Texas A& M Univ. College Station,

Ehret, U., and Zehe, E., Series Distance an

Intuitive Metric to Quantify Hydrograph
Similarity in terms of Occurrence, Amplitude
and Timing of Hydrological Events,J.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol.
15.,2011, pp. 877-896.

10. Hunukumbura, P.B., Weerakoon, S.B., Herath

S, Runoff modeling in the Upper Kothmale
Basin. In: Hennayake N., Rekha N., Nawfhal
M., Alagan R., Daskon C, (Ed.), Traversing No
Mans Land, Interdisciplinary Essays in Honor
of Professor MaddumaBandara, University of
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, 2008, pp. 169-184.




13. Long-term Hydro Meteorological Data in Sri

Lanka, Data Book of Hydrological Cycle in
Humid Tropical Ecosystem, Part I, Ed. K.
Nakagawa, H. Edagawa, V. Nandakumar& M.
Aoki, Special Research Projection 1995,
University of Tsukaba.
14. Mapa, R.B., Dissanayake, A.R., Nayakakorale,
H.B., Soil of the Intermediate Zone of Sri Lanka:
Classification, 2005.
15. Moriasi, D. N., Arnold, J. G., Van Liew, M. W.,
Bingner, R. L., Harmel, R. D., and Veith, T. L. ,
Model Evaluation Guidelines for Systematic
Quantification of Accuracy in Watershed
Simulations. Transaction of American Society
of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, St.
Joseph, Michigan, Vol. 50(3), 2007, pp. 885900.

De Silva M.M.G.T., Weerakoon, S.B., Herath, S.

Modeling of Event and Continuous Flow
Hydrographs with HEC-HMS; A Case Study in
the Kelani River Basin Sri Lanka, J. Hydrologic
Engineering (ASCE), Vol.19, No. 4,April 2014,.
pp. 800-806.

16. Nash, J. E. and Sutcliffe,J. V., River Flows

Forecasting Through Conceptual Models. Part 1
a Discussion of Principles, J. Hydrology, Vol.
27(3), 1970, pp. 282-290.



23. Sampath, D.S., Weerakoon, S.B., Mishra, B.K,

Herath, S., HEC-HMS Model for Runoff
Simulation from Tittawella Tank Catchment,
Proceeding of 1stRuhuna International Science
and Technology Conference 2014 (RISTCON
2014), Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna,
Matara, Sri Lanka, 22-23 January 2014, p. 39.

17. Peter Droogers, Adaptation to Climate

Change to Enhance food Security and Preserve
Environmental Quality: Example for Southern
Sri Lanka, J. Agricultural Water Management,
Vol. 66, 2004, pp. 15-33.
18. Pre-Feasibility Study Report of DeduruOyaand
MeeOyaRiver Basins Development Project,
Planning Branch, Irrigation Department,
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2000.

24. Scharffenberg,
Fleming,M.J.,Hydrologic Modeling System
HECHMS User's Manual, US Army Corps of
Engineers, Institute for Water Resources,
Hydrologic Engineering Centre, 2006.

19. Punyawardana, B.V.R.,Impacts of Climate

Change on Agriculture in Sri Lanka and
Possible Response Strategies, 2002.

25. Sieber, J., Yates, D., Huber Lee, A., &Purkey, D.

WEAP a Demand, Priority, and Preference
Driven Water Planning Model: Part 1, Model
Characteristics, Water International, Vol.
30(4), 2005, pp. 487500.

20. Richard, G. A., Luis, S. P., Dirk, R., Martin, S.,

Publication No. 56 of the Irrigation and
Drainage Series of FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy,

26. Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).WEAP:

Water Evaluation and Planning System User
Guide, Boston, USA. 2001.

21. Herath,S.,Mohri,H.,
B.,Atapattu,S. and Woldie,D., Traditional and
Modern Agriculture Mosaic System for
Improving Resilience to Global Change,
Conference on Sri LankaJapan collaborative
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, 29-31 March 2013, p.

27. US army corps of Engineers, Hydrological

Engineering Center, HEC-HMS Technical
Reference Manual, March 2000 .

22. Sampath, D. S., Konara, K. M. B. N.,

Weerakoon, S. B. Resilience of Traditional
Irrigation System in Ancient DeduraOya
Academic Journal of the Faculty of Arts,
University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka, (press).



ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [33-39], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Effect of Bed Roughness on Submerged

Hydraulic Jumps
Y. Dilrooban, K. Imasalan, K. Sujana and K.P.P. Pathirana
Free and submerged hydraulic jumps are important phenomena in open channel
flow. The basic characteristics of these jumps formed on smooth, horizontal channel beds were
covered well in literature both experimentally and theoretically. However, not many studies are
reported on submerged hydraulic jumps generated on rough beds. This study mainly aims to
investigate the characteristics of submerged hydraulic jumps over rough, horizontal beds. But, as the
submerged hydraulic jumps are created from free jumps, analyses of free jumps are also required to
proceed with the present study. So, altogether 110 experimental runs were carried out under both
smooth and rough bed conditions. All the experiments were carried out in a rectangular flume and for
the rough bed condition. Bed of the flume was roughened by placing rectangular wooden strips at
four different spacing. The hydraulic parameters such as initial water depths, subcritical sequent
depth, tail water depth, back-up depth and flow rates were measured for different roughness. Using
these available data, required data analyses were carried out and several relationships were
developed in order to express the submerged hydraulic jump characteristics. Here, free and
submerged hydraulic jumps were considered separately.
Tail water depth, Submergence factor, Sequent Depth Ratio, Backup depth ratio,
Roughness Density.



the flow field, it was found out that the rate of

decay of jet velocity in a submerged jump
increases with increase in bed roughness. As
this study was conducted only for uniform
sand grains and horizontal bed channels.
Furthermore, Habibzadeh et. al., (2011) carried
out a preliminary study of the flow properties
of submerged jumps with baffle blocks.
However, the research studies carried out on
submerged hydraulic jumps on rough beds are
very limited and most of the studies reported so
far do not produce any conclusive results.
Therefore, further investigations have to be
carried out to get a clear understanding of the
characteristics of submerged hydraulic jumps
on rough beds.

Hydraulic jump is an important phenomena in

open channel flows which is created by
transferring a supercritical flow into a
subcritical flow. There are different types of
hydraulic jumps depending upon the relative
values of subcritical sequent depth and tail
water depth. The free jump is converted into a
submerged jump, on which our study is mainly
focused, when tail water depth becomes larger
than the subcritical sequent depth. Hydraulic
jumps have been attracted to many researchers
for a long period of time because of its
importance in designing hydraulic structures
and other special applications such as mixing of
chemicals, aeration of water, de-chlorination
etc. Among all these applications, energy
dissipation is considered to be one of the most
important applications for civil engineers.
Various types of studies have been reported in
literature for identification of the characteristics
of submerged hydraulic jumps on smooth
horizontal beds. Among them, Rajaratnam
(1967) was one of the leading researchers who
carried out detailed studies to find out a
relationship between energy dissipation and
submergence factor. Subhasish et. al., (2003) has
conducted extensive research work on the
characteristics of turbulent flow in submerged
jumps on rough beds. From the vector plots of



2.1 Experimental Set-up

The experiments were carried out in the Fluid
Laboratory in Faculty of Engineering,
University of Peradeniya. The flume used for
the experiments is of 12 m long, 0.3 m wide and
a 0.3 m high (see Figure 1).
Eng. Y. Dilrooban, Eng. K. Imasalan, Eng. K. Sujana.
B.Sc Eng. (Hons) (Peradeniya), Faculty of Engineering,
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Eng.(Prof.) K.P.P. Pathirana, B.Sc. Eng. (Hons.)(Peradeniya),
M.Eng., Ph.D. (KULeuven), C.Eng., FIE(Sri Lanka),
MICE(London). Int.PE(SL), Professor of Civil Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri



Figure 1 - Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up

Here, an overhead tank with a constant water
level supplied the flow to the flume at a
constant rate which could be controlled by a
gate valve as shown in Figure 1. A V-notch
attached at the downstream tank was used to
measure the flow rate.

In addition, the spacing between elements (D)

was also varied during experiments and the
spacing used was 3.0 cm, 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm, and
2.3 Experimental Procedure
Initially, several experiments were carried out
for submerged hydraulic jumps on smooth
horizontal bed. For a particular flow rate, a
submerged hydraulic jump was formed by
using a sluice gate located at the head of the
channels and tail gate at the end of the channel.
The flow rate, upstream water depth,
downstream water depth and jump length were
measured. The flow rate was measured using a
V-notch attached to the downstream tank as
shown in Figure 1. This procedure was
repeated for several discharges in the channel.

2.2 Preparation of roughness bed

The channel bed was roughened using five
different types of artificial roughness elements
(wooden strips) shown in Figure 2. The cross
sections of the elements used in the
experiments were 0.8 x 0.8 cm2, 1.2 x 1.2 cm2,
1.5x 1.5 cm2, 2.0 x 2.0 cm2 and 2.5 x 2.5 cm2. The
length of the roughened bed was limited to
2.5m. The wooden strips were kept to the full
width of the flume as shown in Figure 3.

Next, several experiments were carried out for

submerged hydraulic jumps formed on rough,
horizontal channel beds. In this case, roughness
elements were firmly fixed on the bed. For each
element size, a series of experiments was
performed for submerged hydraulic jump by
varying the flow rate and spacing between the
elements. Similar measurements were taken as
in the case of submerged hydraulic jumps
formed on the smooth channel bed. This
procedure was repeated for the other types of
roughness elements. It was always verified that
the flow was steady while recording the

Figure 2 - Roughness elements


3.1 Comparison of experimental results with

the available theories
As a first step, the experimental data were
compared with the available theories on
submerged hydraulic jumps. The equation
derived by Rao (1963) in Open Channel

Figure 3 - Roughened bed arrangements


Results and Discussion


dimensional terms relating the parameters

considered above.

Hydraulics (Chow 1959) was used for this


y2 - Depth sequent to ya
yt - Tail water depth
y1 - Depth at the vena contracta
y3 - Back up depth ratio





f Fr

v y1 t D S
, Re 1
, , ,
g y1
y1 y1 y1

...... (3.1)

For turbulent flows, viscous effect can be

neglected and hence, the Reynolds number can
be omitted from the above equation and it is
rewritten as,


Figure 4 Submerged hydraulic jump



f Fr,

t D S
, ,
y1 y1 y1

. (3.2)

Previous research studies reported by Ead and

Rajaratnam (2002), Habibzadeh, (2012) and
Habibzadeh, (2011) in the same field, have
also taken a somewhat similar approach to
analysis the experimental data obtained for
submerged hydraulic jumps on rough channel
beds. However in all those studies, only one
term (t/y1) which represents the effect of
roughness height, had been considered in
deriving formulations for characteristics of
submerged hydraulic jump on rough beds. Any
other term to represent the spacing of
roughness element or roughness density has
not been considered in any of their studies
which appear to be one of the major
shortcomings of the previous studies. Perhaps
this could have been one of the reasons for poor
performance of these available formulations
when applying the experimental data that are
presented in Sec. 3.1.

Figure 5 - (y3/y1) versus upstream Froude

Figure 5 shows the comparison of backup
depth ratio (y3/y1) versus upstream Froude
number using experimental data and
theoretical formulation suggested by Rao
(1963). The data points are highly scattered on
this plot for both the experimental results and
the theoretical formulation used to compute
backup depth ratio and upstream Froude
number. It could be mainly due to the fact that
the channel bed roughness has not been
correctly represented in these relationships.
Only feature that could be noticed here is that
the backup depth ratio increases with upstream
Froude number. Therefore, this has clearly
justified that a new formulation needs to be
developed in order to relate the hydraulic
hydraulic jumps on rough beds.

In order to overcome the above shortcoming,

the present study extends the analysis of
submerged hydraulic jumps on rough beds to
incorporate the effect of roughness density (d)
into the analysis in addition to the roughness
3.3 Development of a relationship between
backup depth ratios and submergence

3.2 Dimensional Analysis

The behaviour of submerged hydraulic jumps

mainly depends on the hydraulic parameters
such as backup depth ratio, submergence factor
and upstream Froude number. Relationship
between these parameters can be identified by
plotting various graphs.

The parameters that affect the characteristics of

the hydraulic jumps can be identified as;

y1,V , g,, t, D, S
where, y1 = Depth at Vena-contracta, t = Height
of roughness elements, = Kinematic viscosity
of the fluid, V = Velocity at the upstream side
of the hydraulic jump, S = Submergence factor
and D = Spacing between roughness elements.
Using Buckinghams pi theorem, the following
relationship can be derived with non-

Rao (1963) has derived Eq. (3.3) for backup

depth ratio of submerged hydraulic jumps in
rectangular smooth channels using principles of
momentum and continuity equations. It can be
noted that the backup depth ratio is clearly



illustrating the submerged jump energy loss for

those two flow regimes.

expressed in terms of sequent depth ratio,

submergence factor and upstream Froude



1 S 2 2 2 F12

2 F12
1 S

. (3.3)

yt y2 ; y 2 1 1 8F 2 1

y1 2

Therefore, when it comes to the present study,

if an equation for backup depth ratio is to be
developed for submerged hydraulic jumps on
rough horizontal channel beds, the already
derived equation for sequent depth ratio can be
used with appropriate changes. Furthermore, in
order to make a correction for submergence
factor, dimensionless element thickness (t/y1)n1
and roughness density (d)n2 were taken into
account by examining the equations developed
by Habibzadeh, (2012) and also
considering the results from dimensional
analysis. The equation derived for free
hydraulic jump on rough beds is given as;

From the Figure (3.1), the range of observed

Figure 6 - Percentage of energy loss versus
Observed (y3/y1)
From Figure (6) range of (y3/y1) for reattaching
wall jet flow regime can be identified. Under
this range submergence factors were calculated.

1.04531 0.1 Fr1 0.1586

1 0.15 d

Figure 7 - Observed (y3/y1) versus Submergence


Element width (t )
Spacing ( D)

As the data presented in Figure (7) is highly

scattered, submergence factor appears to
influence the backup depth ratio. In order to
find a better correlation between backup depth
ratio and submergence factor, additional

With that, the analysis of data would have to be

considered for two separate flow regimes as
follows (Habibzadeh,, 2012);

Deflected surface jet (DSJ)

Reattaching wall jet (RWJ)

t n1

2 F12
1 d n2 s 2 2 F12
t n1


1 d n2 s

According to the previous studies by

Habibzadeh,, (2012), the flow has been
categorized as the deflected surface jet for
lower range of submergence factor. Under this
regime, the energy dissipation of submerged
hydraulic jumps was also found to be
considerably higher than that of reattaching
wall jet regime. But, as the energy dissipation of
deflected surface jet is high, there would be an
extra reduction of y3 and as a result, (y3/ y1)
observed here would not match with the
theoretical (y3/ y1) very much. Hence, the data
analysis should fall under the regime of
reattaching wall jet to get an accurate
relationship. The data were considered
according to the range of submergence factor as
well as energy dissipation. Figure (6) clearly

correction for submergence factor is needed.
For that roughness density terms were used as
mentioned in the section 3.3.
By trial and error, the values of the coefficients
n1 and n2 were found to be 0.33 and 0.44,
respectively to give better correlation between
(y3/y1) and S as given in Eq.(3.6).

t 0.33

2 F12
1 d 0.44 s 2 2 F12
t 0.33


1 d 0.44 s





3.4 Development of a relationship between

backup depth ratio and tail water depth

The validation of Eq. (3.6) was carried out by

replacing the term ( obtained from previous
studies. Experimental data from the present
study were used in all the equations derived by
previous researchers and the relevant term was
substituted in the Eq. (3.6) for each case. From
that, the graph was plotted between the
theoretical and observed (y3/y1) as shown in
Figure (3.5).

For further analysis of data, an equation for

(y3/y2) in terms of (yt/y2) was obtained from the
research study by Habibzadeh, (2011).
Therefore, to compare the observed (yt/y2) of the
present study with this above finalized Eq.(3.6),
a graph was plotted after rearranging the terms
for (y3/y2) as shown in Eq. (3.7) by multiplying
by (y1/y2) on both sides of the Eq. (3.6).


y3 y1 t
2 F1

1 d s 2 2 F1

y2 y2 y1

1 d 0.44 s


To simplify the Eq. (3.7), (y1/y2) can be replaced
by 1/ and the equation can be rewritten as


y3 1 t
2 F1
1 d s 2 2 F1

y2 y1
t 0.33

1 d 0.44 s

Figure (10) shows the comparison between the
theoretical (y3/y2) and observed (y3/y2) using
Eq.(3.8). It can be seen that the Eq. (3.8) predicts
accurate values with a regression coefficient of
above 80%.

Figure 8 - Theoretical (y3/y1) versus Observed

(y3/y1) for Reattaching wall jet flow regime

Figure 9 - Theoretical (y3/y1) versus Observed

(y3/y1) for Reattaching wall jet

Figure 10 - Theoretical (y3/y2) versus Observed


From the Figure (9), it can be verified that the

derived equation predicts more accurate values.



more efficient in terms of energy dissipation

than the RWJ regime, because the energy
dissipation efficiency decreases with the
submergence factor as verified in this study.
The study was carried out for flow rate ranging
from 4 to 12 l/s and Froude numbers ranging
from 1 to 5. The results can be further extended
if more experiments are carried out to cover
higher ranges of Froude numbers. The
methodology of the study can also be improved
by changing the roughness elements across the
flume. Usage of more accurate measuring
instruments such as current meters to measure
velocities and digital depth gauges would give
more accurate results for energy dissipation.

Figure 11- Theoretical (y3/y2) versus Observed

(yt/y2) for the experimental data collected from
the present study
When comparing the theoretical (y3/y2) versus
observed (yt/y2) of the research study by
Habibzadeh et. al., (2011) with that of present
study as shown in Figure (11), the equation
suggested from the present study is acceptable
as the obtained a higher regression coefficient.


During the present study, only the artificial

roughness elements were used to prepare the
rough beds, and this can be expanded by using
uniform sizes of sand or gravel particles to
roughen the channel bed, as it would represent
the field conditions much better. Experiments
can also be done by changing the bed slopes to
include the effect of channel flow on
submerged hydraulic jumps. Although the
experimental results obtained during this study
are reasonably good, it can be further improved
by considering above mentioned recommendations.

Conclusion and

When free jumps are considered, the variation

between Sequent depth ratio and Froude
number is found to be nearly linear. Although
an aluminium surface was used as the smooth
bed condition, the sequent depth ratio was
appeared to have decreased by 11 % due to
minor surface roughness. The existing
theoretical equation for sequent depth ratio has
been modified taking this reduction into
account. For artificially roughened bed
conditions, it was found that the characteristics
of submerged hydraulic jumps were a function
of submergence factor, in addition to Froude
number, roughness height and roughness
characteristics of free jumps. It was also found
that maximum effect of roughness elements
occurs at a roughness density of 0.15.

Chow, V. T. (1959), Open Channel Hydraulics.
United States: McGraw-Hill.


Carollo, F. G., Ferro, V., & Pampalone, V.

(2007), "Hydraulic Jumps on Rough Beds",
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.
133, No. 9, pp.989999.
Dey, S. and Sarkar, A. (2006), Response of
Velocity and Turbulence in Submerged Wall
Jets to Abrupt Changes from Smooth to Rough
Beds and its Application to Scour Downstream
of an Apron. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ASCE,
Vol.556, pp.387419.
Dey, S. and Sarkar, A. (2008), Characteristics of
Turbulent Flow in Submerged Jumps on Rough
Beds. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE,
Vol.134 ,No-1, pp.4959.
Ead, S. and Rajaratnam, N. (2002), Hydraulic
Jumps on Corrugated Beds. Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 128(7),
French, R. H. (1986). Open Channel Hydraulics.
Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
Habibzadeh, A., Wu, S., Ade, F., Rajaratnam,
N., and Loewen, M. R. (2012), Performance of
Baffle Blocks in Submerged Hydraulic Jumps.



The energy dissipation is considerably high in

the DSJ flow regime condition. Therefore, it is
important to ensure that the flow regime is in
the DSJ regimes when designing an energy
dissipation structure. It can be limited by the
critical submergence factor range. To continue
with the design procedure, the equation
derived above will be very useful to find the
water depths.



The conclusion made by Habibzadeh, et. al.,

(2012) which points out that the DSJ regime,
which occurs at smaller submergence factors, is




Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.

