You are on page 1of 80

cleJolQm

b'O{dlxg] ;fdfGo ;flxlTos klqsf

jif{ M $) ÷ k"0ff{Í M !$!÷ j}zfv–h]7 M @)^^
;Dkfbs
gu]Gb|/fh zdf{
syf÷n#'syf

cf/=cf/=rf}nfufO{÷+ lgisif{
g[kG] b|l;+x s];L÷cb[Zo o'lgkmd{
/Tg k|hfklt÷cfdf xf] cfdf xf]Og
k|1f vgfn÷p;n] xft}n] lrÝL n]vL
n]v÷lgaGw

sdn bLlIft÷huwDd] /fgLsf] syf
k|sfz ;'jb] L÷lxdfn t lxdfn} xf] lg
kf]if rfkfufO{+÷d[To' M ;fIfftsf/
h}gG] b| hLjg÷cfpm clnslt 7"nf] agf}+
dbgdl0f bLlIft÷e"ld;"Qm kl/rrf{ cÍsfnflu xflb{s wGojfb




(
@&
#(
%&





&
!@
@@
#%
$(

ljz]if

kfl/hft÷kfl/hftsf] kq hubLznfO{ — !)
hubLz l3ld/]÷kl/hftsf kqx¿sf] k[i7e"ld — !!
kof{jnf]sg

ab|L klnv]÷kjg cfnf]s / pxfFsf s]xL sljtf — %!
/d]z uf]vf{nL÷uLtf / /Ltfsf] k|ltlgWofTds sljTj — ^%
8f= zf]ef kf]v/]n÷wd{/Tg old M Ps ;+lIfKt rrf{ — &%
gf^s

nj ufpFn÷
] nf]stGq — $%
s'/fsfgL

1fg'jfs/ kf}8n
] ÷s'/fsfgL M h;/fh ls/ftL;Fu — ^!
uLt÷uhn÷sljtf

/fh]Gb| yfkf÷;To sljtf M 8f]6Lsf d'Qm xlnof— wgLsfdL
k|df]b :g]xL÷;kgfsf] ljDa
/]gs
' f e§÷s;nfO{ klv{/x]5g\ oL kxf8x¿
;'>L cs]nf /fO{÷uhn
dl0f/fh l;+x÷va/bf/
hLjgkfgL÷s]xL xfOj'm
/fs]z sfsL{÷uhn
vu]Gb| lul/ sf]lknf÷uhn
pHHjn hL=;L=÷kfFr xfOj'm
dw';b" g l3ld/]÷df/–sf6










#
^
@^
#&
#*
%^
^)
^)
^$
&&

cGo:tDex¿
xf:o÷Joª\Uo

8f=adaxfb'/ lhtfnL÷efn]sf] h'wfO kf]yLsf] ldrfO— #)
ctLtsF kFgf

lzj /]UdL÷g]kfnL 5fq ;+3 sfzLsf] …5fqÚ — #!
hd#^x¿af^

ofofj/÷hd36x¿af6— &*
cfj/)f snf

cf]kn l3ld/]
gof¤ ljlzi^ ;b:o

>L k|bLk vltj8f— sflnsf:yfg, l8NnLahf/, sf7df8f}+
>L lji0f'axfb'/ l;+x— dl08vf6f/ , sf7df8f}+
>L dfof 7j'm/L— wf]aL3f6, nlntk'/
>L zÍ/ ef/tL— l;gfdËn, sf7df8f}+
>L j'ma]/k|;fb zdf{— afg]Zj/, sf7df8f}+
>L kLtfDa/f pkfWofo …kLo"ifÚ— O{=SofDk;, k'Nrf]s
>L nj ufpFn—
] dgd}h'
>L j[mi0f ahufO{—
+ a]lNhod
8f=>L ;'ifdf cfrfo{— nlntk'/
>L gu]Gb| zdf{— k'tnL ;8s
d'bs
| M aunfd'vL ckm;]6 k|;
] — sf]k0' 8f]n, nlntk'/÷kmf]g %@@))((
k|sfzs M gu]Gb|/fh zdf{— kDa' dfu{, uf}/Lgu/, rfjlxn, sfdkf– *
cleJolQm sfof{ n o

kDa' dfu{, uf}/Lgu/, rfjlxn, sfdkf— *
kmf]g M $$&@^#&
Od]n M e472637@hotmail.com
j]e M www.geocities.com/a472637
z'Ns M ljlzi6 ;b:otf— Go"gtd ?=%)))÷—
Ps k|ltsf]— ?=@)÷—
ef/tdf ef=?=@)÷—

;To sljtf M 8f]6Lsf] d'Qm xlnof— wgLsfdL
/fh]Gb| yfkf
nf]sGynL

b'xfO{ dflns, b'xfO{,
e"n ef] dflns, dfkm kfpFm,
dnfO{ oflGHof]x¿n] ps\;fP,
bnsf s]6fx¿n] e8\sfP,
g]kfn gofF e} ;Sof],
a8f /fhfnfO{ t 8fF8f] s6fO;Sof],
t]/f 5f]6] /fhf ;]tLuf8df ufl8g]5g\ .
hgtf d'Qm e} ;s],
ce}m tF xlnof a:b}5;\,
n' of] sfutdf a"9Lcf}n
+ f w:b] eg], wl;of] .
d'lQmsf] hf]; klg Yof] dflns,
klxnf]k6s bf;af6 gful/s x'g kfPsf]n]
dg a]xf]; klg Yof] dflns .
;DklQ x/]sf, Aofhdf Aofh yk]sf,
5f]/La'xf/Lsf] l;gf] n'l5Psf,
3Ëf¿sf vf6fx¿, l;:gfsf 8fa/x¿sf
cfqmf]; klg Yof] dflns .
ef]s, /f]u / zf]ssf] t s] s'/f ef] /,
lhGbuLl;t}, /f]if klg Yof] dflns .
t/ lg dflnsnfO{ ;]tLdf hfg gk/f];,\
dl;t} dflnssf] klg enf] xf];,\
P:t} ;f]r/] a"9L cf}n
+ f w:sfsf] t,
l;l8cf]n] af]nfP/,
nf} tF xlnofaf6 d'Qm eO;\ kf] eg] .
t]/f l/gJofh ;a} r'Qmf eg] .
r'Qmf efÚsf] v';LeGbf csf]{ ;o jif{kl5 kgfltx¿n]
ltg}k{ g]{ Aofh r'Qmf efsf]df,
a9L v';L nfUofÚYof], dflns .
)
d'lQmsf] /ft lgb|} nfu]g,
nfuf];\ klg s;/L,
dg cf}8fxf g af}8fxf e} /fÚYof] .
cfk+m} nfO{ w]/} k6s P]gfdf x]bf{ lg
gful/s efsf] xf] ls x}g, v'6o\ fpg} ;lsPg,
3 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

gful/s efÚe] d lg,
k'8s
\ ] afp;fk h:tf] b]lvg' kg]{] x}g <
d]/f] ufnf lg, e6\6a] fh] h:tf] /ftf] x'gk' g]{ x}g <
8Nn] ;fx"sf] eF8' Le}m+ d]/f e'8F L lg,
6Dd x'g' kg]{ x}g <
aHo}sL a'xf/Ln] h:t} d]/L a'xf/Ln] klg
kFw/] f]af6 kfgL lemSg kfpg' kg]{ x}g <
a"9Ln] egL, l;l8cf] df]/fn] abn]/ sd{ ablnGg,
w]/} g;Gsg", w]/} geGsg" / w]/} gtGsg", a"9f .
c}n] cfP/ ldNof] dflns,
cfOdfO{sf] s'/f] g;'Gg' eg] klg,
a"9Lsf] s'/f] 7ØfSs} ldNof] .
d'lQmkl5 dfnf clj/ bNbf,
d} kf] xF" ls l;l8cf] ;/ h:tf] lg gnfUof x}g,
dflnsnfO{ ufnL u¥of / ;fdGtL eGof xf];} e]g,
t]:tf] t eGg vf]Hof lyFg, ;Q];Q],
xf8 gef lha|f] lrKNof dfq xf],
dfkm kfpFm dflns, hgL u/ k/e",
3/fF cGgsf u]8f ;lsP,
l;gf] vfFbf kl/jf/} ;f]Q/ xf]nfe+m} eof],
o} ;fn df]/f nfO{sL/f nfu]/ l;:gfsf] EofQn lg l3Rg kfOPg,
/fxt dfUbf emG8} s'6ØfYof] l;l8cf]sf] k'ln;n],
oflGhcf] efu], kf6L{n] k}n] ;Ddfg u¥of],
kl5 csf]{ d'Qm xlnof wg] ;fsL{nfO{
;Ddfg ug{ yfn]l5 dnfO{ lrGg} 5f8] .
Dflns Û ef]s nfUof],
Dflns Û hf8f] ef],
Dflns Û kl/jf/ dg{ yfn],
Dflns Û l;l8of]n] eft lbPgg\ .
e"n ef] dflns e"n ef] .
d'lQm t xfd|f nflu z"n ef] dflns z"n ef] .
dflns ljgf xfd|f] cl:tTj So} /}g5 .
xfd|f] 5fgf] klg dflns,
xfd|f] dfgf] klg dflns,
l;l8cf] t k]6sf] uf]nf–ufgf] kf] /}5, dflns .
;/sf/nfO{ dflns eG7fg]sf] t,
;/sf/ t dflns xFb' f] /x]g5,
Dflns t dflns g} x'bF f]/5
} ,
Dflnssf] nftsf] cy{ clxn] kf] 5n{Ë ef],
4 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

Ps d'ÝL h"7f]k/' f vfP/ klg ef]seGbf 7"nf] /f]u s]xL /}g5.\ vfPsf] nfteGbf vfg gkfPsf] eft a9L b'Vbf] /}5. k'/fgf] g]kfnsf] xlnofaf6 d'lQm lbnfOPsf] dnfO{.. k/e". + Lsf] rGb|df.a}eGbf rlDsnf] a:t' nfUof] dflns.'/lIft dx. t]/} afh]n] hf]Tof v]t x'g. dfly cfsfzdf b]lvPsf] cf}.". t]/} cfOdfO{n] :ofxf/]sf ufO{j:t' x'g.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . gofF g]kfnsf] gofF xlnofdf gofF lgo'lQm aS:of]. t/ b]zsf c¿ wgLsfdLsf csf{ syf k]ml/ .\ hf]t.8\lsG5 < s'ga]nf r8\lsG5 < s'g a]nf 58\lsG5 < s'ga]nf . ) Dflnsn] bof b]vfP. /ftlbg d'lQm b'Vof] dflns .'? gxf]nfg\ / < b]zel/sf wgLsfdLx¿ x"nsfx"n afFw/] . cfk"mnfO{ .\.\ t]/} a/fh"n] vf]:o|f kfvf x'g.lsof]. 5' / /xg]5' dflns.':t c8\lsG5 < s'ga]nf hf]8h \ f]8n \ ] w8\lsG5 < clg s'ga]nf aGb'se+m} a8\ofË k8\lsG5 < 5 . u/] af3sf] d'vd} k'u] klg 5f]/L–a'xf/Ln] . k/e" . dflns.a}eGbf . d xlnof lyPF. k]ml/ xlnof agfOb]pm k/e".lsg. k'Vof}n { L dflnssfF s/fpg hfnfg\ ls ghfnfg\.\ vg\. sf] k/fO{ 5'6o\ fpg . lhGbuLsf] . sf] cfˆgf]. eg]/ dflnsn] k'gj{xfn u/]sf] ef]lnkN6 k]ml/.\ n' dfkm kfO.\ dflns . efteGbf 7"nf] cl:dtf t s] g} /}5 / dflns < ) 8f]6Lsf] wgLsfdLsf] of] syf t oxL+ .Fu} eft klg cfpFYof]. dflnssf] kfpmdf ?g yfNof] wgLsfdL. nf} e}uf]. dlxgf}+ eft b'Vof].\ :ofxf/\.141 . sfd u/. dflnssf] uf]7sf] Kjfn k/]sf] 5fgf]af6.nft.':t. hlg u/ eGg < dfG5]sf] dg} t xf] lg . s'ga]nf axlsG5 < s'ga]nf dxlsG5 < s'ga]nf ..\ / Ps 8Asf] eft aS:of]. bz Nfft aS:of].

nft b]pm / eft b]pm. df Ò ln Ò s.Sb}gg\ / < dflns dflns. s] yf < s'g a]nf < crfgs k'/fgf] dflnssfF uP/ eGg . dnfO{ k]ml/ xlnof agfpmÒ Ò ÒÒÒÒÒÒÒÒÒÒ. pbfzL kf]lvP/ cfFvfdf dgdf If0f–If0f e"OFrfnf] uO/x]5 / eTsfO/x]5 cf:yfsf] dlGb/ / b]j:nx¿ c1ft eoaf6 sfd]sf] . kL8}kL8fsf] of] . ef]s nfUof] < dflns dflns.don] l. k'tnL .Ëf] Oltxf. dnfO{ k]ml/ xlnof agfpm.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .nfO{ kl5 kf/]/ cl3–cl3 bf}l8/x]5— dfG5]sf] cfnf] /utsf] xf]nL v]Nb} / r'krfk sf]l//x]5 Pp6f a"9f] lrqsf/n] d]/f] b]zsf] k|ltljDa /utsf] /ftf] /Ën] . @)^^ j}zfv ^ ut] )) pbf.xf] hgtf eg]sf] klg dgh:t} xf] . 6]ls/x]5' / eljio cGwsf/ b]lv/x]5' . dflns dflns.df/f]xdf cw'/f v'zLsf Znf]sx¿ u'lGh/x]5g\ .L kf]lvP/ cF“vfdf k|df]b :g]xL @!÷$)* jt{dfg j:tL.141 . )) 6 .8s k|To]s kfOnfdf qf.

fb l.sf s]xL k+lQm P]n] klg d}n] . x'g t .f+:s[lts sfo{qmd ePsf] lyof] .}n] s]xL n]vs ] f] dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . /fgL hubDafsf] t]¥xy'd cyjf . Tof] …xfdLÚleq .d]t xfdLn] Joj:yf ul/lbPkl5 To. t/ dflysf] cyf{t\ b]jL:yfglt/sf] /fgLsf] rf}tf/f] ag]kl5 tn ss{nd ] f klg.+uLtf bfxfnn] rrf{ u/]sf] …/fgLsf] rf}tf/f]Úaf/] o.+lugL ufOPsf] lyof] /fgL hubDafsf] u'0fufg u/]/ .}n] agfOlbPsf] rf}tf/f] hL0ff]4{ f/ u/L kfgLsf] . t/ To.ª\qmflGt–. b]jLk|. clg To.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . .DemG5g\ pgLx¿.s]sf] 5' .df gfRb} Pp6f .6f}nfx¿ clgjfo{¿kdf . pxfFsf] 6fpsfdf kfFr 6fFsf nufpg k/]sf] .ª\qmflGtsf] kfgL eg]sf] t]¥xy'd lhNnfsf] cf7/fO{ . t/ /fgL hubDaf / . …dbg\ /fhf hubDd] /fgLÚnfO{ .cl3 st} s.6f}nf.f] xf]Og .d]l6G5g\ eGg] la.+uLtf bfxfnnfO{ d lrlGbgF t/ …cleJolQmÚsf] k"0ff{s + !#(df pxfFsf] n]v k9]kl5 pxfF. .f]Wg] OR5f hfu]sf] 5 .lDem/fv]sf] 5'— …kfgL / gfefÚsf] of] 8fF8fdfly agfOBf} snwf/f======= /fgL agfOBf} snwf/f====== of] xfd|f] 7fFp lg g ltd|f] dfOtL g ltd|f] dfjnL g ltd|f] latf{ lg ofFÚ k5{ b]jL.'Aaf efg'eQm l. sxfFsf 7 .'gs ] f] x'F .DaGwdf s]xL s'/f eGg}kg]{ b]v/] sdn rnfPsf] x'F .huwDd] /fgLsf] syf sdn bLlIft .{g' x'Gg . lgd{n efj nL u/]p bfg lg wd{ ef] hfg gfd\ eof] cd/ Û /fgL gfd eof] cd/ ÛÚ @)$$ . gb]lvsg} ga'lemsg} Û sf] x'g\ oL b'O{ hgf.+lugLsf af/]df— …Ò Ò P]n] cfP/ of] uLtsf] dd{ a'lemG5 @( jif{kl5 cf7/fO{df ca …hubDd] /fgLÚsf] gfd bGt]syfsf] bofn' /fgLsf yfGsfdf k'lu.f/ @) ut]sf] …uf]/vfkqÚsf] zlgjf. Tof] wf/f pb\3f6g ug{ d k'us ] f] lyPF /fgL hubDafsf] k|ltlglw eP/ .fn j}zfvdf cIfo t[tLofsf] lbg kf/]/ kfgL gePsf] Tof] 8fF8fdf gnsf] 6'6L 3'dfP/ …hnk|jfxÚ u/L …dbgwf/fÚsf] d}n] pb\3f6g u/]sf] lyPF .+uLtf bfxfnhLsf af/]df xf]Og. ToxfF o:tf] n]lvPsf] lyof] To.'?b]lvg} h'6s ] f] x'gfn] xfdL eGg' h?/L ePsf] xf] .+uLtfhLn] eGg'ePsf] /fgLsf] rf}tf/f] -tnsf] rflx+_df d k'us ] f] 5}g ./Lo cÍdf n]lvPsf] d]/} Pp6f n]vf+z oxf+ p4[t ug'{ .eGbf klg a9L /fgL hubDafsf] t]¥xy'd–. rf}tf/f]nfO{ klg ToxfFaf6 lxF8g] a6'jfx¿n] …/fgLsf] rf}tf/f]Ú eGg yfn] eGg] d}n] .141 .fGble{s nfUof] .sf] v'.ª\qmflGt 8fF8fdf @)!% . olt e"ldsf .ª\qmflGtsf] kfgLsf] s'/f d}n] eg] w]/} 7fpFdf p7fO. oxfFlg/ d}n] /fgL hubDafn] u/]sf] sfdsf] hz lng vf]h]/ …xfdLÚ eGof] eGg] efg k9g]x¿nfO{ knf{ .Sof] . To. cToGt dfld{s lyof] Tof] . t/ of] n]v .fndf pb\3fl6t ePsf] …dbgwf/fÚ xf] . To./L x'guof] eGg] .+u d . pxfFn] s'/f p7fOlbPsf] /fgL hubDafsf af/]df / cem To. @)!% .uF lrghfg ug{kfP x'GYof] eGGf] dnfO{ nfUof] . a?. .DaGw.fn c.'Gbf b'Mv klg nfUof] / Tof] s] s. klxn] s.LofnLdf ToxfF .

Ps xKtf leq} g]=?= krf.S5 dbg 3f/fdf kfgL cfpg g5f8'Gh]n .}n] cfkm"n] hfg]ae ' m] . …kfgL / gfefÚsf] of] 8fF8fnfO{Ú hfb"sf] kfgL 5s]/{ .fy n]lvPsf] lyof] . t/. lj1 7fg]/ dnfO{ .6f}nfnfO{ .jf/L rnfpF5f}+ .'? e}xfn]5 .fn 8]/fdf a.Dd atfOof] . d oL s'/f olt lj:t[t¿kdf lsg eGg.fx]asf] .]sf] xf]nf clg …huwDd] /fgLÚsf] rflx+ ems\ems ug]{ /y ykSs dfly 5ft] 9'Ëfdf cfP/ cf]ns {] f] xf]nf Û h] klg x'g .fndf.f]ws ] f lyP .141 . .+lugL–uflosfx¿n]— Tof] . rfnL.ª\qmfGtLjf.s] Tof] .f]w— ] …bLlIfthL. To. xhf/ -ef=?=_nfU5 eGg] a'em]+ . To. To. /dfOnf] nfUof] ha Ps hgf lzIfsn] PsfGt kf/]/.fy pgn] of] .Sg] 5 . dnfO{ atfOlbg'.+s6 6g]{ 5 eGg] klg n]vs ] f lyP efg'eQmn] . t/ 8]9 jif{ hlt nfUof] Tof] . g pgsf] v'jf latf{ lyof] ToxfF . eP klg sfd pQd lsl. . syfsf dbg\ /fhfsf] . lgj]bgkqdf . u/L x]/gÚ eGg] cf1f eof] pxfFaf6 dnfO{ .'Gg dg nfU5 To:t} aGb} hfg]5 Tof] bGt]syf . clg To. sfd .fy} k|To]s dlxgfsf] .ª\qmflGt 8fF8f] /fgL hubDafsf] dfOtL of dfjnL s]xL lyPg. 7Ls} eg]sf lyP tL .sf] nfut ef=?= Ps nfv k'us ] f] .fx]aaf6 cfly{s .Hhg sf7df8f}+ cfPsf a]nf pgn] Pp6f lgj]bg lbP /fgL hubDafnfO{ .f+Rr}sf dfG5] x'g\ ls gfd dfq x'g\ syfsf] h:tf] < .Æ .\ oL dbg /fhf eG5g\ hubDdf /fgL eG5g\ oL sf] x'g\ < . Tof] syfdf ufpFnx] ¿sf sNkgfsf cfˆg} km"n hl8g] 5g\.Ú eGg] ."n] u/]h:t} …kfgLbfgÚ ug]{ OR5f dgdf p7]sf] /x]5 .f]W5g\ . cgsG6f/ 7fpFdf s.]sf efg'eQmhLnfO{ af]nfPF. xhf/ lnP/ efg'eQm uP .fRr}sf dfG5] x'g\ eg] lhpFb} 5g\ ls s] 5g\ < xfdLnfO{ klg xfd|f k9\g] s]6fs]6Lx¿n] .df— Ps sf]. dnfO{ kSsf 5 oL lzIfsn] hlt g} cYof{P klg d}n] eg]sf] s'/fn] Tof] …dbg\ /fhf hubDd] /fgLÚsf nf]ssyfdf k|jz ] kfpg] 5}g . To.DkGg x'g . a]nf /fgL hubDafnfO{ klg cfˆgL ./L pgsf] cfFvf k'Uof] t < crDd nfUg] s'/f g} xf] . cnf}lss s'/f el/g]5g\ .fx]anfO{ …hfx]/ ug'Ú{ k/]sf] lyof] .sf] hz lbg'k5{ .ª\qmflGtsf bg To. tTsfn} …x'G5. tL. cyjf eg"F w]/n } fO{ yfxf 5}g .'Aaf efg'eQm l. s] hjfkm lbg' xf].S5' eg] Tof] lgj]bg k}n] d}n] g} k9]sf] lyPF / d}n] g} Tof] .Ú .f] @)!% .f]emf ufpFnx] ¿sf dgdf .ª\qmflGt e]ssf] kfgLsf] cefjsf] s'/f lj:tf/.+hf]u} xf]. cf7/fO{sf oL .ª\qmflGt k+rfot agfOlbg] …dbg /fhf hubDd] /fgLÚ cfkm"eGbf klg jf:tljs 5g\. @)!# . …wf/f p4f6g ug{ /fgL .}nfO{ yfxf 5}g . kl5 To. s'/f u/]+ .xof]u eof] . xfdL cndn k5f}{ . dbgwf/f pb\3f6g ePkl5 ToxL+ hubDaf bftJo cf}ifwfno -x]Ny kf]i6_ vf]Ng klg /fgL. hLjGt 5g\ lgd'vf . To.Lsf] OR5f eg] k"/f x'g .a} /fgL .f/} . clg eJo hubDaf cltlyejg 8 .DemG5' .f]emf] lx.fan] OdfGbf/L.fnlt/sf] s'/f xf]. To.dn] ePsf] lyof] . d}n] gS.s]sf] xf]nf— x'??? p8L cfP/ of] 8fF8fdf a.]jL .s]g sltko sf/0fn] / d uPsf] lyPF k|ltlglw eP/ .dfh.f. cln jif{kl5 km]l/ dbg d]nfdf k'Ug] xf] eg] of] syf cem cs}{ e}. 8fF8fdf nfUg] d]nfdf $÷% xhf/ dfG5] d]nf eg{ cfpg] / kfgLsf] cefjdf pgLx¿sf] lahf]u x'g] s'/f lrQ b'Vg] u/L n]lvPsf] lyof] .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .x'g\ s.s] kv]6f pld|.k/ dfly n]saf6 …gfnfÚ la5\ofP/ kfgL NofO{ 8fF8fdf 6\ofÍL agfP/ hDdf ul/lbg . pgLx¿nfO{ h:tf] .

}n] n]vssf xfta6 kfP eg] s.Fu bfFhs ] f lyP .dfhsf v/fj kfq lyP .fP . uxlsnf] lyof] / o.fpg]x¿ c.'Gb/ lyof]. . t/ . gkfcf]. eg]sf] 5 . dbgwf/f / hubDaf cf}ifwfnon] ubf{ ToxfF /fgL hubDaf / pxfFsf klt dbg zdz]/ bGt]syfsf] kfq …dbg\/fhf huwDd] /fgLÚ x'ge ' Psf] 5 .Ddfg k|fKt u/] . v'.Fu d]/f] rl/q ldN5 ./L Û s[lt .{ tn ./jfbL elgPsf]5 .Ú …Tof] s[lt.n] dnfO{ g} eg]sf] xf] .fx]aaf6 .fpg]x¿— . ljleGg rl/qx¿ lyP eg] syfdf .df . sf]xL v'. Pslbg syfdf cfk"mnfO{ j'mkfqsf] :j3f]lift .141 )) . To:tf] dfG5] dafx]s c¿ sf] x'g . syf k9\gx] ¿n] cfk"mnfO{ syfdf e]6s ] f lyP / cfk"mnfO{ syfsf kfqx¿. lstfa xf/fn'5 eof] .Ú …e"ldsf n]Vg] / dGtJo lbg]x¿n] n]vssf] a9fO{ r9fO{ k|.ª\ux| k|sflzt eof] .klg lgdf{0f eof] /fgL. l/. klxn] dfly.n] a9L rrf{ kfof] . pgsf cluNnf s[ltx¿eGbf o. syf k9]/ n]vs.z + f u/]sf 5g\ . s.a} k/f]ksf/L sfo{af6 k|efljt ePsf ToxfFsf ufpFn] . k|sflzt .Hhgx¿af6 s[t1tf :j¿k …/fgLsf] rf}tf/f]Ú aGof] ToxfF .a}sf] /fd|} d]xgt klg k/]sf] lyof] .f /fVg'ePsfn] . t.Dem]/ d}n] klg olt eGg kfPF .fgf] e]nf eof] / abfd vfFb} cf–cfk"mnfO{ kvfNg yfn]— …pm Tof] syfsf] rf]/.Ú …+Pp6f syfdf Pp6f kfqnfO{ cj.Fu sf]xL l/.Ú …clwsf+z syfx¿df k"jf{ux| 5 .n] d]/} s'/f t n]vg] <Ú …clg Tof] syfsf] km6fxfrflxF d xf] ls h:tf] nfU5. kl5 csf]. x'jx' d.fP.S5 <Ú e]nfn] Pp6f lgisif{ lgsfNof]— …Tof] s[lt kmh'n s[ltleq k5{ .ª\ux| df y'k}| syfx¿ lyP .dfhsf y'k}| rngrNtLsf kfqx¿ lyP . jf:tjdf /fgL hubDafnfO{ ToxfFsf hgtfn] . To. st} To. ljleGg ju{sf j'm/fx¿ lyP.f/} >4f u5{g\ . oxL xf] …huwDd] /fgLÚsf] syf Û !( r}t @)^% )) lgisif{ cf/= cf/= rf}nfufO{+ x]6f}+8f— $ dsjfgk'/ Pp6f kqsf/sf] syf. Ú 9 . s[ltn] Tof] ljwfdf bl/nf] :yfg kfof] . lgs} nfdf] eof] of] uGyg .a}sf xftxftdf lstfa k'Uof] . 7fpF– 7fpFaf6 k'/:sf/ kfof] eg]sl[ tsf/n] klg . log} . x]bf{ /fd|f] t/ k'm6fpFbf vf]qmf]— 7ØfSs} clxn] xfdLn] vfFbu} /]sf] abfdh:t} 5 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .n kfq lyP .Fu d]n vfG5 .+uLtf bfxfnn] lh1f.}n] lsg]/ lnP .Ú …csf]{ syfdf Pp6f dfG5]nfO{ syfsf/ egfpFbf]n] abdf.\ klg s.+1f lbg]x¿sf] rf}/df .

+tn ' gdf a'lem/x]sf lyof}+ . tL lrÝL cleJolQmsf cfufdL cÍx¿df qmdzM k|sflzt x'g5 ] g\ .fef/ pb\wt[ ul/Psf] xf] . ef/L af]s/] gbL tbf{ tyf bd}n] 5f]/LnfO{ labf lbFbf .Fu . —kfl/hft C/O S.f}hGoaf6 xfdLnfO{ k|sfzgfy{ k|fKt ePsf 5g\ .{gf s]xL sd ePsf] 5 . n]Vg k9\gnfO{ df}sf 5 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . . h]xf].fnleq ljleGg ldltdf n]lvPsf cGo 5cf]6f lrÝLx¿ hubLz l3ld/]sf] . klxnf] lrÝLaf/] olt eGg' cfjZos 5– of] lrÝL rflxF >L czf]s .fGTjgf . cfw'lgstfsf] at{dfg kl/efiffnfO{ c+ufn]sf] 5 pkGof. crfgs lnnfd xft k¥of]. …k|tLsÚ df …syfsf/ cfˆg} cg'xf/dfÚ d}n] n]vs ] L ' of] xf]nf .Qf xf] . / PSnf] 5 . …. sf7df8f}s + f] csf]{ gfpF xf] æk}. NEPAL 10 .s]sf] h:tf] nfUb}g .fgL 5f]/L -pd]/ ^_ a.Dkfbs_ kfl/hftn] n]v]sf] sf] ck|sflzt kq ( efb|.l4of] . d / Pp6L . t/–sfd rnfpm .f stfaf6 sdfpg . sf]xL cx+ af+lr/x]5 eg] sf]xL } . Kathmandu. klqsfsf] e]nnfO{ d hfu[lt eGy]+ ca z+sf nfUg yfln/x]5 .flxlTos dfGotf lyPF zfob k9\ge cfhsf] abln+bf] kl/j]ifdfÚ cfpFb} 5 M of] kqsf] ljz]if cfzo tkfO{nfO{ z'esfdgf xf] . ca Tof] lt. — . cf+rlns h:t} 5 …/]0f'Ú nfO{ .t 5f}F / h] xf].141 . syfx¿ a/fa/ k9\b} 5' .f{p5 F . k|lt u2f/L ul//x]sf 5f}F .Waiba Post Box 81. jif{ ! cÍ ! @)%$_df k|sflzt e}.'sGofsf] lax] eof] lgd{n nfdf. pkGof. c¿ . klqsf lgsfNg' lj1fkg a6'Ng' xf] .\ d]/f] .Dkfbgdf k|sflzt …gf}nf] laxfgLÚ -å}dfl.flxlTos Pstf af/] tkfO{sf] eGg' s] 5 < .lsG5 <Æ of] afFemf] b]zdf h'wf¿ dxTjsf+Iff g} hGdb}g of] b]z dfq Pp6f /fh. hgtfsf] b'v . oxfF cleJolQmsf kf7snfO{ kfl/hft / hubLzsf] kl/ro lbg' cyjf oL kqx¿sf] dxTjaf/] JofVof ul//xg' klg cfjZos 5}g + + + .flxlTos ultljlw P]hg 5 . xfdLn] of] o'usf] cfw'lgstfnfO{ glrgfP/ zfob b]z / dfgj ljsf. c+tlj{/f]w .s.'jb] Lsf] .n] ./]sf] cem.'v af]w Pp6f w]/} dL7f] z}nLdf cleJoQm ePsf] k9\g dg nflu/x]s} lyof] .|i6f kfl/hft s:tL lyOg\÷kfl/hftsf af/]df gv'ns ] f /x:ox¿Ú zLif{sdf kfl/hft tyf hubLzsf af/]df . 3/ Psnf. a? o.fpg ! ut] 8]/f .xLt\ k|sflzt pQm n]vaf6 . ca gf}nf] g]kfnLdf …kfl/hftsf] . klqsfsf] e]n p:t} 5 bz}+ klg cfpFb5 ev{/ >L % sf] :jf:gLsf] Birth day l.s]sf] xf] .kfl/hftsf] kq hubLz l3ld/]nfO{ -kfl/hftn] ( efb| @)@*df n]vs ] f] k|:t't klxnf] kqsf cltl/Qm @)@*– )@( .+emfp5 cyjf la. xfjf kfgL d]n vfPsf] 5 .Dd Ps k|sf/n] cJojl:yt g} 5' . @)@* efh+un sLlt{k/' hubLz Ho".\ dxfgu/Lo kfv08af6 of] Pp6f lg/y{s knfog xf] sf/0f xfdL dxfgu/ af6 g} zfl.DkfbsLo l6Kk0fL. /fhgLlt / . of] eLif0f …7x/fjÚ b]lv sf]xL k'm:sg .]/ k9]sf lyof}+ lnnfd t/ xfdL b'jn } ] Pp6} . lnnfd 7fpF 7fpFdf kf7s nfO{ kuflnlbg] Ifdtf /fV5 efj'stf 5 / Romance n] xf]Og ul/aL af]wn] .

