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Original Title: Functional Expansions II

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Functional Expansions II

Some complex functions can be easily expanded into infinite compositions. A continuation of the previous paper.

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John Gill

August 2014

Abstract: A heuristic note that further explores expansions of continuous complex functions into infinite

compositions. A continuation of A Note on Expanding Functions into Infinite Compositions 1 [1].

n

R tk (z ) = t1 t2 tn (z ) , T (z ) = lim R tk (z ) .

n

k =1

k =1

n

k =1

k =1

Convergence theory of each of these is discussed in [1]. Here, the emphasis will be on

converting certain functions into infinite expansions. Figures are simple topographic images.

---------------------------------------Consider functions

(1)

( R could be infinite)

A subclass of these functions can be described as functional equations of the following form:

(2)

F (nz ) = nF ( z ) + F m ( z ), n 2, m 2

(3)

zm

z

Fp ( z ) = R z + k ( m1)+1 and z p = npF p z

k =1

n

n

F ( z ) Fp ( zp )

As one possibility, the following can be used to show uniform convergence on compact subsets

of C : Write

(4)

fk ( z ) = z +

zm

nk ( m1)+1

, and Fj ( z ) = f1 f2 f j ( z )

k ( z ) < k ,

R1 r

. Then

(1 + )

k

k =1

G '( z ) (1 + k ) < , k =

k =1

R1

k

r

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Does G( z ) = F ( z )

F ( z ) G( z ) Fp ( z p ) G( z p ) + G( z p ) G( z )

show that, indeed, F ( z ) = G( z ) for a region containing the origin (we leave this vague).

Example 1: F (3z ) = 3F ( z ) + 2F 2( z )

z2

F ( z ) = R z + 2 k +1 , -20<x,y<20 n=20

k =1

3

Example 2:

z3

F (2z ) = 2F ( z ) + F 3( z ) F ( z ) = R z + 2k +1 ,

k =1

2

-40<x,y<40

n=20

Restricting

F (nz ) = nF ( z ) + F 2( z )

(5)

We find that

(6) f k ( z ) = z + n,k z 2

where n,k =

nk +1

And

(7)

gk ( z ) = f k1 ( z ) =

1

1 + 4 n ,k z 1

2

n ,k

n

Convergence of the inverse composition can be determined, for example, by the following

theorem:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Theorem 2 (Gill, 2011) Let {g n } be a sequence of complex functions defined on S=(|z|<M) . Suppose

k=1

1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example 3:

F(z)

F ( z ): F (3z ) = 3F ( z ) + (1 + i )F 2 ( z ) , F 1 ( z ) = G( z ) -20<x,y<20

G(z)

n=20

Now consider

(9)

F (nz ) = nF ( z ) + T ( z ) F m ( z ), n 2, m 2 and T ( z ) F m( z ) = 2z 2 + 3z 3 + ,

which gives

m

z0 z

Fp ( z0 ) = R z + T k k ( m1)+1 z0

k =1

n n

(10)

z3

Example 4: F (2z ) = 2F ( z ) + z F 3( z ) Fp ( z0 ) = R z + z0 3k +1 z0

k =1

2

-40<x,y<40 n=20

z0

z3

k

Example 5: F (2z ) = 2F ( z ) + e z F 3( z ) F ( z0 ) = R z + e 2 k +1 z0 , -40<x,y<40 n=20

k =1

2

z 0 2 z 2

Example 6: F (3z ) = 3F ( z ) + z F ( z ) Fp ( z0 ) = R z + k k +1 z0 , -45<x,y<45 n=30

k =1

3 3

2

Example 7: F (2z ) = 2F ( z ) +

z3

z3

Fp ( z0 ) = R z + k0 z0

k =1

F( z )

4 z

-50<x,y<50 n=20

z2

Example 8: F (2iz ) = 2iF ( z ) + F 2( z ) F ( z ) = R z +

k +1

k =1

(2i )

F( z ) z

F(z)

-20<x<70

, -40<y<40

-40<x,y<40 n=30

Example 9:

z3

F (2iz ) = 2iF ( z ) + F 3( z ) F ( z ) = R z +

2k +1

k =1

(2i )

z

z2

k

Example 10: F (3z ) = 3F ( z ) + z 2e F ( z ) F ( z0 ) = R z + k0+1 e 3 z0

k =1

3

-40<x,y<40 n=30

-20<x,y<20 n=20

2z

z0

F ( z0 ) = R

z0

k

k =1 1 z / 2

1 F(z )

z

z

z

z

8

2

4

Another way to look at this expansion is as a continued fraction: F ( z ) =

1 1 1 1

z + F(z )

1 + F( z )

z0 + z

F ( z0 ) = R

z0

k =1 2 + z / 2k 1

[1] J. Gill, A Note on Expanding Functions into Infinite Compositions, Comm Anal Th Cont Frac, Vol XX (2014)

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