138(10), pp.902908.
Habibzadeh, A., Loewen, M., and Rajaratnam,
N. (2011), Exploratory Study of Submerged
Hydraulic Jumps with Blocks. Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.137, No-6,
Hughes, W. C., and Flack, J. E. (1984),
Hydraulic Jump Properties over a Rough Bed.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Science Direct,
Vol.110, No-12, pp.17551771.
10. Long, D., Steffler, P. M., and Rajaratnam, N.
(1990), LDA Study of Flow Structure in
Submerged Hydraulic Jump. Journal of
Hydraulic Research, Vol.28, No-4, pp.437460.
11. Neluwala, N. G. P. B., Karunanayake, K. T. S.,
Sandaruwan, K. B. G. M. and Pathirana, K. P. P.
(2012), Characteristics of Hydraulics Jumps
over Rough Horizontal Beds. Civil Engineering
Research Exchange Symposium, University of







Pagliara, S., Das, R., and Palermo, M. (2008),

Energy Dissipation on Submerged Block
Ramps. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 134, No.4, pp.527532.
Rajaratnam, N. (1967), Hydraulic jumps.
Advances in Hydroscience, Academic Press,
Vol.4, pp.197280.
Stefano, P., Ilaria, L. and Michele, P. (2008),
Hydraulic Jump on Rough Bed of Stream
Rehabilitation Structures. Journal of Hydroenvironment Research, Science Direct, Vol.2,
No-1, pp.29-38.
Subhasish, D. and Bernhard, W. (2003),
Hydraulics of Submerged Jet Subject to Change
in Cohesive bed Geometry. Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, Vol.129, pp.44 - 53.
Wu, S., and Rajaratnam, N. (1995), Effect of
Baffles on Submerged Flows. Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol.121, No-9,



ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [43-51], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka


Airport Curbside and Parking Area Operations at BIA

Analysis of User Behavior
S.D.B Galagedera, H.R Pasindu and J.M.S.J. Bandara
Airport curbside, where travelers and their baggage enter and exit the terminal, and
the designated parking area are important components in airport land-side facilities. Passengers
expect safe and efficient roadway operations even as volumes increase, but the design and capacity of
the curbside are often constrained by the terminal building and the proximity of on-airport land-side
infrastructure. The operating characteristics of airport terminal curbside differ significantly from those
of most other roadways due to several reasons such as vehicle dwell time, maneuver vehicles to and
from adjacent lane, variation in demand etc. The capacity of a curbside roadway is defined both by the
number of vehicles that can be accommodated while stopping to pick up or drop off passengers and
the number that can be accommodated while traveling past the curbside in the through lanes.
Therefore a study of operations at curbside and parking area is important to identify issues related to
existing and future demand levels.
The main focus of the paper is on the evaluation of vehicle operations and passenger behavior at the
BIA terminal access roadway, weaving segment, arrival and departure curbside roadways and
terminal car park. Analysis of vehicular traffic, travel mode choices, and curbside roadway vehicle
queues, vehicle dwelling times, passenger occupancy time at curbs and passenger processing and
walking times will provide useful information for developing plans for operational improvements as
well as for future expansions. Using the available data, the demand and the capacity at these facilities
are evaluated to estimate the existing level of service. In addition, measures were identified to
improve the operational efficiency of these facilities and design improvements are proposed to ensure
good operational efficiency for the forecast future demand.
Key words:


Airport terminal, curbside, parking area.



Research Objective

This research mainly focuses on airport

curbside and roadway operations. Roadway
operations depend upon several factors such as
air passenger origin and destination within the
country, income level, age, purpose of journey
(education, work, immigration, leisure etc.) etc.
Curbside and roadways operations are mainly
a function of vehicle operations and vehicle
operations differ with passenger behaviors,
Flight schedules. Furthermore both air
passenger and vehicle passenger (guests of the

Bandaranaike International Airport (BIA) (also

known Colombo International Airport) (IATA:
CMB, ICAO: VCBI) is one of the two
international airports serving Sri Lanka. BIA is
located in Katunayake, 31.7 km north of
Colombo. It is administered by Airport and
Aviation Services Ltd (AASL). It is the base for
Srilankan Airlines, the national carrier of Sri
Lanka, and Mihin Lanka, the budget airline of
Sri Lanka.
The currently experienced passenger
movement of 6million is likely to double within
the next 5 9 years (AASL Annual report, 2012).
The new terminal to be commissioned under the
expansion project would double the passenger
handling capabilities of the BIA. A policy
change is planned by the government aiming to
boost air cargo and transshipment aspects in the
aviation sector and develop Sri Lanka as a
regional aviation hub.

Eng. S.D.B Galagedera, B.Sc. Eng. (Moratuwa). MIET,

Mechanical Engineer, LTL Holdings Ltd.
Dr. H.R Pasindu BSc Eng. (Moratuwa), PhD (Singapore),
Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Moratuwa.
Prof. J.M.S.J Bandara BSc Eng.(Moratuwa), PhD
(Canada), Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Moratuwa




terminal car park to airport access roadway

within the airport premises itself.

Airport roadway facilities and relevant

operational activities are considered.
effects of activities for the airport roadway
facilities are identified and performance levels
of facilities are evaluated. The existing
inefficiencies in roadway facilities, safety issues
and lack of facilities are also discussed. The
passenger demand at the year 2020 is projected
and evaluates the performances of existing
facilities for the projected passenger demands.
It will be a gauge for future facility expansions,
hence necessary parameter for improvement
measures need to be implemented.

Airport roadways are having noticeable

differences as compared to non-airport
roadways. The BIAs 80% of passengers (AASL
annual report, 2011) fall to infrequent flyers
(fewer than four times per year), and a high
proportion of corresponding motorists could
also be considered as unfamiliar to airport
Emotional stress becomes serious because of the
motorists who are close relatives of enplaning
passengers perform with the highest emotional
feelings before and after dropping off air
passengers. Congested airport roadways,
closely spaced decision points, and complex
signs can add to this stress and discomfort.

passenger) behaviors
roadway functions.




Literature Review

Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP)

conducts research studies related to the
aviation industry on design and operational
aspects of airports. In a recent study conducted
by ACRP has evaluated the performance of
curbside and roadway area of a number of
airports in the world and has identified set of
parameters to categorize their service levels and
performances. ACRP is not a standard and it
presents guidelines to evaluate performances in
different service facilities and suggestions to
overcome typical drawbacks and issues in
airport facilities. BIA falls to the small hub
airport category under the ACRP performance
level criteria and is used those guidelines to
analyze the BIA roadway performances.

3.1 Airport Curbside and Roadways

Airport roadways which consist all means of
roads in an airport, are a unique class of
roadways specific to airport operations. Large
numbers of vehicle volumes daily operate with
a mix of un-familiar and familiar drivers, while
curbside roadways operate at much slower
speeds, as drivers attempt to maneuver into
and out of curbside spaces.
BIA landside roadways serve for airline
passengers and visitors, employees owing to
various service provisions in the airport itself,
air cargo and mail, and operation and
maintenance activities. Several types of
vehicles use airport roadways and they include
private vehicles, rental cars, taxicabs, three
wheelers, tourist coaches.

3.2 Traffic Characteristics

Dwell time
This is the amount of time a vehicle spends
parked at a curbside lane (or other passenger
loading or unloading area). Typically, the dwell
time is the length of time between when the
driver parks (i.e., the vehicle comes to a
complete stop) and when the driver first
attempts to rejoin the traffic stream. In this
study, active dwell time which reflects the time
difference between when a vehicle first stops at
a curbside until it leaves the curbside is used.

Airport roadways which links different land

uses are most prominent facilities for all airport
users. The airport roadway network consists of
access roadway, departure and arrival curbside
roadway, weaving sections, and circulation
roadway. Airport entrance to exit via the
curbside area is the highest vehicle demanding
road segment with remarkable over 75% out of
the total demand(ACRP 40, 2010). Airport
access roadway maintains the highest volumes
of airline passenger-generated traffic and the
curbside roadways are one-way roadways
located immediately in front of the terminal
buildings where vehicles stop to pick up and
drop off passengers and their baggage.
Curbside roadways typically consist of inner
lane(s), adjacent maneuvering lane, and through
or bypass lanes. The circulation roadway is to
serve to travel from airport exit or from


Modal choices
This is to convert person trips into vehicle trips,
it is necessary to first determine the travel
modes used by airline passengers and visitors
(or the percentage of passengers using each
available travel mode).



Vehicle occupancies
Vehicle occupancies (the number of passengers
per vehicle) are used to translate or convert
person trips by travel mode into vehicle trips.
When analyzing airport roadways, vehicle
occupancies represent the number of airline
passengers in each.


Field Surveys

Data collection is the vital component in this

study because most of the information had to
be collected from field surveys and limited
research have been done on this particular
aspect of BIA operations. BIAs fight schedule is
the basis of all operational aspects and BIA
releases its monthly fight schedule for each
The survey for this study was
conducted during twelve days for 24 hours to
cover up the full aircraft operations pattern.
The survey focused on Airport access roadway,
Airport departure and arrival curbside
roadways, Airport terminal car park, Airport
circulation roadway, Airport weaving section
and Airport exit.

Peak-hour factors
Airport roadway traffic is not uniformly
distributed over a typical peak hour or other
peak period. Peak-hour (adjustment) factors are
used to translate non-uniform flows into
equivalent hourly flows to allow for the
analyses of roadways exhibiting such nonuniform peaks.
Parking Volume
Number of vehicles actually accommodated in
the parking premises in a given time duration is
called as volume. The volume changes with the
parking duration.
Parking Load
Parking load define the summation of number
of all vehicles parking in an hour. In this
particular term vehicles in the premises are
repetitively taken in to the account in every
concerned hour and therefore unit is vehicle

Figure 1 BIA roadway configuration

3.3 Performance Evaluation

4.1 Airport Operation Data

The total passenger movement via BIA is
increasing almost 15 -20% of rate for the last
three years (Refer Figure 4.2). It was seven
(7)million total passenger movements at the
end of year 2012 including 1.2 million transit
passengers. The highest passenger movements
records in the months of August and December
(refer Figure 4.3) due to the tourist season and
annual holiday vacations of foreign employees.
There are 130 -140 total aircraft movements
(both departures and arrivals) in a day, and
annum(AASL Annual Report,2011). It reveals
that, on average there are 150 air passengers in
an aircraft operating to and from the BIA.

Airport facilities are looked in to its adequacy

to cater the demand level. This concept is called
as Level of Service analysis (LOS), which is a
conditions within a traffic stream by
considering speed and travel time, freedom to
maneuver, traffic interruptions, and comfort
and convenience. There are six LOS categories
from LOS A to LOS F due to different traffic
conditions and LOS A represents operations
where free-flow speeds prevail and LOS F
represents breakdowns in vehicular flow.
Curbside utilization indicates if spare capacity
is available to serve additional demand and
surges in demand. Typically, a utilization factor
of 1.30 (see calculations) or less (65% of the
capacity of the curbside loading/unloading
lanes) is a desirable planning target for new
curbside roadways and 1.70 is acceptable for
peak hours for existing facilities. Utilization is
an indicator of curbside roadway level of
service. LOS C is a desirable planning target for
medium or small-hub airports.

4.2 Airport roadways

Access roadway
There are on average 7,100 vehicles daily use
the Airport access roadway segment and
highest vehicle movement 591 vehicles/hour
records during the 22:00 to 23:00 hour in every
day. However, cars (all vehicles having four
numbers of seating capacities) and vans
(vehicles having more than four seats other


vans and jeeps contribute to 57% of modal

share and 42% are cars, and the balance 1% are
heavy vehicles delivering duty free goods.
Nearly 75% of vehicles use the inner curbside
roadway and remaining 25% use outer porch

than busses) are having similar modal choice of

39%; Three wheelers 20% and buses having the
lowest 2%.
Total Passenger Movement

Departure curbside
The highest vehicle movement in to the
departure curbside roadway is during the 22:00
to 23:00 hour and it is 296 vehicles. The
observed total vehicle movement is 2,980 per
day and there are times that no vehicles in the
departure curbside. Nearly 41% of vehicles
arrivals are cars and 36% of vehicles are dual
purpose vehicles. It was notable that 23% uses
three wheelers.








Passenger volume


Figure 2 Passenger Movement
(Source: BIA Internal Data Records)

4.3 Curb
Arrival curb
BIAs arrival curb congestion closely follow the
arrival flight schedule and the highest flight
arrivals during 4:00 6:00hours and 10:00,
17:00, and 22:00 hours in each day, there are no
significant arrivals in the rest of the hours. It is
found that the curb congestion arises after
averagely 40 minutes later the aircraft landings
(from peak to peak distance of arrival curbside
vehicle accumulation graph and arrival flight



Passenger volume

Annual Total Passenger movement


The average vehicle dwelling time at the arrival

porch in peak hours is around 2.2 minutes and
in non-busy hours is 3.5 minutes. The
passenger occupancy level for both peak and
non-peak hours are 5.4 passengers per vehicle.
At the BIA, outgoing vehicles from the arrival
curbside carry 4.5 baggage pieces on average
and further analysis on cars and dual purpose
vehicles reveal that averages are 3.7 and 4.9
baggage respectively. A vehicle stays 2.1
minutes at the curbside to pick up single air
passenger and 2.4 baggages are carried by one
air passenger. There are three persons arrive to
the arrival curb to receive one air passenger and
this figure vary with air passenger
characteristics such as age and origin of travel.
Number of baggage and vehicle dwelling time
for an air passenger is almost equivalent for all
vehicle types and they do not depend upon
types of vehicles at all.


Figure 3 Passenger movement

(Source: BIA Internal Data Records)

Arrival curbside
Vehicle speeds at the arrival porch noticeably
decrease since vehicle drivers looking for their
passengers along the curb. Most of the vehicles
always attempt to stop at the closest to their
passengers. There are inner and outer porch
segments doubled the available curb length.
However, the outer porch curbside is fully
occupied by BIA taxies most of the time.
(Airport directly handled taxi service). They are
having higher dwelling time due to waiting for
passengers. Therefore, the effective number of
parking slots drops to 20 even though there are
36 slots available. At grade pedestrian crossings
at the arrival porch entrance lead to vehicle
queues and duty free shop item deliveries
enhance the congestion further.

When number of passengers in a group

increases, their waiting time at the arrival curb
proportionally increases. However, it could be
observed that when there are Middle East
based flight passengers, their waiting times are
much higher. Even though maximum two

According to the survey, there are total 3,702

numbers of daily vehicles moves in to the
arrival curbside and the highest number of 329
vehicles recorded during the 5:00 6:00 hour in
the morning. Dual purpose vehicles such as




There is significance behavioral difference

between foreign and local air passengers with
respect to staying time at the curb. Foreign
passengers directly move in to the terminal
without staying at the curbasoppose to local

number of arrival flights from Middle East or

Europe in a particular hour, the arrival curb
getting congested since passenger origins
effectively contribute.
Departure curb
BIAs departure curbside roadway vehicle
accumulation follows the departure flight
schedule with three to four hour lead time and
is getting congested at the 21:00 22:00 hour in
night in every day. The curb overcrowding
takes place when there are number of European
flights departing at once.
The average vehicle dwelling time at the
departure curbside in peak hours is 3.0 minutes
and further analysis for cars and dual purpose
vehicle record as 2.9 minutes and 3.1 minutes
respectively. Average occupancy is 3.9
passengers per vehicle. When departure
passengers are leaving as groups, they stay
much longer times at the departure curb and
therefore the corresponding dropping off
vehicles may also dwell proportionally higher
durations at the curbside.

Local and Foreign Passengers

Passenger processing time


Number of vehicles vs Number of

aircrafts - Departure




Passenger waiting time(min)


Passenger Dwelling time Departure Curb





Far End






Far End

Figure 6 Departure curbside local and

foreign passenger behavior

Figure 4 Vehicles vs Aircrafts

Near End

Per Passenger unit

No of vehicles
No of aircrafts








Number of vehicles


4.4 Terminal Car park

There are 284 slots available for cars and dual
purpose vehicles with respective parking fees
of LKR 150 and LKR 230 for three hour
duration. Around 15-20 airport arrival counter
based taxies stay at a given moment for much
longer durations. The maximum vehicle
accumulation of 220 vehicles/hour recorded in
0:00 to 01:00 hours. The vehicle entries
gradually increase since 22:00 hours and
sometimes it creates longer queues at the park
entrance. Further, the accumulated number of
vehicles reduces gradually from 01:00 hours in
the morning.



Even though tickets are issued for three hours;

vehicles are able to stay more than three hours
due to unavailability of proper system to check
parking durations. However, vehicles generally
do not stay longer than three hours except taxi
cars. On average 45% of vehicles stay less than
1 hour during day or night times and 7 -10% of
vehicles stay over 4 hours in both cases.
4.5 Vehicle Queues
Vehicle queues can be seen during typical busy
hours and the rest of the times occasional local
queues can be seen due to vehicle and
passenger obstructions such as pedestrian
crossings and unnecessary parking efforts such
as vehicles or passengers preferences.

Near End

5= or <
Number of passenger in a group

Figure 5 Departure passenger dwellings



Departure Porch
Departure curbside vehicle queues create
during 21:00 to 23:00 hour period. However,
there are random queues due to parking
attempts of vehicles at the close proximity to
the terminal entrance door for more convenient
passenger and baggage handlings. As a result,
curbside area close to terminal entrance door
and the first half of the curbside shows more
vehicle congestion and passenger operation.
On average there are nine vehicles at the
departure porch entrance in a given time
during the typical busy hour.

entry, will reduce to 3.7 second of queuing time

having considerable time saving in the queue
and no vehicle queues at all.
Arrival Porch Entrance
The estimates for the vehicle queue at the
arrival porch show 6 vehicles at a time while
average queuing time of 66 seconds. The field
observations shows the average vehicle queue
as 7 vehicles in the typical busy hour. There is
13% of tendency for zero queue and 90%
confidently says that there will not be more
than 15 vehicles.
Terminal Car park
Terminal car park highest efficiency is 55%
during the night and 45% during the day time,
which implies terminal car park facility is
capable for catering the current parking
demand. The average parking durations are
2.19 and 2.31 hours respective for
day and night times.

Arrival Porch
Average vehicle accumulation at the entrance
of the arrival curbside is 6 vehicles at a time.
The average queue length is 4 vehicles during
the day time, from 9:00 to 10:00 hours (typical
busy hour in day time) when the busiest in day
time. Loading of duty free items and passenger
and movement of duty free items though
pedestrian crossings create obstructions to
arrival vehicle flow and results vehicle queues.

5.2 Airport roadway facility

Airport curbside road facility analysis is
evaluated by using the methods of curbside
utilization factor or the volume to capacity
basis. Curbside length requirements are
evaluated considering hourly vehicle flow rate,
dwelling times, and required stall lengths (7.6
meters for cars). The required stall length (139.2
m) and available curb length (140 m) is found
for the busiest hours where highest demand
creates. The existing roadway utilization factor,
the ratio between the required curbside
requirement and available curbside length, is

Terminal car park entrance

At the terminal car park where the highest
vehicle entries recorded at 22:00-23:00 hours
and vehicle queues develop in that particular
hour. There is fixed 1 - 2 minute vehicle
processing time at the entrance for ticket
issuing and averagely there are 11 vehicles in
the queue in each minute of the particular busy
hour. There is 280 seconds of waiting time at
the car park entrance vehicle queue.


Analysis of Field Survey


Departure curbside roadway

It was revealed from the analysis that the factor
of curbside utilization is 0.994 for the departure
curbside roadway. Even the worst case of
departure curbside demand, the departure
curbside is good enough to keep in safe margin
of 1.7.

5.1 Vehicle Queues formation

The estimation use the random arrival, random
services and single service channel (M- M -1)
method and estimate under the Poisons
Departure porch Entrance
The estimated average vehicle queue is 10 of
vehicles and during the typical busy hour and
the estimated average queuing time is 121
seconds at the departure porch entrance. This is
almost similar to the average 9 vehicles per
hour of vehicle queue observed during the field
survey. Further, cumulative probability results
prove that there is 8% probability no vehicle
queues at the porch entrance and it is 90%
probability that the vehicle queue will be less
than 26 vehicles at a time. If there are two
service channels which encourage simultaneous


Departure curbside double parking is
prohibited and it is a four lane road segment.
The peak hour vehicle flow rate = 296 veh/hr
Dwell Time
=2.97 min
Vehicle stall length
=7.6 m
Ra =(Vehicle flow rate x Dwell time)/60 ..(1)
=(296 x 2.97) / 60 = 14.65
F (constant)= 1.25
(3for less than 5, or 1.2
for 100 or more)
Required Stall length (K)=Ra x F ..... (2)
=14.65 x 1.25=18.32


Design length =18.31 x 7.6 = 139.2 m

Existing curb length
=140 m
Curbside utilization factor =
(Design length / Existing curb length) . (3)

Average vehicle speed weaving segment, S

Vw = Non weaving demand flow rate in the
weaving segment
VNW = Weaving demand flow rate in the
weaving segment
( )
*( ) (

Arrival curbside roadway

The five lanes arrival curbside roadway, if
double parking is concerned as currently BIA
allowed, the curbside utilization ratio is 1.24
during the busiest hour. Further management
decision on double parking at the arrival
curbside increase its service level and even in
the highly congested hour service level is
within acceptable levels as per the calculations.

S = 27.12km/hr
Density by Segment, S
V = Equivalent passenger car units (pc/hr)
* +

. (7)
D = 23.66 pc/km
Heavy vehicle adjustment and driver
familiarity are 0.976 and 0.992 respectively. The
equivalent passenger car unit (pcu) of 1095 with
1.2 of safety factor is used for the analysis.
BIAs weaving section length 90.9 m and
effective three numbers of lanes are in

Airport weaving section roadway

Roadway weaving section disturbs the
movement of non-weaving vehicle movement.
The field survey at the weaving section was
carried out during both peak and off peak
hours. Vehicles flow at the weaving section
make somewhat complicated movement,
however, it is unidirectional.

As found from the above macroscopic method

calculations, BIAs waving segment theoretical
vehicle speeds for weaving vehicles and nonwaving vehicles are 34.9kmph and 21.3kmph
respectively. It was obvious that non-weaving
vehicle speeds are slightly lower than the
weaving vehicles which could be observed at
the field by the survey team. The average
vehicle speed in the BIAs weaving section is 27

The weaving vehicles which make directional

change from departure curbside inner lane to
arrival curb bypass lane and from departure
curb bypass lane to arrival curb inner lane. Non
weaving vehicles are the vehicles moving
without any lane changes. The field
observations found averagely 55% of weaving
vehicles and 45% of non-weaving vehicles out
of the total vehicle movements through the
weaving section in both peak and off peak
hours. BIAs weaving section configuration is
one sided ramp weaving.