S.uF xft ghf]/L s]jn :jtGq …n]vs eP/ / n]v/] g} afFRg]Ú ldzg lyof] . z[Înfdf klxnf] kq sf7df8f}a+ f6 @* ebf} @)@* / clGtd kq lbNnLaf6 @( df3 @)@( df n]vs ] L lyOg\ . lr7Ldf . oL kqx¿ eG5g\— ltgtfsf kfl/hft r/d dfgl.f]ws d To.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . d}n] kfl/hftnfO{ …lnnfdÚ lbPsf] lyOg .nsf s'/f afx]s /fhgLlt / .j]Z{ j/ bofn . ldzgdf c.fDojfb–jlxu{dgsf] " L–. d @)@^ .flxlTos d08nLx¿df lrlgg yfn]F .fDojfbsf] cGtof{qf lyof] …lnnfdÚ pkGof. labfdf sf7df8f}+ cfPsf] a]nf pgnfO{ d}n] klxnf] k6s e]6g\ d]/f] bfh' gu]Gb|/fh zdf{. To. tkl. To:tf] lghL / b]zsf] jftfj/0fdf pgn] d. o. To. To.s / zf/Ll/s oGq0ffdf lyOg\ .uF pxfFs} df]6/. d}n] pgnfO{ n]vs ] f t .+ejtM .Nnfx lng' lyof] . d}n] …lz/Lifsf] km"nÚnfO{ ?rfpg–krfpg .kfl/hftsf kqx¿sf] k[i7e"ld hubLz l3ld/] kfl/hft -#) kmfu'g !(()– % j}zfv @)%)_ sf] of] lr7L d}n] k6gfdf kfPF . rf/}lt/ wf]vf g} wf]vf lyof] .a]nf g]kfnL sljtfx¿sf] .]gf / d]/f] .a]nf d]/f] pgL.a]nf …lz/Lifsf] km"nÚsf sf/0fn] Vofltsf] lzv/df lyOg\ . z[Înfsf] kfl/hftsf] of] klxnf] kq kfPF . h'g xfd|faLr ePsf cfwf bh{geGbf a9L kqfrf/ uf]wn dfkm{t rfn" /Xof] .ª\ux| 5flkP . . y'k}| k'm6s/ n]vF] . lnPF .fndf gjf]lbt n]vssf] ¿kdf hgsk'/af6 …n]v/] afFRg] efUo cfhdfpgÚ sf7df8f+} cfPsf] lyPF . d]/f] sf7df8f}d + f s. ce}m klg 5 . pgL …z"GojfbÚ. pgn] dnfO{ o.Fufnf] ljVoft lxGbL n]vs .+sng ub}{ lyPF— h.Ësf s'/fx¿ d}n] …cGtd{gsf] ofqfÚ df klg n]vs ] f] 5' . d pgsf tL …jfbÚx¿af6 6f9f lyPF .f]x« jif{ eof] .a} kqx¿ j|mdzM log} kfgfdf cfpg] 5g\ / cfk+m}+ af]Ng]5g\ .dsfnLg n]vs 1fg pbf. . To. xfdL ldq eof}F .flxToaf/] pgn] ] f] k|Zgaf/] nfdf s'/f eP . pgL To.s]sf] lyOg .a]nf Tof] 7fFp cgsG6f/ h:tf] nfu]sf] lyof] . k|.}an ] f k6gfdf d}n] o.dfhzf:qsf] 5fq x'g k'us ] f] lyPF . d}n] a6'ns ] f g]kfnL sljtfx¿sf] . cem lau|bF f] 5 . cfˆgf] To.Fu bf]xf]/f] lrgf/L lyPg .141 . pgsf] cfˆgf] :jf:Yo t lju|bF f] lyof]–lyof].fDojfb–cGtu{dg / d]/f] .fDojfbÚ lt/ kl.kmn e}/x]sf] a]nf sf]nDaf] Knfg cGtu{t 5fqj[lQ kfP/ k6gf ljZjljBfnodf .g !(*@ df …g]kfnL sljtfPFÚ gfdn] 5fk]sf] 5 . w/tLdf cf]nk{] l5 pgL dfcf]jfbL …. ePsf] clxn] .a} kqx¿ ldlNsP xf]nfg\ . xfd|f] hDsfe]6 pgsf] . h.n] lbPsf /x]5g\— e]6df pgn] atfOg\ . d]/f] dfcf]jfbL . sLlt{k/' uPsf] lyPF .Fu kqfrf/ u/]sL lyOg\ .g\.fndf …hubLzsf syfx¿Ú syf. )) 11 .Dkfbgdf /fhsdn k|sfzgn] .af6 d ev{/} aflx/ lg:s]sf] lyPF . b]zsf] :jf:Yo emg} lau|bF f] lyof] . /Tg k':ts e08f/af6 @)@&df d]/f] klxnf] k':ts …lnnfdÚ pkGof. pgn] dnfO{ n]vs ] f s]xL kqx¿ x/fP klg .}n] klg pgnfO{ dg k/]5 . ToxLFlg/ d]/f] af. …cl:tTjjfbÚ …lz/Lifsf] km"njfbÚ …/fNkmfjfbÚ nufot\ s'lÌ s] s] cg]sf}F …jfbx¿Ú af6 …w/tLjfbÚlt/ cf]nb{ } lyOg\ .fOsndf efhFufn. tL . .}.+3f/df ePsf] lyof]. / @)@* .af/] pgsf] klg .

Æ pgL cgsgfPsf]df d}n] pgnfO{ . tL km/flsnf kftfx¿ psfnL–cf]/fnL ub}{ s]xL cufl8 k'u/] 8'Ab} lyP eses pDn]sf] t]ndf .gaf6 lemSb} a]ngfdf xfNb} lyof] . t/ d}n] clxn] vfPsfsf] :jfb < vf]O s.fÒx«} dL7f] .lxt uf8Ldf al. ævf]O.a}nfO{ Psf]6f To. ef]ln oxfF cfof}F eg] kfOxflnG5 .fd'Gg]] rf:gLsf] efF8f]df .DemG5' .Dk"0f{ k|so[ f x]bl{} yPF . cGTodf kfs]/ k"0f{ ePsf /f]6f :jtM Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ v:b} lyP .'Gb/Ln] lrgLsf] emf]ndf 8'a/] lg:s]sf tL lrNnf /f]6fx¿ lemSb} 5]psf] efF8fdf ldnfP/ /fVb} lyOg\ . em§ x]bf{ dnfO{ . ……rfVg'xG' 5 ÛÆ . pgn] klg Pp6f lnOg\ / dnfO{ k'nS' s x]l/g\ ."rgfkf6L la:of}{ ls Sof xf] <Æ pgL 3f]l/Og\ / If0fd} pHofnf] cg'xf/ nfpFb} elgg\– æP. To:t} 6f]kL nfP/ kNnf]5p ] df plePsf] uf]ˆn]n] kL7f]sf d'l5Psf 8Nnfx¿ d]l. Tof] c6f]dl] 6s oGqn] kL7f]nfO{ a]Nb} afnfh:t} kf/]/ kmnfdsf kftfx¿df ws]Nb} lyof] .fGTjgf lbg] :j/df eg]F– æx/fPs} /x]5 eg] klg kL/ gu/. d}n] wGojfb eGb} . d rfv dfg]/ To.gaf6 .'? u/]sf] /x]5 .t vfFbf lgs} dL7f] nfu]sfn] æsxfF kfOG5 <Æ eg]/ ldqnfO{ .L–lqmdL–8f]gf]6 gfdsf] k.dft]F Tof] b]Vb} /x/ nfUbf]] /f]6L .a]nf lrofl.f]lwg\ .sf] . lxhf]cfh sf7df8f}s + f ahf/df y/Ly/L :jfb ePsf 9fFrf9fFrfsf 8f]gf]6x¿ kfOG5g\ .Æ pgn] 5Ss k/]em}F dnfO{ x]/]sf] b]v]/ d}n] xfF:b} yk]F– æxfdL k|ftMe|d0fdf lg:sFbf Ps 7fpFdf b]vs ] f] . 6fpsf]df lkms]{ 6f]kL nfPsL Pp6L .'Gb/Ln] sfut] ?dfnn] a]x/]« Pp6f dlt/ t]:of{Og\ .} vfg lbG5 .fdfGo njhdf eGg'kbf{— . jif{cl3 Ps ldqsf]df vfPsf] lyPF . xfdL aflx/ lg:s]/ uf8Ldf r9\g cfF6s ] f lyof}F . ærfVg] lg a'af Û . ædDdLn] cfh Nofpg' g} ePsf] lyPg ls ÛÆ 5f]/Ln] zÍf JoQm ul/g\ . afnfh'sf] Ps a]s/Ln] ev{/ev{/ pTkfbg ug{ .nleq klg l5l/g\ t/ st} gkfPkl5 cGof]nsf] cg'xf/.'Gb/Ln] dlt/ x]//] l:dt xfF:b} .Æ d]/f] . ' ' xfF:b} vfPF .'j]bL j'mk08f]n nlntk'/ M kmf]g %%@#)%& 8f]gf]6x¿ Pskl5 csf]{ u/L kfSb} lg:sFb} lyP :jrflnt ldl. Pp6f vfFbf Tolt s] laufl/xfN5 / ÛÆ xfdL 8f]gf]6 lsGg] eg]/ cd]l/sfel/ sxlnPsf] lqmK. xfdL rf/ hgf 5f}F . To.f]ws ] f] klg . xf] t x} ÛÆ xfd|f s'/fn] v'nb'nL eP/ xf]nf uf8Ldf r9]kl5 5f]/Ln] .d ' ./L JoQm u¿F Û . NofPh:tf] klg nfU5 . d}n] d'.lxdfn t lxdfn} xf] lg k|sfz . æd]/f] r:df stf uP5 <Æ eGb} pgn] aflx/ 3'Dg lg:sFbf nfpg] 3fdr:df vf]Hg yflng\ .fy dL7f] / dudufpFbf] af:gfbf/ :jfbsf] cfgGb lha|fdf 5b}{ Tof] If0fd} lanfPem}F eof] .f]lwg\– æs] ePsf] 12 . . .Dem]— F 8f]gf]6 d}n] klxnf] k6s tL. uf8Lleq x]/k] l5 pgL k.f6f] 5f]/Ln] hafkm lbPsL lyOg\ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .ndf cfPsf lyof}F .g\ . d cndlnPF— vfg] nf]e t 5 t/ ev{/} /utdf lrgL b]lvPsf] d lrgL g} lrgL ePsf] kl/sf/ vfg cF eg"F ls g eg"F Û æcF. d'vdf kgf{.]n/f]6Lh:tf] nfu]sf]] lyof] . >LdtL 5]jd } f lyOg\ .141 .

To. x'g t oxfF .141 .] hLjg sf6\gk' 5{. xfdL hlt cl3 a9\b} lyof}F xfdLn] x]g{] eg]sf] Tof] uh'/ Tolt g} 6fl9Fb} uPem}F nfu]sf] lyof] .b:ox¿ Ps. xfd|f] .DaGwdf dnfO{ w]/} hfgsf/L gePsfn] a9L s]xL elgxfNg .lStgF . x'g t .}sf] 5]pdf afSnf kft ePsf] Pp6f ¿vj/k/ rf/f]6f ufO{x¿ rl//x]sf lyP .a} . xfdL lxF8g\ ] u/]sf] af6f]sf] uN5]8F f] cfOk'Ug cfwfcfwLh. ToxfF /x]sf] 9'Ë] kf6L k9]/ Tof] h]i7 gful/sx¿sf] a:tL /x]5 eGg] yfxf kfPsf lyof}F .fgf 3/x¿ / ltgsf] xftfjl/kl/sf] agf]6 g} cln a]Un} k|sf/sf] lyof] .af6 x'g] nfeeGbf gsf/fTds kl/0ffd g} a9L Joxf]l//x]sf 5g\ h:tf] dnfO{ nfU5 .. ePsf] lyof] .'.lyof] / a'af <Æ HjfOF.'g/] d Ps} l5g cfTdlj:d[t ePsf] lyPF / k'm?ª\ª x'bF } . otflt/ xfd|fh ] :tf] .S' s xfF.'gs ] f] 5' .+/rgfsf] cf8df x'ss {] f k/d'vfk]IfL . ToxfFsf] b[Zo x]bf{xb] {} d]/f] z/L/ PsfPs Gofgf] ePsf] lyof]— cfˆg} ufpFdf 5' h:tf] cfgGbsf] cg'el" tn] xf]nf .}sf sf/0f xfdLx¿sf] JolQmut k|ultdf cj/f]w k'lu/x]sf] 5 eGg] klg nfU5 . j[4fj:yf oxfF a8f] si6s/ x'G5 eGg]h:tf s'/fx¿ . lbg klg laxfg vfhf vfO{j/L gf} ah]lt/ k|ftMe|d0fdf lg:s]sf lyofF} .a} 3/ ePsf Onfsfx¿sf] kl/j]z . .'gfpg af]Nb} uPF .fx]an] uf8L lxF8fpFge ' of] . Tof] uh'/h:tf] s] /x]5 x]/f}F klg . t/ o.af6 pTkGg czflGtn] xfd|f w]/} kl/jf/x¿ ufFlhPsf 5g\ / To.f]rs ] f] lyPF— ufO{dftfn] xfdLnfO{ lrg]/ v'zL JoQm u/]sL xf]lng\ . Tof] luhf{3/ xf]nf eGg] nv sf6]/ xfdL æe}uf] c¿ cufl8 ghfpFmÆ eg]/ b]al]| t/ df]l8Psf lyof}F . ] sfndf Psnf.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .f}Dotfdf 5l/Pem}F dx.'Gb/ kfl/Psf] x'G5 t/ clxn] xfdLn] b]vs ] f .+oQ ' m kl/jf/df a:g] rng /x]g5 .}n] oxfFsf dfG5]x¿n]] a'9. To.dy/ xl/of] rf}/sf] Ps5]pdf Pp6f 5fk|f] lyof] . . lbg klg PsfPs Pp6f gofF k|:tfj /fv]sL lyOg\– æcfh Totfaf6 kmGsf] df/]/ l5/f}F g . d eg] k"0f{ljj/0f .'ljwfx¿ k|bfg ul/Psf] b]lvGYof] . Onfsfdf k:bfb]lv g} dnfO{ k"/} jftfj/0fdf ulx/f] zflGt / ueL/ . d klg xfF.]/ cfkm} ug]–{ vfg] ubf{ /x]5g\ . oxfF t ufO{uf]7 kf] /}5 ÛÆ pgL s]xL] pQ]lht x'bF } af]ns ] L lyOg\ . lbgxF" h.a} kl/kf6Lsf cfˆg} /fd|f–g/fd|f kf6fx¿ x'G5g\ . 5f]/f 5f]/Lx¿ aflnu x'gl] alQs} 5'§} a.f]sf] kfl/jfl/s cGts{nx clg To.Æ xfdL kfl/lt/ b]lvg] sDo'lg6Lsf lgh{g af6fx¿ l5rf]Nb} uh'/ ePlt/ nfu]sf lyof}F . oL ljb]zLx¿ klg xfd|flt/ cfP/ æcfxf.t eOcfPsf] 5 .dfh eg] k/fk"j{ sfnb]lv g} .+oQ ' m kl/jf/n] To.]sf ÛÆ eg]sf] klg .w}e F mF} xfdL To.. pgn] To. æP. Tof] . >LdtL dlt/ x]b{} d'. tkfO{xF ¿sf] t s:tf] /fd|f] Û kl/jf/sf . Pp6f rf}af6f] t/]kl5 csf]{ sDo'lg6L b]lvPsf] lyof]— a8f] g} dgdf]xs .Gtfg. oxfF j[4x¿nfO{ 7fpF7fpFdf y/Ly/Lsf . o. t/ clxn]sf] cj:yfdf x]bf{ xfd|f] . k]6L]5p ] /flvPsf b'Ot{ Lgf]6f uf8L l5rf]n/] xfd|f] uGtJosf] af6f]df l5g{ 13 .'vb cfZro{ hgfPsf] lyPF .s ] L lyOg\ . tLgrf/ ldg]6hlt cl3 a9]/ km]l/ b]a]| df]l8Fbf tf/ af/ u/]sf] Pp6f 7"n} kmfF6 b]lvPsf] lyof] .f] afFsL g} lyof] . s]xL glhs k'Ubf Pp6L tf/] ufO{n] xfdLlt/ x]//] AjfF˜˜ u/]sL lyOg\ .'gs ] f] lyPF . To. pgsf] cfjfh ./] cfˆgf] .+oQ ' m kl/jf/sf] 9fFrfdf ljsl.fy a.

f]Rb} lyPF— ToxLF./x sfF7Lsf dfG5]x¿ oxfF htftt} g} b]lvGy] / x]bf{ . lg:sg] a]nfdf lh1f.Dks{ kmf]g gDa/ klg pNn]v u/]sf] lyof] ."rgf b]vs ] f] 7fpFg/] } xfdLn] d'vfd'v ubf{ t xf] Pp6f]n] XjfªXjfª] :j/df xfdLnfO{ æxfO{Æ eg]/ .fdfgx¿ klg . p."rgf xfdLn] b]vs ] f lyof}+ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .f] Ps ah]lt/ o.nfUbf . d eg] Psf]xf]l/P/ lxF8b\ } lyPF .Æ cd]l/sLx¿sf] Jojxf/af6 k|efljt eP/ pgL cfˆgf] ljrf/ kf]Vb} lyOg\ . clxn] xfdLn] b]vs ] f] df]6] lsªsªËeGbf klg a8]dfgsf] lyof] . pm 7d7d ub}{ km'lt{nf] rfndf lxF8b\ } lyof] . pgLx¿df xfd|f lt/sf df]6f jf df]6Lx¿df x'gh ] :tf] n3'tfef.f]Ry]— ]F ljkGgtfn]] t xf]nf xfdLnfO{ To:tf .fOsn bf}8 k|ltof]lutf ePsf lbg lbpF.df lkQnsf] 6'6L nufPsf] lyPF .'g/] d}n] otfplt x]/s ] f] lyPF . Ps lbg laxfg b"w lnP/ cfpFbf uf8Ln] 5Øfk]/ lxnfDd] kf/]sf] n'uf kvfN5' eg]/ wf/f vf]Ng uPsf] t x/] Û ToxfF t 6'6L g} lyPg . æo:tf] tslnkm u/Lu/L klgÒ. o:tf 36gf xfdLsxfF eO{ g} /xG5g\ . a'‰b} hfFbf s]xL lbgcl3 l5d]sLsf] wf/fsf] ld6/ g} rf]//] nu]sf] klg yfxf kfPsf] lyPF .}n] kfOk}.. s] /x]5 eg]/ xfdL b'jn } ] k9]sf lyof}— F …lxhf] .Demg k'us ] f] lyPF cfˆg} 3/sf] syf . xfdL af6fdf lxF8b\ f w]/h } .\ eg]/ Tof] .Dks{ /fVg'xf]nf .Æ pgsf] cfZro{ldl>t af]nL .sf] OdfGbf/Lsf s'/f lems]sL lyOg\ . af6f]5p ] sf 3/x¿df aflx/} lah'nLsf rLdx¿ e'mG8\ofOPsf b]Vy]F .'/lIft g} b]Vy]F / .f] cd]l/sLx¿ dlxnf x'g\ jf k'?if b'j} y/LnfO{ x[i6k'i6 / km'lt{nf b]VYof}F .sf] dfqf klg d 7ØfDd} b]lVbgy]F ."rgf p. x'g t xfdL ahf/lt/ lxF8b\ f df]6L cfOdfO{x¿nfO{ klg km'lt{n} rfndf lxF8s ] f b]VYof}F .fy x]b{} pgn] eg]sL lyOg\ .fgf ck/fw ug{ pBt t'Nofpg] Û d .Daf]wg u/]sf] .Ú . pgLx¿sf] zf/Ll/s agf}6 g} xfdLx¿sf] eGbf 7"nf] / cUnf] b]lvGYof] . s. v'nfd} oqtq /flvPsf cGo lsDdtL . ljlrqsf] cfjfh . dnfO{ eg] cf}8fxf x'bF } lyof] leqleq} / .]g. s[kof .sf] k'Ýfsf] w]/} efu aflx/ em'lG8Psf] lyof] . pgn] km]l/ oxfFsf dflg. kfgLn] glauf/f].141 . eLdsfo z/L/sf] Tof] s'O/] xfdLlt/ xft xNnfpFb} cufl8 a9\b} lyof] ."rsn] k'5f/df cfˆgf] gfd 7]ufgf / .x¿ pNn]Vo .fy kms]/{ x]/s ] f lyof}F .fdfGoh:tf] nfUYof] .DalGwt dxfg'efjn] cfˆgf] r:df lng lrgf/L.Demgf x'GYof] .'g/] xfdL b'jn } ] Ps}.]tf]sfuhdf sDKo'6/ 6fOk u/]/ af/df em'G8\ofOPsf]] .df c6fPsf] lyPg .fjz d}n] k'gM pm ePlt/ x]/s ] f] 14 . æsqf] xf] ÛÆ pm s]xL cufl8 k'uk] l5 cfZro{.n] Knfl:6sn] a]//] Pp6f csf]{ vfFaf]df klg em'G8\ofPsf] /x]5 . xfdLn] kf}/fl0fs u|Gyx¿df k9]sf eLd. pm To.lxt pv]n/] nu]5 ] . Knfl:6sn] a]/s ] f] .]/ Pp6f df]6n ] ] lstfa k9\b} u/]sf] b]vs ] f] lyPF .ª\Vofdf b]lvGy] / dnfO{ xfd|f ltg} u|Gysf lxl8Daf / 36f]Tsrh:tf rl/qx¿sf] . æn oxfF klg kf] /fv]sf] /}5 . a]nfavt aflx/ kfgL rflxG5 eg]/ d}n] 3/k5fl8 Pp6f wf/f h8fg u/L To. Ps lbg d ahf/ hfFbf l8kf6{dG] 6n :6f]/aflx/sf] a]Grdf a. tyflk oxfF df]6] jf df]6L eGg}kg]{ vfnsf dflg. d}n] oxfFsf 3/df xfdLlt/h:tf] ‰ofndf u|Ln nfPsf] jf sDkfpG8df cUnfcUnf kvf{n nfPsf] klg b]vs ] f] lyOgF .} af6f]df d}n] Pp6f 3fdr:df km]nfkf/]sf] 5' .lxt lgDg 7]ufgfdf .

dfOnsf] j]udf s'2} lyof] .f .DemFb} lyPF— d]/f] 6f]nsf] Pp6f k.f sdfpg dn]l. æslt . k]6f« n Uofn]gdf a]lrg] To./n] dfG5]df klg df]6fpg] /f]u nfu]sf] xf] elgG5 .n /x]5 .hfP/ /flvPsf lyP / k|To]sdf 7"n7"nf cIf/n] d"No n]l] vPsf sfuhsf kf6Lx¿ klg lyP .' vfFbf To.fgf xfQLhq} x'G5g\ /] . gfdsf] k.// cfˆgf] jfxg xfFs/] uPsf] lyof] .((( 8n/ n]lvPsf lyP .d:of /x]5 . To.s]sf] lyof] / x]bf{xb] {} .sf] kl/. d}n] To. w]/s } f d"No ^./L xf] s'lGg cd]l/sf k'us ] L /lx5g\ .t cd]l/sfsf df]6f dfG5]x¿sf] rrf{ u/]sf] lyPF .f/ oxfF df./L k'lug\ cflbaf/] vf]hLlgtL u/]sf] lyOgF .Fusf] s'/fsfgL .xof]u ug{ .df /x]sf] xf/df]gsf] c.fa ubf{ .fx]al.]G6 kbf]{ /x]5 .'g/] eg] d cln crDddf k/]sf] lyPF . af6fdf b]lvg] b[Zox¿ eg] ToxL ultdf .f]rdf ?dlNnFb} lyof] . pm a]Grsf] cf8 nfP/ plePsf] lyof] / otfplt x]b{} lyof] .' vfg kflng] kz'kIfLsf] b|t' zf/Ll/s ljsf. ToxL df. oxfFsf] Go"gtd kfl/>ldssf] t'ngfdf Tof] d"Nodf k'/fg} uf8L kfOg' klg w]/} .g lbOG5 . w]/h } .\ t af6fdf < lsg k¥of] / lxF8g\ ' < xfd|f] uf8L krf. a]nf k.\ s.141 . ub}{ lyof] .n]sL 5f]/L s] s.6L elgg] Tof] df]6fpg] /f]uaf6 u|:t /x]5g\ .–. OGwgsf] b/ ln6/df lx.fdfg e'Od F f /fVb} lyPF . cyf{t\ oxfFsf] . d]/f] dgn] tTsfn c8\sn]sf] lyof]— dxfef/tdf jl0f{t eLd / lxl8Dafsf 5f]/f]] 36f]Tsr o:t} lyof] xf]nf .S5 .of6ndf Ps ldqsf] 3/df ePsf] hd36df e]6s ] f cd]l/sfsf g]kfnL ldqx¿. c/a jf sf]l/oflt/ nfU5g\ /] .S5' ls eg]/ xftsf .Sg]hlt k9\g] eg]/ cd]l/sf.n].:tf]df uf8L lsGg kfOG5 a'af ÛÆ Ps 7fpFdf uf8Lsf] y'kf| ] ePlt/ b]vfpFb} 5f]/Ln] elgg\ ./df y'k}| rlDsnf uf8Lx¿ .a} a|fG8sf uf8Lx¿ lyP .]ef| n ] 6] . 5 dlxgfhlt ePsf] /x]5 . t/ d]/f] dg cfˆg} . u/fP/ df]6f3f6f kfg{ xf/df]g OGh]S. xf]G8f.f]. . d}n] s]xL .lyPF . pm 5]jd } f /fv]sf] 6«S] 6/h:tf] uf8Ldf r9\g] k|of.'gs ] f] x'bF f To.Q/L .of. xf]Og / <Æ s'/f . dfG5] df]6fpFb} hfg] oxFfsf] 7"nf] .lxt k|ltlqmof hfGg vf]he ] m}F 15 . æoxfF . Tof] sf/–km/–n].s]/ pgn] d'vdf .}n] oxfFsf To:tf ufO{uf]?x¿ .Fu s'/f x'bF f b}lgs dhb'/L ug]n { ] klg otfplt sfd u/]/ dlxgfsf] b'O{ xhf/ 8n/ t ] klg oxfF . d pleP/ Ps} l5g lj:kmfl/t g]qn] x]/s ] f] lyPF Tof] cgf}7f] :jfjnDaL k|f0fL uPlt/ . dg'jfnfO{ .:t} nfu]sf] lyof] . s]xL /}yfg] g]kfnLx¿. clg < sf] lxF8f].:tf] dfGg'k5{ .uF pgsL 5f]/L ToxfF s] ul5{g. xF <Æ ælsg / <Æ d]/f] .f]wgLdf pgn] yk]sf lyP– æ. 3/ k'uk] l5 d}n] HjfOF.f]rs ] f] klg x'g .tkm{ d}n] ulxl/P/ g.f]sf s]6fs]6L lxhf]cfh cd]l/sf jf c:6«l] nof uPsf] . a]Gh. kmf]8— { . pxfFsf cg'.// ljk/Lt lbzftkm{ aUb} lyP .:tf]df uf8L kfOFbf] /}5 x} oxfF ÛÆ d"No b]v/] /fgL 5Ss k/]sL lyOg\ . ToxfF 6f]of]6f. oxfFsf !%÷@) k|ltzt hlt dfG5]x¿ cf]al] .Q/L k}. sdfpF5g\ eGg] xfdLn] yfxf kfPsf lyof}F .dfGo xfF. d . t/ l. t/ ToltGh]ndf pm uf8Ldf rl9. c¿ k}. d cfZro{rlst\ x]/s ] f] x]¥o} ePsf] lyPF— chªsf] To. c:6«l] noflt/ xflgG5g\ /]. tLdWo]sf Psn] eg]sf lyP– æg]kfndf t ca tGb]/Lx¿ sf]xL afFsL /xFbg} g\ ls Sof xf]. To.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .

