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The discrete approximants of limit-periodic continued fractions lie on natural curves in the complex plane.

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John Gill

December 2014

Abstract: Forward recursion generates consecutive normal approximants of continued fractions and other

expansions. Backward recursion does the same for reverse approximants. These approximants lie on natural

smooth curves. The comments here extend the authors paper [1]

f ( ) =

a + b

, can be written in terms of its (one

c + d

f ( )

z

=K

f ( )

z

f ( n)( )

z

= Kn

( n)

f ( )

z

( ) =

(1 K ) + ( K )

n

deduced

(n )

( K ) + ( K 1)

( ) =

(1 K ) + ( K )

t

(t )

, t 0.

Normal iterates (approximants) occur where the color of the curve changes from green to

black. The first five are shown in purple.

~1~

( ) =

(1 (.8i ) ) + ( 4(.8i ) 4i )

t

Example 1a :

(t )

, = 1 + 4i , t :0 30

This linear fractional transformation is loxodromic, but close to elliptic. Hence there is both

oscillation about fixed points and convergence to the attractor.

~2~

1 1

2 2

1 + 1 2 + 2

n (t , ) =

(

(t , ) =

n

n n ( K nt 1) n

(K

t

n

n n

K nt n + n n K nt 1

(1 K ) + ( K

t

n

t

n

),

Kn =

n

n

. An adaptation of this:

an (t )

n

, with n =

a normalizing factor,

bn (t ) +

n n

0

n (t , ) =

n n

( + )

n

n

Note that

Example 2:

Cn ( ) =

An

.

Bn

if t = 0

if t = 1

(1 + i n ) z

, CF= lim C1 C2 Cn (0) , z = 2 + 3i . n=40

n

1+ i n + z

The initial point (green) on the curve is the value of the first approximant, not z.

The algorithms for continuization described in this note work best for expansions that are limitperiodic and do not have alternating signs.

~3~

Example 3:

Example 4:

Tan( z ) =

z 13 z 2 151 z 2

1 1 1

1

4 k 2 1

z2

1

, Tan(5 + 8i ) 0 + i

1 1

2 2

, where n = ( x + 1n ) + i ( y n1 ) , n = ( nn+1 ) + i ( n2 ) , z = 2 i

1 + 1 2 + 2

~4~

fn ( ) =

an + bn

, Fn ( ) = f1 f2 fn ( ) F ( ) .

cn + dn

Fn ( ) =

We have

An + Bn

Cn + Dn

Defining

(t )

n

(

( ) =

K nt n + n n K nt 1

(1 K ) + ( K

t

n

t

n

)=a

(t )

n

(t )

n

+ bn(t )

c + dn(t )

~5~

(Example 2) :(again) The continued fraction using the LFT algorithm of this section:

Example 6 : CFn ( ) =

(3 + 11 i )( 4 + 11 2i ) (3 + 12 i )( 4 + 12 2i )

(7 + 11 ) + ( 11 2) i (7 + 12 ) + ( 12 2) i

= 5 + 4i , n = 10

~6~

(3 + 1n i )( 4 + 1n 2i )

(7 + 1n ) + ( 1n 2) i

Example 7 : n = 3, n = 3, K n =

1

1

+ 1 +

i , z = 3 + i, n = 10 . These LFTs are close to

10 5 + n

elliptic, whose iterations oscillate and do not converge; loose spiraling occurs:

Example 8 :

1

n

1

n

4

5

n = 1 + , n = n, K n = + i, z = 2 + i, n = 20

~7~

z 2 154 z 2

Example 9 : C( z ) =

1+ 1+

1

3

k2

4 k 2 1

z2

1+

, F ( z ) = ArcTan( z ) =

z

1 + C( z )

The value of the arc tangent is shown as a purple bullseye. Initial value of z in green.

The idea is that backward recursion a very efficient evaluation protocol for CFs starts at

some low level, say fn ( ) , and progresses upward to fn1 fn ( ) , fn2 fn1 fn ( ) , etc. At

each step a point in the plane is determined, a sort of reverse approximant. The continuization

process simply links these discrete points together in a natural continuum.

For LFTs let t :0 1 in the following

(t )

k +1,n

(

( ) =

That is to say

K mt m Fk ,n ( ) + m m K mt 1

(1 K ) F

t

m

k ,n

t

m

( ) + K m m

, m = n k 1 , k : 0,1,2,3,..., n 1

Fk ,n( ) if t = 0

Fk(+t 1,) n ( ) = fn(t k) 1(Fk ,n ( )) =

Fk +1,n ( ) if t = 1

~8~

Example 10:

CF =

z 13 z 2 151 z 2

1 1 1

z 13 z 2 154 z 2

Example 11 : CF =

1 + 1 + 1 +

1

4 k 2 1

z2

1

k2

4 k 2 1

z2

1 +

~9~

Additional Examples:

The procedure described for CFs can be used elsewhere. For example, suppose

(6)

a fairly simple theory evolves if K n( z ) < n < 1 . This condition is not essential, however, and

z if t = 0

fn(t )( z ) = K nt ( z n ) + n =

, and allowing t to increase more or less

fn ( z ) if t = 1

continuously from 0 to 1 may fill in the spaces between either regular or reverse approximants

with smooth curves.

(7)

1 zn

z z2

Example 12: e = 1 + + + ... , f n(t ) ( ) = 1 + , Gn ( ) = f n f n 1 f1 ( )

1! 2!

n!

z

z = 2 + 3i

~ 10 ~

Example 13 : ( s) =

1 1 1

1 1

+ s + s + , f n(t ) ( ) = 1 + s , s = 1.5 + .5i , n = 50

s

1 2 3

n

Example 14 :

10 ( s) =

1

1

1

+ s + s + , s = 1.2 + 4i , n = 40

s

10 11 12

~ 11 ~

z2

z2

Sin( z ) = z 1 2 2 , f n(t ) ( ) = 1 2 2 , z = 2 3i , n = 80 ,

n

n =1

n

Example 15:

Gn ( ) = f n f n 1 f1 ( )

Example 16 : f n( z ) = e

z

n2 +10

( z 5) + 5 , K

t

n

(z) = e

ntz

n2 +10

~ 12 ~

, z = 6 + 3i , n = 50 .

Example 17 :

ez = 1 +

z z2

1

z

+ + ... , f n(t ) ( ) = ( n ) + n , n =

,

1! 2!

1 nz

n

Fn ( z ) = f1 f 2 f n (1) e z , z = 2 + 5i , n = 20

1 s

1 1 1

Example 18 : ( s ) = s + s + s + , f n(t ) ( z ) = 1 + 1 z . s = 1.5+.5i n=50

n

1 2 3

~ 13 ~

z

1

(t )

(

)

Example 19 : Tan( z ) = R

,

f

z

=

z , Tan(1.5 + .1i ) 4.7 + 6.7i

n

2

1

k =1 1 1 z 2

1

n z

4k

4

[1] J. Gill, A Natural Continuous Interpolating Structure for Continued Fractions, J. Comp & Appl Mathematics, 105

(1999).

~ 14 ~

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