Airport terminal car park performance

Car park performance analysis mainly focus on
parking volume, parking load and parking turn
over are the key indicators (MitavChaturvedi,
2012). The evaluation results are tabulated as

Calculation (as per ACRP, 2010):

Average speed of weaving vehicles within the
weaving segment, Sw
] [
]. (4)
Smax Maximum average speed expected in the
weaving segment
Smin Minimum average speed expected in the
weaving segment
Form BIA its Smin = 16km/hr, Smax = 40 km/hr,
Sw = 34.9 km/hr
Average speed of non-weaving vehicles in
weaving segment, SNW
FFS Free flow speed = 32km/hr
v Equivalent passenger car units =
N-No of lanes within the weaving segment = 3

Table 1 - Terminal Car park performance


Parking load (veh hour)



Average parking duration (hrs)







Parking turn over

Parking efficiency %

5.3 Future Demand

BIA presently handles 7 million total annual

passenger volume with corresponding 46,484
aircraft operations. If there will not be any

( )] (5)

SNw = 21.28 km/hr

Parking volume (veh)





roadway facility expansion, the gradually

increasing passenger demand will gradually
reach its capacity and even up to year 2020 the
capacity is sufficient.

The data analysis can be used as a source for

level of service analysis of airport roadway and
parking facilities. Furthermore, for capacity
planning and facility improvement can be
guided by these results since which were taken
as fully raw data from the airport facilities. It is
noticeable that the all calculation results are
much similar with the field data directly
gathered at the survey.

The existing roadway facilities are sufficient to

cater to the current demand even in highly
congested hours, with a sufficient buffer. It is
up to maximum 23 aircraft movement are able
to be operated with the existing roadways
facilities. However those 23 aircrafts limited to
23 arrivals or it will limit to 15 numbers of
departures flights due to departure curbside
roadway constraints. Therefore the current BIA
access roadway level of service is sufficient to
cater the demand up to year 2020 and even in
year 2020 it will cater satisfactory level of service


The projected passenger and vehicle demand is

useful to evaluate facility demand and the
adequacy of current facilities for the expected
demand. The calculations will be under the
service level evaluation for predicted passenger
demand in year 2020. This particular passenger
projection used logistic method and passenger
growth rate for last 6 years is the basis to
logistic method prediction. The estimation
revealed that 14 million passenger movement in
year 2020 (this calculation is almost similar to
the AASL estimations) and BIA should provide
the facilities to prevent demand reach facility
capacity. The existing roadway facilities will
not be sufficient for such a high demand and
therefore some changes have been identified to
calm the situation. The main operational issue
is identified as the non-utilization of full
curbside length of both arrival and departure
curbs where some of the spaces allocated for
some special occupants such as taxies, etc and
some spaces have neglected due to
inconveniences to passenger and vehicle
dwellings. These neglected curbside lengths
should be utilized efficiently and this study
strongly recommends that those adjustments
will double the curbside facility and resolve the
issue considerably. There is an enough space
already having in the arrival curbside area and
no major changes would be performed. That
particular evaluation will lead to continual
improvement of facilities without making any
bottle necks to user behaviors in the BIA
roadway system.


The field data show the behavior of passengers,

vehicles and choice models of air and vehicle
passengers. This particular data analysis further
implies the relationships in between the
different behavioral patterns such as departure
aircrafts and departure curbside vehicle
accumulation, etc.
The survey results found that the access road
average total vehicle count 7100 veh/ day and
the maximum vehicle count recorded as 591
veh/hr during 21-22 hour. Similarly the total
vehicle counts for arrival and departure
porches were 3702 veh/day and 2980 veh/day
respectively and their maximum hourly counts
were 329 veh/hr and 296 veh/hr. Furthermore,
the average vehicle dwelling times on arrival
and departure curbsides are 2.3 mins and 3.0
mins in their typical busy hours.
In case of passenger behaviors at curb sections,
passenger dwellings, passenger waiting times
and vehicle occupancy levels are important
parameters. There are 2.2 air passengers in a
vehicle leaving from the arrival curb and that of
1.5 average air passengers coming to the
departure curbside in a single vehicle. Further,
the survey could be found that the staying time
of departure passengers are much higher when
they are in groups. It is clear that there is a
significance difference between local and
foreign passengers staying times at the
departure curb. Furthermore, it is noticeable
fact that parameters of vehicle passengers per
vehicle, number of baggage per air
passenger and vehicle waiting time at the
curbside for an air passenger do not change
with their model choice.


[1]. Transport Research Board, Airport curbside &
Terminal Area roadway operations, Airport
Cooperative Research Program (ACRP), USA, 2010.
[2]. Ashford, N., Level of Service Design Concept
for Airport Passenger Terminals : A European
View. Transportation Research Record, volume
1199, 1988.
[3] Creswell, & John, C., Research Design
ThousandOaks:SagePublication, 1994.



[4] Ashford, N., Hawkins, N., O Leary, M., Bennetts,

D., & McGinity, P., Passenger Behaviour and
Design of Airport
Terminals. Transportation
Research Record, volume 588, 1976.

[8] James H Banks, Introduction to transportation

engineering. Tata Mc-Graw Hill, 2004.
[9] Frederick, S., Hillier and Gerald, J. Lieberman,
Operations Research. CBS publishers, 2009.

[5] Ghobrial, A., and Kanafani, A., Future of

Engineering, 1995.

[10] Adolf, D., May, Fundamentals of Traffic Flow.

Prentice - Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliff New Jersey
07632, second edition, 1990.

[6] MitavChanturvedi, A Geospatial analysis of

efficiency of the parking system in Enschede,
Netherlands, 2012.

[11] Papacostas, C. S., Transportation engineering

and planning by Papacostas. C. S, 3rd edition, 2001.

[7] Civil Aviation Authority, Progress Report,

Ministry of civil Aviation, Sri Lanka, 2012.

, 12th December 2013.



ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [53-61], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

New Dynamic Battery Model for Hybrid Vehicles and

Dynamic Model Analysis Using Simulink.
S. M. Wijewardana

Mathematical modeling and dynamic simulation of battery storage systems can be
challenging and demanding due to nonlinear nature. Simulation in time domain could be time
consuming as battery storage (BS) systems do not behave according to readily available mathematical
functions. Economic advantages, partial sustainability and the portability of these units pose
promising substitutes for backup power systems in hybrid vehicles, hybrid electricity power
generation systems, telecommunication exchanges and computer networks. Though, there have been
many research papers published in this area with complex mathematical models and simulation
systems, each system has its own constraints and specific applications. The aim of this research paper
is to present a suitable convenient, dynamic battery model that can be used to model a general BS
system. The proposed new dynamic battery model has the capability to analyse the effect of
temperature, cyclic charging/discharging, and voltage stabilization effects. Simulink has been used to
study the characteristics of the system and the proposed system has produced very good successful


Simulink/Matlab, Battery Model, Dynamic modeling, Hybrid Vehicles, Simulation.


has been used in this paper to develop the new

battery model as it can be directly applicable to
connect with other dynamic models like hybrid
energy systems and electric vehicle modeling.
Internal resistance of any battery model along
with the thermal effect is also important to get
accurate results. Thermal (temperature) effect is
useful up to a certain level to carry the electrons
from one electrode to the other through the
electrolyte while increasing the rate of reaction.
Once the saturation temperature is reached
temperature effect beyond that level could be
harmful to the battery life [3].
The effect of temperature is included explicitly
in this paper along with all other variables in
the new dynamic battery model. The model
presented here is being validated finally with
the comparison of simulation results and with
known experimental data. The simulation
results show that the model can produce more
accurate and repeatable results than the
existing models. This feature is discussed later
in the paper with the comparison of known
experimental results. The model was developed
by considering the battery open circuit voltage
change due to discharging and charging
currents. The other key feature of the model is
that it could be used to model any type of

Energy storage systems are crucial for the

future Smart Grid and Hybrid Vehicles. Their
ability to store energy has changed the
However, the benefits are hard to quantify
because of the complexity of different
Dynamic modeling has become even harder to
count all aspects of battery life cycle, selfdischarging, gassing effect, diffusion process,
acid stratification, state of charge etc[1].
Analysing various battery models presented by
previous researchers, it was found that there is
a need to include generic representative models
with high accuracy and transient effects.
Battery models can be classified according to
their modeling areas as given in [2]. They are
Mathematical, Electrical and Polynomial.
Electrochemical models use the fundamental
battery chemistry while mathematical models
use empirical equations and polynomial models
to study their responses in terms of polynomial
expressions. Electrical models employ the
passive circuit elements like capacitors,
inductors and resistors to model electrolyte,
electrode, polarization resistances along with
active current and voltage sources. Literature
review recommends that the circuit-based
models are ideally suitable for thermal studies.
An equivalent electrical circuit model approach

Eng. S M Wijewardana, B.Sc.Eng(Mech) (Moratuwa),

M.Eng(EEE)(Victoria), PGDip.Digital Control(Victoria),
PGDipEd (Victoria), C.Eng, MIE(Sri Lanka), PhD Student,
SEMS, Queen Mary University of London,



batteries like Lithium-ion, Lead-acid, Nickelcadmium, or Nickel-Metal-Hydride(NIMH).

The other contributions made in this paper are
the new table of battery parameters which
reduces the modeling error within 2% of the
known experimental results. Model can be used
explicitly to test the fast charging/discharging
processes of actual batteries with high currents.
Also, the new model is capable of simulating a
wide range of battery terminal voltage
variations than the existing models that can
accommodate around 1 to 1.5 volt change when
charging/discharging takes place. In addition
to the above contributions in this paper, a
modified improved dynamic battery model is
presented for the model given by Saiju et al [5],
which can be used to simulate for a wide range
of battery terminal output variations.

the necessary changes to accommodate other

battery models like Lead-acid, NiMH etc.
The simplest, generic battery model which was
presented by MathWorks Inc. [4], is simulated
here using Simulink.
VBat : Nonlinear battery terminal voltage (V)
E0 :Constant or open circuit voltage (V)
Exp(s) :Exponential zone dynamics (V)
Sel(s) : Represents the battery mode. Sel(s) = 0
during battery discharge, Sel(s) = 1 during
battery charging.
K : Polarization constant (Ah1) or polarization
resistance (Ohms)
i* : Low frequency current dynamics (A)
i : Battery current (A)
it : Extracted battery capacity (or q) (Ah)
Q : Maximum battery capacity (Ah)
A : Exponential voltage (V)
B : Exponential capacity (Ah)1
For aLead-acid battery the governing equations
for charging/discharging are given by:
For discharging [4]: (i*>0):

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2

describes the dynamic modeling of battery
types and their associated physics with the
Temperature effect on battery parameters have
been discussed in section 3. The new dynamic
battery model is presented in section 4 along
with the solutions to the prevailing questions
experimental results have been used to test and
validate the new model in section 5. In table-1
presents the accurate improved battery
parameters for the generic equation which lead
to reduce the percentage error less than 2%
compared with the existing battery models.
Conclusion is given in section 6.


f1(it , i, i, Exp ) E0 K .

For charging [3]: (i *<0):

f 2 (it , i, i, Exp) E0 K .


Exp( s) 1
.i K .
.it Laplace1
it 0.1.Q
Q it
Sel ( s) s

For a Lithium-ion battery the governing
equations as given in [4] were presented for
For discharging (i
f1 (it , i, i ) E 0 K .

Dynamic Modeling of Lithiumion, Lead-acid, NiMH Batteries

.i K .
.it A. exp( B.i )
Q it
Q it

For charging (i*<0):

f 2 (it , i, i) E0 K .

An accurate mathematical model is a starting

point for a development of any superior
dynamic battery model. Modeling approaches
to Lithium-ion, Lead-acid or NiMH battery
systems are quite similar with minor changes to
the governing equations that represent the
chemistry of each type. During the recent past
Lithium-ion batteries have become very
popular due to promising advantages and
successful results when used in hybrid electric
vehicles (HEV). Their high nominal voltage,
high energy density, long life and none
memory effects were the other reasons for
preferred applications in HEV. Though, the
new battery model presented here was
developed by using Matlab/Simulink and
related mathematics for Lithium-ion batteries,
the complete model given at the end included

Exp ( s)
.i K .
.it Laplace1
Q it
Q it
Sel ( s)

.i K .
.it A. exp( )
it 0.1.Q
Q it

For Nickel-cadmium and NiMH [4]:

For discharging (i* > 0):
f1 (it , i, i, Exp ) E0 K .


Exp ( s ) 1
.i K .
.it Laplace1
Q it
Q it
Sel ( s) s

For charging(i*< 0):

f 2 (it , i, i, Exp) E0 K .



Exp( s) 1
.i K .
.it Laplace1
it 0.1.Q
Q it
Sel ( s) s

The Lithium-ion battery model which was
given by MathWorks Inc. [4] can be simulated
as given by Fig.1. Dynamic Lead-Acid battery
model which was presented by Saiju, R. et alin
[5] was revisited and simulated here for
analysis. The model defined in [5] was specially
selected for comparison as it was based on the
specific gravity (SG) of the battery acid to

The specific gravity of the battery acid is an

implicit function of the gassing effect igas .

calculate the battery terminal voltage and the

open circuit voltage ( VOC ). Also it was noted
that the model defined in [5] has not included
any temperature effect and the change of VOC

Details can be referred in [6].

SG full SGempty
SG SG full AhD


due to SOC .

SG is the specific gravity of the acid and the
SGfull and SGempty are the specific gravities when
the battery is fully charged and when the
battery is fully discharged respectively. AhD is
the number of Ah that would have to be
discharged from a fully charged battery to
bring it to the current state. The parameter I is
the normalised charge current and I is negative
when discharging. The Simulink block diagram
for the dynamic model presented in [5] is
shown by Fig.2. The generic battery model
presented by MathWorks Inc [4] has not taken
into account of temperature and gassing effect
(for Li-Ion batteries the effect can be considered
as minimal for certain applications)
I_bat : Battery current
I_gas : Gassing effect
V_bat: Battery terminal voltage
SOC : State of charge
AhD : Ampere.hour discharged
Ahnom: Nominal ampere hour of the battery.
DK: Fit parameter corresponding to the
discharge capacity of reference cell at an
infinitesimal discharge current
Ah : Ampere.hour

Figure1 Battery model given by MathWorks

Inc Ltd [4].
As the SG changes nonlinearly in every fraction
of a second when discharging, unlike in the
case of the open circuit voltage VOC , or in the
case of the current measurements, practical
difficulties could arise in the implementation of
the dynamic model. However, compared to
impedance spectroscopy test or hybrid pulsepower capability (HPPC) and the current
manufacturers/researchers in [1,7, 8, 10], the
SG test and the direct current measurement
from the battery are cost-effective [1, 8] and
may be more visual than expensive HPPC and
the current impulse tests.
As described before, from the simulation results
in [5] it was noted that the model can handle
only 1volt change of the battery terminal
voltage. It was modelled by using the equation
(7) given below:
VOC 0.84 SG .
When examined carefully, the equation (7) does
not seem to give the correct results based on a
SG value of 1.2 for the battery acid. The result
obtained for the maximum VOC would be
2.04V according to (7) which is unrealistic. It
was noted that simulation results used a 12V
battery with a capacity of 90Ah. Therefore,
more appropriate equation based from
reference, Ross MMD [6]is used to calculate
the VOC . Thus the VOC is assumed to be given by
equation (8),[6]:

Figure 2 Simulink block diagram for Saijuet

al [5].
The block diagram presented by Fig.2. was
used the empirical equation (7). This model is
improved and modified by the author to yield
correct simulation results by using equation (8).
The dynamic battery model presented by Saiju
et al [5] can be validated with the improved
modified model presented by the author as

VOC 168.22968 174.1360 SG 1.4836919exp(SG)

169.0027 SG1 2 log( SG) 0.00077765/ log( SG)



E(q,T) = E0 iRintS
RintS: Battery internal series resistance
T:Ambient temperature of the battery cell
E0: Battery constant

given by Fig.3. Due to ongoing research work

many experimental parameters from [5] were
not available for simulations. The temperature
effect was taken into account when calculating
the DK fit parameter and the gassing effect.

xk (T ) f (T ) 0.876 0.028T 4.218104 T 2



xB (T ) f (T ) 0.733 0.045T 9.6310 T 2

xE0 (T ) f (T ) 0.986 4.97 104 T 6.6 *105 T
A exp Bq
E (q, T ) E0 K *


Combining equations (10),(11),(12),(13),(14),(15)

and (16) a generalized equation is presented as
in Kroeze R et al [8]:
A exp xB Bq
E (q, T ) x E 0 (T ) E0 x K (T ) K

. (17)
E(q,T): No load voltage(V)
E0: Battery constant voltage(V)
K: Polarization voltage(V)
Q: Battery capacity(Ah)
A,B: Exponential constants
q: Charge or extracted capacity(Ah)
Simulation data:
Kref = 0.05 (Polarization voltage)
Q = 0.830(Ah)(Battery capacity)
E0_ref = 3.55 Volts; Aref=0.35(Exponential Coeff.)
Bref = 0.18 (Exponential Coeff.)

Figure 3 - Modified improved battery model

for Saiju et al [5]

Figure 4- Simulation results of Saiju et al [5]

improved model.


Dynamic model developed using equation (17)

for the Tan et al [9] model is given by Fig. 5.

Temperature Effect on Batteries

The temperature makes a difference on three

battery parameters of an equivalent electrical
circuit battery model. They are the polarization
voltage K, battery constant E0 and exponential
coefficients A & B (eq.10). The polarization
voltage represents the change of cell voltage
from its open-circuit voltage when charging
and discharging takes place. To make the
model simpler, the thermal effect on A has been
ignored since A&B are highly related [7]. The
coefficient B takes a significant difference on the
exponential part of the characteristic curve as
given in [7]. The mathematical relationships as
given in [7]:

Figure 5 - Dynamic battery model for the Tan

et al [9] with the temperature effect

xn f (T ) A BT CT 2
n f ( K , E 0 , B, C )
The equation for the battery terminal voltage,
Eas given in [7]:



very large number). The parameter n(orN)

signifies the number of cycles the battery
charging/discharging takes place. Combined
impedance of RintS, Rcyc in series with parallel
RC loops as shown by Fig. 7 is sometimes called
the Warburg impedance [14].

New Dynamic Battery Model

The authors model presented here is a,

modified new improved dynamic battery
model taking into consideration of the
electrolyte temperature, cyclic charging and
discharging, and the voltage stabilization
effects. In this new model the battery terminal
voltage variation is calculated by taking into
account of transient and steady state behaviour
of battery internal resistance with respect to
SOC. The new modified model is a combination
of the following battery models: Erdinc et al [7],
Kroeze R et al [8], Tan et al [9]and the Chen et
al [10] model. The key feature of this model is
that:it can be applied to all types of Li-ion,
Lead-acid and Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

Figure 7 Equivalent electrical circuit model

The variable equivalent internal impedance of
the battery which is equal to the battery
equivalent internal impedance consists of a
series resistors composed of Rint S and Rcyc , and
two RC networks composed of RTS , CTS ,
RTL and CTL . The battery equivalent internal
( Rint S )
instantaneous drops in the battery terminal
voltage as given in [7]. The passive circuit

elements RTS and the CTS shown in Fig.7,

represent the fast dynamics associated with the
reaction kinetics between the electrical charges
at the electrodes surface barrier and the

Figure 6 Block diagram of the new battery

For electric vehicle and hybrid energy systems
modeling, various equivalent electrical circuit
models such as Shepherds model, the RC
model and the Thevenin model are very widely
used [13,19]. An improved Thevenins model
which is also named as dual polarization (DP)
model in literature [15] has been used here as it
can be used to model any types of battery
mentioned above. By comparison, the DP
model has the best dynamic performance and
provides the most accurate state of charge
(SOC) estimation [13, 15]. In addition to the DP
model discussed above, the circuit diagram
given by Fig.7. represents the improved
Thevenins equivalent electrical circuit which
includes an additional loop to simulate the selfdischarging phenomenon due to prolonged
storage of battery systems. The circuit
parameter Rself(T,n,SOC) signifies the resistance
due to self-discharging and as it has a very high
impedance and therefore the current passes
through Rselfis negligible [18] when normal
discharge current is applied. However,Rself
highly depends on the long storage time,
ambient temperature, SOC, and n (when n is a

charges in the electrolyte. The RTS is the charge

transfer resistance and the capacitance
CTS models the electrochemical double layer

the CTL circuit

The RTL and
elements represent the slower dynamics of the
cell in the order of hours. They are more
representative of the battery chemistry related
to the diffusion processes in the electrolyte and
active electrode material. All these parameters
are functions of the ambient temperature,
electrolyte temperature, SOC, and the battery
current. The components of RC networks (two
loops as shown in Fig. 7) are responsible for the
short and the long-time transients in the battery
internal impedance. Ideally this equivalent
circuit should include two additional parallel
loops to account for hysteresis phenomena of
the battery. When the additional loops are
included, both the short hysteresis and the long
hysteresis behavior [13] of the battery can be
predicted. The hysteresis phenomenon is
caused due to parasitic behavior of the
capacitors and is considered to be minimal and



terminal voltage discharge deceleration along

with the SOC. All existing models discussed
above used the battery current Ibat along with
the impedances to model the Battery terminal
voltage. In this model Voc(SOC) which will
vary according to the SOC has been taken into
account(more accurate than using current) to
calculate the feedback effect of the terminal
battery voltage than Ibat. In equation (20) the
parameters CT, CG and are constants to
generalise the electrolyte temperature effect
due to electron transfer which causes the
nonlinear behaviour of rate of reaction and the
ionization of electrolyte. The battery open
circuit voltage Voc is defined as the difference
of the electrical potential between the two
terminals of a battery, when there is no external
load connected [7]. As the value of battery open
circuit voltage is strongly dependent on battery
SOC, it can be calculated (equation 23) as given
in [7].

therefore it is being ignored in this model but

could be included if and when necessary. From
Fig.7., by using the Kirchhoffs law, the
equations (18) and (19) could be derived.