Sb}gÚ eGg] dfg]/ hflu/} lbFbg} /] .d]t h'g.du|df x]bf{ oxfF uf8L lsGg' eg]sf] xfd|flt/ k|ftMe|d0f ug]n { ] 16 . hfg grfxg] jf k|lqmof ldnfpg g.n /fv]sf lyP . t/ l:ylt To:tf]. eGg'.]/ gfgL v]nfO/x]sf Ps ldqn] cª\uh ]| Lldl>t g]kfnLdf af]ns ] f lyP– æTolt dfq xf]Og .f]Rb} d pgLlt/ x]//] xfF. ubf{ /x]5g\ .'gsf y}nf s] ug'{ wgn]. d]/L 5f]/L cd]l/sfdf l5g\ eGg] yfxf kfP/ pgn] dnfO{ b]vk] l5 Totfsf s'/f lemSy] / s]xL lh1f.Dd k'lu. To:tf]df 5f]/Ln] uf8L lsg]sf] yfxf kfpg' Pp6f cfd g]kfnL afa'sf nflu v'zLsf] s'/f] dfq xf]Og uf}/j ug]{ s'/f] klg xf] .Nnfx dfUg eg]/ pgs} ufpFlt/sL Pp6L s]6L cfPsL lyOg\ . h] lsGg klg k/} k'Ug'kbf]{ /x]5— .t lax] /lr5g\\ / oxfF cfPnuQ} kf/kfr's] lng rfx]/ To.\ t ÛÆ pgn] Ps k6s . x'g klg g]kfndf s.DemGy]–F …xftsf d}nf . cln cl:t d]/L >LdtL.141 . {' \ t ÛÆ æP xf] / <Æ pgsf s'/fdf d]/f ldqn] cfZro{ JoQm u/]sf lyP .}n] uf8L lsg]/ r9\g' eg]sf] 7"n} x}l.Dd oxfF t uf8L geP hflu/ vfg klg kfOFbg} /] .a}sf cg'xf/df x]/s ] f lyP / xfF:b} s'/f 6'ªU\ ofPsf lyP– æca t d'gf dbg g} gofF lsl.'s} tl/sfaf6 eP klg cd]l/sf cfpg] k|of. nf} x]gx{' f].s]sf] 5 eGg] c8\sn dnfO{ n]z dfq klg gePsf] x'bF f ToxfF ul/Psf l6Kk0fLx¿ . . af]lnxfNg plrt xf]nf gxf]nf . cfhsf g]kfnL :jf:gLx¿n] cfˆgf u/uxgf.sf lglDt s] ug{k' 5{ eg]/ xfdLnfO{ . j}bl] zs /f]huf/df hfg]x¿sf] cGtjf{tf{ 5 /] eGg] 7fpFdf klg 7"n} 3'Or F f] b]Vy]F .f]Rg . cGtjf{tf{df uf8L 5}g eGg] yfxf kfP …of] .Fu . Ps lbg } /' fdf pgn] æd]/L 5f]/Ln] ToxfF uf8L lsgL /]Æ eg]/ k|.f]Wg cfPsL /lx5g\ .} a]nf af]nLrfnLdf ljgf]bL dflgg] d]/f tL 3/wgL ldqn] cfˆgf] ljrf/ kf]vs ] f lyP– æd . xf]Og.s]/ pgn] Ps 6s dlt/ x]/s ] f lyP . tL a"9fn] cfˆg} 3/df k. t/ d}n] a'em].dlt/ x]/s ] f lyP .Ú t/ clxn] t g]kfndf .jf/L . pgsf] af]nL / x]/fO b'jd } f s]xL Joª\Uo ldl.dodf clkm. To.dLs/0f g} km]l/Psf] /x]5 . clxn] t g]kfnsf s]6Lx¿.f hfg] dbgnfO{ ghfg cg'/f]w ub}{ d'gfsf d'vaf6 JoQm ug'e { Psf dfld{s kª\lQmx¿ .Sg] s'/f] xf]Og klg .fu / l.f]Rb} lyPF .Sg]nfO{ gfdb{ klg eGbf /x]5g\ c/] . af/Lsf] tfhf t/sf/L kfOG5 eg]/ d a]nfa]nf ToxfF lsgd]n ug{ hfGy]F .'g/] d xSs g aSs ePsf] lyPF .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .s ] f] dfq lyPF . .Æ xfd|f w]/} o'jfx¿ aflx/ k9\g hfg] w'gdf 5g\ eGg] t yfxf lyof] .fdfGo dfG5]n] .d]t aGwsL /fv]/ nf]Ug]nfO{ j}bl] zs /f]huf/df hfg bafa lbFbf /x]5g\ .\ t aGw' <Æ elg.fwg geO{ t oxfF 8]u rNg} g.// . x]g.Ph:tf] klg d}n] cg'ej u/]sf] lyPF .'?df oxfF k9\g cfP/ sfd ug{ yfNbf a]nfa]nf d'gfdbgdf dxfsljn] Nxf.lsg] /x]5 . pgn] ca :jtGq hLjg hLpg] /] .otsf] s'/f] xf] / .fx¿ klg /fVy] . cfpg .Dk"0f{ . dnfO{ klg s:tf]s:tf] nfu]sf] lyof] . TolQs}df d]/f 5]pdf a. t/ d af]Ng gkfpFb} tL ldqn] g} yk]sf lyP– æo:tf 36gf t slt 5g\ slt /] lxhf]cfh g]kfndf . ev{/sL lyOg\ b]Vgdf klg .dn] n]Vg'kg]{ eof] .:g' vfPsf] a]z cfgGbL dgn] .Ggtf klg JoQm u/]sf s'/s lyP . a'‰bf yfxf kfof}— F pgn] cd]l/sf cfpg] bfpdf Pp6f l8=eL= k/]sf] s]6f]l. d cndlnP/ .

':t cufl8 a9\b} lyof] ./L lbgel/ g} afF85 \ xf]nf / <Æ hafkmdf pxfFaf6 yfxf kfPsf] lyPF— Tof] rf}aL. x7ft\ 7"n} cfjfh . d}n] nf} lelhg] kf] xf] ls eg]/ .}n] oxfF hf] klg C0f lnP/} rn]sf x'G5g\ /] .141 . x]bf{xb] {} xfjfn] . To. b]Vof}— F . 3/ lsGg jf h'g. æ. Ps 7fpFdf …w'nfO otfÚ n]vs ] f]] lrGx ePlt/ uf8L df]8b\ } pxfFn] eGg'eof]–] æoxLF xf] xfdLn] gf}nf] k|lqmof x]g{] eg]sf] .'sfP/ lrNnf] kf/]sf] xfd|f] uf8L aflx/ lg:Sof] .':t.fx]an] k"/} kmGsf] df/]/ uf8L Pp6f sf/vfgf kl/.fy cfFwLa]x/L cfPem}F eof]. uf8L lsGg. km]l/ cGwsf/ eof] . OG6/g]6df k9]sf] lyPF.fd'Gg]sf] P]gf k"/} 9fSg] u/L Pp6f ltkf{n ud|Ë v:of] / xlNng yfNof] .f]Rg. aflx/ x]bf{ uf8Lsf] rf/}lt/ ./n ls:tf / g/d Aofh b/df . bzsf}bF zs. pxfFn] xfF:b} eGg'eof]– æHo". æotf stf hfg] <Æ 5f]/Lsf] k|Zgn] d]/f] .} a]nf d}n] /f]6L pTkfbg ljlw b]v/] cfgGb nfu]sf] s'/f pNn]v ubf{ pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ csf]{ Ps 7fpFdf cem gf}nf] k|lqmof b]vfpg] s'/f ug'e { Psf] lyof] / Tot} n}hfg uf8L df]8g'ePsf] lyof] .xh} C0f lbg]/x]5— . laqmL–k|j4{g gLlt xf]nf lg .fdfGo l56f cyjf To. xfd|f] uf8L . a]ns ' L .d'bL| cfFwL <Æ d}n] lh1f.}df afFlwG5g\ /] jiff}j+{ if{.f]rfOsf] tGb|f 6'Øf] / otfplt x]/F] .ft ah] kfSg] a]nfdf cfPsf u|fxsnfO{ k.ndf lbgsf] tLg afxfg /f]6L kfSbf /x]5g\ . xfdL cfZro{.Æ s'O/]n] d]l. uf8L klg kmf]xf]/ ePsf] 5.x¿ cfP/ kmggGg 3'Db} uf8LnfO{ 3f]6g\ yfn] . clg af9L cfof]] .'gfdL lKnh ÛÆ HJffOF. clg To:t} To:t}df ot} a:gÒÒ .fog xf] eg]/ lgofNb} lyPF.f/fn] bflxg]–b]a]| b]vfpFb} uf8LnfO{ cufl8 Nofpg c¥xfof] / Ps 7fpFdf k'uk] l5 /f]Sg nfP/ æs] <Æ eg]em}F u¥of] .} 306f v'nf /xg] k. x]/f}F g s:tf] ubf]{ /x]5 . .gdf 3f]6/] nfUg] z'Ns s§f u/]kl5 sf8{ kmsf{pbF } xfdLnfO{ ‰ofn aGb ug{ nfof] / cfkm" sDKo'6/ rnfpg uof] . PsfPs cgf}7f] lsl.Dd EofPsf] lyOgF kfgL yfldof] / PsfPs 7"n} xf]–F xf]s F f] cfjfh.dsf] cfjfh cfof] / rf/}lt/af6 a8]dfgsf a'?.sk8fsf] h'Qf lsg]em}F nfUof] dnfO{— jfWofTds . To.fa'g xf] ls /. If0fd} s]n] xf] s'lGg uf8Ldf jf?0foGqn] em}F kfgLsf] d':nf] kmfNof]— 5///{ .naf6 lg:s]sf a]nfb]lv g} /f]6L afF8s ] f] s'/fn] dnfO{ s'Ts'TofO/x]sf] lyof] / cln cl3 d}n] pxfF.'s} sfdsf nflu klg a}s + n] .f /fv]F . d}n] 38L x]/F] of] .Q}d F f vfg lbFbf]/x]5 . s] x'bF } 5 eGg] xfdLn] a'‰g} kfPsf lyPgf}F PSsfl.'gfdL eg]sf] ToxL .]tf] n]bf] aUb} lyof] .Æ xfdLnfO{ b]v/] Pp6f 6fO{ nfPsf] s'O/]n] b'j} xftsf] O. To.fy Ps–csf{nfO{ x]b{} lyof}F . cGwsf/ eof] . HjfOF.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .a}n] uf8L lgofNof}F— st} kfgLsf] .fx]an] ‰ofnaf6 cfˆgf] qm]l86–sf8{ lbg'eof] . d}n] yfxf kfPcg'.lxt xfjf rNof] / If0fd} Gofgf] eof] . xfd|f] uf8L :jrflnt ¿kn] cufl8 a9\g yfNof] .nn] Psf]6f l./df l5/fpFb} x'gx' G' Yof]] . æ. oxfF sDKo'6/ sf] k|of]uåf/f uf8L w'nfO ul/G5 /] . 8f]gf]6sf] k.a} lqmofdf 5 ldg]6 dfq} nfu]5 .fd' lh1f.f /fv]sf] lyPF— æTo. .f/ oxfF k9\g. logLx¿n] w'nfOsf] gfd} To:tf] /fv]sf 5g\ .sf] bfu 17 .

fob d]/f] .df a'?. uf8L P]gfh:t} 6nSs 6lNs/x]sf] lyof] .L gl.t 3'Dg hfg'. gbLgfnf.df a.f}v ddf klg knfPsf] lyof] / Psfw jif{ s]xL .]/ 6]lnlehg x]g{' .]tfDd] kf/]/ rlDs/x]sf] .141 . ToxL sfo{qmd x]/k] l5 d af6f] lxF8b\ f ¿v.sf kftx¿ ÛÆ Ps lbg xfdL k|ftMe|d0fsf lglDt d"n . klxnf]— 5f]/LHjfOFl.dn] Sofge. af6fsf 5]p5]p nx/} plePsf af]6sf kftx¿ xfjfsf tfndf 6nkn– 6nkn ub}{ lyP .'Gb/ nfUy] .8slt/ kms]s { f] Pp6f gLnf] /ªsf] nfdf] kmnfd] d]r /flvPsf] b]v/] /f]lsof}F . ljwfdf . laxfgsf] dWod 3fd k/]/ a]nfa]nf lemlnslemlns ub}{ 6Nsg] tL kqx¿n] xfdLnfO{ PsfPs ltg} dxfg\ lrqsf/sf] .S' s xfF. bf]. w]/} klxn] lrq sf]g{] . slt .f].4ØfpFb} .'Gb/tf . pHofnf] lbg lyof] . clg nuQ} yk]sL lyOg\– æxfd|f] sf7df8f}a+ f6 klg s:tf] /fd|f] b]lvG5 lxdfn Û t/ st} o.xh lsl. pgn] . æs:tf] /fd|f] Û oxfF a. . . cd]l/sfdf xfdL b'Os { f] . rnfP/ bz{s.lhnf]l. aa /f].f] a. hËn cflbldl>t k|fs[lts b[Zo lrlqt ub{y] .8sg]/ dfG5] a.f/0f x'g] lrqsnfsf] Pp6f sfo{qmdn] eg] xfdL b'jn } fO{ lgs} k|efljt kf/]sf] lyof] . Ps l5g xfdL cndlnPsf klg lyof}F . a]nfa]nf To:tf ¿v b]v] d]/L .'Gb/ . o:tf] Jo:t .do vr]s { f] klg lyPF To.do latfpg] k|dv ' dfWod tLgj6f lyP .]sf lyof}F / rf/}lt/ x]/s ] f lyof}F . pgn] Sofge.Demgf u/fPsf lyP / xfdL k|sl[ tsf] Tof] dgf]d/ 56f lgofNb} lxF8b\ } lyofF} .'Gb/ 18 .]/ dfG5]n] cfgGb lnpmg\ eg]/ /fv]sf] /}5 lg of] d]r ÛÆ pgn] v'zL JoQm u/]sL lyOg\.af6 lgd]ifd} ag]sf hLjGt ljDax¿ b]Vbf d cfZro{rlst x'Gy]F .t .Æ xf] t.f| — ] lxF8fOsf gfddf a/flng' / t].Nnfsf] ¿vsf] cfsf/ lnPsf] b]Vbf dnfO{ x'g. sfo{qmddf kxf8. Tof] lxpFsf] y'Dsf]nfO{ x]b{} d}n] klg . s'gs } g' } ¿vdf t k|:6} d'vl/t x'Gy] kftsf tL y/Ly/Lsf ¿k .\ g} eg]em}F u/L of]] d]r lsg /flvPsf] xf]nf Û xfdL cGof]ns} cj:yfdf d'vfd'v ub}{ To. a'?.Ddsf] 56k6L x'GYof] / k5'tf] klg nfUYof] . pgLåf/f lrlqt tL b[Zox¿ dnfO{ slxn]slxn] jf:tljseGbf klg .a} bË k¥of}F .'Gb/ / hLjGt lrq sf]y— {] xfdL dGqd'Uw eP/ x]/s ] f]x¥] o} x'GYof}F . 6]lnlehgdf lbpF.De]msf] lyPF— sf7df8f}d + f htfaf6 x]/] klg b]lvG5 pQ/el/sf] lIflthnfO{ . dgf]x/ .8slt/ nfu]sf lyof}F .f]Ry]— F d}n] a'?.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .klg lyPg .df oqtq rnfPsf t"lnsf / To.fd'Gg] lxpFn] 9flsPsf] dfpG6–/]Olgo/ k"/} b]lvPsf] lyof]— cgfj[Q.xofqLn] dnfO{ b]vfpFb} elGyg\– æpm x]gx{' f].} d/]/ hfFbg} lyof] ls Û tL lbj+ut dxfg\ snfsf/sf] lrqsfl/tfaf6} d}n] yfxf kfPsf] lyPF— Pp6} af]6sf kftdf klg b'Ot{ Lg y/Lsf /ª x'G5g\ eg]/ .nfO{ Sofge.\ aa /f].Fu ukm ub}{ cfwf 306fleq olt . Ps 7fpFdf k]6Ls} 5]psf] rf}/df . xfdL .f| — ] 3/df a.'Gb/ Û . cfxf. gfds Ps snfsf/n] To.dfTg yfn]sf a]nf logsf]] k|:t'lt b]Vg kfPsf eP . af]6–lj?jfx¿nfO{ lgofn]/ x]g{ yfn]sf] lyPF / b]Vg yfn]sf] lyPF ToxfF ePsf ldl>t /ªx¿ / a'‰g yfn]sf] lyPF tLleq lglxt . a? kmf]xf]/k} mf]xf]/ 5 htftt} .f}v klg To.f] k|.df 5Øfk5Øfk 5Øfk5Øfk kfb}{ 3f]r/] sf]/s ] f /]vfx¿n] pgL d'.]/ /dfOnf] x]/f}F g t eg] To:tf] 7pF g} 5}g .

oxfF x/]s . To. To. To. ToxfFaf6 3'd/] bflxg] nfUbf Aff:s]6an sf]6{ b]lvPsf] lyof] .DemFb} dg k'nlst x'G5 . cd]l/sfsf] lgDtf]df k|l. To. ToxfFsf] jftfj/0f lgs} /fd|f] b]lvGYof]] . xf]Og. rf/}lt/ xfd|l} t/ h:tf . t/ .fdf 5f]l8Psf] 5 . Tof] rf}/ If]qkmndf dfq pq} pq} lyof].fk ug{. tLdWo] Pp6fn] dnfO{ b]v/] æxfO{Æ eg]sf]] lyof] . . lgs} .kmf / :jR5 lyof] .f]s/ elgG5 . Tof] dfgj–lgld{t rf}/ .f]rs ] f] lyPF— clxNo} lsg cflQg' / < tTsfn t y'k}| yf]s ug{ afFsL 5 .f]rs t/ cd]l/sg–k'm6an elgg] To. cln cufl8 uPkl5 b]al| t/ b'O6{ f elnan v]Ng] rf}/ b]lvP . lbg d PSn} lxF8b\ } lyPF .'g/] kms]/{ x]/F] .'? u/]sf] eg] w]/} ePsf] 5}g .}sf] kNnf]kl§sf] rf}/df s]xL s]6Lx¿nfO{ Pp6f u'?n] …k]gfN6LÚ xfGg l. 8«fo/ cflb /flvPsf x'Gy]— xfd|flt/sf kfFrtf/] xf]6n ] df em}F . To. pBfgsf] bflxg]lt/sf] rf}/df :s"n] s]6fx¿ k'm6an v]Nb} lyP .d'b5 | p ] v]lng] aLr–elnanh:tf] kfg{ afn'jf xflnPsf] lyof] .kmfO rNb} lyof]— ldl.Dem]sf] lyPF . ltgdf v]nf8Lx¿ cEof.4 la|l6z v]nf8L a]sXofd klg Tof] v]n k|j4{g ug{ xfn.{ .nfO{ gf3]/ cl3 hfFbf nx/} tLgf]6f ng6]lg.df rf/hgf sfnf o'jsx¿ v]Nb} lyP . ul//x]sf lyP . kfs{sf] .'U3/ /flvPsf To:tf zf}rfnox¿df .g\ !(&) lt/ ag]sf] lyof] . sf6\b} lyof] . Tof] b]v/] d}n] dgdg} . . Pp6fdf .]/ :yfgLo s]6fs]6LnfO{ km'6an v]nsf] k|lzIf0f lbFb} cfO/x]sf 5g\ .gn] 3fF.lxdfn Û hf8f]ofddf cfsfz p3]s | f lbg b]lvg] lxdfnsf] . d xfF:b} xft xNnfP/ nDsFbf s]6fs]6L s/fPsf] . xfd|f] 6'lF 8v]nh:t} nfu]sf] lyof] .fa'g. 19 .flk. oxfF st} klg xfdLsxfFh:tf] s'gf] vf]Hb} lxF8g\ k' g]{ jf gfs 5f]Kb} pleg'kg]{ jfWofTds cj:yf ef]Ug'kbf]{ /x]g5 . pgLx¿ pk|m/] cUnf] 7fpFaf6 xfdkmfNbf s/fpFbf klg /x]5g\ . xfd|f] 6'lF 8v]n t k|fs[lts xf] . b'Ot{ Lg ldg]6 lxF8k] l5 kmnfd] hfnLn] afl/Psf] /]Olgo/–le:6f–sDo'lg6L–kfs{ gfds Pp6f a8]dfgsf] rf}/ b]lvPsf] lyof] / d}n] rf/}lt/ cfFvf 8'nfPF .kmf pl3|Psf] lbg lyof] . /fhdfu{x¿df klg 7fpF7fpFdf /]:6¿dx¿ b]vs ] f] lyPF . ] f] lyPF— cd]l/sfdf km'6an v]n lgs} nf]slk|o 5 .Nnfsf 7"n7"nf ¿vx¿ lyP .]/ b]vs ] f] b[Zo . Ps 7fpFdf …kfs{ otflt/Ú n]vs ] f] sfF8 clÍt kf6L b]v/] x]/f}F g oxfFsf] kfs{ eg]/ Tot} 8f]¥ofPsf] lyPF d}n] d]/f kfOnfx¿ . To. cd]l/sfn] Tof] v]n v]Ng . kNnf]5p ] df lszf]/–lszf]/Lx¿ :s]l6ª ub}{ /x]5g\ . v]ndf es'G8f] v'§fn] geO{ xftn] v]lnG5 . To.'Gb/tf lgofNb} .fj{hlgs 7fpFdf tyf 7"nf k. aLraLrdf y/Ly/Lsf cfsif{s af]6x¿ klg /f]lkPsf lyP . To:t} ./. To.+.fn} oxfF cfPsf 5g\ .}sf] 5]pdf lb.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .141 .Dk"0f{ kl/j]z cGoq b]lvg]h:t} . To.'Gb/tfsf] t emg\ s] aofg ug'. cfpnf lg .sf sf]6x{ ¿ lyP .'Gb/tfdf t bfFHg ldNb}g . sfut] ?dfn.nx¿df To:tf /]:6¿dx¿ agfOPsf xFb' f/x]5g\ .nfO{ k|sl[ ts} e/f]. kfs{sf] . xftd'v w'g / g'xfpgsf lglDt /]:6¿dx¿ agfOPsf lyP .}n] ToxfF .kmf–. d}n] Tof] lxdfR5flbt Hjfnfd'vL x]bf{xb] {} Ps lbg To:t} a]Grdf a.}n] xf]nf To.sfO/x]sf lyP . km'6ansf dxfg\ v]nf8L a|flhnsf k]n] s]xL jif{cl3af6} oxfF a. rf}/sf] klg kfnf] Ps lbg .f/el/ v]lng]] km'6an v]nnfO{ oxfF .fd'Gg] uf8Lx¿ /fVg] 7"nf] Onfsf lyof] .x/sf] d'6d ' f cjl:yt xfd|f] To. xf]Og d]/f] zAbrog cln 7Ls ePg— xfd|f] 6'lF 8v]nhq} eGg'kYof]{ .

d"nf. dfly . s:tf] . tLdWo] Pp6fdf 6]an ' s'. kfs{sf] kNnf]5p ] k'Ubf Ps 7fpFdf To:t} Pp6f a]Gr b]v/] a.]sf] 7fpFaf6 laxfg o. slt cfgGb . al.f]nv ' D' a'sf] h'gLa].f/ªsf]6sf] 8fF8faf6 . To. To.'Gb/ 5 xfd|f] b]z.f] aflx/ x]bf{ pbfpFbf] .nl. emg\ o:tf] . d}n] oxfF cfP/ oL s'O/]x¿sf] OdfGbf/L b]v]F . Pp6f chËsf] s's/' d a. af. snsn aUb} u/]sf] vf]nf.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . ToxfF tLgrf/ hgf bz– afx| jif{sf s]6fs]6Lx¿ .'Gb/tf b]v/] slt cfXnflbt ePsf] lyPF d .Sy]] . x]l//fv"h F :tf].8ssf] /]vfÍg ev{/ .L{x¿ /flvPsf lyP / csf{df tL v]nf8Lx¿sf sk8fx¿ lyP .L eGg] 7fpFdf k'us ] f] lyPF .]/ s/fO/fv]sL x'lG5g\ ."os { f] k|yd k|sfzn] 5/]sf] nflndf b]v/] bh{gf}F ljb]zL ko{6sx¿ cfgGbsf] pQ]hgfdf lrRofPsf] . .'Gb/ 5 ltd|f] b]z xF.lsG5 l.a} s'/fsf] ljrf/ k'¥ofP/ agfPsf] xf]nf— d lxF8b\ } .lnSs k/]sf 8fF8fx¿sf] dgf]le/fd b[Zo b]v/] cfgGbn] s:t/L sfd]sf] lyof] d]/f] z/L/ Û cf]x Û . slt /fd|f] .df n6/Dd kmn]sf :ofp b]v/] d}n] ."os { f] /lQmd k|sfzdf lh/Lsf] .'Gb/ 5fk|fx¿ b]vs ] f] lyPF . kGw|. dfq . lxF8b\ flxF8b\ } d e'm?Kk ¿v}¿v ePsf] 7fpFdf k'uF] . .'Gb/ lrh km]S6«L clg k[i7efudf pHofnf] lxdfn b]v/] s. Toltv]/ nfd'. s] ug]{ < s]6fx¿ laxfg}bl] v 9'Ëf xfGg yfN5g\ kmn emfg{ .nfdf .fOsn rnfpFb} ltg} ¿vx¿sf] kmGsf] dfb}{ lyP .141 . xf]."of]b{ osf] b[Zo x]bf{ cGgk"0f{ / df5fk'R5|s ] f] z'e| lxpFdf .Fu < d]/f] l5d]sLsf] 3/df af6f]lt/} a]nf}tLsf] Pp6f af]6 5 .f]Rb} lyPF . a].kmf cfsfz / k/ bfofFafofF kxf8x¿ lyP . kmn nfUg] df}.]sf] lyPF. a.Fufg{— /fd|} .sf] glhs} aRrfx¿ v]Ng] lrKn]6L / lkª klg lyP . j/k/ ndtGg k/]sf xl/of kmfF6 / To.Fu} lxF8/] nvt/fg k/]sf] d]/f] la|l6z ldq Û dnfO{ ud|Ë cFufnf] xfn]/ cª\uh ]| Ldf s/fPsf] lyof] pm– æslt . Hofld/ clg s] s] 5 cyf]s { — rf]//] gvfP t s] wfs nfpg' xf] .]s} a]Grlt/ xflgFb} lyof] dnfO{ emD6g . 3/–sDkfp08 leqsf t /xg lbFbg} g\ rf]//] .DemFbf dnfO{ clxn] klg uj{sf] cg'ej x'G5 .F ef}F . ToxfFaf6 klg d}n] lxFpn] 9flsPsf] dfpG6–/]Olgo/ 6lNs/x]sf] b]vs ] f] lyPF .f]x| jif{sL Pp6L 20 . xf]Og of]eGbf klg .d af6}af6f] cufl8 a9\b} lyPF .Æ hf]8.fj{hlgs 7fpFsf] t s] s'/f < csf{sf] af/Lsf] sfFqmf. æEff}. . 7fpF7fpFdf vfg]kfgLsf wf/fx¿ h8fg ul/Psf lyP . clg d}n] km]l/ rf/}lt/ x]/s ] f] lyPF .f]rs ] f] lyPF— kfSg] a]nf eO. b]Vb} hfFbf cg'ej u/]— F OdfGbf/L g} k|fylds zlQm /x]5 k|ultsf] . ToxLF :ofpsf] Pp6f af]6 klg lyof] .Fu e'ss ] f] cfjfhn] d em:s]sf] lyPF .F ef}.}n] l6Kbf klg /x]g5g\ Û xfdL sxfF eP lrlrNn}df .Sof] . 8fxf nfUof] .ansf] rf}/ gf3]kl5 l6gsf 5fgf ePsf b'O6{ f . lxdfnsf] t s] s'/f ug'{ < lxdfn t lxdfn} xf] lg .sf] Ps5]pdf 6nSs 6Ns]sf] ./fv"h F :tf] nfu]sf] lyof] / .vfk kfl/. a]nf}tL."of{:t x'gx] g' ] a]nf ePsf] lyof] .fyLx¿. .'jb] L ÛÆ To:t} Psk6s sfdsf] l. rf/}lt/ xl/ofnL lyof] ."os { f] ls/0fdf lxdfR5flbt kxf8d'lGt/ l. Ps k6s t ltgsf] ‰ofnsf] P]gf klg km'6s ] f] 5 9'Ëfn] . xfd|f kxf8 clg gbLgfnf . xfdLsxfF yf]/} ldn]sf] 5}g .del/ g} tL lar/L a"9Ldfpm ‰ofndf a./L pk|ms ] f]] lyof] d.fF3–' lh/L .DemG5'— Ps k6s lxF8/] lh/L k'us ] f] lyPF . ld:6/ .fdfGo OdfGbf/Lsf] vfFrf] 5 .f]rs ] f] lyPF— o:t}. pQ/lt/ kms]/{ x]bf{ xl/of 8fF8f.'? x'bF } lyof] . s.

fF9] kN6]/ a. p7]/ lxF8g\ ] cfF6 klg cfPsf] lyPg . d]/f] 6f]ndf s's/' x¿sf] huhuL Û . kl5 yfxf kfPsf] lyPF— p.]sf] x'G5 .n] v'§fdf SofKk bfx«f uf8]/ /utfDd] kf/]5 . d a]Graf6 p7]/ s'bf}F ls eGb} lyPF .Dd nfpg'kYof]. t/ To. 6f]sfOsf] axn] /GylgPsf ljr/f dlGb/ hfg t stfstf kmfd]. t/ p. pgn] wkfpg æhf–hfÆ eGbfeGb} To.8ssf] aLrd} a8]dfgsf] . dxFuf] eP klg si6 sd x'G5 .a} s'/f vf]n/] eg]sf] /x]5 .lszf]/Ln] l. x/]. a]nf s]xL 7Dofpg . sxfF x]b{} lxF8g\ ] < Psb'O{ lbgsf] 56k6Lk"0f{ . Ps lbg kz'kltsf] bz{g ug{ hfg] eg]/ xfd|f] 3/af6 >LdtL. Ps k6s s's/' x¿nfO{ v. JolQmn] ofrgfo'Qm cg'xf/ nfP/ s]s] eg]sf] lyof] t/ d}n] To. t/ .s]sf] 5}g . of] pknlAwxLg cj:yfsf] sf/0f s] xf] < cem} yfxf kfpg .'O{ lg:s]sf] 5 .Dd a]Grd} xn g rnsf] cj:yfdf a. geP t kl5 s's/' x¿h:t} u/L e'Sg] /]lah /f]u nfu] s'g} 8fS6/n] s]xL ug{ .] . t/ Tof] .8ssf] s's/' — stf uof] < d¥of]–d/]g. x/] Û d]/f Ps kfx'gfsf] s:tf] ljhf]u kf/]sf] lyof] tLdWo]s} Ps a]jfl/.t . .Nnfx lbP5 . xfd|flt/ t Jo:t . .fF9.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . afa}. sDkfpG8/n] pgsf] 3fpsf] dndk§L u/]kl5 PG6L–/]lah .'O{ nfpg . s]xLjif{ cufl8sf] s'/f] xf] .f]rs ] f] lyPF— oxfF kfNt' hgfj/..s]sf] lyOgF .} a]nf s]6Lsf] afa' s'2} cfO{ 3fF6Ldf .lxt\ lg:s]sf lyP . htftt} . d/]g eg] Tolt 8/ 5}g . 6f]n6f]ndf cem} b]lvG5g\ au|N] tL.nfO{ cufl8 a9\g glbg e/dUb'/ k|of.} qmddf d}n] nlntk'/ pkdxfgu/kflnsfn] s's/sf] k|hgg–lgoGq0f ug{ u/]sf k|of.L kfg{ af]/fn] 5f]Kb} lxF8s ] f] klg b]vs ] f] lyPF .fx«} Unflg clg kL8f ePsf] lyof] .'Os { f] 3f]rfOsf sf/0f k]6df p7]sf] ufF7f]sf] kL8fn] ubf{ k|To]s lbg æcxFxÆF uy]{ / pgsL >LdtLn] g'g ttfP/ .Dk"0f{ z/L/ Ps l5g y/// sfd]kl5 s7Øfª\lu|Psf] lyof] . pgn] ef]Ug'k/]sf] tslnkm b]v/] xfdLnfO{ . oxfF s's/' n] s.Sb}g . Ps 7fpFdf Pp6f e':ofxf VofsVofs ub}{ pgLlt/ cfP5 .qmL tfg]/ p. ub}{ lyO{ . To. a]nf— cf]xf] s] n]vF" Û df]6f] l.DaGwL s'/fx¿ Jojl:yt ul/Psf] /x]5 .141 )) .]n] . { L stf 5 eg]/ vf]Hb} lxF85 ] g\ .Æ p.DemFb} z/L/el/ sfF9f pd|e ] m}F x'G5 . af6f]df b'O{lt/ kms]{/ Ps–csf{nfO{ vfpFnfe}mF u/L e'Sb} u/]sf e':ofxfx¿sf] n:s/ 5]paf6 lxF8g\ k' bf{ .Dem]sf] lyPF .ft} hfG5 d]/f] t .hfP x'bF f] /x]5 .sf] s's/' n] dnfO{ 6f]ss ] f] jf lryf]/s ] f] eP lar/f] Tof] df]6s ] f] ljhf]u x'g] /x]5 .f]Rb} d 3/lt/ nfu]sf] lyPF .n] . To:t}To:t} . d]/f] . hgfj/nfO{ . d Ps l5g.}nfO{ 6f]sd ] f dflnsnfO{ . æTof] s's/' af}nfxf /x]5 eg] bz lbgdf d5{ .x¿ klg .{ Tof] klg k]6df .dft]/ /f]ss ] f] lyof] To.s | .]lslblGyg\ . * df3 @)^$ 21 . >LdtLsf] 6fpsf] b'Vg] /f]usf] pkrf/ lglDt e}/xjfaf6 cfPsf lyP d]/f tL cfkmGt .x/df e':ofxf s's/' sf] pkb|f] n]z dfq klg 36]sf] lyPg .]sf] lyPF . tL 7"nf e'8F L ePsf dflg. sqf] .Gtfkkl5 pgL uPsf lyP aL/ c:ktfn . lxhf]cfh t s]xL ljsl. To.of] ePsf] .f:tL Û To.f/]/ cufl8 a9\b} lyof] Tof] lx+.'O{ rf}w lbg.nfO{ g} l3.

/f] nfpg . v} va/ ug{ kfpFbg} . dg'{ t k/} hfj. 306f sfddf hf]ltFbf klg Ps k]6 vfg / Ps w/f] nfpg gkfpg] dflg. dflg. . ljZj ljho 22 .'Ggf. vfFb.d'bfoleq afFrs ] f] dfG5]n] cfˆg} j/k/ . ca s] ug]{ a"9fn] < d5'{ eGb}df pm dg{ .fIffTsf/ kf]if rfkfufO{ kf6g ax'd'vL SofDk. hLjg .+Vof c. afrf+} eg] /f]u. .b:osf] .r]t cj:yfaf6 r]tgfljxLg eof] .b:on] lga{n ..Dd afFRg] /x/ ulb{gF . pGdQ /fFuf] xf] d[To' .Dd afFr_ cfzLjf{b k|fks dSv k5{ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .dfhsf] s'/f . 5f]/fx¿ 5'l§P . d d[To'nfO{ kl/eflift ug{ cndNn k5'{ . . rNg] k|f0fLnfO{ afFrs ] f] / grNg] k|f0fLnfO{ d/]sf] eGg] dfGotf 5 nf]sdf . cft+s xf] d[To' .fx«} Jo:t 5 .x¿ y'k}| 5g\ .o jif{.s]sf] 5 . d]/f] lrGtgdf cjZo d[To'nfO{ b[Zojt\ ljj]rgf ug}{ . ufpFsf] hghLjg .fFem laxfg xft d'v hf]g{ wf} wf} k5{.'gsf] afnf / ltnx/L sf6s'6 kf/]/ afFl8G5 .d[To' M .a}sf cf–cfˆgf ljZn]if0fx¿ 5g\ . g]kfndf dfq x}g ljZjel/ g} ef]sf gf+uf dflg. dfG5] 5'l§G5 . lrGtf / j[4fj:yfn] u|l.S5 .d]t p. d/]sf] dfG5] k]ml/ hGdG5 ls hGdb}g s. dfl/of] .o jif{. 5f]/Lx¿ csf{sf 3/ uP .xf]b/ .} v]Nb}. 5'§Øfpg} k5{ . k'mnL d'Gb|L efu nufOG5 . . h'g kl/jf/df .Sb}g . cfhsf] dflg.\ d[To'sf] gfd .Dd o.f. Ps u]8f] rfdn b'O{ efu .+Vo 5 . r]tgfaf6 h8Tjdf kl/jt{g g} d[To' xf] . cZjTyfdfnfO{ r]tgaf6 h8 agfpg] d"n s'/f s] xf] < xltof/ . c1]o / b'af]W{ o 5 d[To'sf] ult . s]jn sNkgf .sf] . v]t / af/L 5'§ØfOG5 . cfdf a'jf cfˆgf .Q}mg . Tof] kl/jf/sf] Pp6f . s/fpg] x'G5 . sf]xL eG5g\— d[To' hLjgsf] cGTo xf] . v8\sn ' f] sf6]/ 5'§ØfOG5 . d[To'kl5sf] hLjg sNkgf xf].Fb} 8'Nb} u/]sf] r]tgzLn k|f0fL jf k|f0fwf/LnfO{ k|f0fljxLg agfpg] cb[Zo tTj s]xf] yfxf 5}g . Ps ufF. s] xf] d[To' < d[To' cjZo x'G5 . wtL{df k|jz ] u/]sf .}sf cfFvfn] b]vs ] f] 5}g .f/sf] jftf{ jf Jojxf/ x'G5 . rf}aL.t pm afFRg klg .i'| ff ug]{ cj. Ps} k]6af6 o. pm dgdg} eG5— d . rNg 5f8]sf] k|f0fLnfO{ xfdL d/]sf] eG5f}+ .]jf . c? s] .'Gg.fFRr} afFRg] eP s] xfdLdf To:tf] lhhLljiff x'G5 .h{gf x'G5 . gk'u] af/]/ sf]7f 5'§ØfOG5 . sf]7f 5'l§G5 .To xf] .b\b] jf hLljt b]vd ] f . gx'g klg .f.Gtltx¿ cf–cfˆgf lghL :jfy{sf sf/0f 5'l§G5g\ .GttLnfO{ cfzL{jfb lbb} eGg] ug'{ x'G5 Tj+ hLj+ z/b+ ztd\ -zojif{ . a"9L yf]t] eO{ . . xltof/ / d[To' s] kl/k"/s x'g . d/]sf] b]vd ] f cflQg]. .sf] O{R5f–8f]/Ln] d[To'nfO{ afFWg . d[To'kl5 s] x'G5 < ljjfb 5 .S5 . sfne}/j xf] d[To' . d eg] . /f}l.'.do cg'.an .ls+bg} . wtL{df /dfpg kfpg] ePF . l6Kg / Ps./ Hofb} yf]/} kfpF5 . sf]xL eG5g\— d[To'kl5 hLjgsf] l. agfOof] .141 .S5g\ < d[To'nfO{ cjd[y :yfg u/fpg] d"n tTj xltof/ x'g klg . . ckl/eflift eP/ klg nf]sdf d[To' kl/eflift eO. .Sb}g .f]R5g\ dnfO{ yfx 5}g . kf6g d[To' >Lu0f]z xf] . xfF:b}. cfˆgf xft v'66\ f rNb}gg\ . dfqsf] hLjg b'is/ 5 .fy eoeLt x'G5 pm .nfO{ xtf/f] x'G5 . cZjTyfdf xtf]xtM . ?g] .

a}B.Gwftf ag]/. . lkpF5 . c/l/G5 . .a} ls. .fnfO{ v]Ng lbPh:tf] v]Ng] df}sflbG5 sfnn] . lbP/. vG5 . d[To'~hoL hLj hlGdPs} 5}g .dfpFb} v]nfO{ v]nfO{ df5{ .d]t afFlr/xG5g\ ljr/fx¿ . 56\6' 5 sfn . 8Nnf k'm6fpF5 .'v 5}g . :jfxf Û Ps g Ps lbg . p. cg'. xfF:5 . xfd|f] d[To' cjZo+efjL 5 . ls. la/fnf]n] d'. ug{ kfOG5 eg]/ nf]eL ag]sf].}n] d[To'. 5f]/f–a'xf/L s6' jfRo k|of]u ub}{ 3[0ff / lt/:sf/ u5{g\ . dl/G5 eg]/ yfx kfP/ klg dfG5]n] cfk"mnfO{ cd/ 7fG5 .f] p. sf]xL jiff}+{ ylnG5g\ . . cgf}7f] 5 d[To'sf] Jojxf/ . v]tdf lbgel/ v]tL ls.gfdf .] lnv] dfG5]n] d[To'nfO{ e]§fP klg . o. lrg] klg glhg] h:tf]. eofjx sfd u/]/. lgsf] x'bF g} . 8'u+ 8'u+ tL ugfpF5 sf]7f . dfG5] Ö wfg . . d'v aGb x'bF f .do k'us d/]kl5 klg afFRg .Dk"0f{ k|f0fLx¿ d[To'sf] d'vdf x'G5g\ . lj/]rg xf] . . emfFqmL.'dfpFb} u/]sf] sfnnfO{ lrGb}g . d[To' cb[Zo x'G5 .S5 < e:dLe"t ePkl5 klg afFRg rfxg] y'k}| enfb\dLx?¿ kfOG5g\ wtL{df . b|Joaf6 l. zlQm k'~h . ls.Qm}g . of] p. lgwf/df d[To' af]s/] wtL{df cfPsf] dfG5]sf d/0fsf k|sf/x¿ leGgfleGg} x'G5g\ .f]nfO{ 5f8\b} .sf] c1fg xf] . d[To'df ck/fh]o zlQm x'G5 .fgL u5{ pm .fg xif{n] ub\ub\ x'G5 .dfTg .141 .'Ov'66\ . b|Jo b[Zo / ] L x'G5 dfG5] . elgG5 sfn lx. sfn lg3[0{ fL / lgb{oL x'bF g} .a} k|f0fLx¿ .S5g\ .f] eGbf klg . . l6Kb}g . s'g} . ljif. cfFvf. c1fg xf] .dfT5 lnP/ hfG5 . b]v] klg gb]vh ] :tf].S5' eG5eg] .]jg.lsG5g\ .fg . n+k6 dfG5]n] 5]pdf a.'gsf bfgf x'G5g\ . ] Dd caf]w dfG5] d[To'sf] v]nf}gf xf] eGg] s'/f clGtd cj:yfdf gk'u. uf]?sf] k'R5/ lgdf]75 \ . ljt[i0ff xf] .} gfRb}. P]Zjo{af6 ef]uljnf. /jfkm. a? dfG5]sf] dlte|d b]v/] s]xL If0fsf] nflu dfq} ePklg bofjfg aG5 d[To' . dfG5] d/0ff]k/fGt 23 . wg.+uLt / uLtdf pGd'Qm ag]/.u/]/ 3/ kms]s { f] of]4f xf] d[To' .sf] cx+ xf] .S5 dfG5] . d5'{ eGg]nfO{ dfb}g{ .'d. vfG5 . .dosf] kf/vL xf] sfn . sfg.fFemdf nvt/fg eP/ 3/ kmls{G5 . klg 5f]8b}g . kx]n F k'/ . wfg sf6\5 pm . . olt si6s/ hLjg ef]Ubf klg d[To' ToxfF cfpFbg} . hf]T5 . stfstfaf6 sfn cfpF5 . sfn ufpFsf] sfOt] d'lvof xf]Og . dlb{g eGg]nfO{ 6kSs l6K5 . dfG5]nfO{ af]w x'bF g} .fgsf] ult oxL xf] . uLt ufpFb.f] eGbf klg .f].+klQ.a} sfd cf]5Øfgdfg} . gL8/ dfG5] 5]jd } f cfPsf] b[Zojt\ x'G5 .uF kf}7h ] f]/L v]Ng . laxfg ld/ld/] pHofnf]df sfFwdf xnf] h'jf af]s/] v]tdf k'U5 ls. . 8fS6/nfO{ b]vfpFb} . /Hh' 3'ng cflb .f}efUozfnL dlxnf jf k'?if ukm ubf{ ub}{ d[To'sjlnt x'G5g\ .dodf ] f] k|f0fLnfO{ Ps lgd]. v]tdf nxnx x'G5g\ wfgsf afnf .fa lstfa /fVg s'zn x'G5 .h{s ag]/. d[To' c1]obz{g .'v 5}g.lh{t j}ejk|d d[To'bl] v klg k6Ss} 8/fpFbg} .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . d'. kf. 6ØfKk .lGgs6 cfPsf] d[To'bl] v eGbf b|Job]lv eolet x'G5 .fg Ö sfn . k/f]ksf/df . a'em] klg ga'em] h:tf] u5{ pm . cflv/ dg}{ k5{ eg] /fn l. .]/ cfkm+n } fO{ . s/fpF5 . hLljt dfgj . dflg. kf]Vt cl86/ xf] sfn . sfnn] hLjnfO{ a]. ljr/f] dg'jf cndNn k5{ .+ufgdf 8'a/] lsg w]/} lbg afFRg] < otfgf kL8f si6 a]xf]g{] lsg < d[To'j/0f lsg gug]{ < oL / o:t} cflTds pR5ngsf gd'gf x'g\ cfTdbfx.dlk{t ag]/. ls. k'g/fj[lQ .sf] wfs. wfdL. gfs. k"mlt{bl] v 8/fpFbg} sfn . olb s.fgsf] kl. afH5 .

‰ofnsf] kbf{ p3f/]/ x]bf{ sf}zLdf emndNn 3fd b]v] h:t} . wf]sf xf].afFRg vf]H5 . tkfO{s + f] 3/ cfugdf .\ .+ej j'm/fsf] sfNklgs j[Qlrq .o xf]. cb[Zo eP/ cfqmd0f ug]{ of]4fnfO{ . xfF.Qm}gf}+ < . o'4sf] dof{bf / lgodsf] kfngf ug'k{ 5{ . d[To'sf] sfNklgs¿kn] hLljt /f]uL tl. b[Zo 24 . ef]s ef]s} cf]R] 5Øfgdf /fn l.+Vo.fb}{ d'To' eG5— …dfG5] Û d ltd|f] b'Mv x]g{ .Ú cfkm+n } fO{ l6Kg cfpg] d[To'sf] :jfut dfG5]n] s. pm slxNo} b]lvFb} b]lvFbg} . aiff}+{ b]lv ylnP/ cf]5Øfg k/]sf] dfG5]nfO{ dfofn' xftn] d'. 5f]/f 5f]/L gd?g\ . olb d[To'sf] af/]df tkfO{+ klg o:t} cjwf/0ff /fVg' x'G5 eg] .lsG5 / < slxn]sfxL+ .{ lg/If/nfO{ .d/df 8/5]?jf elgG5 .xof]usf k|sf/ cgGt 5g\ . /f]un] b'jn { ePkl5 d'To'.\ .osf . cgfy a[4a[4fsf] pQ/fw{ .f]r/] dfG5] cfkm} cft+lst x'G5 .sf cufl8 d[To'sf w]/} ¿k b]vf k5{g\ . d]/L gd/f]. . gf+ufnfO{ nfpFg lbg'./L /f]un] ynfk/]/ u?+uf] ePs]f cfˆgf] k|f0f slt lbg af]ls/xG5f}+ ./L ug]{ < ug{ . lbP klg x'bF g} . cflQPsf] dfG5] b]v/] lvltltQ xfF:5 d[To' . c.j{q pknAw x'G5 cd/ aGg] pkfo .f/df hLjx¿sf] . d rfxG5'. t/ afFRg vf]hh ] :tf] . sNkgfdf p. cd/tf hL0f{ /f]Uf xf] . o'4df k|ToIf cfqmd0f ug'k{ 5{ .}n] pm . cd/ x'G5g\ .o cfo' xf].fIf/ agfpg'.lSbg . d[To' hLjgsf] nflu 5n xf]. cfltG5 . af.Fw} k|f0fLdfqdf /hfOF u5{ .141 . tkfO{n + fO{ 6kSs l6k]/ v'?Ss cfˆgf] af6f] nfU5 .xof]u ug'{ cd/ aGg' xf] .Fw} d[To' xfdLnfO{ 6]b{] g6]/L lsg xfd|f sfFwdf gflr/xG5 < tkfO{. k|. glbP klg x'bF g} .\ . af]nfpFbf gcfpg].f. . df3sf] zLt h:tf] rL. cfkm}+ kQf nufpg' k5{ . pm n's/] hLjxTof u5{ . t/ pk/f]Qm lsl. JolQmn] lhpFb} / d/]kl5 klg s. cfdfafa'sf] lj.+Vof cgGt 5 ./xg' xf].Gg xf]pm .+ufg aufpFb} PSnf] a"9f] hL0f{ z/L/ yfd]/ /f]un] cOof cfTyf] u/]/ afFRg' eGbf t cfˆg} 9f]sfdf pleP/ d[To'j/0f ug'{ plrt xf]Og / < cfˆgf] 3/sf] 9f]sfdf xftdf k"mndfnf lnP/ d[To'sf] k|tLIffdf al.n sfd ug]{ dfG5]x¿ d/]kl5 klg hLljt x'G5g\ ./L afFRg . hfpm 9f]sfdf .dsf] sfd ub}d { f dfG5] cd/ x'G5 g} eGg] klg 5}g . gd/f}+ . . …cfOh d[To' d t]/f] :jfut ug{ åf/df plePsf] 5' . s] xf] cd/ sfd < cfjZos kg]n { fO{ .sf] Joj:yf ug'. :y"n z/L/af6 k|f0fjfo'sf] jlx{udg g} d[To' xf] .{G5 .. gaf]nfO{ d'lG6g] cgf}7f] x'G5 d[To'dof{bf . cfpFb} cfpFbg} d[To' . efUojfbLx¿ eG5g\—… d[To'n] k/+ . :j:Yo /x'Gh]n k|f0fLnfO{ d[To'af]w xFb' g} . ck7Øf/f] :jefj 5 d[To'sf] . c. b'Mv kl/qf0f u/fpg cfpFb5 } ' . af]nfpFbf af]nfpFb. cfkmGtx¿ gd?g\ .Ú eGg' klg kg]{ x'bF f]/x]5 .Qmfaf6 ck/fh]o zlQm k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . gx'gn ] fO{ af.a} afFRb}gg\ .Sg' kbf]/{ x]5 .lsG5. k"mndfnf cla/ xftdf lnP/ d]/f] :jfut ug{ a.Fw} cb[Zo x'G5 . .a} cfˆgfx¿sf] cfo' . sf7df8f}s + f] k'.uF hDsfe]6 xf]nf eGg] .Qm}gf} . cJofVo]o hLjx¿ x'bF fx'bF } klg xfdL PSnf] d[To'nfO{ dfgj lgoGq0fdf /fVg .\ . o.f] clg r}t j}zfvsf] lj/f6gu/sf] 3fd h:tf] rsf]{ .fgf sfdn] klg tkfO{+ cd/ aGg .Ú ef}lts jfbLx¿ eGg] u5{g— \ …d[To' wf]sj] fh xf] .'/lIft ug'{ cflb cd/ agfpg] uf]/6] fx¿ x'g\ .} :Jffut ubf{ ub}{ b]vs ] f] gb]Vo} u/]/ lxF8g\ ] d[To' slxn]sfxL+ af]nfpFb} gaf]nfO{ 6'Kn'Ss cfOk'U5. ldYof sNkgf . To.+ xfdLh:tf xhf/f}+ xhf/ dfG5] d[To'sf] sfFwdf r9]/ lsg gfRg .+. sn+s xf] . ef]sfnfO{ vfg lbg'.Sg' x'G5 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .Ú d[To' . c.

d . / lrNnf rfk'Nnfx¿sf] /fh rn]sf] 5 dg'io nf]sdf . d5{g\ eg] afFrH' h]n s]sf] dfof hfn < oftgf b'Mv. d[To'nfO{ cfhLjg h]n . hlt dfG5] rkfP klg slxNo} c3fpFbg} l3r'jf d[To' . cfsf+Iff. d[To'sf] cwLgdf cl8Psf] cfˆgf] hLjg y]Ug x/]s k|f0fLn] sk6sf] z/0fdf grfxFbf grfxFb} klg hfg' kbf]/{ x]5 .a} hfG5g\. . hLjg b'O{ 9'u+ faLrsf] t?n xf]Og . -aL/n] k[YjLsf] pkef]u u5{_ . aGwg d'Qm x'bF f cf}wL cfgGb x'bF f]/x]5 .f]w vf]h} gu/L l.To x'G5 .+. qmdzM . dnfO{ b'j} cj:yfsf] cg'ej 5 . 5f]/f5f]/L lyP . 5nL. d}n] b]v+] . OR5f. k|flKt. d[To' . sL/f jf e'. aflx/ wfs wDsL lbP klg leq} leq} n'un'u sfld/x]sf] 5' .l4PF d . sfutfnL eG5' d o.hfo tf]s] klg sd} x'G5 .f+. o.f]lrg .Wofof] ."Idtd /]vf xf] .r]t eP/ bf}8w"k ug{ yfn]+ . ck|flKth:tf cg]sf}+ psfnL cf]/fnLaf6 lxF8b\ } lyof] .a} k|f0fL d[To'sjlnt x'G5g\ .f]r g} cfPg .fOsndf hfFb} lyPF . Sna glhs}sf] k]6Ldf crfgs d[To'.+. p. . .flGgWo . sf]xL grflxg] . 25 .uF e]6 eof] . cr]t ePF .fIffTsf/ u/]sf] xf]Og .k|f0fLsf] xTof ug]{ cb[Zo cuf]r/ d[To'nfO{ s] eGg] < d gfd g} h'/fpg . d[To' oyfy{ xf] .sf] emf]sdf dnfO{ 6kSs l6k]/ t p8fpFg] x}g .dfh lyof] . dnfO{ s'g} s'/fsf] r]t ePg . h8jt\ aGbf . p. si6 cflb . lglj{sf/ dgf]/d Hof]ltsf] . 3[0ff— s]xL 5}g .lQmg . aU5 . lgod ljk/Lt d[To' h:tf sk6Lx¿n] wtL{sf] pkef]u ul//x]sf 5g\ . d / d[To' M d df]6/. l. bDeL. dx]Gb| k'ln. d ljz]if eP/ d}n] /]vfsf] . ha d[To'n] dnfO{ 3/ hf eg]/ lkmtf{ k7fof] . 9sdSs k'mn]sf] nfnL u'/fF. ug'k{ 5{ .Sg'k5{ . df]x.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . alu/xG5 lg/Gt/ .+.141 .s]sf] s'/f kfpg] /x]5— zflGt . xf] hLjg . :j / cx+ x'bF fx'bF } klg zlQm / .a} lal.'lt /x]+ .nfO{ . lg/k]If oyfy{ x'G5 ./L d[To'n] nu]sf] aL.{PF . d[To'kl5 d}n] :jf:gL 5f]/f5f]/L cfkmGt . of] eof] .+k0" f{ s'/f lal. o:tf] /]vf d/]sf] hf] sf]xLn] klg bVb}gg\ . dfof.f/ axfb'/ x¿sf] xf] . d[To'kl5 dflg. JolQmnfO{ o:tf] ljjztfaf6 pGd'Qm kfg{ .fl/s aGwgdf lsg ?dlNng' kg]{ < d d[To' nf]s k'u/] kms]P{ sf] dfG5] ePsf]n] b'j} hLjgsf d]/f cg'el' tx¿ oxfF n]Vg' plrt 7fG5' . df]6/ . dfg–ckdfg lyof] .fdYo{sf cfwf/df d[To'sf cufl8 dfG5] afd k'8s \ ] g} x'G5 . lj/f6 x'G5 d[To'sf] ¿k .Dd d h8jt\ cJofxt ult .{PF .f/ Joj:yfssf] lgod xf] of] . lbg.+k0" f{ . xfQLsf] d'vdf hL/f eg]h:t} d[To'sf] bfFtdf c8lsG5g\ e'/f dfG5]x¿ . tkfO{+ hfg' x'G5 . .'Gw/f . s]xL grflxg] .n] dnfO{ .g' f xf] dfG5] . d[To'dfly laho kfpFg kIff3ft ePsf] hL0f{ z/L/n] klg k|of. z"Go . :jf:gL lyOg\ . ubf{ klg kfpFg g. of] t :jtM k|fKt ePsf] cJoQm cfgGbsf] ./fKg] xTof/f d[To'nfO{ . slt . lgMr]i6 . olt u5'{ . eG5g\— aL/ ef]Uof a. rfkn'.n] hLjge/ k|of. nf]e nfnr. nfh. d hfG5' .f] t d[To' h3Go ck/fwL g} xf] . st} d'To'n] /L. Oxnf]s jf k/nf]ssf s'g} s'/f . lglj{sf/ . olt a]nf d lar/f] dg'jf d[To' h:tf] hu/. of] Hof]lt O{Zj/af6 aflx/ 5l/Psf] 56f xf]Og . lgMr]i6 ag]5' .fOsn b'36{ gfdf gk?Gh]nsf] d]/f] hLjg.]7sf] pl5Qf] sf6\b} 5' . xGtsfnL xf] d[To' . .f/g} h8 jf z"Go cg'et" x'g/] x]5 . pm ePg eGy]+ .

kl5 s] ef] yfx 5}g .S5 .Fw} lg/k]If x'G5 .nfO{ klv{/x]5g\ oL kxf8x¿ < )) 26 .'Gb/ ef]ln x'g . d'To' .fFRr}. ofqL cxF.kmn x'G5 . d[To'af]wn] hLjg .lrGtf / pb\jn ] gfx¿ lyP ddf . 9'u+ f] .sL cfk"m / cfk"mh:t} kxf8nfO{ x]b{} cfkm}n + fO{ k|Zg ug]5 { f}— s. t/ ltdL cfkm}+ kxf8 aGof} eg] k|d ] L. d[To' oxfF k|no xf] .sf] cj/f]ws eG5' d d[To'nfO{ .f+. hLjg / d[To' . s]xL aGg g.fl/s Jofdf]x x'g\ . lrGtfn] k5Øfof] .'Gb/ x'g . k|flKt / ck|flKtsf s'/f x'g yfn] . :jfxf .Fw} dflg.of}+ ofqLx¿sf] af6f] ag]sf] of] kxf8 x]gx{] ¿sf nflu . czfGt / ultzLn dfG5]n] of] ljzfn hut\sf] lgdf{0f ug{ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . k'm. eP klg lrGtf. s.Dd d a]xf].nfO{ klv{/x]5g\ oL kxf8x¿ /]g'sf e§ pm k|d ] L kxf8 cfˆgL k|l] dsfnfO{ kv+b{ } pleO/x]5 cgGt. ePF .lsG5 . o:tf] a]xf].fFrf] dfof ug]x{ ¿sf nflu cgGt kvf{Odf afFRg] k|d ] L x'g .fOsn h'w] .S5 .'Gb/ eljiosf] vf]hLdf nDsg]x¿sf nflu .{b ePg . ha d afFr— ] hLp b'Vg yfNof] . aL. geP klg lrGtf .S5 .S5 . To. lbg. cl3 eP klg geP klg lrGt} lyPg . 8ØfDd df]6/ . rfxgf a9] . )) s.141 .nfO{ lgMr]i6 / lqmofxLg kfiff0fjt\ agfpFg] /x]5 . ljsf.Lldt kvf{Odf . agfpFg .w} :jR5Gb ljr/0f u5{ . d[To'n] . . sfo{ / sQJo{sf] kx/]bf/ xf] d[To' .nfO{ klv{/x]5g\ oL kxf8x¿ < . d[To' Ifl0fs zflGt xf] . c.L cj:yfnfO{ d dfgjdfqsf] :j0f{ o'u eG5' .