Vbat Voc (SOC,T ) i(Rint s Rcyc ) V1 V2 Vstab

T (CT CG )e

The effect of Rint S , RTS , CTS , and CTL due to
the battery SOC can be calculated as in [7]. The
improved new modified generic equation is
presented here with as shown by equation (21):

Rcg (SOC) Cg1 exp(Cg 2 SOC)

Cg 3 exp(Cg 4 SOC).


Voc(SOC) = -1.031 x exp(-35 x SOC) + 3.685

+0.2156 x SOC 0.1178 x SOC2

The constants Cg1 , Cg 2 , Cg 3 and Cg 4 are

presented in the table 1. below:

The battery SOC can be expressed as given in

Ibat: Battery current (A)
SOC: State of charge
SOCinit : Initial state of charge
Cusable : Usable battery capacity (Ah)
T: Electrolyte temperature (oC)
t : Time (seconds)

Table. 1 - Improved new

constants Cg1 , Cg 2 , Cg 3 and Cg 4 in equation 21.

Rcg (SOC)

C g1

Cg 2

Cg 3

Cg 4

Rint S ( SOC )























Battery internal resistance change due to cyclic

effect is assumed to be given by the empirical
equation (22), as in [7]:
Rcyc n .

In this section and in the conclusion mainly, the

new model simulation results will be compared

In equation (22), nis the discharge/charge cycle

number and is a constant. The constant is
normally taken to be equal to according to
[7]. The modified governing equation used for
the development of the new model is given by
equation (20). As the battery terminal voltage is
a function of SOC and the battery temperature,
battery model given by Fig.6. is further
modified to include the ambient temperature
and the terminal voltage stabilization effects
(Fig. 13). The Model differs from the other
models as the CTS and the CTL effect that will
create a transient effect on the internal
resistance of the battery which causes the
capacitive feedback effect. This causes the

Simulation Results of the

Improved New Dynamic Model

Figure 8 Comparison of the new model

simulation results with the existing models
with fast-discharging

5.1 Extension of the New Model to Include

the Ambient Temperature Effect.

the simulation results from existing
battery models and known experimental data
from Tan et al [9] and the Chen et al [10]

The model presented by Fig.6 is further

developed to include the ambient temperature
fluctuations. The eq. (20) given earlier defines
the electrolyte temperature change due to
electron transfer between the anode and the
cathode. This equation is further modified to
include the ambient temperature effect and will
be discussed in this section in detail.

Figure 9 Comparison of the new model

simulation results with the existing model

Figure 12 Comparison of the new model

simulation results with known experimental
results from Chens et al [10] experiment
The available battery capacity Cusable varies
depending on the capacity fading. The effect of
capacity fading and other cyclic resistances
were included in the extended new model and
the constants were evaluated when tuning. The
values of RintS,RTS, CTS, RTL and CTL due to
battery SOC can be calculated as given below
RintS(SOC)= 0.1562 x exp(-24.37 x SOC) +0.07446
RTS(SOC)= 0.3208 x exp(-29.14 x SOC) + 0.04669.
CTS (SOC) = 752.9 x exp(-13.51 x SOC) +703.6.
RTL (SOC) = 6.603 x exp(-155.2 x SOC) + 0.04984.
CTL (SOC) = -6056 x exp(-27.12 x SOC) +475.
In addition to the equations (18), (19), (20), (21),
(22) (23) and (24), the ambient temperature
effect of the model is defined by the equations
(30), (31), (32),(33) and (34) given below:

Figure 10 Comparison of the new model

simulation results with the existing models

Figure 11 Comparison of the new model

simulation results with known experimental
results from Chens et al [10] experiment.
The new parameter values as given by table 1
was generated by using powerful Simulink tool
boxes and is another by product to validate the
new model and can be used to model future
battery models. In addition, by comparing Fig.
4 and 9 modified improved battery model
presented for Saiju et al [5] can be validated as
the simulation results are very successful.

VOC (q,T ) xVOC (T )VOC (0,0)

A exp xB Bq .
+ xk (T ) K


xVOC (T ) 0.986 4.97 104 T 6.6 105 T 2 .




The constants used in the dynamic model were

selected carefully within the constraints of the
manufacturers parameters. Battery internal
resistance cannot increase beyond 0.1 Ohms.
specifications were considered to study input
data where necessary. Maximum value for SOC
is 1 and the minimum value can be zero or 0.1
[19]. The model can be used to model hybrid
vehicle battery systems of Li-ion, Lead acid or
NiMH batteries. The simulation results were
very good and the proposed new model can be
identified as an accurate new model to apply
for dynamic modeling.

xk (T ) 0.876 0.028T 4.218 10 4 T 2 ...(32)

xB 0.733 0.055T 9.63 104 T 2 .


The constants A and B are the constants

associated with the exponential term in
equation (30). The symbol Q is the total battery

capacity in Ah and the q is the available battery

capacity which is normally symbolizes as
Cusable, at any instant. V OC is the battery open
circuit voltage at the start. The equation (20)
given earlier is now modified to include the
ambient temperature effect and is given by
equation (34):

Vbat i(Rint s Rcyc ) V1 V2 VOC (q, T )

+ Vstab T CT CG e t .


Simulation results from Fig.11,12 and Fig. 13

confirm the model accuracy and the average
error is within 2% which is a successful
achievement in modeling. With the known
experimental results from Tan et al [9] and
Chen et al [10] experiments, the new model
simulation results can be validated. Extension
of the new model which was given by Fig.13
that includes the ambient temperature effect
was validated with the comparison of
experimental results from Tans et al [9]. This
simulation results and the experimental data
are shown by Fig. 14. From the simulation
results it was observed that the battery cell
temperature cannot increase more than 38 0C
and the ambient temperature can decrease as
low as -100C for which the model proved to be
working successful. When the temperature
increases more than 380C the behavior of the
battery terminal voltage is unusual [20] as
expected and therefore it is necessary to deploy
a proper cooling system to avoid further
increase in the electrolyte temperature. The
simulation results show that the model can
accommodate a wider range of battery terminal
voltages than the existing models. The new
battery model presented here could provide
satisfactory results and offer good solutions for
many questions that simulation engineers face
with. It is currently being used to develop
reliable hybrid energy power systems. Thus the
model developed in this paper are proving to
be extremely useful for both simulation and
estimation studies.

Figure 13 Block diagram of the new model

extended to include the ambient temperature

Figure 14 Temperature effect of the new

model in comparison with the Tan et al [9]
exp. data
The new model represented by Fig. 13 includes
the ambient temperature effect in addition to
the internal electrolyte temperature change due
to electron diffusion.






[11] Bhide, S., Shim, T., Development of Improved

Lithium- Ion Battery model
thermal & rate factor effects, University of
Michigan USA, 978-1-4244-2601 IEEE, 2009.

Smith, A. K., Electrochemical

estimation and control
of lithium-ion
batteries, PhD
Thesis in
Engineering The
University. The Graduate School Dec. 2006.

[12] Knauff, M., McLaughlin, J., Dafis, C., et al.

Simulink Model of a Lithium-Ion Battery for
the Hybrid Power System Testbed.

Zoroofi, S., Modeling & simulation of

vehicular power
systems. M.Sc. Thesis,
Dept. of Energy
Division of Power Engineering Chalmers
University of Technology Goteborg Sweden,

[13] Oliver, T., Dessaint, L- A., Experimental

Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for
EV Applications,
Department, Ecole de Technologie Sup
erieure 1

[3] Zhang, T., The Economic Benefits of Battery

Energy Storage System in Electric Distribution
System M.Sc. Thesis, Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute,

[14] Vepa, R., Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and

Control of Energy Generation, 1STed.,
Springer, London, 2013, 331p
[15] He, H., Xiong, R., and Fan, J., Evaluation of
Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models
for State of Charge Estimation by an
Experimental Approach ISSN 1996-1073 Open
Access Energies 2011,

MathWorks Inc., Implement Generic Battery

Online: /webhp/Accessed on, 16 Dec 2013

[16] Vairamohan, B., State of charge estimation for

batteries. M. Sc. Dept. Electrical Eng., Thesis
University of
Tennesse, Knoxville, Dec

[5] Saiju, R., Heier, S., Performance Analysis of

Lead Acid Battery
Power System, IEEE 2008.

Ross, M. M. D., A
comprehensive Lead- Acid battery model for
System Simulation 1471 Boul,
Lionel- Bouled, Suite 26, Varennes, Quebec
J3X 1P7. Available online:Article from www., accessed on 18 Dec 2013.

[17] Gao, L., and Liu, S., Dynamic Lithium - Ion

Battery Model for System simulation, IEEE
packaging technologies, Vol. 25, no. 3,
September 2002.
[18] Sarasua, A. E., Molina, M G., and Mercado P. E.,
Battery Energy Storage System for Grid Tied AC Microgrid Applications., Chap.-12,
2013 E-Book, Accessed on 08 Dec 2013.

[7] Erdinc, O., Vural, B., Uzunoglu, M., A dynamic

lithium-ion battery model considering the
effects of temperature and capacity Fading
IEEE, 2009.


Kroeze, R. C., Krein, P. T., Electrical

Battery Model for Use in Dynamic Electric
Illinois at Urbana- Champaign Depart. of
Electrical and Computer Engineering 1406
W. Green St. Urbana, IL 61801. IEEE 2008.
Tan, Y. K., Mao, J. C., & Tseng, K. J.,
Modelling of Battery Temperat. Effect on
Electrical Characteristics of Li-ion Battery in
Hybrid Electric Vehicle IEEE PEDS 2011,
Singapore, Dec 2011.

[10] Chen, M., Rincon - Mora, G. A., Accurate

Electrical Battery Model Capable of Predicting
Runtime and I V
transactions on energy conversion, vol. 21, no.
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Jiang, Y., Zhang, C., Zhang, W., Shi, W., &

Liu, Q. (2013). Modeling charge polarization
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ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [63-68], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Historical Timber Structures in Sri Lanka: A Review

on Pekada, Kenimandala and Madol-kurupawa
C. Jayawardana, K. Peiris and S. Wijesinghe

History of building constructions in Sri Lanka goes back to pre-Christian era. Among
the many building types, historical records indicate the presence of timber made buildings since this
early period. Many of these buildings are either totally destroyed by now or in ruined state. However,
some building types in which timber has been extensively used as construction material and were
constructed during medieval times are still in preserved order. Some elements in these buildings are
alien to current construction methodologies. Studies on them in structural perspectives would enable
to conjecture the early forms of Sri Lankan buildings as well as to provide some alternative structural
designs. Study on two such elements, widely used in medieval timber buildings in Sri Lanka,
constitutes the core theme of this paper.
Key words:

Historical timber structures, Pekada, Kenimandala, Madol-kurupawa




In an assembled system, it is important to

consider the interaction of elements in various
configurations. This introduces the need of
joints between elements and the various force
transfer methods through them. It also
involves consideration of the effects of one
element on others to which it is connected. In
present day engineering practices, these
interactions are mainly tackled through
mechanical fasteners or carpentry or glued
joinery. In many cases carpentry joints are
supplemented by mechanical fasteners in
order to ensure the correct fit of the connection
or to allow the transmission of additional
forces. Whatever the type, these joints are rigid
in nature and designed to with stand the inner
forces and moments transferred from one
member to the others.

Timber has been used in the construction of

the buildings, bridges, machinery, boats etc.,
since mankind first learn to fashion tools. Early
civilizations mark distinctive types of timber
structures ranging from simple teepeesof
native North Americans to sophisticated
modular buildings in China. Our own
historical records note the existence of
Anuradhapura (1st c. B.C), of which the super
structure is supposed to be of timber. Some
other types of early constructions where
timber would have been used are chethiyaghara
(the rotunda type that sheltered smaller
stupas), bodhighara (shrines enclosing Bo-trees)
and vatadage (circular relic house). Neither
their physical forms nor any records detailing
the construction features available today,
hence only conjectured models would be
possible. However, some building types like
Tempitavihara (the shrines on pillars), Devala
(shrines dedicated to deities), ambalam (resting
places for way-farers); mandapa (assembly
places for administrative routines) of which
physical remains are still available in relatively
preserved state present standing examples for
the early construction methods. Although
copious research literature available on their
religions and architectural significance, their
structural engineering aspects have not been
studied adequately. One such aspect would be
the joinery between different structural


Timber joints - General

Properties of any structural material would

change with the passage of time. In the case of
timber, this is highly relevant. As timber is
hygroscopic, its moisture content affects
almost every property, which are important in
structural terms; strength, stiffness, durability,
dimensional changes (shrinkage and swelling),
Eng. C. Jayawardana, B.ScEng(Hons) (Moratuwa),
MTech, MA, MIET, MIE (Sri Lanka), C.Eng, Project
Manager, BBES Ceylon Pvt. Ltd. Katunayaka.
Eng. K.Peiris, B.ScEng (Moratuwa), MPhil, MA, MIE (Sri
Lanka), C.Eng, Research Fellow, National Engineering
Research and Development Centre, Ekala.
Eng. S.Wijesinghe, B.ScEng, (Moratuwa)
MIE (Sri
Lanka), C.Eng, Deputy General
Manager, Central
Engineering Consultancy Bureau, Colombo.



shape stability, etc. This dependability on the

surrounding conditions (air humidity, rain
water, capillary water present in wet walls,
etc.,) presents a risk to the stability in timber
susceptible for biological degradation due to
fungi, insects and bacteria, affecting the
internal molecular structure. All these
conditions make timber requires more
judgment than other building materials.
According to Blass et al.[1], this is one reason
for avoiding timber in present day
construction industry, despite its increasing
role as an ecologically favorable building

same member (some supports will act as

external load transfers to some other
members). Therefore if all the external loads
(including weight) are removed it is ensured
that all the stresses in the members will be
zero. There could be localized stresses induced
due to internal forces, but such stresses will
not be propagated throughout the structure
through supports. Also small positional
changes in the supports of the structure, such
as shrinkage and swelling, no significant
stresses will be developed in the structural
It is in this background, the following sections
are dedicated to consider the structural
behavior of two joinery methods adopted in
the medieval Sri Lankan timber constructions
naming (i) pekada and (ii) madol-kurupapawa.
kenimandala should be the assembly of rafters
and madol-kurupawa and hence not forms an
individual structural member by itself.

Apart from these internal conditions, the

settlements, thermal effects would also
contribute to the structures behavior. All these
internal and external conditions might induce
deformations of structural members, which in
turn produce internal forces and moments.
Due to rigidity provided by mechanical,
carpentry and glued joints, these forces and
moments are transferred from one member to
another. Highlighting the disadvantages of
rigidity in joinery, Gordon [2] notes, ..a
certain amount of flexibility may enable the
loads to be even out in a beneficial way.
Although it is true that furniture does not very
often get broken, quite a good way of
attempting to do so is to sit on a chair, three of
whose legs are on the carpet while the forth
rests, hopefully, on the bare floor. With
traditional furniture the load may be spread
over all the four legs by the distortion of the
tenoned joints; in modern factory-made chairs
with efficient glued joints, these joints may
just break, after which the chair is difficult to
repair in any satisfactory way.


Interface between pillars and beams are vitally

important as they directly handle the load
transfer to the ground. In many mediaeval
timber buildings in Sri Lanka, this interface is
formed through an arrangement called pekada.
This is an intermediate structural element used
in the connection between pillar tops and
beams. Briefing its construction details,
Coomaraswamy notes [3],A separately carved
capitol or bracket (pe-kadaya) almost invariably
intervenes between the pillar and the beam
which it is to carry. This bracket is made of
two pieces, fitting together, and when these
are crossed together, the four faced bracket is
completed; the top of the pillar itself is
morticed in to the bracket through the centre
of the parts crossed. The position of pekada in
the overall structure is illustrated in below
figure 2 taking the Audience Hall at Kandy as
a typical example.

When a rigid structural member is supported

with minimum number of supports respect to
the expected external loads, only external
forces and moments on the structure will
create loads and moments at the supports.
Internal forces such as thermal or moisture
expansion will not create loads or moments at
supports. Also small positional changes of
members will not create significant loads and
moments at supports. Therefore if a large
structure could be constructed by assembling
small rigid parts (members) and if these rigid
parts are supported as discussed above,
development of stresses in members will be
limited for those from external loads on the


Pekada: Pillar Beam Interface

Figure 1 - Assembly Hall, Kandy



As discussed earlier, certain amount of

flexibility would be beneficial in timber
joinery. This would be possible by keeping
beams on the pillar top in free standing
manner connecting beams and pillars through
mortice and tenon joints as illustrated in
figures 4a and 4b respectively.



(a) Cross Sectional view

Beams crossing at
right angle rest
directly on the


Upper part of the


Lower part of the


Figure 4 Pillar and Beam structures

However, these measures cause some practical
problems. In case (a) where beam rests directly
on the pillar,
1. Positional stability is low.
2. High compressive stresses in x-y plane
adversely affect the stress conditions
of beam at the contact area, which is
also subjected to bending moments.
3. Inadequate provisions to handle
lateral forces acting on the beam.
4. Such lateral forces inducing high
bending moment at the pillar base and
therefore the pillar should act as
vertical cantilevers with fixed bases.
In case (b) where beam and pillar are
connected through tenoned joint,
1. Local weakening of beam section.
2. Some amount of bending moment in
the beam will be transferred to the
pillar inducing more stresses in the
pillar. This will apply even when there
is no lateral force acting on beam.


(b) Arrangement of elements forming the

beams-pekada-pillar assembly
Figure 2 Pillars, Beams and Pekada
arrangement at Assembly Hall, Kandy

These deficiencies were tackled in medieval

constructions by introducing an interface
element, pekada, between the beams and pillartop. Apart from addressing the above

Figure 3 Pekada at Assembly Hall, Kandy.





problems, pekada provides a means of

minimum supports to the beam, thus
achieving the structural characteristics as
discussed in the section 2 above. The
mechanism applicable in this arrangement is
illustrated in figure 5. Accordingly, the beam
only needs to support the horizontal force P
and vertical load R. There is no need to have
a support which prevents rotation (i.e
requirements well established by the
arrangement of pekada. It provides the set of
minimum supports for beam at A. Also due
to pekada the resistive moment needed at B (the
point where the pillar is connected to the
ground) will be less.


and it is clear that even if MB = 0 (case where

no bending moment is transferred to base)
bearable lateral load will not be zero.
This arrangement allows maintaining a certain
amount of flexibility while keeping the
structural stability. The conventional elements
like bracing, which are normally employed to
maintain the stability were alien to these
medieval constructions. Local weakening
would not occur as no material removal. No
bending moments will be transferred between
beam and pillar as they are not directly
connected. The unique position of this
arrangement when compared with modern
structural design is evident, when WynneJones [4] made a comment in 1954 after
inspecting Assembly Hall at Kandy for its
structural stability, It was found that there
was no inherent principle design in the roof
providing for resistance to any forces not
vertical. There was a great deal of timber but
no bracing that would deal with wind stress or
any other disturbing forces..It is pekada, which
plays a vital role in handling these lateral
forces. Pekada provides a method of
transferring lateral as well as vertical loads of
beams (especially when they crosses at right
angles) to pillars without inducing high local
stresses at the connection points. Further this
arrangement prevents transferring of internal
settlements, etc., from beams to pillars.
Arrangements required at pillar base to handle
the bending moments are also reduced by





Roof is one of the prime requirements of any

building. The way in which roofs are designed
affects not only the appearance of the roof
itself, but also the design of the other structural
elements and the whole character of the
building. The roof structures of the building
types as discussed in previous section
Chetiyaghara, bodhigara and Vatadage appear
somewhat different to the modern pitch roof
designs, as they are supposed to be either
domical or conical in shape. Detailing the
construction features of these, Paranavitana [5]
notes, Roof of a dage or cetiyaghara above the
stupa was domical in shape and that it was
constructed of rafters which must have been
held together on the top by means of a circular
boss a feature which seems to be referred to

(Components not to scale)

Figure 5 - Pekada, Force diagram
Say MA and MB are the maximum allowable
bending moments at points A and B.
Considering the moments about B, MB = PZ
RY, gives P = (MB+ RY)/Z
When MA> RY, Pmax = MB + RY/Z(1)
When MA< RY, Pmax = MB + MA/Z (2)
Therefore, bending moment due to P will be
shared at points A and B. A pillar (with a
pekada on top) carrying a load R will balance a
lateral load Pmax given by equations (1) and (2)


Madol-kurupawa: Rafters
Ridge plate Interface


under the name kannik in Pali and kenimandala

in Sinhalese. As the remains of this roof style
are not available at present, a detailed study
would not be possible.

grain, while shear strength and shear modulus

are low. This marks an efficient design
harnessing the natural properties of the

However, a similar structural arrangement is

evident in the medieval buildings where four
pitched type roofs have been provided. Rafters
of the shorter sides are elbowed against the
plate and were held fast at its pinnacle by a
timber boss known as madol-kurupawa, which
in turn attached to the end of the ridge plate.
This arrangement is illustrated in figure 7,
taking the Embekka devalaya at Udunuwara as
a typical example. In this case, upper ends of
twenty six rafters are held together using
modol-kurupawa. As pekada provides an
intermediate means of connection between the
pillars and beams, modol-kurupawa provides
similar means between rafters and ridge plate
at shorter side of the pitched roof.

In this case rafters are supported at plate for

horizontal and vertical loads (there is no
moment transfer). Madol-kurupawa mainly
handles the vertical loads. Now if the external
loads (weight of roof and rafters) on rafters are
removed it could be shown that forces at
supports will be zero. Therefore rafters are
supported by a set of minimum supports,
having the structural behavior as discussed in
section 2 above.


Remains of some medieval building types

provide clues for the construction features of
ancient timber buildings in Sri Lanka. Analysis
of two structural elements of these buildings,
namely pekada and modol-kurupawa was the
core subject of this paper. These two elements
were used in the assembly between pillars to
beam and rafters to ridge plate respectively.

Figure 6 Embekka Devalaya, Udunuwara

In this arrangement, no mechanical joinery has
been provided and the stability achieved only
through compression as shown in figure 8.
The joinery between the modol-kurupawa and
end of the ridge plate is of mortice and tenon
type with a clearance in between. Due to this
clearance, madol-kurupawa has a slight freedom
to rotate about a point like O. When rafter is
placed on the modol-kurupawa, the initial
contact would only at point B, but madolkurupawa would slightly rotate under the force
R exerted by the rafter making another contact
point A. Considering moment of madolkurupawa about point O, RY = PZ and as Y>>Z,
P>>R. Compression of the ridge plate due to P
is counter balanced by an equal and opposite
force exerted at other end. Due to this
arrangement, the forces exerted by rafters on
ridge plate are converted to compressive
forces, rather than introducing bending
moments. This is favorable in structural means
as timber is strong and stiff parallel to the


Figure 7Rafters and ridge plate arrangement

at Embekka Devalaya, Udunuwara



Ridge plate




Figure 8 - Madol-kurupawa, Assembly between rafters and ridge-plate

None of them could be categorized in to the
standard mechanical, carpentry of glued
connections as interpreted in modern timber
engineering. No mechanical fasteners were used
in forming these connections. The weight and
the friction of the members play a vital role in
maintaining stability and individual members
forming the assembly are provided with a
certain degree of freedom for movements. The
stress formation and the transfer of moments
under the internal and external conditions
would be minimal. Forces exerted on a certain
member from other members have been formed
to compressive forces, hence no need to design
for tensile stresses.


One reason for minimal usage of timber in

construction industry today is the varying
degree of its material properties over a time
period. This makes its structural behavior
unpredictable and the modern mechanical and
carpentry joints do not address such
unpredictability. But, indigenous design criteria
blended the natural properties of timber with the
structural stability and sustainability by
incorporating a degree of flexibility in
connections by employing elements like pekada,
and madol-kurupawa.





Blass, H. J., Anne, P., Choo, B. S., Grlacher,

R., Griffith, D. R., Hilson, B. O., Racher, P.,
Stek, G., Timber Engineering, STEP 2,
Design-Details and Structural Systems,
Centrum Hout, The Netherlands, 1995,


Gordon, J. E., Structures, Penguin Books,

1984, p.134


Coomaraswamy, A., Mediaeval Sinhalese

Art, 3rd ed., Pantheon Books Inc., New York,
1979, p.130


Wynne-Jones, T. N., The Independent Hall

Freedom Sq., Colombo and Some Notes on
Examples of the Solution of the Problem
involved in the Structural Design of the Roof
of the Audience Hall type Buildings, Annual
Transaction, The Institution of Engineers,
Ceylon, 1954, pp.25-40


Paranavitana, S., The Stupa in Ceylon,

Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of
Ceylon, Volume V, Colombo Museum, 1988,
p. 88

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [69-78], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Universal Science-Part IV
S. D. S. Deshapriya
This paper is an outcome of a trial carried out to find a common methodology to
address the different subjects together using circular thinking pattern which borrowed from
Buddhism rather than addressing them separately. In addition to this, Buddhism which comprises
of the perfect structure (body), immense innovative power and the broader ways of knowledge
gaining are also utilized here to combine various subjects together.
Universal Science(US) reveals that , all are at a transitional stage hence it has been the reason for every
thing in the universe to have mutually opposite duel characters, representing the (concept of)
unique origin (Sataramahabuta) in one hand. Strength of US had been shown earlier, by addressing
the universal secrets such as the revolving of planets, gravitational forces, occurance of common
patterns in different things, such as rain, food circle etc. Further the new areas has also been
introduced, such as the influence to the subjects by the common patterns at a higher level, need for
exploring the whole area than one at a time, forming new theories using Buddhist texts, such as the
universal conservation, effect of way of loading on bearing capacity etc. Hence, it is an occation of
showing a link in spiritual & material world in a different form.
Further the US which comprises of many talents & techniques, emerges as the new life style to the
modern world. Similarly, these techchniques are expressed here as, which can be practiced even by
the most deprived sectors of the society, for their self determination irrespective of the political
surround etc., while raising US, being the material version of Buddhism, as the new doctrine for the
social liberation to the world in place of Marxism. It is also proposed to find the inherent path of US
as the solution which could be found in 4 qdrnt plane for development & to end the(nearly) by-polor
political struggle in the country. Here in, it is further proposed through the US, for a change in the
education pattern for the genious to come up easily. In addition to this,it reminds the need to be more
selfless & friendly to reach the climax in this (net) zero sum world for maximum gains through a
spiritual approach. (Part I, II &III were published in July2012 , July2013& January2014 journals


Forming theorems :

US claims that the two opposites Theory as the

first theorem of universe, and based on which all
other, present scientific theories & formulars
areformed. It can be further clarified. As explained
earlier, TO Theory is responsible for the repetitive
pattern of the nature. Basically the equations & the
theorems are also the patterns (relationships) or
the repetitions among different things (& entities).
Since scientific theorems & equations are also there
patitions, they are subjected to the TO theory &
based on it. Patterns play a vital role in developing
US, hence giving ample benefites to the society.
Hence In this circumstances, the application of
patterns in varity of fields are further discussed
Accordingly US identifies that common patterns
such as common qualities, concepts etc., are
crossing over the subjects. These common patterns
will act as common theories among the different


subjects & will result to form a common

theory level above the subject fields. This will
be a new concept and new dimension to the
present science. Accordingly, as an initiation
to this field, some common theorems such as
the theory of simple oscillation, equivalent
area, zero sum etc. can be developed for
many subjects. These theories & formulars
will act as the parent (pattern) formulars to
formulars & theories of individual
subjects. For a example, equivalent area
theory says that, when one factor is changed
in one axis, other mutual factor is also
adjusted automatically to compensate it, in
order to maintain the net equivalent out come
of the previous state. According to the above
theory, when the normal flow is blocked in a
stream, velocity increases there, to cater the
Eng. S.D.S. Deshapriya, C.Eng. MIE (Sri Lanka) B.Sc.
Eng (Moratuwa), presently working In the Road
Development Authority.


water smoothly, which is coming from the


capacity. However, this has already been

proved at the other extreme, by exhibiting
pre-mature failure underadverse loading.
Accordingly in the light of the pre-mature
material failure as observed, due to tough
way of treating, by means of fatigue &
sudden impact loading, has been a proved
fact already, for achieving the
bearing capacity aswell by softway of
treating of which could be realized as the
inverse character of the same. Further the
phenomenon of higher static friction over
the dynamic friction also will account to the
new theory since showing high resistance,
until it is un-hert .

Secondly, in a situation of sales going down,

due to keeping the high profit margin, fare
vender earns the same profit at a less profit
margin, since his sales are increased
accordingly. Boils law also can be derived,
directly from this equ. Theory. (other two
theores are explained later).
This shows that the normal theories in
science are the respective subjects versions
of the above parent theories & the
formulars. Hence this will be a great
advantage as far as the development of new
theories are concerned, which can be made
use as a short cut to form a new theories in
various subjects. In this context, Since the
Buddhism is having the perfect structure
(body) it is comprised of many common
patterns & methodologies. Hence Buddhism
can be used extensively to form many
theories & the methodologies.

In general this further shows the

possibility of forming new scientific
theorems, methodologies etc. through the
pattern method and avoiding the costly
research, deep analysis etc. in individual
assumptions & conceptual solutions can be
formed successfully for early positive
results at once or by less number of trials
through the pattern method & hence
minimizing errors.

Accordingly, the new innovation methods &

the parent theories such as two opposites,
new innovations, universal conservation,
Quantum jump etc. can be derived (as the
material version) through Buddhist texts &
the philosophy. In addition to the parent
theories, normal subject theories also can be
developed. Nandi visalajatakaya can be taken
as an example. According to the above story,
more load was carried by the cattle, when it
was treated in soft & fariendly manner. This
common pattern could be developed as a
new (subject) theory & directly apply to
improve the bearing capacity of soft soil &
marsh as an environmental friendly
solution. According to the above theory,
bearing capacity of a soft material can be
increased if the load is applied on it very
soft manner. It is emphasized here, the effect
of way of loading, to the bearing capacity of
soft structures. Advantage of this theory
could be harnessed, if the embankment is
constructed using light material on marsh
such as synthetic fabric waste, used tyres
etc. Since the soft embankment materials
transfer the load to marsh in soft manner,
bearing capacity of marsh is increased
accordingly, resulting to less settlement.
Apart from the reduction of settlement due
to light embankment material itself, this
theory emphasizes here the further
reduction, due to the soft nature of loading
aswell, resulting to increase in bearing


2. Enhancing subjects through

US is so versatile to expand the prevailing
subjects including their dimensions,
concepts & knowledge level etc. As an
example to the subjects enhancement
through US, subject of law is taken up
Present law is generally based on binary
logic. However, it has been observed that,
there are some law provisions which can
not be included in the above logical base.
Accordingly, the range of punishments
(provisions of law) which are ordered by
the court, for the almost similar offence
can be given as an example, for such
exclusion. Delaying the punishment by
means of the suspended imprisonment,
forgiving for some offences, forgiving to
some offenders, change in the severity of
punishment, appointing one accuse as the
witness of the complenent, etc. can be
shown as the range, which is applied for
almost the same offence,
which is
committed. However this (punishment)


range is seemed to be very needful, as far

as the broadness of the subject is
concerned & the same is needful, in
order to matching with certain situations.
How ever, with respect to the binary
logical frame, law (both enactment &
enforcement) should be very
hence above varing (nature) range is not
acceptable. Due to the above fact,
provisions of laws in general, are now left
unsupported & without a strong logical
base. In this context, it is proposed to
contain law, in the four quadrent logical
frame, in order to cover all law provisions.
Since the Buddhism is based on the four
quadrent logical frame, it is the easiest
way to take from Buddhism and to
introduce this logical frame to the field of
This logical frame
can be explained
through an example, which will (almost)
cover it resonabally. Any duel (two)
combination may have four situations,
which can be symbolized by (+ -), (- +), (+
+), & (- -). In the normal binary base, both
opposite & both negative situations are not
considered. But as far as the range of law
provisions (as stated above) are concerned,
both negative & both positive situations
are also needed, in order to include above
provisions comfortabally with in the
logical base. By widening the logical base
upto the four quodrent frame, will
facilitate further, to smoothen the
application of law. Hence this action will
further improve the versatility and the
well functioning of law, covering all
conflict situations & all requirements.

situation of nourishing law further, with

the help of law subject itself. In other
wards, it is an enriching & progressing of
law by using internal tools & sources of
law. In the circumstances, Buddhism
paves the path for improving law, with the
support of other subject fields as well, as
an external source. Hence, the examples
are taken from other subject fields, to
strengthen arguments & to consolidate
verdicts. According to the Buddhist
thinking pattern, It has become possible,
due to the common patterns, which are
prevailing among different subjects. Hence
it could be called as, the application of
patterns in to law or entering law subject
into the patterns era. Obviously, this will
be an introduction of new dimention,
concept to the field of law. This application
will be very much appropriate & decisive,
for ending the most debatable & sensitive
issues, of having possessed very strong
arguments, by the both (parties)sides, as
well as in the situations of, no previous
similar trials or verdicts are available for
reference & shortely, no resort can be
found with in the law subject itself. Hence
this pattern application will be very useful
for the pioneering verdicts as well, where
no previous verdicts are available for
reference & for making new laws to cover
various situations.
This pattern application is elustrated here
by an example, which could be used to
strengthen the verdicts of human rights
cases. Reference subject field, used from
out side here, is the structural design, in
civil engineering. In structural design,
components, such as beams, collums etc.
are designed first, followed by curtailing
of rein-forcements at common areas, joints
etc. This is a precautionary measure, taken
in civil engineering, in order to prevent the
total failure (collapse), due to the
congession of bars at common joints etc
which causing a barrier in load
transferring. This can be applied as a
common pattern, in order to differentiate
(contrast) the stability of entirety vs the
reinforcement bars, provided for the
individual need (of beams etc.), are
subjected to curtailing at common areas,
for the safety & security reasons (stability)
of the building. Similarly, this common
pattern shows that, the human rights
provisions, which are imposed for the
individual interest, could also be curtailed

In addition to this, efficiency & the

strength of trial proceedings could also be
improved, by the Buddhist thinking
pattern. In Buddhism, physical examples
are very commonly & amicabally being
used to explain Damma (of which is nonphysical). Similarly, it is proposed to use
physical examples in law field also, to
the verdicts
& the trial
proceedings. While proceding with the
court cases, at present, it is normally
referred to the verdicts, which were given
in previous occations, for the verdict
which has to be given for the case in hand.
This practice is used at present, as a guide
to consolidate further, the logical back
ground & to strengthen the arguments, in
order to support & justify the verdict,
which has to be given. However, it is a




at the common social level, such as for the

purpose of national security etc. In short
even the human rights can be curtailed in
a situation where the common social
stability & the national security is in
danger (threathened) & the national
security prioritized over the human rights.
Hence this will cut the chance of any
individual, including terrorist to threathen
the national security for his own interest or
for any out siders intention.


As far as the development is concerned,

Patterns are important when arresting the
complexity of the nature. It becomes more
important, for arresting complex situations
which aggravate together with the
development. We all are proud of the
prosperity, which achieved during the
past. Thereafter we have experienced the
un-development and poverty. According
to the pattern thinking , the reason for this
situation is the failure to continue
practiing and updating the patterns
(systems) un interrupted manner right
through out up to the modern society.
Systems and the development are in join
hands together all the time. Without
systems, no development & easy
comfortable living can be expected. Hence
present undeveloped state of the country,
demands for the systems as an urgent
need, there by the development may
notbe a miracleat all. Systems from top,
will avoid the extra effort which required
for attention, attending & treating in
individual basis. System will look after &
for all
promptly. Lacking the
systems (patterns) will reveal not the
poverty but the poverty in thoughts.

Importance of pattern method is that, even

in absence of such provision or
prominancy in law, perhaps in the
constitution, pattern method would
provide (implied) backup laws &
arguments independently & automatically
to redeem
from any
situation. Further the applicability from
different subjects to the field of law shows
the versatility of law & its broadness to
absorb any other (subject) matter into the
law. In the other hand, the similarity
(common pattern) used here, is a property
or a natural behavior of a materials
(concrete & steel) which are subjected to
an individual vs a common & combined
situation in order to give the verdict.
Hence it is the nature as the maximum
that the law or any other subject can be
adhere to, for any severe issue, & it is the
(behavioural) nature (manner) of the
nature which can be followed as the
ultimate to find a nature friendly solution
for human behaviors, issues also, as the
last resort in order to ending all debatable
& contravercial issue. More than this,
these patterns are the phenomenon of
nature hence, none other than the laws of
nature. Hence, incorporating the patterns
into the law will cover the full spectrum &
scope of natural justice as well, as to its
warded full meaning.

More the systems more will be the

development as well as easy & the
advancement of living. This can be
realized when looking at the developed
nations. No lesser country than Singapore
provides enough evidence to support this
Path for the development falls over the
patterns (Systems). This reality, will insist
us to identify Sri Lanka as a country which
had been forcibly kept in poverty
andundeveloped state even after being
independent, until recently like a rubber
ball pressed under water, in the light of
having possessed a fertile soil & a heap of
natural resources all over the country,
hence retaining all opportunities to come
up at any little chance of exposure to the
patterns through this pattern science (US).
Systems will make the life easy and raise
the country to the greater heights.

as the material version, which
empowered by Buddhism, urges
constitute law in the four quadrent logical
frame as its base (foundation) & to
incorporate other (subject) matters as well,
by means of (common) patterns, in order
to strengthen & enhance the law subject
(as an example to the subjects
enhancement), of which guided by the
Buddhist thinking pattern.


Patterns in action:

Coexistance of two opposites in nature is

in many forms & scattered every where



covering both physical as well as non

physical world. Effect of this coexistence is
quite apperent in the physical world
which exhibites as the repetition or the
rotation. This repetitive behaviour is not
limited to the physical world. In fact, it
occurs as a result of the inter-action
between mutually two two opposite
qualities. When one tries to move, reaction
of other is to move in the opposite
direction, and resulting to rotate while
being in the same location is a simple
explanation to the above phenomenon of
repetition in nature.

common patterns, have led the world to

treat them as new things and new
According to the pattern thinking,
different subjects are not the absolute
differences, but just the different forms
(shapes) only. In other wards various
(simulations) of common patterns or the
effects of a cause(s)/or common patterns.
Since Buddhism is the accomplished
doctrine; it comprises of all common
patterns which will form different subjects
as respective subject version and the
different subjects can be read through
Buddhism by its own language. Thats
why it was stated at the very beginning
that, every thing can be contained into

Similarly, the different forms of repetition

can be observed in non physical world as
well as among different subjects. In other
words, even though the subjects are
varied, common occurance & common
behavioural patterns are characterized
among them. It is the repatition which
occurs among various subject fields, even
though they are different to each other in
nature. Occurence of the difference in
nature is not an arbiter & indefinite
because of the common patterns which are
prevailing among different things. Hence
the difference is also formed according to
the patterns. Within limitations & subject
to the patterns, different things are

This shows that the US is broad enough to

take all new innovations & all different
subjects together through pattern thinking,
with out treating them separately. In, other
wards whole nature is apprehended by US
which empowered by Buddhism.


Life style & the society :

In the light of the path to attainnibbana,

another track also can be developed
parallelly as the material version of
Damma of which will raise the man kind
to the Modern Chac. Regime. This has
been explained earlier. Reaching to the
above climax is a gradual process and any
individual from any level can enter into
this track and gain maximum benefits. At
the entry to the track, circular thinking will
make the person more versatile to acquire
a range of many talents, Just as the
different form of life (& not as separate
talents). Hence he will be able to align &
adjust (tune up) his mind & the body to
the requirement as he wish for possessing
more than a single talent. Accordingly he
will acquire many talents over the others.
As a result many individuals will come
up from average, withseries of special
talents & techniques. This is the maximum
personal development & the building up
of personality which can be acquired by a
person. Apart from applying these at
enhancement is also possible through the
US. When US is applied as a common
methodology, any present subject field

Patterns will decide the manner & the

extent of the difference in nature. If the
patterns are not in effect, extent of varityin
nature could have been so extensive &
indefinite. Hence the occurrence of range
of difference will be limited & the patterns
will decide the extent of variety. Even
though the difference in nature is
apparently spreaded in a wider range, it
also had followed patterns while forming.
Because of the prevailing patterns as
mentioned above, nothing could be
formed newly. Even though so many new
things are coming to the world with new
technological advancement, they all are
the different forms of the prevailing
common patterns or the different form of
the previous state. This has been explained
earlier under the conservation property.
As far asthe Sri Lanka is concerned, it may
be a very encouraging situation for new
innovationsdue to the fact that, by
bringing all new innovations to the arms
length. Due to the unknowing about the



will get brightened. Hence not to mention

again the advancement that will be
achieved by applying US in the field of
education, individual profession etc.
Hence any professional will be able to
enhance his skills through the US.
Further in general, any individual or a
group, specially the youth & the younger
generation can start practicing the
techniques in this parallel track as a new
life style of the century to reach the climax.
Accordingly, US introduces the new life
style to the present society in this modern
world. (Further explaining of Improving
the standard of life & maximizing, using
Buddhist techniques etc. will be given
Thinking also will become easy &
powerful by understanding the pattern
behavior of the nature & training the mind
accordingly. Then It can go very far than
taking separately as in abstract thinking.
Hence the different subjects which are far
a part can be connected through pattern
thinking. By realising the repatitive nature
of things, pattern thinking will ease many
subjects, increase capacity & the
understanding power. Hence unsolved
problems & unfound solutions in present
science etc. will be found in US through
patterns & by considering all subjects
together merely as the different versions
rather than separate subjects as mentioned
above. In this regard, being the cause &
effect theory itself, Buddhism may act as
the parent subject to form various subject

different subjects, new innovations are

emerged. All these potential powers will
be accumulated to improve this parallel
track which can be practiced as the new
life style in the modern world.
Above parallel track which comprise of
speedy techniques, can also be applied to
up lift the mostly neglected & deprived
sectors of the society. These are so versatile
that, Irrespective of the political or other
outside environment, new life style
comprise of these techniques could be
practiced, even as a self determination of
any secter of the society, declairing so by
them-selves. In this context US itself will
become the new theory of social liberation
which emerges volunteraly without
dividing the people nationally, teretorially
or into any other divisions.
With regard to the innovations, one more
method can be introduced which excels its
power to enhance the social upliftment &
the liberation further.
After subjecting to extreme sufferance,
hadled Patacharato attain Nibbana by
changing her mind. In the other hand,
Unless that physical and mental extremes,
she would
never be able to attain
Nibbana. Physically also, new products
are invented under extreme conditions
such as extreme heat, pressure etc.
Extreme conditions or peaks are a must to
transform that to a new product and the
intermediate conditions are not sufficient
therein. Hence it is a another method of
inventing new products to the world by
subjecting to a extreme conditions (or
peaks). Due to the above fact some
experiments are done at the space because
of some
extreme conditions are not
possible to achieve on earth. Further
considering the formation of earth also, as
a result of extreme heat and pressure
which make it, to suitable for a new
civilization on it, the strength of this
method could be realized. Even
example of mammoty production is
concerned, steel is subjected to a high
impact blow at the extreme heat to form it
correct quality & shape.