Ps sIffdf egf{ ePsf] /Tg] rf/sIff k'Ubf.'GgnfO{ .+emf}tfsf] cfwf/df d}n] klg w]/} cufl8b]lv afnaRrfnfO{ 3/]n' sfdbf/sf] ¿kdf cyf{t\ gf]s/÷gf]sgL{sf] ¿kdf /fVb} cfO/x]sf] lyPF .f/} c. .a} sfd EofP/ . x'G5 / x'Gg s]xL gegL kl5 ljrf/ u/f}n + f eGb} p.s] k9fOlbg'.cb[Zo o'lgkmd{ g[k]Gb|l. Pslbg s. 5f]/fnfO{ t vr{ wfGg wf} wf} eO/x]sf] a]nf p.}nfO{ s]xL gegL /Tg] 3/af6 efu]/ a]kQf e} lbof] .Sg' ePsf]n] 7"nf] cfklQ g} cfOk/]sf] lyof] .+efnLg. vfg].n] eg] h:t} Tof] s]6f] . . nufpg] / kfl/>lds lbg] k/+k/fut df}lvs . p.}n] l6k]/ sfd / dfd lbPg eg] ef]s ef]s} k/]/ dg]{ cj:yfdf k'Ub5g\ tL afn >ldsx¿ . s.Dd a.+3 . sxfF uof] < k|x/LnfO{ u'xfbf{ klg kQf] nfu]g .n] d]/f] kl/jf/sf .sf] cg'kl:yltn] 3/df eg] z"Go nfu]sf] dfq x}g sfdsf] rfk a9]/ .nfO{ NofOlbg] dfG5]n] …of] 6'x/' f]n] .b:oh:tf] eP/ . To.}n] g} xf] oxfF afn >ldsx¿ kmfnfkmfn e}/x]sf . tna lbg' kb}g{ . /Tg gfd lyof] p.sf] Tof] cfu|xnfO{ kG5fOlbPF . To.f]emf] / OdfGbf/ 5 .kmn ePsf]n] x'g.sf] tYofª\s /fVg] s'/} ePg . p. cfFvfdf /fv]klg glaemfpg] vfnsf] .f/} .Dd v'zL e}sg al. To. /fi6«n] u}/sfg'gL 7x/ u/]tfklg a:g]. b'a} ldn]/ :s'n hfg] / kms]/{ cfpg] ub{y] ./x]sf] lyof] .n] dnfO{ d]/f] 5f]/fn] h:t} o'lgkmd{ nufP/ k9\g hfg dgnfu]sf] n] ToxL af]l8{ª :s'ndf egf{ ul/lbgnfO{ cg'/f]w u¥of] . kmsfP/ /fVg'xf]. / To.sf] .Ú cly{s¿kn] . Pslbg crfgs p.b:onfO{ l/emfP/ dVv kfl/lbP/ cfk"mn] klg pgLx¿sf] dfof a6'Ng .n / d]xgtL /x]5 .nfO{ af]l8{ªdf /fv]/ k9fOlbg] s'/} lyPg .+:yfx¿ / pgLx¿sf nx}nx}df nfUg] xfd|f g]tf tyf a'l4hLjLx¿n] w]/} cufl8b]lv kmnfSb} cfPsf a'nGb a'nGb gf/fx¿ dWo] of] klg Pp6f k|dv ' gf/f xf] . o.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . 27 .Dd s'g} s'/fsf] klg u'gf.kl5 klg /fd|/L g} kl9/x]sf] lyof] .f/} b'Mv kfPsf]n] NofOlbPsf] x'F . h'g b]zsf hgtfx¿ dxf ul/a x'G5g\ / ltgnfO{ xfFSg] g]tfx¿n] cfk"mn] hfx]/ u/]sf k|lta4tfcg'zf/ sfd gu/]/ rf]/ / 8fsfx¿ eGbf klg nf]eL / kfkL aGb5g\ eg] ToxfF afn>ldsx¿ a9]/ hfG5g\ hfG5g\ .+x s].n] 5f]/fnfO{ bfbf / dnfO{ 5f]/fn] em}+ afaf egL af]nfpg] ub{Yof]— kl/jf/s} .a} .dodf p. Ps kN6 Pp6f slnnf] e'/f] cfOk'us ] f] lyof] .\ . tLvf] a'l4sf] / k9fOdf Psbd} ?lr /fVg] ePsf]n] 5f]/fn] k9\g] :s"ndf 5f]/f eGbf b'Os { Iff d'lg egf{ ul/lbPsf] lyPF ./L d]/f] 3/df slt cfP slt uP To. kl5.L l8NnLahf/ …afn>d k|yf /fd|f] xf]Og . gfafns 5 .f] gu/L :s'n hfFb} lyof]— 3/sf] .n] k9\g] :s'ndf o'lgkmd{sf] rng lyPg . cfPsf] yf]/} .DkGg ePsf b]zsf g]tfx¿. p.Ú eGb} 5f]8/] uPsf] lyof] . cdfgjLo sfo{ xf] .]/ sfdlbg] vfnsf] . lbgx¿ /fd|/L lalt/x]sf lyP .fx«} emsf]{ nfUg] . kfFr sIff .s]kl5 5f]/fnfO{ sf7df8f}+ nu]/ Pp6f af]l8{ª :s'ndf af]8/{ agfP/ /flvlbPF .nfO{ aGb ug'{ kb{5 . p.141 . afn xs / lxtsf] nflu v8f ePsf cGt/f{li6«o .\ .

labfdf 3/ cfPsf] 5f]/fnfO{ :s"ndf k'¥ofP/ 3/tkm{ hfFb} lyPF . laxfg} b]lv kfgL kl//x]sf] n] af6f]df . csf]{ Pshgf dfG5] rflxF af]/f cf]9/] 5]jd } f . ef].f— tkfO{+ g} /fVg'xf]. ltg} k|x/Lx¿sf] . cfuf] / eidx¿sf] y'kf| n ] fO{ jfUdtLdf v.do laTb} hfFbf x/fPsf] ax'dN" o j:t'.a} xfd|n } flu vr{ ubf{ k}.sf] cfˆgf] dfG5] d afx]s c¿ sf]xL gePsf] / 3/ df sfd u/]afkt\ tnasf] ¿kdf Ps k}.{. df]6/ 3r]l8lbg] sf]xL kfOG5 ls eg]/ s'//] a:bf a:b} .nfO{ . .Ldf k'¥ofP/ cf}ifwL pkrf/ ug{ nufPF . . lyof] .}. ef]lnkN6 laxfg} e]6g\ hfFbf /Tg] ToxfF lyPg . To. sl/a sl/a rf/ jif{ kl5sf] s'/f xf] ./x]F .'lt/x]sf] lyof] .sLsg b'j} xft prfn]/ d]/f] xft .fNb} -kmfNb}_ lrtfnfO{ 28 .s]sf] .s]/ sdfP hlt . hf8f] df}.f a6'Ng cfPsf] lyof] . s]xL a]/kl5 p.fyLnfO{ < la/fdL eP/ OGt' g lrGt' nl8/x]5 .nfO{ klg p7fof] eg] t df]6/ 3r]l8lbg] hgzlQm k'luxfN5 eGg] nfu]sfn] k}. a|fDx0f dfkm{t\ sd{sf08 ug{–u/fpg nufP/ bfuaQL lbg] lalQs} .s]g— a]xf].+:sf/ ul/lbg] lhDdf lnPF .xof]u lnP/ /Tg]nfO{ xl:k6nsf] Od/h]G.Ggf6f lyof] .Dd p.nfO{ la:tf/ la:tf/} lal. xfdL h:tf ef]sf / gfËfx¿sf] b'Mv b]Vg g.] nfz eg]/ d'bf{3/df kmfn]s gdHhf nfu]/ s]xL a]/.nf] / pHofnf] d'v agfP/ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .Ú ./L tkfO{s + f] d2t ug]{ . c:ktfnsf] cfjZos sfo{afxL k"/f u/L PDa'nG] . af]nfpFbf af]Ng} .demd} cfPsf] lyPg— s] ug'{ kg]{ xf] eg]/ .sLg.f klg glbPsf]n] hLpFbf] 5Fbf s]xL ug{ g. d ls+sQ{Joljd"9 eP/ al.n dfG5] ePsf]n] xf] xfdLn] o.Ns]sf] cfuf]n] bGs]/ /Tg]sf] slnnf] c+unfO{ kf]Nb} :ofgf] :ofgf] agfP/ cGTodf c:t'df kl/jlt{t ul/lbof] .nfO{ 5f8]/ 3/ kms]+{ .s]g . rflxGg xfdLnfO{ k}.f arfpg} .' emfg{ yfNof] .f]wk'5 ubf{ /flt g} d[To' ] f] 5 eGg] s'/f yfx kfPF .f/} ePsf]n] a]jfl/.nfO{ lgb|f k¥of] clg p.f./x xfdLn] p.fsf] nf]e b]vfP/ Tof] s'/f eg]+ . Tolta]nf p. /ftel/sf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ cf}ifwLx¿sf] aGbf]j:t u/L w]/} a]/.df /fvL zjnfO{ cfo{3f6df nu]/ a|Dxgfndf /fVg nufPF . .fyL ToxfF af6 h¥ofs h'?s p7]/ .f/} c:.dfP/ :g]xk"js { .fFem emdSs eP/ cGwsf/ x'g cfF6s ] f]n] df]6/af6 cf]n/{] otfplt x]b{} lyPF . To. ToxL a]nf /Tg]sf tL b'O{ . clnk/ Ps 7fpFdf lknlkn u/L cfuf] aNb} u/]sf] b]vk] l5 ToxfF k'us ] f]— 6fpsf] g} k8\sn ] f em}+ u/L ugfpg] kmf]x/x¿n] el/e/fp ePsf] sG6]g/sf] cf8df c:yfoL¿kn] agfPsf] kf]lnlygsf] 5fk|fd'lg cf]t nfu]/ b'O{ hgf vft] e'/fx¿ cfuf] tflk/x]sf /x]5g\ .s]sf] ePklg ca t s]xL ul/lbg' k¥of] eGg] .'d.'Os F R' rf 7f]s— ] efu] . tfklg . af]l8{ª :s'ndf k9\gnfO{ eg]/ k}.+lem/lxGYof] .nfO{ .a]nf a]nfdf p.\ .s]sf lyof}+ . o:tf] la/fdLnfO{ p7fP/ s.'lt/x]sf] Tof] dfG5]sf] cg'xf/ x]g{] ljlQSs} /Tg]nfO{ lrlgxfn]+ . b]Vg]ljlQSs} lrg]5 Sof/] af]Ng g. t/ pgLx¿n] 3[0ffsf] b[li6n] cfFvf t/]/ dlt/ x]b{} eg]— …b]Vg' ePg of] xfd|f] .s] klg xFl.d.f]r/] bfx–.+nUg eO{ 3/ kms{g cfF6s ] f] dfq s] lyPF— k'nS' s cfFvf vf]n/] /Tg]n] dnfO{ x¥of] .141 .nfO{ 5f8\g g. u'l8/x]sf] df]6/ uf8L PsfPs lalu|lbP/ :6f6{ g} ePg . lsg xf]nf eg]sf]— glhs} k|x/Lsf] Eofg cfP/ cl8Ps]f /x]5 .sf] x]/ ljrf/df .'DofpFb} cfFvfaf6 aa{/L cfF.Dd ls+st{Joljd"9 e}/x]+ .]nfpg] sfd ug{ aNb} u/]sf bfp/f. .

p.n] nufP/ uPsf] o'lgkmd{ b]vfpFb} eg]sf] s'/f— …tkfO{n + ] glbP klg oL kfPsf] 5' .df .Q}d + f af]l8{ª :s'ndf k9\g kfpg] Psdfq 7fpF— eujfg\ sxfF hfFb} 5' .dsf] k|:yfgn] 3f6df 5Fbf d]/f] dgsf] zflGtnfO{ s'g} c.ls/x]sf] 5'Og .af6 5'§L kfpg To.fl:.xL s'/f kQf kfP/ To. lsl.Psf ul/asf afn– aflnsfx¿nfO{ b]Vbf dxfgs{sf] cg'ej ug]{ lyof] .Ú eGb} w"jfFleq n's/] xtf/ xtf/ u/L dfly dfly nfUb} afbn ag]/ gLn gedf lanfPsf] b]v— +] z"Goem}+ eP/ .nfO{ /f]Sg s.x'lnot kfP/ l. lsl.{b kfof] ls ToxL ljifod} s]lGb|t e} kmGsf] dfg{ yfNb} 5 .Ggtf JoQm u/]sf] < OToflb cgfjZos s'/fx¿sf] pNemgdf km. d/]/ uof] .'U3/ ug{ kfgL xfn]/ a8fg]{ sfd x'bF f tF5f8\ d5f8\ ub}{ lgl:sPsf] w'jfsf] d':nf]leq ljB't./x]sf 5g\ eGg] s'/f /fd|/L a'em]sf]n] To.Dd klg g]tfx¿sf] d'v tfs]/ a:bf a:bf x}/fg ePsf]n] >d zf]if0f u¿g\ ls of}gzf]if0f cyjf d[uf}nf g} lems]/ h] h] u5{g\ u¿g\ Hofg t kfNg} k¥of] eGb} ljb]z k:g vf]Hbf klg c.f] u/]sf] xf] ls < cyjf o'lgkmd{ nufpFg kfPsf]df k|.Sbf .Dd klg k'm.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° ./x lzIff lbP/ kfNg . afFlr/x]sf] eP— .Dd k'us ] f] xf] ls < cyjf ToxL+ leqaf6 pAh]/ aflx/ k'mlTsPsf] < k]ml/ p.kmf . cb[Zo o'lgkmd{ leq lg. /Tg] efUdfgL /x]5. ./x lzIff / sfd kfP/ b]zljsf.dy{ ePsf a]/f]huf/x¿n] eujfg\sf]df hfg] af6fdf klg 6«flkms hfd ub}{ nfd nfu]/ al.sf] To. /Tg] Pp6fsf] sf/0faf6 3fon ePsf]df. gofF g]kfnsf] b'ul{ t 6'n6' n ' ' x]g{' kg]{ lyof] .nfO{ u'xfg'{ kg]{ xf]— kQf kfpg g.Sg] clt jx'dN" o o'lgkmd{ nufP/ afn>d zf]ifs o.af6 pDsgnfO{ hlt k|oTg ubf{ klg . afn>lds /fVg x'Gg eGg] s'/f dfg]sf] eP < cyjf /fv]klg 5f]/f. j'ma]/ eGbf klg wgL sf]xL eP— pgLx¿sf] . gfdL gfdL sk8f a'Gg]x¿n] klg gSsn u/L a'Gg / l./ kf/]sf] lyPg / k'0o sdfPF eg]/ dVv kl//x]sf] lyPF . b]zaf6 pDsg t kfPsf] 5 .Ld b'v v]Kb} cfPsf ul/ax¿sf afn aRrf–aRrL / o'jfx¿n] wgLx¿sf] .x/sf] . 29 . /Tg]sf] sf/0faf6.]/ To.dsf] cj:yf kSsf g} x'g] lyPg .lHhPsf] /Tg]n] bË kb}{ dnfO{— …b]Vg' eof] t afaf d]/f] o'lgkmd{ < s:tf] /fd|f] 5 xlu < of] nufP/ ca d ul/asf 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿n] klg wgLsf 5f]/f5f]/Lx¿ .141 )) . lbgb]lv rSs/ vfg yfn]sf] lbdfu /Tg] lat]sf] cfh w]/} jif{ lalt.l/s x'gkfpg] cfzdf k|ltufdLx¿sf] kfnfb]lv xfn.pg g. 3/df k'u/] cf/fd ubf{ ub}{ w"jfFleq k|s6 e}sg /Tg]n] u/]s ] f] Tof] cfsfzjf0fLsf] pTklQ / cf}lrToaf/] tYos'/f kQf nufpgnfO{ 3f]lTng yfNbf tL s'/fx¿ d]/f] cfFvf / sfgaf6 l5/]/ cGt/cfTdf .Qf xTofpg g]tfx¿n] v]Nb} cfPsf j'mrL{ lvrftfgLsf] v]nn] ubf{ k'/fgf] g]kfneGbf klg uPu'hs ]| f]. jLeT./L kne/sf]nflu rDs]/ v/fgLsf] o'lgkmd{df . clxn] :ju{df t 5 .Sbf lbdfuleq 3'Dg yfn]sf] rSs/sf] ult a9]/ 6Ss/ vfO/x]sf] n] cfkm}n] cfkm}nfO{ a]sDdf / a'4' 7fg]/ a:g' kl//x]sf] 5— lhGbuL b]lvg} jfSs / lbSs eP/ . emg\ lxhf] cfh t oxfF >lds x'g gkfP/ c.Ú eg]/ Joª\UofTds ¿kdf /f]if kf]Vg u'gf.Dk"0f{ wgbf}ntn] lsGg gEofpg]. afO afO afaf .s]sf] eP d]/f o..

n'5fr'8F L u5{g\ kf]yLx¿ s/fpF5g\.GsfP/ c¿ efn] gfRg yfn] k'Ýf aª\UofP/ vf]lsnfdf xfNg yfn] d'7f] gª\UofP/ ./L < bfgfvfO{{ ./] l..]tf /ftf efn] lgSs} n8\g yfn] kf]yLx¿ /dfP/ kl5 nfUg yfn] of}6f a:of] 6fj'm/fdf kf]yL RofkLRofkL csf]{ k:of] b/af/df wf]tL RofkLRofkL .D7ØfPsf efn] Sofg{ yfn] < cfkmGtdf kfF8u] fnL klg ug{ yfn] 5Ss} k/] ufO{x¿./L < )) 30 . uf]? lhNn} k/] . g]tfx¿ eGy] klxn] efn] n8fpFg" efn]efn] n8fP/ e'8F L a9fpFg" P]n] efn] cfk}mF n8\5g\. x] k/d]Zj/L efn] lsg n8]sf o. sfnf .wf.'/fnnL .efn]sf] h'wfO kf]yLsf] ldrfO 8f= adaxfb'/ lhtfnL÷$@^(*#^÷(*$!$(!)*! wGo O{Zj/. efn]aLr RoflkP/ c08f k'm6\g yfn] efa08f nufP/ vfg yfn] efn] b]z¿kL c08f klg efua08f nfP efn]x¿ ldlnh'nL vfg. r]kj' fdf k5{g\ . rf/}lt/ h'6fP/ e|i6frf/L efF8f] lbglbg} p7fP/ dxFuLsf] 8fF8f] 7"nf–a8f a8f efn]x¿ .141 . af:g yfn] a"9f efn] 3fF6L tGsfP/ xfF:g yfn] o'af efn] cfFvf .Dd vfP .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .fwf kf]yLx¿ larNnLdf k/] . e]8f dSv} k/] bfOF ug{ yfn] af]sf. wGo O{Zj/ x] k/d]Zj/L efn] lsg n8]sf o.

141 . nLnfWjh yfkf x'gx' G' 5 eg] …efj'sÚ.fb b]jsf]6f x'gx' G' 5 . dfgGw/ aL=P=.Dkfbs d08nn] . cfhsf slj e"lk z]/rg.+ejtM sltkosf] k|yd /rgf g} oxL klqsfdf k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] . s[ i 0fk| .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .sf] . dWoafg]Zj/. e'kG] b|dfg z]/rGb ….}. aNnedl0f bfxfn. Zofdk|. /fh]Gb|sd ' f/ cfrfo{.uF hf]8/] eGg .g\ !(%# cyf{ t \ @)!)sf] c+ s xf] .+. kf]if0fk|. fb zdf{ …kl/dnÚ / dx] G b| s ' d f/ .g !(%#sf] / csf]{ ck'/f] cÍ n]vssf] .+sngdf /x]sf] 5 .'? ePsf] b]lvG5 . Toltv]/sf e"kG] b|dfg z]/rGb ….'? ePsf] 5 .+lIfKt Oltxf. agf/.Tsd{ dfq xf] Û hf] kl5. c+sb]lv k'/fgf klqsfsf] .Dkfbg u/L lgsfn] s f] of] aflif{ s klqsf . sf7df8f}+ ÷ kmf]g $$&)@$% -em08} 5 jif{bl] v cleJolQm å}dfl. oxL qmddf of] k/Dk/fn] cfh.dfKt e}.+3.'Gb/LÚ -dfl.flxlTos klqsf k|sflzt ePsf] lyof] .Dkfbg e/tdl0f zdf{ / t]haxfb'/ k|.df ePsf] lyof] .j{xf/fÚ.j{xf/fÚsf] gofF 31 .fO{sf] .fb kf08]. ljgf]brGb| clwsf/L.s]sf] 5 . | fb …kl/dnÚ. uf]ljGb e§. klxnf] cÍ k9\g gkfOP klg . sfzLsf] æ5fqÆ lzj /]UdL ^! do'/ dfu{.}u/L aL/]Gb| vFh ' n ] L. fb >] i 7.\ …5fqÚ x/ xd]zf hfu'g\ 5fq lnP/ e/f]zfÚ— sf] .sf kfgf kfgfdf klN6/x]sf x'G5g\ .fdu|Lx¿ k'gM k|sflzt ub}{ cfPsf]df To. k9]h:tf] nfUg] %% jif{ cl3sf] of] …5fqÚ . g]kfnL 5fq . fb zdf{ .lsG5— hLjgsf] z]ifkl5 /xg]rflxF p. cflv/ hLjg /x]5 s] / < ….Dd ljutdf ljleGg kq–klqsfdf k|sflzt pNn]vgLo pkof]uL . s'ndl0f b]jsf]6f. lji0f'k. …cgnÚ kf. sfzLaf6 k|sflzt k|:t't c+s Psb]j zdf{sf] …d+un sfdgfÚ sljtfaf6 .b\ljrf/ lnP/ g]kfnL 5fq . k|:t't ug]{ hdsf]{ u/]sf] 5'—_ sfzL ljZjljBfno. o. ctM o. …k'mnf].f/ Pp6f gf6Øzfnf xf]Ú eGg] bfz{lgsnfO{ af/Daf/ gd:sf/ 5 . ejfgLk| .ldlt. clxn] k9\bf Oltxf. .Dat\ !(^#_ b]lvg} .s k"0ff{Í !!( b]lv !$) .+3åf/f . dx]zs'df/.flxlTos klqsfdf k|sflzt slj n]vsx¿ cf–cfˆgf If]qdf ljlzi6tf sfod u/L clxn] cjsfzk|fKt hLjg ljtfO/xg' ePsf] 5 eg] sltko n]vs sljx¿sf] hLjg nLnf g} .sf] .fb clwsf/L cflb b]lvg' ePsf] 5 . dfwjk|.Dd klg lg/Gt/tf kfO/x]sf] 5 . lji0f' k | . sljtf–sfJo ljwfdf pkl:yt x'gx] ¿df kLtfDa/Wjh vftL.s . o. h.g\ !(%)df jflif{s d'vkqsf] ¿kdf …5fqÚ gfds .+oQ ' m k|of.k|lt Ps b'O{hgf afx]s n]vs :jod\n] klg k|ltlqmof JoQm gu/]sf]n] oL .Dd klg Oltxf.df cWoog/t 5fq5fqfx¿n] .d] t sf] . o.g]kfnL 5fq .fª uf]kdf{.flxlTos kqklqsf lgsfNg] k|yfsf] yfngL …. b' u f{ a xfb' / adf{ . gLnxl/ pkfWofo. cÍsf] kl/ro ef/tL -jif{ ( c+s ! h]7 @))&_df ePsf] 5 .fdu|Lx¿ ?rfOPsf] h:tf] nfu]g .

fb l/hfnsf] …gf/L–.\ cDa Û .hfj6 slxn] sdgLo e}sg u?Fnf d'Uw .fb sfˆn]sf] …lxGb" wd{nfO{ .lDdlnt lyP .'stfÚsf s]xL x/km M /Ë cfs[ltsf] agfj6 .S' s xfF.d:ofdf lr7\6LÚ.n] slxn] d 6xNg cfpg] Åbsf] lrQ x'n F f grfpg] < k|sl[ t lrq0fsf] cg'kd gd'gf Û …5fqÚsf] k|:t't c+sdf kfFrj6f syf 5flkPsf 5g\ .‰ofp/] uLt— != hgjfb ltd|f] wgjfb xfd|f] cfdfsf] sfvdf b]zsf] gfddf Ps lbg afemf}n + f @= . ljZj/fh kf08]sf] …k]6sf] lglDtÚ.fb b]jsf]6fsf] …sf]lknfsf] pT.'jf.}u/L o1k|.DaGwÚ. cgGtgfy kf}8Øfnsf] …sxfgLsf] w'gdfÚ.fGTjgf k|fKt syfx¿ x'g\ h'g Toltv]/ ePsf] sxfgL k|ltof]lutfdf .fb >]i7sf] …g]kfndf cd]l/sL k|jz ] sf] k|sl[ tÚ.s ] L hgjfbL .fb cfrfo{sf] …/]0f' a]lrOg\Ú syfn] klg .flxTodf qmflGtÚ n]v k|sflzt 5g\ .nf] efj tyf .ts{ as{g $ sdgLo k|./sf/sf] gLlt.s ] L."os { f] /ftf] ls/0f 5ftLdf 6fF.fb zdf{sf] …d a]lrGgÚ qmdzM k|yd.141 .t[tLo / .fb cfrfo{sf] …g]kfn ef/t .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . o. n]v lgaGwsf] ljwfdf o1k|. låtLo. ejfgL k|.}u/L 32 .fb zdf{sf] …g]kfnL .Gg ¿kn] /l. afn'jfsf] letL dnfO{ t Ps nfU5 ltdL / xfdL . s[i0fk|. o. lr/~hLjLk|. …3'Dg] d]rdfly cGwf] dfG5]Ú sf] k"j¿ { k o:tf] lyof] .a aQLx¿sf] .+3if{/t 5f}+ x]/f}n + f sf] yfS5 Û ± ± !!= lxdfn r'nL b'Mv bb{ e"nL d'.fGTjgf k'/:sf/ kfPsf] lyof] . p4jk|. of]uG] b|dfg z]/rGbsf] …n]8L 8fS6/Ú.d:tsf] dg < @ slxn] d kTof/ kf?Fnf x[bo :jR5 lghL u/L v'nf h.gftg wd{ lsg eGb5g\ <Ú. klZrdf~rn If]qs} k|Voft slj dfwjk|.tf] ls ddf s'g} hg gk/f]. ejfgLk|.

Fw} u/L ck"j{ rf? sNkgf e'n/] å]if/fu e]befj cflb 3fts u/L/xf}+ w/fljif] dg'iohGd .s]sf] eP.{jfb -cg'jfb_.sf] lgldQ xfdL jxfFx¿ k|lt s[t1tf k|s6 ub}{ cg]sfg]s wGojfb ck{0f ub{5f}Ú+ eGg]plQm 5 .sf cltl/Qm g]kfnL efiff k|sflzgL .eGbf cufl8sf w]/} . j[mi0fk|. -dfl.'if'lKt cflb b'u0'{ f lnP/ eft[efjsf] kljq gLlt g"tg gjLg Plzof gofF pd+un] 5 hfu|t ax]/ To} t/+udf eO/xf}+ k|efljt . cu|bt" -kflIfs klqsf_. . /fddl0L cf=bL=. .f pkfWofosf] …/x:odo hutÚ. /fHo>L zdf{sf] …gf/LÚ n]v. b'uf{ axfb'/ adf{sf] …o'u cfJxfgÚ sljtf pNn]Vo 5g\ .+ejtM of] cÍs ljsf. . lglDt clwj[mt ljåfgx¿sf] ljrf/Ú eg]/ …slj. ck"/f] syf 5 . .fdu|Lx¿ k|sflzt 5g\ ..}u/L lg/~hg zdf{sf] …g]kfnL . ufpFsf] .g\ !(%$ jf !(%%sf] x'gk' 5{ .#. hg ljsf. g]kfnL . 7"nf] .Dkfbs d08nsf]— …5fqn] clnslt klg .s klqsf_.+ux| _. k':ts kl/ro :tDe cGt{ut gefu -syf . cÍ xf] . ab/Lgfy e6\6/fO.fKtflxs_ cflbsf kl/ro k|sflzt 5g\ ."ol{ jqmd 1jfnL.fodLsf] …vjbf{/ Û g]kfn g lauf/ Ú n]v. syfsf/ / snfsf/s} xf] .flxTo ljsf.j{bz{gfrfo{sf ljrf/x¿ k|sflzt 5g\ ..s klqsf_.flxTo k|. thL ztfAbLb]lvsf . sfln+ukf+u] . r"8fgfy .+3sf] sfo{ ljj/0f k|sflzt 5g\ .fb nf]xgLsf] …hgjfb / g]kfnsf] eljioÚ. …g]kfnsf] cfly{s ljsf.fdu|Lx¿ d"Nojfg 5g\ .. of]hgfÚ zLif{sdf o'wL/zDz]/ yfkfsf] n]v / ….flxTosf] Oltxf.{ / dfS. kl/jt{g -gf6s_.'?df Û k|frfo{ z+s/b]j kGtsf] …efjL g]kfnÚ zLif{ssf] !% Znf]ssf] 5Gbf]a¢ sljtf— k5fl8 hf] lyP cufl8 dfu{df a9] ca k/Gt' 5f}+ ce}m k5fl8sf] k5fl8g} .bf gjLg hLjg p7f}+ cg]s jif{sf u/]/ b"/ b"if0f . …5fqÚ aflif{s klqsfsf] s'/f ubf{ csf]{ Pp6f …5fqÚ klqsf klg of] n]vs .Fu ck"/f]¿kdf /x]sf] 5 .'? ePsf]n] o.kmntf k|fKt ug{ .. lnP/ pRr sfdgf th]/ t'R5 efjgf eljiosf] . n]lvsf. g]kfnL . cGo /rgfdf OGb|/fh ld>sf] …pm a"9LsGof eOÚ{ zLif{s syf.fb >]i7sf] …g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltÚ cflb n]v k|sflzt 5g\ .f/ kl/ifb\.]sfn] cw"/f] ePsf] 5 .uf]ljGb k|. sjloqL. o.d|f6Ú n]vgfy. w':jfF . efiffg'kl/ifb\.!.':s]/f -rf}dfl.'? k[i7 g} #@ af6 . .@. o. of]hgfÚ n]v dggLo 5 .fdu|Lx¿ 5'6s ] f 5g\ kfgf k'm:s]/ .ldlt.. k|:t't …5fqÚ .fy{s .flxTosf] ljsf. t/ of] cÍ w]/} . eLdlglw ltjf/L. of]hgfÚ cGt{ut …g]kfnL .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . n]vgsf lglDt oL .Gb]z -sxfgL . o. g]kfn gf6s .141 . w/0fLw/ zdf{.fOhdf k|sflzt k|:t't cÍdf uxlsnf .. c+uh ]| L v08df sdnf eutsf] …. dzfn -.flxTosf] ljsf. Tof] >]o n]vs.+ux| _ sdn -aflif{s klqsf_ dfS.a hufpFb} w/fljif] . b'jf{.fOlG6lkms Knflg+u km/ g]kfnÚ n]v klg cl3 kl5 b'jl} t/sf kfgf v. 33 .fdu|Ln] ux+u|' f] cg'ej x'G5 .

…o'u cfJxfgÚsf gd"gf— lyP b'O{ dfq.'sf] rd{ rIf' clg a'l4 ljj]s.}.uF o. .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .+:s[t efiff Ps cWoogÚ.fdu|L k. /Tgkfs{ 34 .141 . uy]{ a4kf. kN6f vfof] o'un] . k|aGwÚ …lxdfn qmGbgÚsf kl/ro k|:t't 5g\ .fy}.Unf] c+s 5 eg] s[kof hfgsf/L kfpFm ./L ck"/f] ePklg of] cÍ …5fqÚ cToGt pkof]uL 7fg]sf] 5' . b'Mv pTyfg ktg gj hLjg lgdf{0f eof] . k':ts kl/rosf] qmddf …cfbz{ hLjgÚ -gf6s_.+sNk u/]. k|sl[ t / k'?if.df ltgsf] .fb Sofnsf] …xfd|f] g]kfnÚ.sf] . lyof] clvn ljZjsf] of] lj:t[t cfug . eof] e]b dfgj kz'sf] . /rgf ug]{ efjL hLjgsf qmd eof] . bfdf]b/k|. -!_ rn–d"lt{ /Qmlk08 df.'v. o'u cfJxfg qmdzM a'l4 ljhoL x'bF } uof] . /fdaxfb'/ /fjnsf] …d"lt{Ú cflb n]v /rgf k7gLo 5g\ . o. t'nfzfxsf] …gf/Lsf] s?0f k'sf/Ú. ef]nfgfy bfxfnsf] …. olb s. & j}zfv )^^ )) sf7df8f}d + f cleJolQm kfOg] k|dv ' :yfg /Tg k':ts e08f/ afuahf/ tyf kf7Ø .n hfd] dfs]6{ . …sfbDa/LÚ -gf6s_ …kRrL.[li6 / k|no gt{g Û .