Even the capacity of managing the various

subject fields can be improved by
considering all are only as subject versions
such as Engineering, Medecine etc. Due to
management from one subject to another
may be quite easy as a common
methodology irrespective of the subject
field. In addition to this, as far as any
persons duty is concerned, basically it is
almost a repetitive nature in daily basis
with a limited variety. Hence the work can
be organized systematically. Further the
training also can be arranged as more
effective by concentrating to the frequently
repeted duties & the mistakes while at
work. With regard to the innovations, new
things are formed through common
patterns according to the Chacreyachintana.
As a result of repatitions (patterns) among


This innovative method can extensively be

used for social liberation as well. In this
method, that the extreme conditions which
were being subjected, byPatachara had led
her to attend Nibbana. Generalizing the


above situation, a common pattern could

be developed as the (movement of)
simple pendulum theorywhich says that
more the difficulty faced, higher will be
the gain achieving. This innovative
thinking could be applied to upgrade the
poor & deprived sectors of the society.
Most advantage of this method is the,
ability to apply their present deprived
status itself as a previledge & an
advantage they have got, over the others,
to climb more heights. Hence this theory
will further enhance the above parallel
track for social liberation of the poors &
under-priviledged sectors.
Accordingly the US as the ultimate science
of the world, which comprises of immence
innovative power & featuring social
liberation & self determination to the
deprived sectors will lead the whole world
to the climax at them oder mchacrawarthi
regime. Hence undoubtly the US as the
material version of Buddhism will replace
Marxism & emerge as the new doctrine &
the practical path for social liberation to
the modern world as forseen its
replacement by a
phylosophy oneday, by the great
phylosoper Karl Marx. Further US itself
would bea tribute to his power of future


& proved methodology in the world for

prosperity, due to all other development
models have shown failures & are giving
troubles due to their imbalance nature.
Being in line with our fore-fathers, US is
introduced to the world again, as the most
assured path for a balance development &
the prosperity.
As far as the social problems are
concerned US would be able to address
any present day problem, even though it
hails from our ancestors time. For a
remained unsolved for long, since both
sides are having strong points. Hence its
repercussion may be harmful to the
society. Matters are become debatable, as
far as we consider them in the binary
logical frame. This is nearly a both positive
case in the frame of four quadrantlogic.
Hence summation can not be reached in
the binary logic level just by agreeing to
one side & denying the other. In such a
situation, US will address such issues
successfully & accordingly the summation
has to be arrived only in the four quadrant
space either by denying both & finding a
new solution at a common higher level or
by compromising both side to a middle
solution. This is the type of common
pattern solution to these type of problems,
when both sides are equally strong. As an
example that, basically the Sri lankan
society has been divided basically into two
parties. It is not a healthy situation as far
as the development is concerned. Hence in
a four quadrant plane, ultimate solution
can be foundby adhering to the authentic
path of US which followed by our
ancestors, in the light of being itself the
future science valid for the whole world.
Further at this moment US reminds the
results, which gained so far within the
binary frame as only the poverty & the
under-development since independence.
US further understand that, searching for a
solution within the binary frame has
ended up so far, with gaining only, a
repetitive circle (Tattumaruwa) as the
ultimate result instead of the development,
since it is the repetiton which activates
instantly, in a by-polar two opposites
situation, through binary approach, while
obeying to the TO theory. It is the binary
plane itself, in which we are entrapped, as
the reason behind for failing to understand
so far, both repetitive Tattumaruwa &

Problems Solving:

With regard to the present social matters,

US identifies that the drunkenness,
addicting, suiciding etc., as a result of lack
of personality. Hence the present practice
of addressing each separately is not
recommended by US as a successful
method and the same has been identified
as the main reason for the long dragging of
these problems in the society with a
increasing trendanually. Hence US
questions the methods adopted to solve
them by those who are involved at
present. Hence US advise the main cause
of lack of personality as the key problem to
be address at the preventive stage as well
as at this curative stage, collectively,
through a multidisciplinary approach by
all in order to end these social menace,
rather than addressing separately.
However during past, Our ancestors were
able to achieve a developed & prosperous
society through new innovative Buddhist
thinking pattern by defeating such
problems. Hence it is the ever only tested



earth rotation. As far as we are in this

plane, we will never get answers to both
the cases. On the other hand, in short, it is
the binary approach again, which is
responsible for the under-development &
poverty so far & for dragging for so long
this political debate un-solved. Hence it is
only the out of frame 4QDNT approach,
which will qualify to stop this ever
repetitive nature of country politics.
Accordingly US insists that this as the high
time for all to agree unanimously to apply
US & come back to our inherent path, of
which followed by our fore-fathers to end
this long dragging political issue. In the
light of US being the future modern
science, it is the wise decision which has to
be taken by allpatriotics at this moment.
Similarly any sensitive or critical problem
for which the solution can not be sought in
binary frame can be found the solution in
4QDNT frame. Somebody will insist the
need of two sided politics for a country as
far as the democracy is concerned. It is
true for a country, until its authentic path
is not found. Hence Sri Lanka is in a well
ahead stage compare to other countries,
due to the fact that of possessing US as a
future science of which had itself been
able to identified as the unique authentic
path for the country from our ancestors
Mahasammataya which agreed by all
unanimously than the majority decision of
Jana sammatawadaya (democracy).


concerned. For this purpose, the present

science has to be expanded upto four
quadrant logal frame as the only way to
accormodate two opposites theory which
itself being a paradox.
Downward detailing from the totality is
close to the nature (& the evolution) & It
will reduce many separate studies which
are tired some. Hence this forward march
will have a direct effect to the present
education system as far as the easy
grasping of present knowledge by the
children & new discoveries are concerned.
It will pave the path for more genious to
comeup. As a example, the universal
forces could have been found before the
gravitational forces through this approach.
In the other hand, US identifies that the
education pattern prepared according to
the above backward march, as one of the
main reason for most of the children to be
weak in science education in general &
only solution would be the science
education giving close to the nature in
forward direction with initial assumptions
etc. Grasping knowledge would be quite
easy in this method since more concern is
given always to the total picture at the
beginning & followed by detailing. This
will be realized when studying the
childhood stories of Ienstine, whom had
been called as an idiotonce. Being the
forward march not yet a reality, it is the
responsibility of the teachers & the
authorities concerned to identify the
genious now from the weak list in the
class room. Since this forward march will
give the whole picture, while uncovering
the universal secrets including the
inherent limitations impose by the two
opposites theory, will direct to end the
progress at a certain level & accordingly
those genious will exceed Ienstine
undoubtly in one day.

Science & the Education :

So far the development of science has been

occurred while breaking the previously
accepted assumptions, theories etc &
widening its base gradually. As far as the
totality is concerned it is a backward
march towards an unknown destination
due to the risk of breaking the present
theories also one day of which are
accepted now. US reveals that, this
backward march or the blind walk of
present science can be ended, only by
starting from the fundamental theory of
coexisting of two opposites together &
based on it. Then the present science may
start its forward march of detailing upto a
known destination. At least this theory has
to be taken as a initial hypothesis by the
present science until it is disproved. Then
it will be a very progressive approach as
far as the future of the science is



Way to Extra gains :

According to the US, co-existence of two

opposites which is responsible for the
whole dynamic nature of the universe
ultimately gives netalgebric sum of zero
value in every aspect. This means that, the
whole universe is just at a rotation without
any progressive move. Apart from this,
nature is defective compared to the unique
& perfect properties of satarabhuta.


Due to the defective feature, one thing has

to be sacrified to gain another of which
will end up with net zero gain ultimately.
This zero sum game appears in many
forms in the present science also.
According to Newton STheory, every
action has a equal & opposite reaction.
Karl Marks said, every forwarding step of
man kind would be a backward step as
According to the pattern thinking, Effect of
Zero sum game will further be observed.
At the personal level, all belongings &
every thing built upto date, will have to be
left in presence of Sansara chakra & will
have to start from zero once again.
Together with, Increasing the risk of
loosing, gaining more & more facilities is
an other example. Growing danger
equally, together with world development
is an another aspect.
Effect of net zero sum as explained above
is a universal phenomen on. Hidden static
nature behind all planetary move vents
explicitesthis effect physically. Further in
Universally it extends as the conservation
in every aspect and no extra out come is
possible. Combining with the mass and
energy conservation theories, Two more
new theories such as Theory of Uni
conservation & new innovations had been
developed in part 3.
More than all these, it derives that,
individually no rescue can be expected
inthis zero sum & ever static world. Only
way to get a net extra gain would be
trough a selfless & collective efforts. This
has to be realized as the additional
(composite) strength gained by twisting a
rope thanits individual fibers. Collective
approach will be the only possible way to
gain physical maximum before spiritual
gainsin this material world.
Hence to be collective, they themselves
have to give away selfishness. More being
friendly, leaving selfishness, more will be
the gains. Accordingly the friendly
attitude, developed so far by pattern
thinking will be further strength ened, due
to being the only escape, as reveal through
the US by the zero sum scenario. In the
other hand, the friendliness which
demands from man kind, until get away
the present problems at globle level ,will
further be required & become mandetoty
in order to acquire extra gains in this zero
sum world. Beyond this only remaining,

will be the ever highest perfect immaterial

gains at the spiritual world while
beingfully selfless. Further the US
understands that all these problems &
struggles in the world are due to the
intermittent level where the man kind is
performing now. Hence US is there to
redeem the people & to accompany them
to the climax without leaving them
anymore in this intermittent substanded
level, which resulted due to the present
science. It is the maximum possible level
that the man can achieve in this material
world, prior to the spiritual gains. Hence
switching on to US has become
compulsory from this science, since this is
the form & state of world with all these
sufferences, poverty, tererism etc. as
experienced now, that the present science
can built & hand over to the man kind.
Due to the fact that we all are trapped in a
zero sum cage and only way to a extra
gain would be through collective effort,
will urge the world to be more collective &
friendly as revealed by US.
This understanding one day will direct
world to be selfless & to end the undue
competition in the light of all the countries
are engaged in accumulating wealth now
to face any attack or threat coming from
another country. Growing friendly
environment will diminish such need and
the undue competition as well. In the other
hand Collective minds will curtail the
need for collecting wealth competitively.
All effort could be focused towards the
benefit of man kind rather than competing.
Hence the climax will reach as a result of
collecting all these energy.



It has been shown here that all present

scientific theories & formulars are
governed by the TO theory & a common
(pattern) theorem level has been formed
based on the prevailing common patterns
among the subjects. Accordingly as a
example, a new theorem was formed by
Buddhism as a new concept & the
advantage of this method is the ability to
avoid cost involved for researching.
It has been further shown here the
of patterns (systems) for
development of a country. Techniques
derived from Buddhism are so strong that
those can be practiced as the life style to
the modern society while being applicable



to up lift the poor & the deprived sectors

of the society. Further, US has been
identified here as the new doctrine for
social liberation as well. Obtaining
solutions at 4qdrnt plane & ending long
dragging political problems were also
approach, some suggessions were made to
facilitate the genious to come up in their
studies. Gaining more through being more
selfless, was also shown here.


News Paper articles including Mihindu

Himiyange Amba Prashnaya of Professor
Nalinda Silva


News Paper articles of Buddhist Scholar,

Professor Hettiarachchi etc.



ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [79-86], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

New Approach for the Success of Yala cultivation in

Dry zone under Drought Condition
R.M.B. Rajakaruna

Agriculture Ministry statics show that while the targeted acreage for cultivation during
Yala 2012 was 494100 hectares. Only 348761 hectares have actually been cultivated. The harvest is
estimated at 1.25 million metric tons. However these figures are expected to see drastic change due to
the drought weather condition experienced in most part of the country, specially the agricultural areas.
Of the cultivated lands, most paddy lands in the Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa districts have been
severely affected by the shortage of water. According to Agriculture ministry 5000 hectares of paddy
lands in Kurunegala district have been completely destroyed by the drought.
Under the above situation, the farmers of the Irrigation schemes who are in Galgamuwa area in
Kurunegala district have been harvested their maximum yield in Yala 2012.
This paper reviews the hydrological, meteorological records and strategies to examine the possibility
of planning irrigation issues during Yala season 2012 in the Galgamuwa area.



to many other crops. Water is essential for the

preparation of land, and the planting and
maintenance of the crop throughout the
planting-harvest cycle.

Sri Lanka is heavily dependent on agriculture

and both rain-fed and irrigated agriculture
form the backbone of rural livelihoods.
Scientists have suggested that the overall
rainfall received by Sri Lanka has decreased
in many areas of the country. The established
patterns of rainfall have changed and the
distribution of rainfall in different parts of the
country also appears to be undergoing
changes. While the droughts cause delays in
planting seasons and are responsible for crop

There are significant efforts by governments

over the past few years to establish new
infrastructure, rehabilitate or renovate
existing dams, reservoirs and canals, and
promote agro wells and micro-irrigation
technologies to meet the rising demand for
agricultural water. Despite such efforts,
however, the problem of water scarcity
continues grow. In order to meet the future
demands of agricultural water innovative
approaches are needed. The demand for
agricultural water has to be balanced with the
municipal and industrial water demand.
Maximize the use of rain water for land
preparation in paddy cultivation is one of the
strategy can be adopted for dry zone in yala.
The development of crop varieties that
demand less water is one possible strategy to
manage competing demands for water. The
selective adoption of technologies appropriate
for small farmers is another tool. Planning
and coordinating irrigation water is also
very important to save the excess use of
water. Farmer organizations, local institutions,

According to current statistics, the total

cultivated area in Sri Lanka is estimated at
1.86 million ha. About 632000 ha of this area is
irrigated; the rest is rain-fed. Irrigated
agriculture is mainly comprised of major
irrigation schemes. In addition, there are
numerous minor schemes, which can be
identified as semi rain-fed systems. They
include over 15,000 village tanks scattered
across the dry zone areas of the country.
Irrigated agriculture in Sri Lanka has received
a great deal of attention from policy makers
over the past several decades, which
culminated in the accelerated Mahaweli
Development Program in the mid 1980s.

Eng. R.M.B. Rajakaruna, IESl(Final), Msc(IWRM)

Peradeniya, C.Eng, MIE(Sri Lanka), presently employed as
Divisional Irrigation Engineer Minneriya DivisionPolonnaruwa, Irrigation Department.

Majority of the irrigated land in Sri Lanka is

used for paddy cultivation. The demand for
water is high in paddy cultivation compared



and state agencies such as the Agrarian

Development Department, Department of
Agriculture, Department of irrigation, and the
Department of Meteorology all have an
important role to play. They must work
closely and share knowledge and information
so that irrigation water can be better managed
through an IWRM approach.


2.1 Rain fall variability in Galgamuwa area

In this paper, my attempt to highlight

questions often rose by farmers, when
government officials attend cultivation
meetings at the each cultivation season to
draw up the cultivation calendar for the
season. However, according to the way these
cultivation meetings are scheduled, this vital
issue does not crop up as normally cultivation
meetings are held during the monsoonal
rainy seasons, while the irrigation tanks are
spilling. By that time most of the monsoonal
rains and intermosoonal rains have been
fallen and disappeared from farm lands and
therefore become ineffective, in the command
area. This process results in wastage of
natural rain water. In order to remedy this
situation, if the cultivation meeting is held
before inter monsoonal rain; well in advance
of the rainy season it might be possible to use
the rainfall for land preparation. Experience
gained in 2012 yala by Galgamuwa farmers
are Good examples for planning cultivation to
use rainwater to land preparation and get
success under drought weather.


Galgamuwa Irrigation division is located in

the Kurunegala administrative District of
North western province. Rain fall pattern of
Anuradhapura were considered to represent
the study area in view of the similarities in
topography, elevation, and observed rainfall
Galgamuwa were obtained for the five year
period 2008 t0 2012 for the study (figure 1). By
considering the rainfall data of the area,
government officials and farmers can be
decided the date of commencement of
cultivation. We can observe that during
February, March April, first Inter monsoonal
rains have fallen and gets about 300mm 400mm rainfall to Galgamuwa area. Month of
May, June, July gets less rain fall about 50mm100mm to the area considered.

The Climate Seasons in Sri


The Climate of Sri Lanka is dominated by the

Southwest and Northeast monsoons regional
scale wind regimes. The Climate experienced
during 12 months period in Sri Lanka can be
characterized in to 4 climate seasons as



( March April)
( May September)
(October November)
Northeast Monsoon season (December


Figure 1- Rainfall Variability in Galgamuwa 2008 to 2012

Figure 2 Schematic Diagram of Mee Oya System




Climate over Sri Lanka during the Yala of

Mee oya is complicated irrigation system with

three major reservoirs which is connected by
feeder canals. Abakolawewa is situated at upper
level and across the Meeoya River. One feeder
canal is connected Abakolawewa and Ataragalla
reservoirs and another feeder canal is connected
Ataragalla tank and Palukadawala tank. Maha
Galgamuwa tank and Maha Nanneriya tanks are
situated separately in the Mee oya river basin.
Maha siyamblangamuwa is located at the upper
part of the siyambalangamu oya and usgala
siyambalangamuwa at lower part close to the
Kala oya.

Large parts of the island were under drought
this Yala which refers to the cultivation season
that starts after the April-May rains. Impacts of
droughts have led to shortages in drinking
water in some areas and wells and rivers drying
up and clapped landscapes. Farmers have been
affected in large swathes of the island
particularly in Polonnaruwa, Anuradhapura,
Ampara, Kurunegala and Batticaloa districts.
The sowing and harvesting of the principal crop
of rice takes place during the two cultivation
seasons, Maha (starting in October) and Yala
(starting end of April). During Maha, the
farmlands usually receive sufficient water to
cultivate all rice fields whereas during Yala,
farmlands usually receive only enough water to
cultivate about half the fields and farmers are
particularly affected by shortfalls in this season.
The drought was due to an accumulated rainfall
deficit in the months preceding the Yala from
January to April and significant deficits from
June to August.



Reservoirs in Galgamuwa
Irrigation Division

There are four major reservoirs and three

medium reservoirs in Galgamuwa Irrigation
division. These schemes come under the
purview of the Director of Irrigation Kurunegala
District and Irrigation Engineer Galgamuwa.
Siyambalangamuwa reservoirs receive water
from Siyambalangamuwa oya (tributary of Kala
oya). Abakolawewa, Ataragalla, Palukadawala,
Maha Galgamuwa and Maha Nanneriya
reservoirs are situated in the river basin of Mee
oya. Usgala Siyambalangamuwa and Maha
Galgamuwa are ancient schemes which had
been abandoned for a long time until they were
restored by the Irrigation Department. Other
reservoirs were constructed by the Irrigation
Department in early 1960s.



Planning of cultivation season

Planning of commencement date for cultivation

is one of the main decisions to be taken at the
cultivation meeting. Irrigation Engineers have to
know whether a decision can be made on the
basis of historical record on rain fall to
commence cultivation with limited amount of
water, anticipating the rain to come and fill up
the reservoirs. The government officials such as
District Secretary, Director of Irrigation,
Irrigation Engineer, Officers from Agriculture
Department, Agrarian Service Department,
Banks and other relevant organizations attend
cultivation meetings with farmers at the
beginning of each cultivation seasons to draw
up the cultivation calendar for the season.
However, according to the way these cultivation
meetings are held during the monsoonal rainy
seasons, while the irrigation tanks are spilling.
By that time most of the monsoonal rains and
inter monsoonal rains have fallen and
disappeared from farm lands and therefore
become ineffective, in the command area. This
process results in wastage of natural rain water.
In order to remedy this situation, if the
cultivation meeting is held before the inter
monsoonal rain; well in advance of the rainy
season it might be possible to use the rainfall for
land preparation.


Planning of yala cultivation in the study

Peanut cultivation need only very less water and

profit margin is very high than the paddy

Mee oya system (Figure 02)

Maha Siyambalangmuwa

One Cultivation meeting was held for

reservoirs on 13/03/2012 and decisions were
taken to start land preparation with utilizing
rain water. Analyzing historical hydro
meteorological data ( figure 1), farmers were
explained rhythmic rainfall pattern to the area
to decide the commencement date. According to
the data, mid of March was the most
appropriate time to start land preparation with
rainfall. Therefore all parties agreed to start the
cultivation on 15/03/2012. Rice variety of 331/2 month and OFC were selected to establish
the crops. Cultivation extents were decided
according to the available water in reservoir and
expected rainfall.

Harvesting of 2011/2012 Maha season delayed

due to late cultivation of Maha season. Although
the harvesting was completed before Sinhala
New Year, could not commence the yala
cultivation until this cultural ceremony is
finished. The cultivation meeting was scheduled
on 19/04/2012 and decided to start the
cultivation on 21/04/2012. The monsoonal rains
were gradually reduced at the end of April and
had to release water from reservoir for land
preparation. The capacity of the reservoir was
1370 acft (1.61 MCM). Recorded Water duty for
this area was 5 acft per acre(MCM/Ha) for yala
season. Therefore we decided to cultivate 250
acs (101 Ha) of paddy under bethma system.
Bethma system can be described as a portion of
the field of suitable size selected and the rest is
abandoned. The selected portion is then divided
in to same number of shares in the whole field.
The paddy tract selected for bethma was lying
close to the tank bund. This system is traditional
old cultivation systems which were observed
under village tanks in early periods maintained
by villagers themselves.

Due to Rehabilitation of the Usgala

Siyambalangamuwa, tank was emptied and
cultivation was abandoned.
Maha Galgamuwa tank
The Separate cultivation meeting was held on
20/03/2012 and same procedure was adopted as
mee oya system to decide the commencement
date of cultivation. Short term varieties of paddy
were selected for full extent of command area.


Maha Nanneriya tank

Less rain fall received during march- may to
Maha Nanneriya area. Therefore water collected
in reservoir was not sufficient to cultivation of
paddy. Irrigation officials and farmers were
waiting until May 2012 to decide whether the
cultivation is start or not. The capacity of the
tank was 292 acft (0.36 MCM) while total
capacity is 1892 acft (2.33 MCM). This situation
is 15% from total capacity. Finally I decided to
call cultivation meeting to decide crop type suit
to available water. Cultivation meeting was held
on 08/05/2012 and decided to cultivate 150 acs
(60 Ha) of peanut.

Cultivation performance of the

schemes under drought
The farmers of all schemes have received a
bumper harvest in this season. Over 100
busals of paddy harvest per acre
(5435Kg/Ha) was recorded and over
hundred thousand rupees profit were taken
from the OFC cultivation. It was found that
it was possible to bring down to the duty of
water less than Estimated duty of five acft
per acre(MCM/Ha) even under drought
condition by using rain water for land



Table 01- Analysis of water consumption during

Yala 2012



Capacity at









used for



During the

at end of




the season

from the




tank (MCM)
















































Analysis of water management practice

adopted and income received

take correct decision at the cultivation meetings

and during cultivation period. Following
strategies were adopted to overcome these

According to the table 01, we can understand

the water saving by using rain water to land
Palukadawala tanks belongs to Meeoya system
and Maha Galgamuwa tank cultivation were
started before Sinhala New Year. Rainwater
used for land preparation. Duty of water was
around 3 to 5 acft per acre.(MCM/HA) Maha
Siyambalangamuwa cultivation started after
Sinhala New Year and water has to be released
from the tank because of the rain was
disappeared. Total Water consumption was 6.5
acreft per acre (MCM/Ha). Comparing these
two situations, it is clearly understood that
saving of water by using rain fall for land
preparation is nearly 1.5 acft per ac(MCM/Ha)
Maha Nanneriya situation is deferent from the
meeoya system and Maha siyambalangamuwa.
Very less rainfall received and less runoff
collected to the Nanneriya tank. To avoid
decreasing the income level and living standard
of the farmers belongs to the scheme, OFC
cultivation was introduced to match with the
available storage. Half an acre was allocated to
one farmer to cultivate peanut and support
provided to supply of seeds from agriculture
department. Estimated water duty was 2.0
acft/ac (MCM/Ha) in beginning of the season
but actual water duty was 1.76. Each farmer gets
about 1000 kg of harvest and income nearly
rupees one hundred thousand. Income from one
acre of paddy land is about rupees twenty
thousand. Comparing with paddy farmers, OFC
farmers gets more profit than the paddy farmers.

Conducted awareness programmes at

the pre cultivation meeting and project
committee meetings to educate farmers
about prevailing weather patterns and
available water storage of the reservoirs.
Educated the farmers about cultivation
methods, crop types and area to be
cultivated to suit to dry weather
condition and available water in the
Introduced the Traditional bethma
system. Paddy tract selected for bethma
was that lying close to the tank, thus
helping to minimize conveyance losses
and to conserve the available irrigation
Cultivation meetings were held before
the intermonsoonal rain, well in
advance of the rainy season to be
possible to use the rain fall for land
Farmers reluctant to start cultivation just
after maha harvesting. They like to relax
between the both season. Encouraged
and Advised to farmers to establish the
crops before the New Year festival.
Technological support from agriculture
department, supporting services from
Agrarian service department, credit
facilities from Banks, Irrigation facilities
from Irrigation Department, Insurance
and Trading facilities From Other
service providers were coordinated by
the project managers of Irrigation
management division and Irrigation
Discussions were held with farmers
before every rotational Irrigation issues
by the Irrigation officials, identified
short comings and attended the conflict
situations to solve from next issue.
Aware the farmers about possibility of
cultivation of short term crops in mid
seasons and start of next maha season
on time.

Strategies adopted to success the yala

cultivation under drought condition

commencement of cultivation according to this
concept was examined by doing study of past
meteorological and hydrological records which
entirely depend on its own catchment. For this
Palukadawala, Maha Galgamuwa, Maha
Nanneriya and Maha Siyambalangamuwa
schemes in Galgamuwa area was selected. Yala
cultivation during 2012 was considered.
Decision makers had to face many challenges to





Increased scarcity of irrigation water

persuades us to introduce improved
management in irrigation schemes to
obtain the optimum use of water.
Saving water in the rainy season, by
implementing tactics to issue less
irrigation water enables an increase in
the water availability for dry season
crops. The study which was conducted
during yala 2012 in Galgamewa area
demonstrate the methodology to decide
cultivation, in order to minimize the
irrigation water requirement. In other
words this ensures the maximum
utilization of rain water during the
cultivation season.

I would like to thank retired Director of

Irrigation Eng W. Gamage for
encouraging me for this study.


Dharmasena G T, 1990 Planning of
Irrigation to Optimize the effective
rainfall IESL.


ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [87-94], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Design of Sewerage System in Kirulapone for Colombo

Shahina M Mysan and Ananda Ranasinghe
The sewerage system in the Colombo city had been laid by the British a few centuries ago
and whatever development that is presently being done is augmentation of the whole system.
Frequently a few additions have also been made to the system but due to financial constraints these
additions are being done at a very slow pace.
Discharging sewage is also important as collecting sewage. However, the method of discharging sewage
to the ocean without any treatment whatsoever had been practised from the very inception and this has
continued up to the present time. Although there had been environmental pollution from the beginning,
due to the fact that the population and volume of sewage being extremely small at that time, the level of
pollution had not been significant. However, with the enlarged population as well as increase in the
volume of sewage over the years, there should be some form of sewage treatment before discharging
same into the ocean.
However, as the authorities are finding it extremely difficult even to finance expansion needs, it is very
unlikely that sewage will be treated in the near future before discharging into the ocean and this may
pose a problem that may have to be faced by the authorities as well as environmentalists for a long time
to come.
Key words:

CMC, Sewerage, Environment, Sewer Network, Pollution

1. Introduction
Development goes hand in hand with the
progress of civilisation and it is inextricably
interwoven with each other. No proper
positive development can be achieved with
certainty without adequate and proper
infrastructure. There are only a few towns
in Sri Lanka where there is a well laid
sewerage system. Although the British
commenced the laying of a sewerage
system in Colombo when they started
settling in Colombo as their capital city, the
same advancement of expanding the
sewerage system had not taken place either
in the Colombo city or the rest of the island.
Even in cities like Kandy, which is the next
big city, the sewerage system had been
introduced at a much latter stage.
Presently, still we are using this age old
sewerage pipe system augmented with a
few improvements in the Colombo city. It

is important to mention that 80% of Colombo city

has a sewerage system whereas for the rest of the
areas planning has begun to lay sewerage pipes.
The areas that are not covered presently are
Narahenpita and Kirulapone.
There is no doubt that the old sewerage system
has been designed for a population of less than
50% presently residing in Colombo.
improvement that has been done for the sewerage
system is disproportionate to the increase in
population. Therefore one could say that the
present sewerage system is substantially
improvement. Sewerage systems, like the other
Eng. (Ms) Shahina M Mysan, BSc Eng. (Hons), CEng,
MIE (Sri Lanka),Eng (House Connection), Colombo
Municipal Council
Eng.(Dr.) Ananda Ranasinghe,BSc Eng (Hons), MEng,
MTech, PGD, CEng, IntPE, AIStructE, FIE (Sri Lanka),
MIE (Aust), MICE




infrastructure, are very costly but

unfortunately of these works are being
done below the ground and therefore do
not get much attention of the public. This
may be one of the reasons that our
investment in the sewerage system is
comparatively little as it does not give
much publicity to the politician.

cannot handle the volume of runoff, resulting in

combined sewer overflows and causing water
pollution problems in nearby water bodies.
Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to
transport sewage alone. In communities served by
separate sanitary sewers, another pipe system is
constructed to convey storm-water runoff directly
to surface waters. Most municipal sewer systems
constructed today are separate sewer systems.
Although separate sewer systems are intended to
transport only sewage, all sewer systems have
some degree of inflow and infiltration of surface
water and groundwater, which can lead to
sanitary sewer overflows. Inflow and infiltration
is highly affected by antecedent moisture
conditions, which also represents an important
design consideration in these systems.

A sewage system may convey wastewater

by gravity to a sewage treatment plant.
Where Pipeline excavation is difficult
because of rock or there is limited
topographic relief (i.e., due to flat terrain),
gravity collection systems may not be
practical and the sewage must be pumped
through a pipeline to the treatment plant or
pumping station. Pipelines range in size
from pipes of six inches (150 mm) in
diameter to man-entry tunnels.

52 T10-50(b-n)-300 T & B

4 T10-50a-300 T & B








12 T12-45-250


88 T12-43-250




4 T10-50a-300 T&B



52 T10-50(b-n)-300 T& B



2 T10-51-T & B



2 T10-47b

22 R6-49-150

176 T16-38-125


=450 N/mm2
=250 N/mm2


= GRADE 20


52 T10-50(b-n)-300 T & B


21 T10-47(a-k)-300 T & B




2 T10-47b


= GRADE 35



156 T16-40-125






156 T16-39-125




56 T16-42-125



61 T16-41-125





27 T16-35(a-z)-125T & B



156 Y16-39-125






SCALE: 1 : 25
Y16-C - 5 - 200 C/C WELDED


6mm THK. 400 M.S. PLATE





176 T16--37-125






Figure 1 - Sump cum pump House Reinforcement details

2. Design and analysis of collection


3. Historical sewage conveyance and


Design and sizing of sewage collection

systems considers population served,
commercial and industrial flows, flow
peaking characteristics and wet weather
flows. Combined sewer systems are
designed to transport both storm-water
runoff and sewage in the same pipe.
Besides the projected sewage flow, the size
and characteristics of the watershed are the
overriding design considerations for
combined sewers. Often, combined sewers

The historical focus of sewage treatment was on

conveyance of raw sewage to a natural body of
water, e.g. a river or ocean, where it would be
satisfactorily diluted and dissipated. Early human
habitations were often built next to water sources.
Rivers could double as a crude form of natural
sewage disposal.
The Colombo sewerage scheme was initiated by
the Government of Ceylon in 1896 when Mr.
James Masergh past-president, Inst. C.E, was




called in to advise. He tabulated the vital

topographical and other statistics along
with the first contour map of the city, and
recommended a complete sewerage scheme
upon the separate system with outfall
works. Which the present scheme has been
constructed. The Municipal Council at first
raised objections to any system of
underground sewers, but in 1901, with
some encouragement by the Government
commencement of the first installment.
Not until May 1906, that the necessary land
purchase was accomplished for work to
be started on the main sewer and treatment
Constructional works with minor sewers in
the Fort and Pettah wards were
commenced on the first of June 1904.
Northern pumping station and primary
treatment works were designed to deal
with the sewerage from the whole city, but
subsequent enlargements of the city
boundaries necessitated the southern
No works of similar character had been
previously attempted in Ceylon before. The
labour force had to be trained in the
timbering of trenches and the methods
required for dealing with ground water.
This installment of the scheme was handed
over to the Municipality for operation in
September 1910. It dealt with a net
habitable area of about 60 Acres with an
estimated future population of about
60,000. The cost of the works, including
land acquisition estimated to Rs.
In November, 1911, the boundaries of the
Municipality were extended eastward and
Southward. A Sourthen Outfall was
suggested with a pumping station.
Owing to the slow progress of the house
connections, further detailed drainage
proposals were postponed and public
latrines and most of large institutions,
hotels and offices were being connected.
The drainage division of Colombo
Municipal Council records show that first
drainage connection was given in

September 1910 to premises No.50/13, Prince



Industrial Revolution era

As an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution,

many cities in Europe and North America grew in
the 19th century, frequently leading to crowding
and increasing concerns about public health. As
part of a trend of municipal sanitation programs
in the late 19th and 20th centuries, many cities
constructed extensive sewer systems to help
control outbreaks of disease. Initially these
systems discharged sewage directly to surface
comprehensive sewer system was built in
Hamburg, Germany in the mid-19th century.
Although the perception of the general public is
that the ocean can absorb anything and
everything, it is not so. This was revealed at the
unfortunate tsunami disaster which affected the
Sri Lankan coastal belt.
One of the major
problems that had to be dealt with after the
tsunami was cleaning of the shores due to the
floating debris from the sea. Therefore the ocean
cannot absorb whatever garbage that is disposed
into it. In Sri Lanka we do spend very little on the
Comparatively, most of the developed countries
have a fair share in their budget for the
improvement of their infrastructure. These
improvements in the developing countries are
also carried out in a systematic manner so that
minimal harm would be done to the environment.
Environmental pollution has become a serious
issue in the developed countries and it has now
expanded to the developed countries as well.
Although countries like India have mass scale
factories contributing to development and
production, they are also responsible for similar
scale pollution as most of the effluents are being
discharged into rivers and streams without
proper treatment. Therefore, the treatment of
sewerage is also equally important as establishing
a sewerage infrastructure. However, in countries
like Sri Lanka, the mere maintenance of the
present sewerage system and adding the
necessary extension is beyond the capacity of
some of the organizations who are responsible for




providing such services. Therefore they

show very little consideration for the
treatment of sewage as it is going to be
impossible due to the cost involved.
In the present sewerage system covering
Colombo there are two major sea outfalls
one at Wellawatte and the other at
Madampitiya. At these outfalls sewage is
taken into the sea up to a distance of
approximately 1.5 Km. before discharging.
However, even preliminary treatment is not
being done purely due to the cost factor.
Presently, Dehiwela/Mount Lavinia and
Kolonnawa Municipal Councils connect
their sewer outlets to the Colombo
sewerage system whereby the Colombo
sewerage system is further overloaded due
to this fact.
In the Colombo sewerage system there are
frequent blocks and collapses as the
majority of it had been made quite some
time back. Repairing of these collapses and
blocks themselves is a major project due to
the dilapidated condition of the sewerage
Although after laying or
maintenance of a sewerage system, testing
has to be done in order to ensure its water
tightness which is not being done presently
in a systematic manner. Therefore there is
a possibility that there is a lack of water
tightness and as a result the raw sewage
could contaminate streams, rivers and other
water estuaries such as ground water.

Figure 2 & 3 - Recent sewer collapse at

In order to augment the sewerage system,
recently the pump house at Madampitiya has
been expanded. Furthermore, construction is in
progress for two more pump stations at
Mattakkuliya and Wanathamulla. In order to
support the present expansion in population in
the Kirulapone area a new pump station at
Swarna Road has been proposed and already the
design work is completed.
However, the
construction of the pump station has not yet
commenced but connected sewerage network is
under construction.
A further pump station has been designed at
Kalinga Mawatha in order to cater to a population
of 25,000. This pump station is bounded by
Elvitigala Mawatha on one side and the canal
near the Open University and Vijaya
Kumaratunga Mawatha on the other side. The
catchment area for this pump station is
approximately 65 hectares and this project
consists of a 3.75 Km long gravity sewer network
and a pump having 775 m force main.
The design of this pump station and the gravity
network has been done by a co-author of this
paper. The gravity line which is part of the
development project and the pump main is
shown in the attached map. The project comprises
a 33 m3 capacity sump with the piping system of
diameter varying from 150mm to 300mm. The
design of the sump was done according to the BS
8110 and 8007. The designer has also used




Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook by

Reynolds and Steadman and other
references listed in the paper. The concrete
grade 35 had been used for the sump and
for the purpose of laying pipelines grade 20
was used.
The major factor determining the pump
capacity was the number of working hours
of the pump. Due to various restrictions
such as working hours, maintenance,
capacity etc. it was assumed that the pumps
are working for a duration of 12 hours per a
For the purpose of calculating the inflow of
wastewater an assumption was made that
the inflow of wastewater was uniform and
proportionate to the population. It was
assumed that from Elvigatigala Mawatha to
Kumaratunga Mawatha, the total number
of houses are 450 at an average of 5 persons
per house. Based on this information and a
growth rate of 1%, the anticipated
population for 25 years was calculated as
the designed life of the sump was assumed
as 25 years. Similarly discharge from the
other areas coming within the catchment
area was taken into account in order to
arrive at a total population anticipated for
25 years.


Designing of Gravity Pipe


The principles adopted in the design of

gravity mains and the sump are different to
each other. In a gravity main one has to
consider the peak flow of the catchment
area as it would adversely affect the
overloading of the piping system. In order
to calculate the peak flow a factor of 4 was
taken which is generally used in the design
of this type of infrastructure. Due to the
nature of the area as well as the other
associated structures which connect the
pipeline always there is a possibility of
infiltration of water. It was assumed that a
person consumed 200 litres per day with a
reasonable loss of water of 10%. So the

actual consumption of water by a person is

approximately 180 litres per day. The infiltration
of water has to be added to the water calculated
from consumption in order to obtain the designed
flow. It is also important to note that when
designing wastewater pipes one would not design
for the full flow condition as an allowance has to
be made for the development of gaseous
compound in the sewage. Therefore the designer
has used half full flow capacity in order to size the
pipes. It is also important to consider that the
gaseous compound collected in the sewer has to
be discharged and therefore vent shafts are
provided at upper most locations as well as all the
house inlet points. Typical vent shaft in the
Colombo sewerage system is shown in the
figure 6.

Figure 4 - Laying of Sewer Pipe Lines on a

graded fill

Figure 5 - Location Map




mains are comparable to that of gravity sewer

lines, but pipeline reliability may be compromised
by excessive pressure surges, corrosion or lack of
routine maintenance.

Figure 6 -Typical
Duplication Road





Force Main

Force mains are pipe lines that convey

waste water under pressure from the
discharge side of a pump to another
pumping station. Pumps located in a lift
station provide the energy for waste water
conveyance in force mains. The key
elements in a force main system can be
identified as Pipes, Valves, Pressure surge
control devices and Force main cleaning
Force mains are used to convey wastewater
from a lower to a higher elevation. In this
Project the elevation of the source is not
high enough for gravity flow. There were
situations where use of gravity conveyance
will result in excessive excavation depths
and higher construction costs. Ductile iron,
polyvinyl chloride or cast iron is the most
frequently used material for wastewater
force mains.

Use of force mains can significantly reduce the

size and depth of sewer lines and decrease the
overall costs of sewer system construction.
Typically, when gravity sewers are installed in
trenches deeper than 6.0m, the cost of sewer line
installation increases significantly because more
complex and costly excavation equipment and
trench shoring techniques are required.
Force main installation is simple because of
shallower pipe line trenches and reduced quantity
of earth work. Installation of force mains is not
dependent on site specific topographic conditions
and is not impacted by available terrain slope,
which typically limits gravity wastewater


The major factors considered in analyzing force

main materials and hydraulics include the design
formula for sizing the pipe, friction losses,
pressure surges, and maintenance. The Hazen
Williams formula and Cole Brook- White formula
are recommended for the design of force mains.
These formulae include a roughness coefficient,
which accounts for pipeline hydraulic friction
characteristics. The roughness coefficient varies
with pipe material, size and age.