+ a|Dxf08sf] cyfxtfsf ."o{ rGb| xfd|fnflu cGwljZjf. l.x¿ . 7"nf] .fg} /flv/xg rfxG5g\ . 6]lnkmf]gn] / 6]lnlehg.}n] . /hf}6fx¿.f/df a:g nflu/x]5f}.+ afFRg nflu/x]sf 5f}+ .Ldf cfh .f/ 7"nf] lyof] . To. .Ldf uNb}5g\.Ldf 9Nb}5g\ . P]n] hutnfO{ lhlt.n] 7"nf] ef/L b]Vof] eg] s] u5{ < af]Sg 8/fpF5 .+sL0f{ 5 eg]. lnO/x] . s]xL lbg cufl8 Pp6f b}lgs cvaf/sf] larf/ k[i7el/ 5fpg' ePsf Ps hgf qmflGtsf/Ln] e"d08nLs/0f / ljZjJofkLs/0fsf vt/f af/] .'vL dflg.}sf] larf/} .+.}sf/0f xfd|fnflu .f/sf] 7"nf] x'g .'netfn]. oftfoftsf] .+.s'6.f/nfO{ . To.fd" xfdL emg} lg/Lx lyof+} .s]sf 5f}+ xfdLn] / xfdL a|Dxf08sf af/] kQf nufpg] cfF6df 5f}F ca . plta]nf xfd|f] lg/Lxtf / .fgf] 5 eg] .+rf/ pku|xsf :6]zg e}. xfdL dflg. dflg.Fu 5'6Øfpg] w]/} .}n] xfdLnfO{ 7"nf agfpg pgLx¿sf] slxNo} s'g} lbnr:kL ePg . zf./bf/x¿. a? ef/Lleq ad b]V5./bf/x¿.+.f/df a:g nflu/x]sf 5f}.f/ . ca .'G5' . sNr/sf . k/Dk/fsf cg'ofoLx¿nfO{. cfk"m 7"nf] x'g kfP k'luxfNof] pgLx¿nfO{ . /]l8of]n] / /f8f/n] .fgf]kgsf] kmfObf /fhfx¿. xfdL . h]6n]. . .+.f/nfO{ .fgf lyof}+ klxn] .+ afFRg nflu/x]5f}+ . wd{ u'?x¿ pkb]zsx¿. o4 pGdfbLx¿.sx¿. pgLx¿ cfˆgf 7fn"kg.fan]. / /x:osf ljifo 5}gg\ .Ldfsf lx. o'4 . lgwf].Gtlt . cGtl/If t . xfdL .141 .s] .fgf] . . . s6\6/tfsf lxdfoltx¿nfO{. e"uf]nsf .fgf ePsfn] xfdL .fgf] . s6\6/ /fi6«jfbL b]lv dfS.com xfdL .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° ."rgf k|jfxsf] . hutsf] ljzfntfsf .] dflg. OG6g]6n].+. xfd|f . xfdLn] h:tf] . /fi6« / /fhgLltsf .fgf]. ad ljZn]if0f u5{ / adaf/Ls} z}nLdf af]N5.n]. To. k':tsn] / cvjf/n] Pp6f dfgjnfO{ cfsf]{ dfgj.{ /f]uL. .r]t u/fpg y'k}| y'k}| ufnLsf zAbx¿ vr{g' eP5 .sf nflu e"d08nLs/0f / ljZjJofkLs/0f vt/f t x'g] g} eP .Ldfx¿ lyP / lyP lg/Lxtfx¿ . ufpF:t/sf] 5 eg] p. s7d'Nnfkg / h8tfsf] v]tL .Ldf cfh ljh]o x'bF 5 } g\.+.cfpm clnslt 7"nf] agf}“ h}g]Gb| hLjg xfQLjg.t olt kl/lrt olt cGof]Gofl>t of] eGbf cufl8 slxNo} lyPgg\ .fan] .f/ .fgf] .f/sf .fgf lyof}+ .+.dfKt kfl/lbPsf 5g\ .k|g .xhtfn].fgf] . ctM b'MvL eP/ pgLx¿n] hLGbufgL u'hfg'{ kg]{ 5}g . x'g5 ] g\ . s.fd" xfdL emg} lg/Lx lyof}.+.f+:s[lts 35 .Fu dfq .{jfbL. slyt ljrf/ jf jfbsf cGw eQmx¿nfO{ xfdLnfO{ . . zf]ifsx¿. xLgtfsf s}bLx¿nfO{.fgfsf dfem pgLx¿ 7"nf x'g kfP .GtltrfxF 7"nf aGg]5g\ / pgLx¿sf] . wd{ pGdfbLx¿.fgf] x'bF } uPsf] s]xLnfO{ dg k/]sf] 5}g .x¿ Ps csf{l.+rf/sf] ljsf.fdYo{sf lx. . n]V5 . o:t}x¿n] lnP . xfd|f .fg} agfO/fVg] /x/ d/]sf] 5}g . 1fgsf lx. nlntk'/÷jeevan1952%@hotmail. xfdL.Sg] Ifdtf pgLx¿df 5}g.Ddg.fan] . xfdL JolQmx¿.+.fgf . t/ Tof] s'/f] :jLsf/ ub}g{ pm.]gfkltx¿. gofF gofF ljrf/n].fg} /flv/x]/ cfk"m 7"nf] e}/xg] pgLx¿sf] OR5f 5 . zlQmsf k"hf/Lx¿nfO{. klxn] xfdL .

] . d lx+.L xf]nf. t/ sdhf]/LnfO{ .fgfx¿sf] eL8df xfdLn] lj:d[t ug{ nflu. 7"nf]— hxfF sf]xL eoo'Qm gxf]cf]. cem} 7"nf] agf}+ .+aGw lau|n ] f ls eGg] eon] . :tAw 5' . cfpm. ufGwL x'g g. /fd. c.lxi0f'tfn]. xfdL l56f] l56f] 7"nf] x'g l. 7"nf eP/ cfhsf] xfd|f] uhf]{ 6b}g{ . k|To]s dflg. d lx+. .+. s]xL jif{ klxn] Pp6f df}naLn] Pp6f 7"nf] n]vsnfO{ d[To'b08sf] kmtjf hf/L u¥of] . . sNr/sf. . t/ 5 .xdt x'g] hf] sf]xLnfO{ 6fpsflt/ af6 5 OGr sf6]/ .+rf/n].a} e"d08nLs/0f / ljZjJofkLs/0fdf vt/} vt/f b]V5g\ . .f/sf w]/} g]tf. pgnfO{ klg .+. gq 7"nf dfG5]sf] vf]h xfdLn] . xfdL 7"nf] agf}F . . cfk"mnfO{ emg\ 7"nf] agfpFm .xsfo{n.+sL0f{tfsf].sf}n F f . s'/f k|s6 / ck|s6sf] dfq lyof] . w/tL 7"nf] t/ . d}n] dfgL cfPsf] wd{sf k'/f]lxtdf klg 5 .Sof]. l.dfKt x'g5 ] g\ . wd{sf.LdfxLg 7"nf] .+sL0f{tfsf].+Dks{n.Sg]5g} . b]zx¿sf. . kl08t k'/f]lxt.s g} /x]sf] df}naLsf] To.Fu .LdfxLg ag]sf] ljZjdf xfdL klg 7"nf] agf}+ .f/ 7"nf] afwf x'bF f]/x]5 . To.lxi0f'tf kmtjf hf/L ug]{ df}naLsf] dfq xf]Og.Ddg\.n] .zfplelgi6 -chauvinist_b]lv qmflGtsf/L . xfdL sL/f km6\of+uf| x'g' ePg . Oltxf. Pshgf 7"nf dflg. pgLx¿n] JofVof u/]sf.+ke | " dfgj hfltnfO{ cfkm\gf /}lt jf cGw cg'ofoL agfpg] pgLx¿sf] v]n / dg.Sof}+ . ldyssf a'4. :tAw 5' .Nanfof]— o:tf] d}n] b]vs ] f] 5' .fy 7"nf] agf}F . ldyssf./sf/ 8/fP— To. ljZjgful/s agf}+ .'wf/]/ n}hfg] pkfox¿sf .nfO{ 7"nf] x'g s/ nfU5— d'Nnf.f/ 7"nf] e}. t/ dfgjnfO{ dfgjf]lrt sdhf]/Lsf.Ldf / .+. ah/+u bnb]lv tflnafg .] . s[i0f.] . n]vssf] 6fpsf] Nofpg]nfO{ cfˆgf] b]zsf] /fHosf]zaf6 7"nf] /sd k'/:sf/ lbg] klg …P]nfgÚ u¥of] p.dob]lv cfk"m.Fu c. d]/f] cfbz{ o:tf] wd{ xf] hf] cWofTddo x'G5 lgif]wdo x'bF g} . uNksf. cfˆgf] b]zsf] l8ˆofS6f] zf. dfqf sda]. tL k'/f]lxtsf] dl:tisdf /x]sf] lx+.+af]wg x'bF g} .a}hgf. /fhg}lts Hof]ltif /fhg}lts g]tf k|To]snfO{ .fy :jLsf/]/.\ .fy xf]Og ls sdhf]/LnfO{ :jLsf/]/. t/ c. .x¿sf] k|ltsf/xLgtfsf] df}g :jLs[lt .lxi0f' x'bF g} . w/tL 7"nf] ePdf. xfd|} .+sL0f{tf cfkm}F .f/ 7"nf] x'g] qmd cem} l56f] x'gk' ¥of] .sf}+ .fsf].}n] slxn]sfxLF nfU5— . /fhgLltsf . 3[l0ft cdfgjLo sfo{sf] lj/f]w ug{ . cr]n xfd|f 5f]/f 5f]/L k9\g cd]l/sf hfG5g\ / ptf uP/ afa' cfdf jf lzIfsn] dfq .fgf]kgsf] of] xf]8afhLn] b'lvt 5'.Ddg\ .fsf].LdflaxLg x'bF } hfFbf w/tLdf a:g] dflg. w]/} . df}naL. lhh.sf lw/f]bfQ gfos gflosfx¿af6 jt{dfgsf oyfy{x¿sf] . oftfoftn.xcl:tTjn] zflGtk"0f{ agfpFm / of] .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . km/fs ePdf. oyfy{df.a} s'/f hfg]sf x'G5g\ pgLx¿sf] cf1f lz/f]wfo{ ug'{ k5{ jf 36 . .f df}naLsf] kmtjfdf /x]sf] eGbf sd lyPg .LdfxLg ljZjnfO{ cem 7"nf] agfpFm .Ddg\. w/tLnfO{ cem 7"nf] agfpFm .141 .fgf] agfOlbg] /fhgLlts bz{gn] df}g :jLs[lt kfPsf] 5— eodf afFr]sf dflg. gofF gofF clj:sf/n] .sfPsf s'/fdf k|Zg u¥of] ls pgLx¿sf] cfFvfdf lx+.+.+jfbn].dodf. eP— dxfTdf ufGwL .fgf]kgsf] of] xf]8jfhLn] b'lvt 5'.f . d'ns ' jf cfd's wd{nfDaL. d hGd]sf] b]zdf s]xL .w}F ldysx¿df ul//xg' kg]5 { . 9f]u+ / kfv08sf.fgf] /lx/xg . . kl08tb]lv df}naL . .'afdf .

3[0ffsf] v]tL ca aGb u/f}+ .lsGg . lsgeg] pgLx¿ .f}o{ pmhf{af6 rNg] sDKo'6/sf] cflj:sf/sf .fy} x'g5 ] .+. hftsf.sf nflu OG6/g]6 sfkmL 5 . dflg. kmfu'g @)^% )) uhn . ljrf/sf .fgf] x'bF } 5 / xfdL 7"nf] x'bF 5 7"nf] x'gaf6 ca g/f]sf}F .kmfofÚ ca aGb u/f}+ .+. hfltsf. g8/fpg" efUokmnsf] e/ gkg".'? e}.f/ . sNr/sf. ptfsf.fgf] agfpF . .Eotfsf] rflxF cGt3{n ' g x'g] qmd .a} /fhg}lts / . lah'nLsf] k|sfz grflxg]. leqsf] . t/ . To.fgf] x'g5 ] . e'm7f j'm/f vf]H5g\ eg] k|.Qfx¿sf] clwgfosTj cfk+m}+ uNof{d\ u'nd {' 9Ng]5 . ljZj Pp6f 7"nf] ufpF x'bF 5 } .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .f/nfO{ .pgLx¿.{ s8f .Eotfx¿sf] cfk. .'. wd{sf.fF:s[lts . cfpm ca clnslt 7"nf] } f}+ . ljrf/sf] qmf]wdf dflg.s]sf] 5Ù cyf{t\ . oBlk qmflGtsf/Lx¿ o. xlG6ªgsf] eljiojf0fL .{ hf].n] dflg. u5{g\ . ltgLx¿sf] cGTo . afbsf. eGbf 7"nf] / w/tL eGbf :ju{ s]xL 5}g . of] 3/r}+ 5fP/} lxF8g\ . t/ ca d'Nnf s7d'Nnfx¿sf lbg hfg]5g\ .+sL0f{ 5g\ . of] eGb}df e'mSg' x'Gg d[To' e]6] bfP/} lxF8g\ .df ." hxfF hlt h] k/] lg g]kfn r}+ ufP/} lxF8g\ " .+jGwsf] clwstf / Gofgf]kg b]v/] 7"nf] s'/f l.w}F 9NsfP/} lxF8g\ " .nfO{ dfg]{ …h]xfbÚ ca aGb u/f}+ .fFlRrs} Pp6f ufpF x'g5 ] .f/sf . To:tf] OG6/g]6 cfPsf] lbg .+oQ ' m kl/jf/ / To. b]zsf.f/nfO{ cem} .Ldfx¿ cem tf]8f}+ . ca …xld{6 :6]6Úsf] sDanleq d'v 5f]k/] a:g] g]tfx¿sxfF klg aflx/af6 uPsf] k|sfz l5g]{ 5 .flat eP/ wfld{s .To sd{kl5 >d u'lnof] vfP/} lxF8g\ " ." gla/fpg". xf].fd|fHojfb b]V5g\ / d'Nnf k+l8tx¿ cg}ltstf .+.z + fg} ul/b]p g. dfg"{ hLjg To. .s]sf] dx.+.f/ .{ of] lz/df 9fsf 6f]kL . . ca cfk"m 7"nf] xf]pmF / .fgf] x'gaf6 / cfk"mnfO{ agf}+ .+:s[ltsf.fgf] kl/jf/df x's/{] klg !* jif{sf] pd]/ ePkl5 afa' cfdf 5f]8/] cfˆg]f …8]6Ú.f]em} 8fpgln+s ug{ ldNg] / . ug".xL .jfn hjfkm ug'{ x'Gg eGg] dfGotf unt /x]5 eGg] l. ljZj .f+:s[lts .nfO{ dfg]{ …. . :ju{sf] nf]edf dflg. cyf{t\ ljZj .} gk5fg".df åGb xf]nf gxf]nf.S5g\ .Fu 5'66\ } Pkf6{dG] 6df a:g] l76f l76L PSr]Gh sfo{qmddf otf cfpF5g\ / oxfFsf] .'>L cs]nf /fO{ vf]6fª ltdL k/b]z nfUof} eg]. :of6]nfO6 ln+saf6 .Dks{–.141 .fgf 5g\.+ejtM 6]lnsdsf] df]8d ] grflxg].fdflhs .fgf] x'bF 5 } .Fu .n] dflg. )) 37 .fFlRrs} . /f]s/] ca .+.

va/bf/ dl0f/fh l.}n] .Dk"0f{ a:tL g} 89fpg .f]emf. . lga{n .don] ltd|f] lk7ØFd " f sf]/f{ lxsf{pbF f lg:sg] kL8fo'Qm cfjfhn] ltd|f] pN6f] ultnfO{ ntf/]/ e'Od F f 5ftLdf 6]ss ] f] a]nf ltdLn] dfkmL dfUg] a]nf klg lalt. )) 38 .Sg] cfufsf] lemNsf] klg t .dod} va/bf/L ul//x]5' d . d'vdf df8 gnfu]/ k]6x¿ ef]sx8\tfndf hld/x]sf] a]nf lg/Lx cfFvfx¿nfO{ lh:SofpFb} eF8' L e/]sf] gf6s ub}{ .+x a'4sf] j'm/f ufGwLsf] j'm/f eO/x]sf] a]nf lemgf dl. sldnf .stfsf] k|tLs xf] ls < To.gf j'm/fdf cNe]m/ cf:yfsf] cfFugdf lae]bsf] cfuf] gemf]:g va/bf/L ul//x]5' d .dosf] kbrfknfO{ g.fg} x'G5 .kmntfsf] 6fs'/f 6]ss ] f] bDe ug'{ x?jf dfgl.fgf] 5 egL x]nfF gu/ hfaf] l.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .of] egL a]jf:tf gu/ ue{df ljzfn j[If af]ss ] f] aLp klg .kgfdf cx+sf/sf] 8F9n ] f] gemf]:g va/bf/L ul//x]5' d . nfvf}+ cfjfhx¿nfO{ kl5 nfP/ dQf xfQLe}mF pGdQ tfndf aDs]/ .}n] va/bf/L ul//x]5' d .s]sf] x'g5 ] To. To.141 .'ge ] m+} ca klg cAoaxfl/s hftkft / prgLrsf] hfnf]df a]l/of} eg] .}n] .fg} x'G5 .

]tf] afbnsf] ¿kdf t'ngf ug{ yfnL .L x'g} ghfg]h:tf] / cg'xf/df d':sfg g} gcfPh:tf].L pgLx¿df eg] k6Ss} b]lvPsf] 5}g .Sof/]h eof] .]sf] lyof] .f/nfO{ x]g{] k|oTg ul//x]sf] 5 .Sof/]h ePsf] lyof] .n] cfkm"nfO{ yfld/fVg .s]/ cjfs alg/xL . pm eg] Psf]xf]/f] aRrfnfO{ x]l//x]sL 5. t/ v'. o. p.sf] aRrf cfFvf vf]n/] of] . lax] ePsf] kfFr jif{ eO.edu.fGTjgf lbgsf nflu b'O{ lbg.n] 6f]nfOdfq /x]sf 5g\ .'s} . nf]sGynL.sf] nf]Ug] klg ?gyfNof] .nfO{ v'.L x'gnfO{ klg s]s] s'/fn] 5]ls/x]h:tf] eO/x]sf] 5 pm .Sg] 8fS6/sf] 7x/ lyof] .sf] s] sfd Û p.sf] nf]Ug] klg lgzAb alg/Xof] .'Gb/ t/ slxNo} gal.sf] cg'xf/ kl9/x]sf] 5 .n] dgdg} o:t}o:t} .]/{ cfkm}+ 6f]nfP/ a:gyfNof] .{g] afbn hlt.Sof/]hkl5 klg ue{wf/0f ug]{ cfzdf p. Tof] ev{/ hGd]sf] p. bf].f| ] k6s ue{ /x]kl5 pgLx¿n] x/]s dlxgf 8fS6/l.n] lg/Gt/ 8fS6/l.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . p.n] slt lbg.fjwfgL ckgfpFbf klg rf/ dlxgf k'uk] l5 p. Toltv]/ pgLx¿ lgs} b'vL ePsf lyP . b'jh } gf Pstdf.sf] Gofgf] sfvdf Psgf. p.lsg .sf] cg'xf/df b]lvPsf] efjn] p.f]RgyfnL .sf] nf]Ug] p. eQmk'/.{g] .L x'g} . 39 .Fu} a. pm ?g klg g.s]g . p. kL/ gdfg .fGTjgf lbg klg la. sfvdf cfˆg} aRrf lnO/xFbf klg p.Gtfg k|fKt x'bF f :jefljs¿kdf x'gk' g]{ v'. clg pm klg nf]Ug]sf] 5ftLdf d'v n'sfP/ XjfFXjfF ?g yfnL . :jf:Yosf] lgoldt hfFr u/fO/fvL . t/ cGTodf 8fS6/n] capk|fGt p. jftfj/0f cfb|{ x'g yfNof] . ue{wf/0f ubf{ cfdf / aRrf b'jn } fO{ vt/f x'g.Gtfgdf]xsf] kL8fn] /GylgP/ p.141 .fGTjgf lbg vf]Hof] .sf] ld. .Sbf klg pgLx¿nfO{ .'Gb/ eP klg To. nf]Ug]sf cfFvf /. aRrf hlGdPsf]df b'vL x'gk' g]{ s'g} sf/0f 5}g. efUod} gePkl5 s.sf] aRrf p.sf] k'gM bf].Nnfxadf]lhd p.sf] sfvdf ev{/} hGd]sf] aRrf 5 .cfdf xf] cfdf xf]Og /Tg k|hfklt v/Laf]6.n] rndnfO/x]sf] 5 .ls/x]sf] 5}g pm .t k/fdz{ ul//x] .]/ p. gal.Dd /f]P/ latfPsL lyO{ . t/ pm cjfs ag]sL 5 . p.f| ] k6s ld. t/ p. v'. p.fPsf] b]v/] p.nfO{ . klxnf] k6s b'O{ dlxgfkl5 p. bf]. ev{/ hGd]sf] p.Dd clkm.ls/x]sL 5}g . k|ltlqmofljxLg .sf] nf]Ug] klg p. 8fS6/sf] . pm v'.nfO{ .k6s pgLx¿ cem a9L b'vL eP .s]sf lyP .'g/] pgLx¿ cjfs eP . guO{ 3/} a.f| ] k6ssf] ld. lbg laTb} uPkl5 lj:tf/} pgLx¿n] Tof] b'vnfO{ e'ns ] f lyP .L x'g} cfO/x]sf] 5}g .nfO{ .n] cfkm}nfO{ eg] .t k/fdz{ ul//fvL .Fu.sf] nf]Ug]n] …e}uf].fGTjgf lbP/ /f]Sg . p. v'.sf] nf]Ug] klg pmh:t} k|ltlqmofljxLg eO/x]sf] 5 .sf cfˆg} cfFvf klg cfF.Fu} p.n ' ] leHg yfln. pm.nfO{ v'. cem} egf}+ p.Gtfg k|flKt ePsf] lyPg .np p. kmf]g ^^#!&#@ Od]n ratna@kcm. p.+.n] ue{wf/0f ug{' gx'g] l/kf]6{ lbof] .n] cfkm"nfO{ x]bf{ .L nflu/x]sf] 5}g .nfO{ s'g} sfd ug{ glbO{ k"/f a]8/]:6df /fv] . t/ oltsf .L klg x'g .sf] s] nfU5Ú eGb} p. o:tf] . .

S5] < of] s'/fn] eg] km]l/ pgLx¿nfO{ lk/f]Ng yfNof] . t/ 8fS6/n] eg]em}+ cfdf / aRrf b'jn } fO{ vt/f x'g. p.S5 eGg] s'/fn] pgLx¿n] Tof] cfzfnfO{ To.dfrf/ lyof] .dfrf/ pgLx¿sf nflu v'.'s} xfF:g] k|oTg u/] klg / dgsf] kL/ e'Ng] hlt.dfrf/ k9\g nufof] .L eO{ . t/ csf]{ dgn] ltg} s]6fs]6LnfO{ b]v/] pm leqleq} emg} b'MvL x'GyL .s]xLa]/ .s]kl5 ef/L dg lnP/} 3/ kms{GyL .dfrf/n] w]/} lbgkl5 pgLx¿sf] d'xf/df v'. 40 . Tof] vfhf. hfFu/} geP klg pm nf]Ug]sf nflu lrof agfP/ NofOlbGyL . p.Fu} /f]Pkl5 pgLx¿n] cfkm"nfO{ x'nsf dx.xjf. t/ x/]s /ft ha nf]Ug]:jf:gL .f]Rbf.sf] dgsf] s'/f] a'em]sf] lyof] .Fu hlt. cfdf x'g kfpg] v'. t/ ToxL .fGTjgf lbGy] .xsdL{x¿ p.141 . cfˆg} cfFugdf cfˆg} 5f]/f5f]/L To.Fu. Ps lbg laxfg cvaf/ k9\bfk9\b} p. Tof] .a} s]6fs]6L uO.Ln] pm lgs} /dfO{ . /f]Pkl5 dg xnFu' f] x'bF f]/x]5 . clg p.sf] dgsf] kL/ 36\bg} Yof] / p.df nLg xGy]. clg :s'nsf s]6fs]6L.fFemdf nf]Ug] 3/ cfPkl5 nf]Ug]sf nflu vfhf agfOlbGyL . .nfO{ . slxn] .L b]v/] p.Nnfxadf]lhd ca p./L laxfg ef/L dg lnP/ :s'n hfGyL.sf] nf]Ug]n] p.'¿k lrof lkpFYof] / ef/L dg lnP/ k9fpgsf nflu sn]h hfGYof] .df klg lyof] .Gtfg gx'gs ' f] kL8fn] p.Lsf] .Dem]/ slNk/xGyL . . :s'nsf .kgf p.fFemdf klg .f]r/] laTYof] .Fu} pm klg cfˆgf] .t} a:yL / lgs} cfzfd'vL eP/ nf]Ug]nfO{ x]yL{ . 3f]lr/xGy] .Sg] Tof] csL{ :jf:gLdfG5] sf] x'g.sf] nf]Ug] klg dL7f] gdL7f] s]xL gegL .Sg] Tof] .'s} k|oTg u/] klg p.sf] nf]Ug] Pp6f .n ' ] pgLx¿sf] kL8f aufOlbPsf] lyof] .{b+ g} / w/tLnfO{ lehfpg . t/ pgLx¿sf nflu aRrf hGdfOlbg . nf]Ug] gcfpGh]n 3/df PSn} a.n] geg] klg p.–.n] cfkm"nfO{ ToxL cfsfzsf] . To.sf] d'xf/sf] pbf.xjf. p. clg l.dfrf/df k'u/] 6Ss cl8of] .Ldf lgs} /dfof] .Sb}g .n] ue{wf/0f gug]{ lg0f{o u/L .w} xLgtfaf]w u/fO/xGYof] .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . pgLx¿sf] dgdf stfstf cfz nfu]/ cfpFYof] / cem} Psk6s kv]/{ x]g{] xf] ls eGg] efjgf klg pTkGg eP/ cfpFYof] . pm klg vfgf vfP/ k9fpgsf nflu :s'n hfGyL . 8fS6/sf] .sf] x]/fOdf oxL efj /x]sf] yfxf kfP/ p. u/] .sf] nf]Ug] s]xL gaf]nL vfhf vfO/xGYof] . x/]s :jf:gLdfG5]df x'g] cfdf x'g] . p. klg vNnf] nfUYof] pgLx¿nfO{ . nf]Ug]nfO{ vfhf lbP/ pm nf]Ug]l.fgf s]6fs]6LnfO{ k9fpFbf / pgLx¿nfO{ v]nfpFbf Ps dgn] pm cfˆgf] dgsf] kL/ e'NyL ./L /dfpFb} v]ns ] f] sNkgfn] pm lgs} lk/f]lnGyL .Gtfg gx'gs ' f] kL8f rkfO/xGYof] .sf . p.f]Rb} laxfg x'GYof] eg] slxn] aRrf v]nfPsf] sNkgf ubf{ub}{ laxfg x'GYof] . cfˆgf] jLo{ / >LdtLsf] l8Daaf6 cs}{ :jf:gLdfG5]n] aRrf hGdfOlbg .ª\u} /ft s]s] .} ToflulbP .}n] p.nfO{ d'6d ' f laemfO/xGy] . ta pgLx¿sf] Tof] dL7f] . pm h.L x'bF } p.sf] nf]Ug] klg afa' x'g kfpg] v'.n] v'. clg .L x6\bg} Yof] .}u/L .Demg yfNyL.'¿k.'. of] s'/f] a'em]sf] p.nfO{ klg Tof] .]tf] afbn .sf] d'xf/sf] pbf. dfgf}+ cfF.Lsf] /ª\u b]lvof] . laxfg p7]/ ef/L dg lnP/ pm lgTosd{df nfUyL .fGTjgfsf zAbx¿n] p.]/ :s'nsf] k|fª\u0fdf s]6fs]6Lx¿ v]ns ] f] .dfrf/ k9]/ pm klg v'. h'g slxNo} al.nfO{ .

:jf:Yolj1fgn] o:tf] s'/fnfO{ klg .\ / pgLx¿sf nflu Pp6f . t/ p.x/df cfOk'uL .fydf lnP/ kfj{tL b'O{ lbgd} .n] cfkm"nfO{ Tof] aRrfsf] cfdf eg]/ bfjL ug{ kfpFlbg .sL .'? ug]{ / s. .DklQ lbg] km}. ef8fdf cfdf aGg] :jf:gLdfG5]x¿ klg . h'g s'/fn] p. jf:tjd} pgLx¿nfO{ Tof] s'/fn] lgs} pT. Toltv]/ p.L agfOlbof] .sf] To:tf] xljut b]v/] pgLx¿nfO{ klg b'v nfUof] / s?0ff klg hfUof] .f]Rg] / .Fusf] eL8Gtdf p./L cfdf algsg klg cfdf x'g gkfpg] cfdf aGg'sf] cf}lrTo s] < o.}aLrdf kfj{tL :jo+n] …s] slt sfdn] af]nfpg' ePsf] dflnSgL <Ú eGb} p.n] k9]sf] cvaf/df n]lvPsf] lyof] . emg\ z[ªu\ f/ k6Ss} gubf{ kfj{tL hjfgLd} a"9L b]lvO5 . k|x/Ldf hflu/] p.n] s]xL eGg} .n] o:t}o:t} .nfO{ ./L cfdf x'g sf] /fhL xf]nf < p.Fu} uPsL lyO{ .n] jLo{ lbof] p. Toltv]/ pgLx¿n] ToxL :jf:gLdfG5]nfO{ .'g/] kfj{tLn] s] .Sbf klg pgLx¿n] p.n] pgLx¿sf] ue{wf/0f ul/b]cf].fxsf .Gtfg hGdfOlbPjfkt\ p. p. cs}{ nf]Ug]dfG5]nfO{ afa' eG5 .Demg] qmddf pgLx¿sf] dfg.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° ./L .}To. pgLx¿sf] ufpFsf] 3/df sfd ug{ a.sf] nf]Ug] dfl/Pkl5 pm hjfgLd} ljwjf ePsL lyO{ / k'gM dfOtLd} a:g yfn]sL lyO{ . p. pgLx¿n] ToxL kfj{tLnfO{ g} Psk6s .} /f]dfl~rt x'gyfn] . cg'xf/sf] /ª\u p8]5 .flxt agfOlbof] .sf] nf]Ug]sf] .Dem] .l.tfO/Xof] .\ .Dks{ ubf{ kfj{tL ufpFs} dfOtL3/df e]l6O{ . Jofkf/} .Fu} p. Toltv]/ p.nfO{ s:tf] cg'ej x'G5 xf]nf < Toltv]/ p. s'/f sxfFaf6 .'? ug]{ eGg] . h?/L sfd 5 eg]/ af]nfPkl5 .sf] gfpF kfj{tL xf] .sf] dgdf klg s]xL cfzf hufOlbof] . oxL s'/f p. pgLx¿sf] 3/df sfd ug{ a:bf Tolt /fd|L kfj{tL clxn] b'AnfP/ Vofp6L eO5 .lsg] /x]5 .f]rL / .sf]] b'ef{Uosf] kmfObf p7fpg vf]hs ] f] bf]iff/f]k0f u/L 41 . t/ efUosf] lj8Dagf Û ljb|fx] L.f]lw. xf]. h.141 .t .xL. st} kfj{tLn] p.?jf b'ud { kxf8df ePkl5 pm klg .fgf] efOnfO{ . kfj{tL cfPsf] xKtf lbg eO.sf] efUo.f]RnL < cyjf s] eGnL eGg] s'/fn] p.f]Rgyfn].]sL pQm :jf:gLdfG5] lax]kl5 cfˆg} nf]Ug]l.nfO{ cfˆgf] nf]Ug] eGg kfpFlbg .nf klg pgLx¿n] Toltv]/ g} u/] .Gtfgsf] hGd b]cf]. ef8fdf klg cfdf aGg . kfj{tLn] dfgL eg] pgLx¿sf nflu .t w]/r } f]l6 . To:tf] s'/f . ufpFdf .x/ uPsL lyO{ . ha o.n] eg]hlt .Dks{ ug]{ lgwf] u/] .csf{sf] jLo{ / l8Da cfˆgf] ue{df x'n/] ue{jtL aGg' / csf{sf] lglDt aRrf hGdfOlbg' s] :jLsfo{ s'/f xf] < ef8fsL cfdf aGg' s] uj{of]Uo s'/f xf] < b'lgofFdf s'grflxF :jf:gLdfG5] xf]nL.f]lr/xL .nfO{ s]xL v'. kfj{tLn] dfgL eg] cfkm"x¿ afa'cfdf aGg] sNkgfn] pgLx¿ To.dfhdf /x]5g\ . clg pT.s]sL xf]Og .d:ofn] d"n s'/fnfO{ c8\sfO/fVof] .Dej agfOlbP5 .k6ndf ufpFsL Pp6L :jf:gLdfG5] pleg cfOk'uL . hf] csf{sf] jLo{ / l8Da cfˆgf] ue{df x'n/] ue{jtL x'g tof/ x'G5] < b'lgofFn] s] eG5 To:tL :jf:gLdfG5]nfO{ < aRrfnfO{ hGd lbPkl5 pm s. p. o.nfO{ h.nfO{ af]nfpg'sf] sf/0f eGg .Fu.fy pgLx¿ To:tL Pshgf :jf:gLdfG5]sf] af/]df .sL cfdf x'G5] < hGd]sf] aRrfn] kl5 cs}{ :jf:gLdfG5]nfO{ cfdf eG5 .sL :jf:gL x'G5] < / s.s]gg\ . ha s]xL ?lkofFsf] nflu sf]xL cfdf alglbG5g\ eg] of] t Jofkf/ ePg / < t/.