While construction of force mains system

excluding the other accessories, is less
expensive than gravity sewer lines for the
same flow, force main wastewater
conveyance requires the construction and
operation of one or more lift stations. Force
mains are very reliable when they are
properly designed and maintained. In
general, reliability and useful life of force

Figure 7 - One of the pumping station in




Design Criteria


Figure 8-CCTV inspection shows Leaking Joints and Cracked pipes in a sewer
Force mains are typically designed for
velocities between 0.75 m/s (self cleansing
velocity) to 3.0 m/s (non scouring velocity).
Such velocities are normally based on the
most economical pipe diameters and
typical available heads. For shorter force
mains (less than 600 meters) and low lift
requirements (less than 9 meters) the
recommended force main velocity range is
1.8 to 2.7 m/s. This higher design velocity
allows the use of smaller pipe, reducing
construction costs. Higher velocity also
increases pipeline friction loss by more than
50%, resulting in increased energy costs.
Valves are installed to regulate wastewater
and pressure in the force mains. Valves can
be used to stop and start flow, control the
flow rate, divert the flow, prevent
backflow, and control and relieve the
pressure. Air valves are provided at higher
elevations while scour valves are provided
performance is closely tied to the
performance of the pumping station to
which it is connected. System head curves
are used to define and compare the
operating characteristics of a given pump
or set of pumps with the associated force
main. They are also used to identify the
characteristics under which the pumping
station force main system will operate
under typical conditions.
The operation of force main pumping
station systems is usually automated and
does not require continuous on-site
operator presence.

However annual force main route inspections are

recommended to ensure normal functioning and
to identify potential problems. Except the forcemain rest of the lines in the system operate on
gravity. Generally the pump house is located at
the lower most point system so as in this case as
well. From this point sewage is pumped out from
the force- main. In order to calculate the capacity
of pump one has to work out the losses in the
system. Losses are developed in the system due to
the presence of air valves, scour valves, bends and
fiction losses in the pipe system etc. The formula
used for calculating the losses is Darcy Weisbach
equation. It is evident from the equation that the
loss in the system is proportionate to the square of
velocity of flow. It is also important to mention
that due to this high velocity in the force-main the
type of flow taking in the piping system is
turbulent flow.
In order to calculate the total system head the
losses due to fiction of the pipe and losses due to
bends and valves were calculated. The system
head was calculated as static head plus frictional
losses. Thereafter, this total head plotted against
the quantity of discharge in order to select the
required pump. Performance of the Pump curves
are generally available with the manufacturers of
the pumps. In order to have a reliable source of
pumping always in sewer system a standby
pump is used.
Generally Centrifugal pumps are widely used for
pumping sewerage due to the fact that they can
be installed with minimum difficulty and at the
same time they have an advantage that no
clogging of sewer is taken place. In this Project it
was assumed that the pump efficiency is 75%.
These pumps are submersible pumps which




operate automatically when the sewer

collected reaches a certain level. In order to
calculate the capacity of sump 12 hours
storage was assumed.
Well sinking method was proposed to
adopt in the construction process.
Therefore it was decided to use cylindrical
sump for this Project. The sump was
designed using shell analysis as well as
service and ultimate load conditions were
used in order to design reinforcement for
this reinforced concrete structure. As this
was designed as a water retaining structure
in order to prevent pollution of the
environment. British standard 8007 was
used in design of the structure.



In the city of Colombo before the

introduction of the sewerage system, liquid
sewage had been stagnated in the surface
drains and until it was washed away by
rain into the soil through the canals,
swamps and lakes. The solid sewage had
been collected at night by night-soil carts
and had been buried in the vicinity. With
the expansion of the population and the
primitive and unhygienic methods of
disposing soil had become unfeasible and
diseases might have become a major threat.
Higher population densities requires more
complex sewer collection and conveyance
systems to maintain sanitary conditions in
crowded cities. It has been reported that in
the year 1910 the cost of the sewage system
in Colombo has been estimated as Rupees
4,848,000/-. This indicates that cost of the
sewage system more than 100m years back.
Given the damage that untreated sewage
can pose to the environment, and the cost
of running sewage lines to rural areas,
onsite treatment and disposal is a cost
beneficial way of dealing with sewage.

Pollution in the ocean is a major problem that is

affecting the ocean and the rest of the Earth, too.
Pollution in the ocean directly affects ocean
organisms and indirectly affects human health
and resources. Oil spills, toxic wastes, and
dumping of other harmful materials are all major
sources of pollution in the ocean.
However with the uncontrolled development the
wastage and the contribution from the sewerage
is so enormous it has now reached unprecedented
levels which is not manageable. Therefore as
citizens one has to be conscious with respect to
the difficulty in providing suitable infrastructure
for this unmanageable and insurmountable
problem and support the effort taken by the
authorities to tackle this difficult and arduous
dilemma with limited recourses.








BS 8110 : Structural use of concrete Part 1,

(1997) Code of practice for design and
Construction. British Standard Institute. U.K.
BS 8007 : Design of Concrete Structures for
retaining aqueous liquid, (1987) British
Standard Institute. U.K.
Portland Cement Association (1981)
Tables 1-7.
Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook,
Reynolds & Steadman 10th Edition.
Robert Thomas paper from ICI of
proceedings, vol 216; 1923. The Institution of
Civil Engineers.
Dr. Jain, A. K., Fluid Mechanics. Khanna
Publishers Delhi.
Small Sewage Treatment Works, British
Standard Institution
Engineering - Vol. II, S. K. Garg
Professional Examination Design Report,
Shahina M. Mysan

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [95-100], 2014

ENGINEER - Vol. XLVII, No. 04, pp. [page range], 2014

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Hydro Electricity Driven Drip Irrigation Systems;

Potentials and Constrains in Sri Lanka
Samitha Karunarathne

The energy required to operate drip irrigation water pumps for crop production can
be measured in terms of fuel consumption or electric power usage. Energy usage depends on the
amount of irrigation water, irrigation time and consequently on the fuel consumption or electric
power required for each pumping unit of water. While appreciating the drip irrigation concept for the
Sri Lankan context, this publication aims to prove hydropower is a solution to meet the energy need of
drip irrigation systems to be designed for countrys future development.
Key Words:


Drip Irrigation, Hydro-Electricity


Drip irrigation is known as one of the most

efficient methods of irrigation. Though the
concept nowadays not that strange to Sri
Lanka, focused planning and design of
appropriate drip irrigation systems is still
remains as a need to be addressed. While
sprinkler systems are around 75% efficient,
drip systems typically are 90% or higher and It
is necessary to consider customized systems
which is easy to design, which can be very
inexpensive, and can reduce disease problems
associated with high levels of moisture on some

them. Sri Lanka being a country with an

inherited irrigation system which is truly
magnificent in all means with confirmed rich
water flows over the irrigation canals
throughout the seasons, this paper aims to
discuss the provision to exploit self generated
hydro electricity from identified irrigation
divisions for establish and operate reliable drip
irrigation systems in respective areas.


Drip irrigation


Concept and Advantages

Drip irrigation, also known in the terms of

trickle irrigation, micro irrigation, localized
irrigation is an irrigation method that saves
water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip
slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil
surface or directly onto the root zone, through a
network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.
It is done through narrow tubes that deliver
water directly to the base of the plant. [1]

Drip irrigation works by applying water

slowly, directly to the soil and said high
efficiency of drip irrigation results from two
key factors. The first is that the water soaks into
the soil before it can evaporate or run off. The
second is that the water is only applied where it
is needed, basically at the plant's roots rather
than sprayed everywhere. While drip systems
are simple and pretty forgiving of errors in
design and installation, Sri Lanka being a
developing country there are some facts to
consider in order making it sustainable in the
local context. Here, the Initial Investment (II)
and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) are
found to be the principal challenges. On
consideration of both challenges the source of
energy or the power source exists as the factor
significantly affecting the monetary element of

Eng. P. Samitha Karunarathne BSc.Eng.Hons, AMIE

(Sri Lanka), Chief Executive Officer, ARYANS
(, Member of American Welding Society
Consultant in Hydro-Mechanical Engineering, Former
UNIDO Expert - Rwanda, Diploma in Quality
Management (SLSI)



In drip irrigation systems, pump and valves

may be manually or automatically operated by
a controller. Most large drip irrigation systems
employ some type of filter to prevent clogging
of the small emitter flow path by small
waterborne particles.

2.2 Suitability for Sri Lanka; Where and

Drip systems can help growers improve
irrigation application precision and
uniformity, minimizing the number of dry
spots in a field. This is more useful for the
instances where farmers go for the
optional secondary crops during seasonal
gaps of cultivation of main plants. Also for
the highlands where the regular irrigation
canal does not exist, drip irrigation would
be a smart alternative to water up the land
and start farming.

New technologies are now being offered that

minimize clogging. Some residential systems
are installed without additional filters since
potable water is already filtered at the water
treatment plant.
Virtually all drip irrigation equipment
manufacturers recommend that filters be
employed and generally will not honor
warranty unless this is done. Last line filters
just before the final delivery pipe are strongly
recommended in addition to any other
filtration system due to fine particle settlement
and accidental insertion of particles in the
intermediate lines.

Fruits like banana, mango, papaya,

strawberry, dragon fruit can be grown in
all agro-ecological conditions in Sri Lanka
and also pertains good export value. For
the said foods, there are several constrains
in increasing the total production and
water scarcity is a prominent one among
them. Since the traditional flood irrigation
methods result very low efficiencies, dry
and intermediate zone of 6-8 months
period necessitates the need of irrigation
for optimum production mostly in
southern and north central provinces.

When considering Sri Lankan irrigation sector

the possible advantages of drip irrigation
systems can be summarized as:

Water application efficiency is high

(approximately 90%)
Fertilizer and nutrient loss is
minimized due to localized application
and reduced leaching.
Field leveling is not necessary
Fields with irregular shapes are easily
Recycled non-potable water can be
safely used.
Moisture within the root zone can be
maintained at field capacity.
Soil type plays less important role in
frequency of irrigation.
Soil erosion is minimized.
Weed growth is minimized.
Water distribution is highly uniform,
controlled by output of each nozzle.
Labor cost is less than other irrigation
Variation in supply can be regulated by
regulating the valves and drippers.


Energy Demand of drip

irrigation systems

The energy required to pump irrigation water

for crop production is measured in terms of
fuel use or electric power use. Energy use
depends on the amount of water pumped and
on the fuel or electric power required to pump
each unit of water. This paper intends to
identify the energy requirement nature for drip
irrigation systems in Sri Lanka and assess the
possibilities of meet the respective energy
demand using close by hydropower potentials.
For example, if an irrigation system is used to
apply 20 acre-inches (ac-in) per acre per year
and uses 2 gallons (gal) of diesel fuel per ac-in,
then the annual energy use per acre is the
energy contained in 40 gal of diesel fuel.


Usually operated at lower pressure

than other types of pressurized
irrigation, reducing energy costs


Likewise, if an electric-powered irrigation

pump is used to apply 10 ac-in per acre per
year and uses 25 kilowatt-hrs (kwh) per ac-in,
then its annual energy requirement is 250 kwh
per acre.

irrigation pumping. Energy must be provided

to overcome friction losses which occur as
water flows through all components from the
water source and throughout the irrigation
system. Some friction losses are unavoidable,
even in well-designed, well-constructed, and
However, excessive losses waste energy and
should not be tolerated. Proper selection of
irrigation system components requires that the
cost of energy lost to friction be compared
against the cost of larger components with
lower friction losses. Then components with
the overall lowest cost throughout the expected
life of the irrigation system should be selected.
In general, friction losses can be minimized by
selecting pipe sizes to limit the velocity of flow
to 1.2 meters per second and selecting valves
and fittings compatible with the pipe sizes.
Proper maintenance is essential to prevent
excessive friction losses as water flows through
an irrigation system, especially at points where
large pressure losses can easily occur, such as
filters and intake strainers on pumps.

The amount of irrigation water pumped

depends on several irrigation system factors,
and on crop, climate, and management factors
that are independent of the irrigation system.
An important irrigation system factor is the
potential irrigation system efficiency. Efficiency
is a measure of the fraction of the water
pumped that is available for plants to use. The
potential irrigation system efficiency is the
maximum efficiency that can be obtained with
an irrigation system, assuming perfect
management. It depends on the type of
irrigation system and how well the system is
designed. [2]

Important factors to consider while

concluding the energy demand of a
typical drip irrigation system

Considering the present energy situation in Sri

Lanka, it is a fundamental requirement to find
ways that the promising drip irrigation systems
can be designed and managed to minimize
energy requirements. The energy required per
unit of irrigation water pumped depends on
the total dynamic head that the pump is
operating against and the efficiency of the
pumping system. The total dynamic head
depends on: the vertical distance that the water
is lifted, the pressure required to operate the
drip emitters, the friction losses that must be
overcome as water is pumped from its source
through filters, valves, and pipelines to the
emitters. The efficiency of the pumping system
depends on the efficiencies of the pump, power
unit, and connecting drive units. The total
dynamic head is the sum of the pumping lift,
operating pressure, and friction losses within
the irrigation system. The total dynamic head is
defined for each of the irrigation sub units. In a
well-designed irrigation system, flow rate and
total dynamic head should be approximately
the same for each sub unit so that the pumping
system can operate as efficiently as possible.

Irrigation pumps operate near peak efficiency

over a fairly narrow range of discharge rates
and pressures. When an irrigation pump is
considered for a given application, its pump
characteristic curves must be studied to verify
that it can operate efficiently at the required
discharge rate and pressure. If it cannot,
another pump which is efficient at the required
operating point should be selected. Pump
characteristic curves should always be
provided by the pump dealer and kept by the
pump owner so that the pump operating
characteristics will be known if operating
conditions change.
The operating pressure is the pressure required
at the entrance to each sub unit for the emitters
to operate effectively and water to be uniformly
distributed. The required pressure is defined by
the choice of emitter and the sub unit pipe
network design. Pipelines are designed to
distribute water to the emitters with controlled
pressure losses so that water can be uniformly
applied throughout the sub unit. Operating

Friction losses must be minimized in order to

minimize the energy requirements for



pressures can be minimized by selecting

emitters that operate at low pressures.

waterwheels or impulse type hydro turbines. If

there is sufficient head and flow, small hydro
power plants can be driven directly from a
river or stream, called a "run-of-river" system
built into or at the side of a river or a stream
without the need to dam, divert or change the
flow of water in any way, making them the
cheapest solution for generating power and as
a country we have not yet exploited much of it.
In a run-of-river hydro scheme, the flow of the
water is not altered, so its minimum flow rate
needs to be the same or higher than that of the
proposed turbine output power ensuring
maximum efficiency. The result is that the costs
involved for a run-of-river scheme are much
lower and have less environmental impact than
other small scale hydro plants. The
disadvantage is that the water flow rate is
variable throughout the year and the system is
unable to store the waters energy. As a general
characteristic of these small hydro plants, the
maximum amount of electrical power that can
be obtained from a river or stream of flowing
water depends upon the amount of power
within the flowing water at that particular
point which has to be the key consideration of
assessing the possibility for catering the energy
demand of a conventional drip irrigation

3.2 Typical Energy demands of standard

Components of a typical drip irrigation system

Power source : national grid or fuel

powered generator
Pump or pressurized water source
Water filter(s) or filtration systems:
sand separator such as Hydro-Cyclone,
screen filters, media filters, disc filters
Non return valve
Pressure regulator
Main line (larger diameter pipe and
standard pipe fittings)
Hand-operated or electronic control
valves and safety valves
Smaller diameter pvc tubes
Poly fittings or bamboo accessories (to
make connections)
Emitting devices at plants

Table 01 Estimated energy demands for

areas of irrigated agriculture
Irrigation Area (Ac)

Energy Demand (kW)


Irrigation Area (Ac)

Energy Demand (kW)
In order to determine the power potential of
the water flowing
in a river
1.5 or stream, it is
2.7 flow rate of the
necessary to determine
both the
water passing a point in a given
time and the

Above figures are estimated by considering the

range of demands can be raised by the capacity
of the pump of drip irrigation system,
maintaining a small warehouse, minor
processing like drying, lighting etc. [tolerances
included] The plants considered are tomatoes,
beans, cucumber, onions, ladies fingers,
cabbage and brinjals.


vertical head height through which the water

needs to fall. The theoretical power within the
water can be calculated as follows:
Power (P) = Flow Rate (Q) x Head (H) x
Gravity (g)
Where Q is in m3/s, H in meters and g is the
gravitational constant, 9.81 m/s2

Hydropower Potential along the

irrigation canals in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka it can be easily distinguished that

most potential sites found in irrigation water
canals consist of very low head and
comparatively high water flows.

In many of regional irrigation water schemes in

Sri Lanka there exista series of small hydro
potential sites. Small scale hydro power
systems can be designed using either



Major schemes like Minipe, Kawdulla,

Rajanganaya consist of average mean
discharge along canals ranging from
2.5m3/s to 25m3/s. in most of the schemes
minimum 1m net head can be located at
several milestones along the canal. This
makes it feasible to generate
Hydroelectricity with a possible capacity
ranging from 2kW 25kW
In a separate viewpoint, plant of which the
rated capacity below 5kW may not
considered as a economically feasible
though it is technically positive, but
undoubtedly a plant with a installed
capacity of 2kW or 3 kW would make
sound impacts with a small drip irrigations
system in places like Minipe stage two,
Kawdulla high level main canal.

make the overall system expensive. To

produce 4.0kW of electricity the wheel
width would be 0.90m. Cross-flow turbines
are also suitable in terms of simplicity of
construction, but their speed is also low at
low heads. The running speed of a typical
design is given by
N = H1/2 D-1 40.4 RPM
Where D & H are measured in meters
A turbine with a large specific speed is
required, and the type of turbine with the
highest specific speed is the propeller
turbine. This is because the blades move
across the flow, at a speed greater than the
flow velocity (Faulkner 1991) There is
therefore a need for evaluate and select a
simple propeller turbine design from
prominent turbine manufacturer, to enable
economic utilization of micro-hydro power
potentials at irrigation water canals that
only have a low head available.

At low heads the main problem is the low

speed of the turbine. Although mechanical
power can sometimes be utilized directly,
usually AC electricity is required and the
generator must be driven fast enough to
produce a standard frequency, so that
readily available appliances can be used.
As the head reduces the fluid velocity
decreases and so the speed of the moving
parts decrease. Also as the head reduces,
the flow rate must increase to get the same
power, and so the diameter of the turbine
must increase, which further reduces its
rotational speed. A waterwheel is a
suitably simple solution for heads of
around 1m to 4m. It is simple and easy to
build, but it runs very slowly. The torque is
transmission components. The theoretical
maximum speed is given by D-1/242.2 RPM
where D is the wheel outside diameter. The
operating point for best power is at slightly
underhalf this speed then,

The recent researches by specialists came

across with some innovative solutions such
as using an array of smaller turbines
instead of a large turbine, tailor made
turbine modules which can be easily fixed
with existing weir or dam structures of
water canals and that makes the provision
to overcome the constrain of large propeller
diameter. [3]
4.1 Use of expertise to manufacture small
turbines locally
State capacity to design and manufacture
small turbines in Sri Lanka is satisfactory in
witness of the design and engineering
excellences which local experts proved
during the recent projects such as
Rambakan Oya. Many countries with
institutional boundary conditions in regard
of irrigation had succeeded with custom
designs of small turbines/ turbine modules
Furthermore, there are systems in
operation across water canals which can be

N = D-1/2 42.2 RPM

Where D is measured in meters (Chapman,
1986) For an available head of 2.7m the
wheel diameter would be about2.5m,
giving a speed of 12 RPM. Hence a two
stage speed increase is required, which can



easily removed in a flood situation. Some

African countries (Ex: Sudan) recently
experienced improved version of propeller
turbines installed across waterway where
the existing flow pattern of the stream is
not disturbed. Thus the global experience
in harnessing the hydropower potentials
from the similar sources Sri Lanka deserves
are rich enough for the local experts to
learn and draw customized technical
solutions and generate hydro electricity
from irrigation water ways to energize drip
irrigation systems nearby.
manufacturing facilities, for the said
purpose there is a need for focused product
improvement with firm research &
development guidance from the state
sector. This is because some policy level
(very sensitive) constrains like upstream
water level control of irrigation canals need
incorporate with technical features of the

pay a royalty fee to the department for using

the resource. In most African countries local
communities manage similar facilities through
their own local organizations. The attractive
point to consider is, when local communities
manage such facilities they possess high level
of ownership regarding the plant and hence the
post implementation caring and maintenance is
noteworthy in many instances. However,
technical assistance at certain stages needs to be
extended to local communities by the State
institutions without delay for sustainable
operation. Also the advisory services for policy
making and tariff collections need to provide
by the Government institutions.


The objectives of this publication were to study

the factors that affect energy requirements for
drip irrigation systems, to emphasize ways that
localized drip irrigation systems can be
designed and managed to minimize energy
requirements for localized irrigation, to identify
the energy requirements for localized drip
irrigation, discuss the nature of low head
hydropower development potential found in
irrigation water ways and fundamentally
conclude the possibility of introducing hydro
electricity driven drip irrigation systems into
regional irrigation sectors. Along with the
technical dialogue elaborated under four main
titles above it can be concluded that Sri Lanka
as a country possess fair potential of
establishing hydro electricity operated drip
institutional support.

5. Development and Management

of facility
It is proposed to consider, both drip irrigation
system and hydropower development as one
project in order to facilitate effective assessment
of project viability. It is possible to cut down
overall project cost using the local resources as
much as possible. Instead of importing whole
systems from abroad it is encouraged to
benchmark best practices over the globe and
get the local manufactures of PVC to make drip
piping network in house. Moreover, for the
PVC tube components to be buried in soil
commonly found expensive, treated bamboo
component would be an ideal replacement, and
this will bring an approximate cost saving of
80% for particular components. For the turbine,
countrys experience in manufacturing Pelton
wheels and similar can be used as a joint effort
with the state sector through the expertise
found locally.
With this approach, the developer can be
Department of Irrigation, a local authority or a
local community. If it is not Department of
Irrigation then the developer probably has to




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