To. To.f]rljrf/ u/]/ Pslbg p.S5].'g/] kfj{tLn] emg\ 7"nf] crDd dfgL / cgf}7f]l.f]lw/x]sL 5. xfdLnfO{ .'Tg'k5{.nfO{ klg uf¥xf] eof] .nfO{ klg cfdf aGg] OR5f 42 . h'g s'/f pml. lax] p.Ú p.Ú p. t/ p. stfstf leq dgdf p.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . p. cyjf a'em]/ klg lsg p. .n] s] eGg vf]hs ] L xf].— …s] eGg'ePsf] dflnSgL < d]/f] t nf]Ug] g} dl/.Gtfgsf] cfdf aGg .Gtfg hGdfOb] . tFnfO{ cfdf aGg dg 5 <Ú .DejtM pm .f]wL .lsg .'Gg] xtf/df p.'g/] kfj{tLn] crDd dfGb} cf]7 6f]s/] egL.sL :jf:gL eP/ a:g'k5{— h'g s'/f p.f]rs ] L xf]ln.Ú …s.n] egL.Demfpg] efFtL egL .\ . .uF . tF xfd|f nflu Pp6f .141 . cfdf aGgsf nflu p.sf] nf]Ug]nfO{ x]gy{ fnL .t pgLx¿nfO{ kfn}kfnf] x]gy{ fnL . Tof] a'‰bf klg a'lemg .n] la. nf]Ug] geOsg klg cfdf aGg .sf] nf]Ug].f]lr/x]sL xf]nL. oBlk cfdf aGg] s'/fn] pm klg /f]dfl~rt gag]sL eg] xf]Og . kfj{tLn] km]l/ klg crDd dfgL / egL.eg] s] ug]{ < o:t} s'/fn] ubf{ p.n] cfdf aGg] . b'O{ k6s d]/f] aRrf v]/ uO.n] egL .}n] tF xfd|f nflu Pp6f .f]emL kfj{tLn] p.sf] b'ef{Uo g} eGg'k5{.n] em§} s]xL eGg .n] s'/f gnDAofOsg d"n s'/f egL . Tof] g} p.\ tFnfO{ Tof] lbG5f} xfdL .n] nf]Ug]nfO{ u'dfpg'k¥of] . kfj{tLn] lj:tf/} cfFvf p7fP/ p.tsf] .t} .sf] dgsf] s'/f a'em]/ p. cyf{t\ p. 8fS6/n] eg]sf] ca d}n] aRrf hGdfpg' x'bF g} /] .L{ / kSs k/]/ a.t p. To.— …kfj{tL.faz kfj{tLn] clnslt pQ]lht eP/ ./L nf]Ug] d/]sf] jif{ lbgd} cs}s { L] :jf:gL eP/ a:g] s'/f .n] .Ú . …xfd|f] s'/f tFnfO{ d~h'/ 5 xf]Og t kfj{tL <Ú kfj{tLsf] lg0f{o .DejtM ufpFsL .'g/] kfj{tL cjfs eO{ .Sof] ÛÚ …cr]n cfdf aGgnfO{ nf]Ug] g} rflxG5 eGg] 5}g kfj{tL .lsg .sf] klg ePs} xf] .\ t}n + ] dflnsl. nf]Ug] p.n] laxfgsf] vfgf vfg] a]nfdf kfj{tLnfO{ .lsG5 <Ú …. nf]Ug] dl/.n] klg cg'ej u/]s} xf] . w]/} .'Tg'k5{ .s]kl5 lhGbuLe/ j}wJo hLjg lhpg] . kfj{tLsf] x]/fOaf6 p.L .f] t <Ú lh1f. t}n F ] xfd|f] nflu .Gtfg hGdfOlbO. . p.Gtfgsf] 7"nf] /x/ 5 .nfO{ kfj{tLnfO{ jf:tljs s'/f eGg] lxDdt cfO/x]sf] lyPg . lg0f{o ug{ p.t lax] ug'k{ 5{ cyjf dflnsl.f] xf]Og .f}efUo gkfpFb} kfkLx¿n] ubf{ p. p. t}n + ] .f]Rg.S5] .f]wL.n] t'?Gt x'G5 klg elgg / x'Gg klg elgg .Sof] .+:sf/df x'ss {] L kfj{tLn] s. kfj{tL cgsgfO/xL .n] klg kfPs} xf] / nf]Ug]l.\ eg] tF h] eG5].sf nflu c.Gtfg hGdfOb] .n] o:tf] elg/x]sL 5. Tof] a'‰g .lsG5 kfj{tL . …kfj{tL. p.sL dflnSgLn] .xjf.S5].}n] eg]sf]. …dflnssf] jLo{ / d]/f] l8Da t]/f] ue{df xfn]kl5 tF ue{jtL x'g.\ / xfd|f] .Dej lyof] .— …cfDd}.

jkL8f . cfˆg} hLjg kxf8.t .sf] df}gtfnfO{ g} pgLx¿n] :jLs[lt 7fg] / Psn] csf]n { fO{ x]b{} d':s'/fpg yfn] . pm cgf}7f]l.nfO{ s'g} nfn.sf] cg'xf/ /ftf] eO/x]sf] lyof] .dflnO{ .n] Tof] k|:tfjnfO{ 7f8} c:jLsf/ ul/xfNg eg] .sf] :ofxf/.DemFb} k'gM cfˆg} a]8?ddf uP/ cf/fd ug{ a. 8fS6/n] ca p7] x'G5 eg]kl5 kfj{tL a]8af6 p7L .sf] nf]Ug]n] kfj{tLnfO{ .DklQsf] s]] df]x . nf]Ug] g} p. kfj{tL cfn' tf5\b} s'g} sNkgfdf 8'la/x]sL lyO{ . p.L .sf] nf]Ug]nfO{ aRrfsf] cfdf / afa' ag]sf] v'. cyf{t\ ca kfj{tL pgLx¿sf] aRrfsf] cfdf aGg] eO.sf] nf]Ug] ef]lnsf] Snf.h ] :tf] s'ts'tL cg'ej eO/Xof] .}n] hGdfPsL xf] .df x]/fx]/ u/]/ d':s'/fpg klg yfn] . pm klg s]xL gegL kfj{tLnfO{ x]//] xfF:b} nf]Ug]sf] :68L¿dleq k. kfj{tL ue{jtL ePkl5 p. pm klxnfh:t} /fd|L b]lvgyfnL .l/ ePsf] a]nfdf .Ldf awfO{ lbof] .}n] awfO{ lbPgg\ . s]xL lbgkl5 . afa'cfdf aGg] clenfiffn] pgLx¿nfO{ klg Ps k6s km]l/ /f]dfl~rt agfof] . p.sf] nf]Ug] / kfj{tL Ps cfk. h'g 8fS6/n] pgLx¿sf] jLo{ / l8Da xfn]/ kfj{tLnfO{ ue{jtL agfPsf lyP.n] af]ss ] L lyO{ / 7"nf] k|.nfO{ cfˆgf] z/L/ leq s]s] 3'. pgLx¿ klg kfj{tLsf] of] u'gn] lgs} cg'ux[ Lt eO/x]sf lyP .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .sf] dlxgf k'Uof] / p. nfh / pQ]hgf cflbn] p. t/ kfj{tLnfO{ cfdf ag]sf]df s.kl5 pm 9'Ss eO{ .s]sf] lyof] .Dd ue{ p. kfj{tLn] s]xL gaf]nL clncln d':s'/fP/ pgLx¿ b'jn } fO{ kfn}kfn] x]l/dfq /xL .nfO{ b]Vg]lalQs} kfj{tL .lyof] . . p.f/ kfPkl5 kfj{tLsf] hLp klg lgs} km]l/of] .f lyPg .141 . clncln cfFlQO{ klg /x]sL lyO{ . st} p. ToxL 8fS6/n] aRrf p. kfj{tL ue{jtL ePsf] x]bf{xb] {} p.'./ afFsL /fv]gg\ .a}nfO{ x]l//x]sL lyO{ . s'ts'tL. kfj{tL cfkm" cfdf ag]/ klg v'. w]/} lbgkl5 z/L/leq stfstfaf6 hfu[t eP/ cfpg] OR5f klg k"/f ePh:tf] eof] . t/ klg p.}n] awfO{ lbPgg\ .n] v'.sf] nf]Ug]n] klg cf}krfl/s¿kd} kfj{tLnfO{ w]/} w]/} wGoafb lbof] .n] gl.x]/ aRrf klg p.sf] nf]Ug]nfO{ cfˆgf] nf]Ug] dfGg] xf] ls < st} o:t} eOlbof] eg] < pm / kfj{tL nf]Ug]:jf:gL ag]/ a:gyfn] eg] cfkm" sxfF hfg] < o:tf] sNkgfdfq}n] klg pm sxflng yfnL . /fd|f] :ofxf/.a} yf]s lyof] .nfO{ / p.fFRr} eGg] xf] eg] pm 43 . cfˆgf] sNkgfnfO{ Joy{ . To. kfj{tLsf] ue{leq pgLx¿sf] jLo{ / l8Da k|jz ] ul/.]sf] b]v/] p.L x'g . nf]enfUbL x'gyfnL .nfO{ 8/ nfUgyfNof]. pm stfstf ylsth:tL b]lvGyL eg] stfstf rlsth:tL klg b]lvGyL .lsg . p.fFr/] s] sfd .sf] .Ln] b|lje"t x'bF } kfj{tLnfO{ cFufnf] xfnL . nf]Ug] geP klg cfdf aGg kfpg] s'/fn] p. t/ . p.{ª xf]ddf aRrfnfO{ hGd lbO{ .L .s]sL lyO{ .fFlRrs} :jf:gL agfpg] xf] ls < cyjf kfj{tLn] p.nfO{ s. ToxfF p.sf nflu :nfO8x¿ agfpFb} lyof] . bf}8/] x]g{ hfFbf kfj{tL lsr]gdf cfn' tf5\b} lyO{ . p. pm clncln nhfO{ klg /x]sL lyO{ .lsg .DklQsf] eg] p. gf} dlxgf.f/df pgLx¿n] s'g} s.DklQ .'.sf] xftdf lb+b} p. kfj{tL df}g a. nf]Ug] g} gePkl5 .

kfj{tLn] Tof] aRrfnfO{ hGd lbO{ . To.ª\u|x0fLo / r gf .cfdf ag]/ klg cfdf x'g .}n] p. sf7df8f}–+ @ Od]n romire@mail. To.Gt'li6 k|fKt ePg . kfj{tLsf] 5ftLel/ dft[Tj el/P/ cfof] / Tof] p.a} . pm t vfln aRrf hGdfpg] .sf] . To.sf] :tg r':g] p.L eO{ . clncln nf]Ug]sf] h:tf] / clncln kfj{tLsf] h:tf] nfUof] .nfO{ k6Ss} x'bF } ePg . oL . /f]O/xL . t/ aRrf p. cfdf x'gs ' f] . p.np j]e www.lsg . z/L/df Psk|sf/sf] dL7f] kL8f x'gk' Yof].sL cfdf xf] . kfj{tL /f]O/x]sf] b]v/] p.fwgdfq agL .com.a} . Pp6f 6\ofS.Dd klg lbOPg . Tof] r'lxPsf] 5}g . p. pm k"/f xf]Og.nfO{ Tof] :tg r'.sf] xf]. cfwf v'. jif{b]lv lg/Gt/ k|sflzt eO/x]5 .Dd sf]vdf /fv]/ hGdfPsf] . t/ oL . oBlk v'.fpg] cj. p./.L x'g .jkL8f .Gtfg c¿s} sfvdf lyof] .Gtfg hGdg]lalQs} c¿s} eof] . clg kfj{tL af6f]el/ 6\ofS.{ pm v'.nfO{ cfkm" cfdf x'gs ' f] k"0f{ . kl/l:yltn] cfdf x'gk} Yof].sf] nf]Ug]n] klg cfkm"nfO{ afa' agfOlbPsf]df kfj{tLnfO{ wGoafb lbof] .sf] :tgaf6 aUgyfNof] . tk\tk\ r'lxg'kYof]{ . p.lsg .xg} . )) k|To]s cª\s k7gLo / . To.{ pm cfdf eO{ .Gtfg p.dfNg} .nepalirachana. c¿ g} cfdf ag] . t/ k|.L x'g.flxlTos k|sfzg _ ljut c7\rfnL.L eP/ p. ue{df 5pGh]n p.sL cfdf xf]Og . aRrfnfO{ lnP/ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .Ldf r9]/ pgLx¿ 3/lt/ nfu] .}n] kfj{tL To. p.f]r/] pm cfdf ag]/ klg cfdf x'gs ' f] k"/f v'. r=!–%%$ uxgfkf]v/L.sL .'SF s /f]O/xL. c¿ g} afa' ag] .n] g?gsf nflu .}n] pm cfdf xf]Og .nfO{ cfkm" cfdf ag]/ klg cfdf ag]h:tf] nfu]g .{ Tof] klg ePsf] 5}g .n] aRrfnfO{ r'Dag u/L. t/ p. oltv]/ Tof] aRrf p. To.Lsf] ‰ofnaf6 aflx/ x]b{} .{ª xf]daf6 aflx/ lgl:sP .b'O{ dlxg] .sf] ePg . 4432201 44 .n] gf} dlxgf.nfO{ aRrfsf] cg'xf/ clncln cfˆg}h:tf].sf] sfvdf 5 . cfwfdfq} v'.fGTjgf / wGojfbsf cf}krfl/s zAbx¿n] pN6} kfj{tLsf] d'6' l5ofl5of agfof] . aRrf p. t/ Tof] r'Dagsf] :jfbdf p.Dem]/ kfj{tLsf] d'6d ' f eSsfgf] km'6/] cfof] / pm a]8d} 3f]lK6P/ SjfFSjfF ?gyfnL .a}hgf gl. t/ Tof] aRrf kfj{tLsf] xf]Og .fGTjgfsf b'O{ zAb af]nL / cfkm"nfO{ . 6ª\ufn.Gtfg hGdfOlbPsf]df k]ml/ klg wGoafb klg lbO{ . To.141 .lsg / cfkm"nfO{ .n] .}n] Tof] aRrf cfwf cfˆg}h:tf] / cfwf c¿s} h:tf] nfUof] .}n] kfj{tL To.sf] . p.n] hGdfPsL xf]Og.com kmf]g 4432703.lsg .'SF s. oL .Gt[li6n] z/L/af6 dft[Tj/.L x'gk} Yof].x]/ cfdf x'gs ' f] cg'el" t eg] p.n] Tof] aRrfsf] cg'xf/ lgofn]/ x]/L .}n] pm cfdf xf] .

nfO{ e/ lb+b} .flxFnf af Û of] nf]stGq cfPsf] s] sfd Û eg]sf] a]nf sfd x'gk' 5{ clg ePg eg] -d'7L[ a6fb}_{ h] ug{k' g]{ xf] ul/xfNg' k5{ . cem} cfPg .f] :yfg M v'Nnf /fhdfu{ 5]p ."tL{ d'vdf xfn]/ lkRr y'Sb}_ ca Psl5g s'/f}+ .s]sf] / s]xL x'gk' g]{ s'/f afFsL /x]sf] . ca hfteftsf] s'g} e]befj 5}g .Sof] . kfsf]dfG5] M -. w"nf] kfg{k' 5{ .fwf/0f lrofk.f 45 . cfP/ sfd ub]{ . Tof] jftfj/0fn] ToxfF s]xL gx'gk' g]{ sfd e}. cfh d]/f] 3/df .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .jfn 5 .s]sf] 5 . cfh sfd ug]{ dfG5] cfPg .Sof] ./L r"k nfu]/ a:bf g} xf] OHht n'6g\ s ] f] lxDdt a9]sf] . tkfO{ xfdL o.s]kl5_ tF hfGg] eP/ Tof] AjfF..xhefjdf_ 3/df cfdf lj/fdL x'gx' G' 5 .Fb_} va/ u/]sf] Ps 306f laTg nfUof]. -lszf]/L 5]p uP/ s]xL s'/f . w"nf] agfpg] s'/f] u/]sf] t}n + ]< o'js tLg M -kfv'/f v}l+ rb}_ tkfO{ gs/fpgf]. lszf]/Ln] dlng :j/df hjfkm lbPkl5_ Tof] .Pp6f Jo:t /fhdfu{ 5]p dfG5]sf] eL8 nfu]sf] 5 . clxn] r"k nfu Û o'js Ps M -emls{b_} lsg r"k nfUg] Û OHht t u'ld.\ clg Ps xhf/ ?k}ofF klg lbG5' eGof] .f]W5 .xfg'el" t lbg] k|of.f]sf] 3/df lsg uPsL t < lszf]/L M -?Fb_} b]zdf nf]stGq cfO.\ .\ . cfOlbgfn] lhNnfdf clncln e/y]s e}/x]5 ./f4 5 . o'js tLg M -l/.+st] ul//x]sf] 5 _ o'js Ps M hf]l:. cf}iflw lsGg] k}. k]6el/ vfgf klg vfln. nf]stGq eg]s} o} xf] . Pp6L cfOdfO{ :oflg6/L kfP8 lnP/ Tot}lt/ bu'5_{] o'js b'O{ M -lszf]/L cfP/ 6]andf al.do M lbpF.Fu} Ps b'Oj6L cfOdfO{ p. ul//x]5g\ . .fnf a"9f] Û gflt gfltgfsf] ljxf ug]{ pd]/df o:tf] x/st ug]{ Û -bfFt ls6\b_} To:nfO{ s] ug{k' 5{ dnfO{ yfxf 5 . -lszf]/L 5]p hfFb_} tFnfO clxn] s:tf] 5 < -lszf]/L eSsflgP/ zf}rfnolt/ nfU5] .141 .nf]stGq nj ufp“n] dgd}h' b[Zo M Ps . cfPg eg] c:ktfnd} uP/ PDa'nG] . kfsf]dfG5] M -.DemfpFb_} aNntNn ljb]zL cg'bfgdf Pp6f PDa'nG] .Sof] Tolt g} OHht x'G5 .Demfpg] z}nLdf_ w]/} gs/f afa' Û oxfF OHhtsf] . PDa'nG] . cfk"mnfO{ k/]sf] dfsf{df hlt v'n/] lj/f]w ug{. sxfF PDa'nG] . ca t nf]stGq cfO.n aflx/ /x]sf] a]Grdf Pp6L lszf]/L /f]O/x]sL 5 . tF t d]/L gfltgL a/fa/sL xf].fpFb_} clg tFnfO{ lsg Ps xhf/ rflxPsf] lg < lszf]/L M -. o'js b'O{ M -df8]sf] . . s]xL o'jf Pj+ kfsf dfG5]x¿ sdLhsf] afx'nf bf]af| pFb} d'ÝL a6fl//x]sf b]lvG5g\ .

/f4sf] lbg klxn] g'xfOw'jfO{ u/]/ z'4 x'gk' 5{ eGof] . ToxfF eL8 cf]x/ bf]x/ ul/x]sf 5g\ . e}xfn]F . lkpg lbO{ . To.s]kl5 ?dfnn] .df a.do 5 .f] :yfg M c:ktfn / c:ktfn kl/. kfsf]dfG5] M -xQfl/Fb_} clg s] eof] gfgL < lszf]/L M -nhfpFb_} dnfO{ s'g} ux«f+} ef/Ln] lyr]h:tf] eof] / PSsfl.fpFb} ugf].DaGw 5/< o'js tLg M -/ftf /ftf cfFvf kfb}{ rsf]{ :j/df_ . lj/fdLnfO{ k/LIf0fsf] nflu sIfleq l5/fpg vf]Hb5g\_ cl. { o ?k}ofF lbP/ ltdL oxfF ga. o'js Ps M -sfg} vfg] u/L_ s] /] < clzi6]06 M kfnf] gcfpGh]n Ps l5g s'gk'{ 5{ eg]sf] .n] s] u¥of] t < lszf]/L M -cfF. lkPkl5 d cw{ax] f]. c:ktfn kl/.lyPg To.' k'R5\b_} cfh ./ -PDa'nG] .kl5 dnfO{ h". tkfO{sf] dfG5]nfO{ ot} aflx/ a.kl5 < lszf]/L M Tof] ck/fwL efluxfNof] .do M lbpF.DaGw 5 . s'g{] Û aNntNn c:ktfn cfPkl5 kfnf] s'g'{ kg]{ < -hf]l:F. o'js tLg M clg clg====Û lszf]/L M g'xfO. o'js Ps M To. -olQs}df PDa'nG] .a}hgf cf]ln{P/ lj/fdLsf] :jf:y k/LIf0f ug]{ sIflt/ nfU5g\ .gf cfpg] nf].a}hgf PDa'nG] . cfOk'U5 .}n] . xfd|f] lj/fdLnfO{ v'?Ss hfFlrxfNg] ls tkfO{x+ ¿ . .g bNg'k5{ eg]/ To:n] Pp6f a§faf6 lrNnf] lrNnf] lqmd lems]/ lhpel/ blnlbO{ . tNnf]k6] d'lg b'vk] l5 d lrRofPF . clg Pp6L gv/dfpnLnfO{ af]nfP/ dnfO{ g'xfOlbg c/fof] .do x'GYof] xf]nf . Tof] gsRr/Ln] dnfO{ g'xfpg] 7fpFdf nuL / lgj{:q kf/]/ g'xfOlbO{ . h".]/ c:ktfnlt/ nfU5g\_ -kbf{_ b[Zo M b'O{ . z/L/df £o" :o" bNof] eg] Ho" Ps}l5gdf uGxfpF5 . { \. jf.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .i6]06 M -/fSg vf]Hb}_ clxn] lj/fdLsf] eL8 5 .a}sf] Ps}rf]l6 ck|z ] g ug]{ Û -clzi6]06 s]xL gaf]nL leq hfG5 / Ps}l5gdf cfP/ lj/fdLnfO{ leq n}hfG5_ o'js Ps M cr]n t gysf{O.dol.141 .t s] . klxn] klxn] tkfO{x+ ¿sf] . o'js b'O{ M -s8f :j/df_ P˜˜Ò cl3 em08} b'O306f PDa'nG] . o'js Ps M clg lbof] t Ps xhf/ ¿k}of < lszf]/L M sxfF lbg' Tof] d'bf{n] Û -?g yfN5]_ . gq g/fd|f] x'G5 eg]/ k7fOlbO{ . clxn] nf]stGqsf] . o'js b'O{ M 3/df uPkl5 To.b}_ tkfO{ oxfF sfd ug{ yfn]sf] slt eof] < clzi6]06 M -gd| x'bF _} kfnf] kv{g' / d}n] sfd yfn]s ] f] . dnfO{ g'xfOlbg] cfOdfOn] yfdy'd kf/]/ b'O.a} 7fpFdf k'l5lbO{ . gxKsfO{ sfd} gaGg] ef] af Û 46 ./df /f]lsPkl5 .

gq t d} n]lvlbGy] lg . l/kf]6{ s'//] a.a} s'/f yfxf kfpg] Û -leqaf6 Pp6f dfG5] l/kf]6{ lnP/ cfpF5_ o'js b'O{ M -xQ g kQ l/kf]6{ tfg]/ k9\b_} n yfkfpg' ef] t .f]r] h:t} l/kf]6{ cfOxfNof] lg .}nfO{ eG5g\ . :jfQ} em5{_ .fd"lxs dfkmL dfu]kl5 .}n] o:tf anfTsf/Lx¿nfO{ o:tf] lgs[i6 sfddf lg?T. k9fO / Joj.Sb}g .n]] ubf{ eljiodf o:tf ck/fwdf w]/} sdL cfpg .NsfpFb_} dnfO{ ltdLx¿sf] s'/f] lrQ a'‰of] . x] eujfg\ Û ca b]zdf Gofo kfpg .t 7f]lsG5 _ o'jtL M -.S5 < kfsf] dfG5] M . cfwf c+z lbnfpg] dfq x}g Tof] anfTsf/Lsf] lnË g} sf6\gk' g]{ bfaL ub}{ cbfnt hfg' k5{ Û kfsf] dfG5] M -.gSs .f}+ g .\ . Tof] AjfF. { \ clxn] b]zdf nf]stGq cfO.flxFnf afÚ Û zt k|ltzt d}n] eg]s} x'G5 .sf] k'?ifTjn] sfd ug{ .lxt cfh} cbfntdf 47 .}n] lxF8b\ f af]Nbf xf]. o:af6 cleo'Qmn] ck/fwjf]w ug]{ s'/f Psflt/ 5Fb5 } eg] csf]l{ t/ p.flxFnf af Û xfdLn] . oxL k|df0fsf] cfwf/df cj e/0f kf]if0f.lGsb}_ cf] ldi6/ Û cfOdfO{ eg]/ x]ks ] f] Û cfFvf 5}g < o'js b'O{ M -Ps}l5g cl3sf] hf].f]n] xfd|L l5d]sL alxgLnfO{ anfTsf/ u/]s} 7x/ ef] .flxFnf af Û Hofg} hfg]u/L lnË sf6\g] eGg] xfd|f] bfaL x}g .'t/ sfg"gn] clwsf/ lbPsf] dfG5]sf] l/kf]6{ rflxg] eP/ kf] oxfF cfPsf] .f/ ef] Û lhGbuL e/ /f]O{ /f]O{ latfcf].\ k'¥ofpgf].d"xsf] g]t[ x'F d ./L lbnfpg' k5{ Tof] dnfO{ yfxf 5 Û kfsf] dfG5] M -Joª\Uo ub}_{ ca tF t cGtof{dL g} e}xfln.Sof] eg] p. kfsf] dfG5] M -s'/f] lrQ a'em]kl5 sdLhsf] vNtLaf6 nfO6/ / r'/f]6 lems]/ .S5 ./L k'?ifTj sfd gnfUg] ePkl5 Tof] afFRg'sf] s] .a} tFnfO{ yfxf lyof] eg] t}n + ] g} l/kf]6{ n]v/] lbPsf] eP e}xfNYof] lg Û lagl.s]kl5 xfdL hflu/.Dd cfpg} gkg]{ Û o'js b'O{ M xf] t lg .b} cl3 a9\bf Pp6L o'jtLl.141 . o. o'js b'O{ M l/kf]6{ t s'g{} kb}g+ . To.fFlRrs} anfTs[t x'g] cfOdfO{ rflxF Gofosf] nflu k|df0f h'6fpg c:ktfn wfO/x]sL 5 ptf x'bF f] g vfFbf] e'mlSsP/ 7f]lsPs} andf of] cfOdfO{ anfTsf/sf] cf/f]k nfpg] wDsL lbG5] . k|x/L hfx]/L.-olt eg]/ hf]l:F.flxFnf afÚ Û Gofo s.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .fjwfg u/fpFb_} x]gf]./L lbbL Û dfkm kfpmF Û o'jtL M -cem cfqmfds aGb}_ P Û d t]/f] afpsL 5f]/L xf] lbbL eGgnfO{ < -l:ylt lgoGq0f eGbf aflx/ hfg] 7fg]/ o'js Ps / tLg klg ToxLF uP/ .a}lt/ ## k|ltzt cf/If0f dfq x}g k'?ifeGbf krf.hfFoaf6 To.n] cfˆgf] ck/fwaf]w ug{.dy{gdf_ xf]. k|ltzt a9L clwsf/ rflxG5 eGg] . o. cleo'Qmsf] HofgnfO{ vt/f gkg]{ u/L lnË sf6\g] xfd|f] dfu xf] .\ gq anfTsf/ ug{ nfu]sf] cf/f]k v]Kg' knf{ Û -o'jtL 7d7d k/]/ lxF85 \ _] kfsf] dfG5] M -crDd dfGb}_ x/] x/] s:tf] hdfgf cfof] < otf .f/} ufx«f] x'g] ef] Û o'js b'O{ M -k'mlt{ ub{_} tkfO g8/fpgf].\ g alhofn] o'js tLg M -.S5 h.fFk klg dg]{ nÝL klg gefFlrg] pkfo Û olb of] .Demfpg] z}nLdf_ x}g tF slt cfqmds eP/ lg:s]sf] xF < o'js Ps M tkfO{n + ] s'/f] cln a'em\ g' ePg .fx ug{ .\ lg— .kfsf] dfG5] M lsg xNnf ug']{ Û la/fdL hfFRg nluxfn] .lQ oxfF. Tof] afx]s 8fS6/n] c¿ s] n]Vg .fo .

sf nflu tof/ b]lvG5g\_ kfsf] Ps M -38L x]b_{} olQsf a]/ e}.DdfgLt cbfntaf6 olb of] Gofo b'Oa{ if{ cl3 dfq kfPsf] eP o:sf] dxTj /xGYof] .nf ug]{ GofofwLzs} lnË sf6\g' pko'Qm x'G5. s. .d'2f btf{ u/fpg' k5{ .xg ug{ . GofofwLz Ohnfzleq k|jz ] x'gl] alQs} ax. kLl8tx¿ nv]6b\ } hfG5g\ .f] bfh'efO xf] < -Ohnfz xndf a:g] . hg.' cleo'Qmsf] b'O{ aif{ cl3 g} d[To' e}.141 .d"xnfO{ . -. n hfcf}+ .df kfgL /flv. Gofod"lt{sf] nflu tNnf txsf sfl/Gbf xf]nfg\– lunf.'gfpFb_} k|:t't d'2fdf cleo'Qmn] gfaflnu lszf]/LnfO{{ anfTsf/ u/]sf] 7xl/Psf]n] sfg'gadf]lhd kLl8tn] kfpg] xhf{gf e/fpg] / cleo'Qmsf] Hofg tndfly gkg]{ u/L lghsf] lnË sfl6lbg pko'Qm 7x5{ .nf .x¿nfO{ yk dsf{ kg{ uPsf] 5 .nd kmfn]/ b'Oxftn] cfˆgf] lnË 5f]Kb} bf}l8g yfN5 . ca a]/sf] s'/f s]ef] / afa' Û Psl5g w}o{ u/f}+ .f] :yfg M Ohnfz sIf cGt/fn M aL.do M lbpF. —jfNdLls /fdfo0f 48 . kfsf] dfG5] a"9f / czQm b]lvG5g\ .Ò Ò/ nfdf] ax.f/ Tof] of}glkkf.Dd rln/xG5_ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .a}hgf æxf]Æ df æxf]Æ ldnfpFb} p7]kl5 GofofwLz snd .a} hgf hfG5g\_ -kbf{_ b[Zo M tLg . -kbf{ v:5_ )) .] .d"x klg kl5 kl5 nfU5 Ò Òyfxf 5}g of] qmd slxn].f .sf] k|lqmof .s]kl5 otfplt ul//x]sf blvG5g\ .s]kl5_ kfsf] b'O{ M -h'?Ss p7]/ pkl:yt hg. -olQs}df sfl/Gbfx¿ bf}8fbf}8 u/]/ GofofwLz cfpg nfu]sf] va/ u5{g\ .d[4zfnL k'?ifn] c¿sf] k|z+.Sof] . pgL Ohnfz sIfsf] Pp6f d]rdf vf]ls/x]sf 5g\ .To x. b'O{ / tLgx¿ lgs} kfsf b]lvG5g\ .St}g .s]sf] x'bF f of] nf]stGqdf Gofo lbg GofofwLzn] 9Lnf u/]sf] sf/0f xfdL jfbLkIfsf dflg.lsPkl5_ GofofwLz M -km}. a"9f dfG5] M -vf]Sb}_ olQsf aif{ t klv{b} cfOof] . o._ aif{kl5 -s/Lj aL.'? x'G5 .sf/0f l9nf] k}m.Daf]wg ub}_{ . Gofo lbg] >Ldfg\ cem} cfpg' ePsf] 5}g . ) …gLdaf6 dw' 6lKsFb}gÚ eGg] nf]sf]lQm . b'a} kIfsf sfnf jlsn -sfnf] emf]nf / sfnf] sf]6wf/L_ x¿ ax. -Pp6f JolQm xQfl/b} cfpF5 / vlNtaf6 Ps6'qmf sfuh lems]/ kfsf] b'On { fO{ b]vfpFb} sfgdf s]xL elg. aif{kl5 o'js Ps. xfdLn] yfxf kfP cg'.

u/]sf] lyPF t/ d k"0f{tof lakmn ePF . pkGof. e"ld.ft jif{ $ dlxgf klxn] *) k[i7sf] e"ld.flxlTos klqsfn] -k"0ff{Í !)& df3–kmfu'g @)%*_ . a]nfotsf zLif{ .df tLg k':tf .+jt\ @)%! df k|1f k|l/ifb\sf] pks'nklt kbdf cf."Qm kl/rrf{ c+sÆsf nflu xlb{s wGojfb dbgdl0f bLlIft sflnsfdfu{. cleJolQmsf] o.f}efUo s] eg] & jif{ $ dlxgf kl5 ePklg cfh & j}zfv @)^^df d}n] Tof] cleJolQmsf] c+s cfWof]kfGt k9]F / e"ld. ."Qm k':tssf] ¿kdf cfˆgf] . uLtfs]z/L.}an ] f dnfO{ k7fOlbg' ePsf] /x]5 t/ b'ef{Uojz To. To. lakmntfs} sf/0f d g]tT[ jdf . d'sG' b zdf{.flxTosf/ hf]g ufn{. ONof e§/fO{.'Qm n]Vbf d k|1f–k|lti7fgdf cfˆgf] ljkmntfsf] sf/0fn] cToGt ljlIfKt / k|r08 cGof]nu|:t cj:yfdf /xg] u/]s ] f] lyPF . 8f=gf/fo0f k|=uf}td.Nnfxaf6 of] kbdf dnfO{ lgo'Qm ug'{ ePsf] lyof] eGg]df cfh d lj:j:t 5' . lvngfy a:tfsf]6L. k"0f{ks | fz g]kfn ofqL.lrj /xg' ePsf >L dgdf]xg clwsf/Lsf] .Dd k|1f k|lti7fgdf pkj'mnklt /x]F .jbL{n { ] cfˆgf] pkGof.DdnfO{ lnPsf lyP eGg] d}n] k9]sf] lyPF / ."Qm kl/rrf{ c+s k|sflzt u/]sf] /x]5 .f}efUo cleJolQm . To. e"ld."Qmdf eg] !! ca{ jif{ cufl8sf] dxf 49 .df /xg' kg]{ l:y/ rl/qsf kfq tyf cf}kGofl.. l8NnLahf/ cfˆgf] b'ef{Uo egF' ls .fnb]lv c9fO jif{hlt b}lgs …xfnva/Údf a]tgef]uL k|wfg .141 .f}Gbo{af]wnfO{ d}n] lg/Gt/tf lbg . /fh]Zj/ b]jsf]6f.a]nf k|wfgdGqL lul/hfk|.a]nf g]skfsf dxf. o.a]nf d}n] gk9Lsg} b/fhdf yGSofP/ /fv]sf] /x]5' . /f=k|=p= kf]v/]n tyf gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ ul/ !( j6f n]vx¿ /x]sf lyP . piff >]i7. k|1f k|lti7fgsf d]/f tL kfFr d"Nojfg\ jif{leq .efkltTjdf jL/u+hdf k.. s[i0f w/fjf.{P/ . c+ssf s]xL k|lt d]/f cgGo ldq >L gu]Gb|/fh zdf{n] p. c+sdf /fi6«slj >L dfwj l3ld/].s]sf] lyOg .Lg x'g d}n] cfˆgf 5 hgf lgs6:y ldqx¿sf] bjfaaf6 :jLsf/ u/]sf] lyP .a]nfsf] cfTd :jLs[ltnfO{ ljl.fy} /. /3' kGt. OlGb/f k|.fb sf]O/fnfn] pQm kbdf dnfO{ lgo'Qm ug'{ ePsf] lyof] oBlk pxfFn] cfˆgf] OR5faf6 eGbf klg /fhf aL/]Gb|sf] k/f]If .Demgfdf klg lyof] .+jt\ @)%! b]lv )%% . hLjgdf d}n] n]Vg] afx]s s] sfd g} u/]F / < xf] )!$ . gf/fo0f ltjf/L.kmntfaf6 d cToGt xlif{t ePF . To.]sf] g]skfsf] blIf0f u08s k|fGtLo . cfk"m g]tf aGg g.kl5 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .sf lglDt d ldq >L gu]Gb|/fh zdf{kl| t xflb{s wGojfb 6s\¥ofpF5' .kmn /xg .s 36gfsf lg/Gt/tfsf . sdn/fh /]UdL. oL eP b'ef{Uosf s'/f . lgdf]x{ L Jof.fTdstf / .ldltsf] .lSbg eGb} . sfln k|=l/hfn.fO{.L. df]xg b'jfn.f/df klg To.æe"ld.sf/fTds kmnbfoL sfd ug]{ tkm{ af/Daf/ ljljw sf]l.Dkfbs /x]F .+jt\ @)!# sf] c.b:otfaf6 /fhLgfdf u/]sf] lyPF .Sg] af/] To.

dfhaf/] d]/f] cWoog / k|:t'ltnfO{ ljz]if dxTj lbg'ePsf] k9\bf nHhfjz d cfk}m+ cfˆgf] lz/ lgx'/fpF5' .. CUj]bdf /x]sf] !)@* .To xf] CUj]bnfO{ d}n] O{Zj/jfbL cfwf/df xf]Og ls . To:t} uftfsf] leqL k[i7 / clGtd k[i7sf] leqL 7fpFdf /x]sf 8f= bof/fd >]i7 tyf g/xl/ cfrfo{sf . cfˆgf] . t'n.Da/o'4 x'g] eGbf klxn] gn / bdoGtLsf] . .d]t\ dg'sf 5f]/fn] e|d0f ug'{ clg l.Dk"0f{ ljkmntf /xFbf/xFb} klg cleJolQmsf] e"ld. xf] o. k':tsdf e"ldsf n]lvlbg' x'g] >L b]jL k|.{ kLkn.141 )) .t x'g' / b]jf]bf. j+If' / eb|.kl5 gj kfiff0f o'usf] k|f/Dedf dxfdft[sfsf] pkl:ylt.kl5 clk|msfdf k7fpg'.sfpg' egL 5f]/fnfO{ a?0f nf]sdf / To.Eotfdf .'jb] L.Gw' . ug'{ clg cGTodf Clif ljZjfldqåf/f cxNofsf] p4f/ tyf cGTodf dxfsfnn] dftf e"ldsf] .[t g/–gf/Lsf pRrfltpRr k|flKt jf0fLsf] j|Xdf08JofkL . /x]sf] d}n] cfh cg'ej u/]sf] 5' ."Qmx¿ tyf j}lbs jfª\dosf ljifox¿nfO{ d}n] a'em\g' eg]sf] cfsfzsf] kmn cfFvft/L d/ eGg' h:t} xf] . @)^^ 50 ."o.kmntfsf] ¿kdf afu|fDa[l0fnfO{ clGtd uftfdf k|:t't ug'n { ] pkGof. >]i7tf tyf afT.df cjZo g} /f]rstf k|wfg u/]s ] f lyof] .fb .f}Gbo{.Nosf rrf{ ug'{ cflb .lj:kmf]6af6 k|fb'et"{ dfxfsfnnfO{ d}n] .Gw' gbLsf] pQ/df a:g'.dfhzf:qLo cfwf/sf] lsgf/df pleP/ x]g{] o]i6 dfq u/]sf] x'F . pkGof. d}n] hf] n]v— ]+ hd{gL."Qm kl/rrf{ c+sdf /x]sf !( j6f n]vnfO{ d}n] pTs[i6 n]vsx¿sf] ¿kdf cfh 7DofpFg .+lIfKt z'eR] 5fk|lt d cfˆgf] s[t1tf JoQm ub{5' .To xf].df d"n k|lt 5kfP/ sf7df8f}d + f uftfsf] db|0f eof] . sdn/fh /]UdL. l.Dd pkGof. n]vsx¿n] s[ltsf] k|. O6nL tyf ef/tsf ljbjfgx¿n] n]vs ] f .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . .}u/L b]vfpg] sf]l. & j}zfv.sf] uftf / clGtd lrqdf dftfe"ld / tLaf6 lg..s]F .f7L jif{ kl5 lgifw / ljbe{df gn / bdoGtLsf] syf eGg'. n]vgdf h] h:tf] ePsf] ePtf klg .f/ n]vs ] f] x'F . .f]dflbx¿sf] kmfF6df Pnddf /x]sf j}j:jt dg'n] 5f]/L Onfsf] /QmjnL kl5 a}/fuL eP/ Pndsf] kl/Tofu u/L cab]lv g/anL x'gx' b' g} egL . To.sf] .'?b]lv cGTo.dodf ofdfog Clifx¿ åf/f CUj]bsf dGqx¿sf] bz{g u/L :d/0fdf /fVg] pkfo kQf nufO{ cEof.DaGwL k':ts eGg' cz'4 k|of. + f ub}{ dnfO{ dfly p7fpg' ePsf] / j}lbs jfËdo / Tof] .sf afh]l.df lxdfnosf] hGd.kl5 bdoGtLsf] 5f]/L OGb|.sf] d"n kfq agfpg' plrt lyof] / < To:t} pkGof.+jt\ @)%*df .g] f d'bu\ ngLsf] ljjfx dWo j}lbssfndf b]jf]bf.L / ufO{sf cr{gf ug{ l. leqsf 36gfx¿ lyP . cfk"m cfP/ l.f/f+zaf6 cg'k' f| l0ft eP/ cfˆg} ljrf/ cg'.a}df 36gfsf lg/Gt/tf / .Eotfsf] ljgf. To. ug'{ of] pkGof.Gw' .DaGw ljR5]bnfO{ s. j}lbs afª\dosf] efiff g} . a]nfot.f] ubf{ uftfsf] clGtd k[i7df …r/}jl] tÚnfO{ j}lbs . 3gZofd s0f]n / gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ k|lt d uDeL/ cfef/ k|s6 ub{5' .af/] d]/f] hfgsf/L 5}g .flxFnf 5f]/f cfdf]bdl0f bLlIftåf/f agf/.+:s[t xf] h.

s'nªsf] /d0fLo k|fs[lts jftfj/0f. oL u'0fx¿sf] cefjdf sf]xL klg slj x'bF g} . kTofpg} k5{ . s'nu+' a'dln+u6f/df n]Vg' ePsf] …aL/ . a'dlnª6f/ sf] zLtn xfjf. afnx[bo tyf slnnf] dl:tsaf6 k|:k'ml6t b]zk|d ] sf olt /fd|f sljtf s.k"tx¿sf] b]zÚ sljtf kTof/nfUbf] 5}g .'.Fu t'ngf ul/G5 .+em of] b]znfO{ sfFt/x¿sf] b]z g. rL.nfdf @)@)—@)#)sf] bzsdf /fhwfgL cfOk'Ug'xG' 5 . la|l6.nl.sf] x[bodf efj'stf.f]df Hof]ltud{o klg xf] .'Gb/d klg xf] . sljtf td. ljDa.+em -jL/ .lsG5 .fv !! ut] ef]hk'/sf] s'nu+' df hlGdPsf kjg cfnf]sn] !@ jif{sf] pd]/df @)@# kmfu'g % ut] ef]hk'/. kjg cfnf]s kxf8sf] ufpFn] l76f] hLjgs]f kxf8L psfnL cf]/fnL em/gfsf] em/ em/kfgL. . hf]. lrv'j{ f / Ov'jf vf]nfsf] lgd{n snsn.Tod\.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . kjg cfnf]sdf oL u'0fx¿ k|z:t 5g\ .sf] s[lif cg'.Dj]bgzLntf Pj+ k|sl[ tk|lt cg'/fu x'g} k5{ .kjg cfnf]s / pxf“sf s]xL sljtf ab|L klnv] k'tnLahf/. vf]nfsf] snsn / jgkfvfsf nx/fdf nxl/Fb} hflu/sf] l. k|fh ] S] 6 kfv|Ljf.Gwfg s]Gb|df /x]/ ToxfFsf] /d0fLo k|fs[lts 51 . sljtfnfO{ hLjg hut Pj+ k|sl[ t.km a|f8] :sLn] sljtfnfO{ dfgjLo cleJolQm .'/Do jftfj/0fdf . sljtfsf] af/]df ljZj k|l.4 slj kfAnf] g]¿bfn] sljtfdf cjtl/t dg'io af]Nb5 eg]sf 5g\ eg] slj ls6\. ljleGg kq–klqsfdf pxfFsf k'm6s/ sljtfx¿ kl9Fb} cfO/x]sf] df.} xlNnFb} sljtf l. kjg hGde"dLsf] .t kjg 5b}{ sfJo cfnf]sdf b]vf kg'xG{5 .fn a}. To:t} O6flnPg slj Oof]hlgof] d]tfxf] sljtf .h{gf eP < t/ of] oyfy{ xf] .fg} pd]/b]lv cfk"m hlGdPsf] ef]hk'/.Dkfbsdf hflu/ vfg'xG' 5 . lzjd\. sNkgfzLntf /.fef/ kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtfsf] k|sfzsLo_ sljtf . w/fg sljtfnfO{ kl/eflift ug{ . c?0f gbLsf] nx/.ª\ux| _ klxnf] k':tsfsf/ s[lt xf] . t/ Pp6f s'/f dnfO{ eGg dg nfu]sf] 5— k]zfn] k|ltefnfO{ lyr]sf] 5 . dnfO{ nfU5 …kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtfÚ -sljtf .k"tx/sf] b]z–@)@#_ /fi6sf] uf}/jufyfn] 6Dd el/Psf] …jL/ .dosf] k|To'Q/ xf] elg cfkm\gf] ljrf/ kf]vs ] f 5g\ .ª\ux| …kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtfx¿Ú lnP/ g]kfnL sfJo hutdf pbfPsf 5g\ ./L l.k'tx¿sf] b]zÚ sljtfn] kjg cfnf]sdf .lsb}g sljtf hLjg / hutsf] ef]ufOnfO{ snfTds 9+un] dg 5'g] u/L cleJoQm ug{ .lsb}g . dfw'o. eg]sf] 5g\ . /]l8of] g]kfnsf] n]v /rgf . -.{ dfgjLo .h{gfdf c4{lj/fd nufpFb} @)^)sf] bzsdf k'gM sljtf . k|tLs / ldysdf ptfl/G5 t/ kl/eflift ug{ . @)!! .f] kfgL]n] sljtfsf] d"n k'm6]sf] x'gk' 5{ . k]zf k|ltefnfO{ lyRg] k]k/j]6 xf] -sfnrqm M alb| klnv]_ kjg cfnf]s k]zfsf] nx/fdf nxl/Fb. of] b]znfO{ gfdb{x¿sf] b]z g. g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fgdf hflu/ vfg'xG' 5 .jf]s { i[ 7 ¿k xf] eg]sf 5g\ .'jfl.141 .n] sljtf OPZj/sf] hf. Pp6f dfG5] slj x'gsf] nflu p.

jftfj/0fdf /dfpFgx' G' 5 . kfv|Ljf;df k'mNg] nfn'kft] / u'/fF;df nf]leP/ kfv|Ljf;nfO{
sfJodo agfpFgx' G' 5 . clg, pxfF;uF sf] d]/f] kl/ro oxL+af6 k|f/De x'G5 .
kjg cfnf]s ToxfFaf6 lj|6g] g]kfn d]l8sn 6«:6 -aL=Pg=Pd=6L_df k|zf;lso
k|aGws x'bF } ToxfF klg dg yfDg g;s]/ Plan International sf] jl/i6 xflsd x'g
k'Ug'xG' 5 . hflu/sf] l;nl;nfdf kjg cfnf]s rLg, a]nfot, k|mfG;, hd{gL,
l:j6h/n}G8, xªsª, yfOn}08, lkmlnlkG;, ef/t, kfls:tfgL, >Ln+sf, l;+ufk'/
s'jt] cflb b]zx¿df g]kfnL d'6' / df6f] lnP/ e|d0f ug'x{ G' 5 . pxfF hxfF
hfg'ePtf klg :jb]zsf] df6f], gbL, ;u/dfyf, w/x/fnfO{ ;fy}df lnP/ hfg'ePsf]
cleJolQm jxfFsf] sljtfx¿df kfOG5 .
sljx¿ lbdfun] ;f]Rb5g\ . x[bon] n]Vb5g\ . sljx¿ e"uf]ndf aflwFbg} g\ .
pgLx¿ :jtGq x'G5g\ . kjg cfnf]ssf] sfJok|sl[ t o:t} b]lvG5 . kjgsf] sljtf
cfd dfG5]sf] wf/0ff xf] . cfd dfG5]sf] efiff xf] . kjgn] ef]us
] f] hLjg, b]vs
] f]
hut xfdL ;a}sf] cg'el" t xf] . kjg ;d;fdlos lrq0fsf slj x'gx' G5 . xfd|f
;dsflng k|ltlglw ;|i6f x'gx' G' 5 . pxfFdf ;fdflhs lj;+ult, c;+ultk|lt ljb|fx]
5 . /fi6«kd
]| 5 . k|sl[ tk|lt cg'/fu 5 . hLjgk|lt df]x 5 . hutk|lt cfzf 5,
eljiok|lt e/f];f 5 . :jtGqtf, zflGt / ljZjjGw'Tjsf] cfu|x 5 pxfFsf sljtfdf .
kjg cfnf]ssf] hLjgdf tLgj6f k|dv
' kIf b]lvG5g\ .
!_ ;flxTo l;h{gf, @_ ;flxTo ;]jf, #_ ;fdfh ;]jf .
;flxTo;]jf tkm{ pxfF jf0fL k|sfzg -lj/f6gu/_, k|ltef k'/:sf/
-lj/f6gu/_, / ;'g;/L ;flxTo k|lti7fg -w/fg_sf] cfhLjg ;b:o tyf g]kfn
;|i6f ;dfh, sf7df8f}s
+ f] dxf;lrj x'gx' G' 5 . ;dfh;]jf tkm{ ;To lzjzlQm
elQm cf>d–ef]hk'/, s'nª' a'dln+u6f/Ù >L of]udfofzlQm kL7, ef]hk'/ d'em' jfJof;L,
g]kfn 8fF8f cflb ;+3 ;+:yfdf cfj4 x'gx' G' 5 .
;flxTo l;h{gftkm{ pxfF kxf8L vf]nf em},+ c?0fgbL em}+ lg/Gt/ alu/xg'
ePsf] 5 . @)@# ;fnb]lv xfn;Dd kjg cfnf]ssf] sljtf ofqf lqrfnL; jif{sf]
eO;s]sf]5 . kjg cfnf]ssf sljtx¿df s;}sf] gSsn 5}g . pxfFnfO{ s;};uF
klg t'ngf ug{ ldNb}g . xf] Û cfhsf :yflkt cGo sltko sjlx¿df h:t} l/dfn,
e"kL, jf;'zzL cflbsf sljtfaf6 pxfFdf klg s]xL kf7sLo k|efj xf]nf, Tof]
:jefljs} xf] eGg] d 7fGb5' .
kjgsf] cfˆg} klxrfg 5 . cfˆg} df}lns z}nL 5 . kjg ;fdlos r]tgfsf
slj x'gx' G5 . dfgjLo ;+jb] gfsf slj x'gx' G5 . pxfFsf sljtfdf o'uaf]w 5 .
cu|ufdL kfOnf 5 . ;do;fk]Iftf 5 . ;do ljDa 5 . g]kfnL ;flxTodf
b]vfk/]s
] f s'g} klg afb, cfGbf]ng / wf/n] pxfFnfO{ k|efj kf/]sf] kfOFbg} . pxfFn]
h] b]Vg' eof], h] ef]Ug' eof], j|Xddf nfu]sf] efjgfnfO{ sljtfdf cfd dfG5]n]
a'‰g\ ] efiffdf efj kf]Vg' ePsf] 5 . ctM kjg cfnf]snfO{ k|of]ujfbL klg eGg
ldNb}g . pxfFnfO{ em/f]j{ fbL cfGbf]ng -@)!#_, cfod]nL cfGbf]ng -@)@)_sf]
xfjfn] 5f]Psf] klg b]lvFbg} . n]sfnL ;d"x -@)@$_, /fNkmfnL cfGbf]ng -@)@#_,
c:jLs[t hdft -@)@&_ cdn]v -@)@^_, o+u /fO6; k|mG6-@)#!_ a'6kfln;
-@)#!_cflbsf] ;+utn] klg 5fPsf] b]lvFbg} .
@)#^ ;fndf ax'bn kIfdf ePsf] ;8s sljtf qmflGtdf eg] pxfFsf]
;dy{gsf] cleJolQm 5 . t/ ef]s sljtf cfGbf]ng -@)$)_, ;j{gfd ;8s
52 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

gf6s-@)#*_, t/njfb -@)$)_, nLnfn]vg -@)#$_,;+/If0f sljtf cfGbf]ng
-@)%%_, l;h{gzLn c/fhstf -@)%*_, /+ujfb cfGbf]ng -@)^@_, eojfb -@)^$_
cflb OToflbn] klg pxfFnfO{ 5f]Psf] b]lvb}g . a? @)$^ ;fnsf] hg cfGbf]ng
qmddf ePsf] ljb|fx] af6 kjg cfnf]ssf sljtf k|efljt b]lvG5g\ . kjg cfnf]s
kl/jt{gsfdL slj x'gx' G' 5 . cu|ufdL slj x'gx' G' 5 . pxfFsf] sljtfdf qmflGt
r]tg 5 . r]tgfsf] ;+jfxs x'gx' G' 5 kjg cfnf]s .
cj d kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtfnfO{] ;"Id, ;+lIfKt / ;'q¿kdf s]nfpg]
k|of; ub{5' .
)@# kmfu'gsf]] …aL/ ;k'tx¿sf] b]zÚ -sljtf_sf] /rgfkl5 em08} Ps jif{sf]
cGt/fndf pxfFsf] @)@$ kmfgdf k|d
] cleJolQmsf b'O{ sljtf e]l6G5g\— l;ld|sdf
k|sflzt . @)@% dfu{df k|sflzt …xfdL gf6s l/x{;n ul//x]5f}+ sljtf z]Solko/
sf] …of] ;+;f/ gf6\ozfnf xf]— xfdL ;a} kfq xf}Ú ;+u k|efljt b]lvG5 . hLGbuLsf]
kl/efiff 5 of] sljtfdf . @)@%df /lrPsf] …gbL hf] axG5Ú sljtf hLjg gbLsf]
lsgf/f em} xf] egL kl/elift 5 .
lhGbuLsf] gbLdf jxFbf axFb} klg

cfh;Dd lsgf/f e]6g\ ;s]sf] 5}g . -gbL hf] axG5_

@)@^;fnsf] csf]{ Pp6f …gbLÚ sljtf 5 . of] sljtfdf gbLsf] af9LnfO{
/f]Sg afFw afFWg' k5{ eGg] ;sf/fTds / /rgfTds ;f]r b]lvG5 .
kjg cfnf]s k|of]ujfbL slj xf]Og . k|efjjfbL slj klg xf]Og . pxfFsf
sljtfdf bfz{lgstf 5}g . uxg af}l4stf klg 5}g . kl08TofOF klg 5}g .} a7ØfOF
klg 5}g . pxfF h] b]Vg' x'G5, h] ef]Ug' x'G5, dgdf h] nfU5, a|Xdn] h] ;f]Rg'xG' 5
To;nfO{ å}w cy{ gnfuLsg, kf7s 3f]l/g' gkg]{ u/L l;wf efiffdf kmfOg cf6{ em}+
cfˆgf] lgd{n efjgf kf]Vg ?rfpg' x'G5 . @)@& df /Tg>Ldf k|sflzt …hLGbuL
t Pp6f gf6s /x]5Ú sljtfdf pxfFn] hLGbuLsf] kl/efiff / ef]ufO kf]Vg' ePsf]
5 . lhGbuL 8fF8fsf] 3fd em} c:tfpFbf] /x]5 . -/Tg>L @)@& kf}if_
kjg cfnf]ssf] 3fp rx¥ofpF5 . /fi6«kL8f b'V5 . kl/l:yltsf] n'tf] lrnfpF5 .
k/tGqsf] aGwg r'8fNg dg nfU5 . :jtGqtf, dfgjk|d
] / zflGtdf /dfpg dg
nfU5 . kjg cfnf]s ;a}sf slj / ;wFs
} f slj x'gx' G' 5 . …lhGbuLsf] 9f]sfaf6Ú
of] sljtf Pp6f pbfx/0f xf] . pxfF k|of]ujfbL slj xf]Og, k|efjjfbL slj klg
xf]Og . pxfF hLGbuLsf ufos, k|]dsf k'hf/L, zflGtsf dfnL, :jtGqtf /
k|hftGqsf /Ifs slj x'gx' G' 5 .
…k|d
] Ps cleJolQmÚ @)@&df n]lvPsf] sljtf xf] . …a]nkqÚ jif{ ! c+s !
df k|sflzt of] sljtfdf— k|d
] efjgf xf] o;nfO{ htg ug'k{ 5{ . o;nfO{ k"mnnfO{
h:t} dnhn ug'k{ 5{ egL rf]vf] k|d
] sf] cleJolQm kf]Vg' ePsf] 5 . @)@& df
/lrPsf] …dfw'oÚ{ df k|sflzt …xfdL cfk"mnfO{ tof/ kfl//x]5f}Ú+ sljtfdf b]z k|d
]
5, pHjn eljiosf] sfdgf 5 . @)@& sf] sljtf gofF o'usf] k|tLIffdf jt{dfg
k|lt ljb|fx] / gofF o'usf] cfudgsf] k|tLIff 5 . pxfFsf] of] k|tLIff k"/f ePsf] 5 .
@)@& sf] …sf7df8f}Ú+ Pp6f zAblrq xf] . sf7df8f}s
+ f] ef]ufOsf] cg'el" t xf] .
@)@* …cfFvfÚ jif{ ! c+s % sf] …xfdL h'g jt{fg ef]lu/x]5f}Ú+ sljtf ljZjsf]
tTsfnLg kl/l:yltk|lt cfqmf]z / Gofok|lt k|ltj4tf b]lvG5 . @)@* s} …cfFvfÚ
53 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

/ …/;fogÚdf k|sflzt Ps d'Qmsdf hLjg ef]ufO / clenfiff 5 .

d Pp6f :jR5 cfsfzsf] vf]hdf
Pp6f rlDsnf] ;"os
{ f] vf]hdf Jo:t 5' .

pxfFsf] @)@*df n]lvPsf,] :j= xl/eQm s6'jfn ;Dkflbt_…afGsLÚdf k|sflzt
…jt{dfgÚ hLjgsf] ef]ufO xf] . …/x/–c7f]6Ú -@)#(_df k|sflzt @)@*df /lrt
sljtfdf b]zk|d
] sf] efjgf 5 . kjg cfnf]ssf] sljtf :jR5, lgd{n, tnfp xf],
hxfF hLjgsf] k|ltljDa b]lvG5 . ;kmf vf]nf xf], hxfF x]bf{ cfˆgf] cg'xf/ 5n{u+
b]Vg kfOG5 . uf]/vfkqdf @)@(df k|sflzt …;lxbx¿k|ltÚ sljtfdf ;lxbsf]
alnbfg / Tofuk|lt >4f;'dg r9fPsf 5g\ . @)@(df Vofltk|fKt cd]l/sL
pkGof;sf/ kn{ P; assf] lgwgdf n]lvPsf] sljtf 5 …zf]suLtÚ . o;
sljtfdf j;'bj} s'6D' asd\sf] efj b]lvG5 sljdf . sljk|lt k|d
] / >4f k|s5
5 . @)@( ;fnsf] …dfw'oÚ{ df k|sflzt …lj1fg / dfG5]Údf lj1fgsf] b'?kof]uk|lt
lrGtf ub}{ dfG5]n] lj1fgsf] cljisf/ u/]sf] xf], lj1fgsf] cljisf/ dfG5] xf]Og
eGg] cleJolQmsf ;fy} …1fg db{5 xfF;/] /f]O lj1fg db{5Ú eGg] ;dsf]
plQmsf] ;dy{g 5 . cfWofTdjfb k|lt cf:yf b]lvG5 …dfw'oÚ{ c+s # df 5flkPsf]
…kfAnf] lksf;f] ltdL klg /x]gf} caÚ sljtfdf . o;df ;dj]bgf 5 .

:k]g 6'x/' f] ePsf] 5
k]l/; 6'x/' f] ePsf] 5

sljtf dfld{s 5 . lksf;f]kl| t ;dj]bgf / >4f~hnL xf] of] sljtf .
uf]/vfkqdf @)#) df k|sflzt …kUnbf5g\ lhGbuLsf lxdfnx¿Ú df hLjg af]w
5 . >d / ;Lkdf b]zk|d
] emNsG5 / k|d
] -sljtf_ df k|d
] cfbz{ emNsG5 .
jf:tjdf k|d
] sf] emLgf] cfzfdf ljZj 3'ld/xG5 .

k|d
] df g} ;'v 5
k|d
] df g} ljZjsNof0f 5 .

sljsf] of] zfZjt lrGtg xf] . …¿k/]vfÚ jif{ !^ c+s !%, @)#@ df k|sflzt
…w/x/fÚ ;doljDa xf] . @)##sf] …k|tLIffÚ lg/+sz
' tf cGTosf] cfzfjfbL sljtf
xf] . @)#$ …dw'ks{Údf k|sflzt …d Odfg vf]lh/x]5'Ú df sljn] Odfg /
g}ltstfsf] x«f; / dfgjd"Nosf] pkxf;k|lt lrGtf k|s6 ub}{ g}ltsjfg x'gk' b{5
eGg] ;Gb]z lbg' ePsf] 5 . @)#%sf] …dnfO{ d'lQm b]pm ÛÚdf :jtGqtfsf] rfxgf
5 . …c7f]6Ú q}dfl;s @)$! sf] …d[To'af]wÚsf] zLif{s ldn]sf] h:tf] nfUb}g . cfjfh
/fv]sf] eP x'GYof] .

of] cfd]/{ fsf] dfq 5]g
sf]nlDaofsf] dfq x}g
;Dk"0f{ dfgj hfltsf] ;Gtfg xf]
of] w/tLsf] ;Gtfg xf] .

!(*% n08g, a]nfotdf n]lvPsf] …t:jL/ cfkm} af]N5Údf pk/f]Qm x/kmx¿
dfgjtfsf] zAblrq xf] . gf]a]Da/ !(*%df sf]nlDaofsf] cfd]{/f]df eLif0f
Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6gdf PSn} hLljt e]l6Psf !* dlxg] afnsfsf] 6«h
] 8] Ldf
n]lvPsf] of] sljtfn] efjljXjn / ddf{xt agfpF5 . @)$$sf …] ca t clt g}
ef]Ú lg/+sz
' tfk|lt qmflGtr]t sljtf xf] . Pp6f ¿vsf] xfFufdf a;]/ k+IfLsf
54 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

efn]kf]yL r'Rrf r'Rrf hf]8b\ } dfoflk|lt nufO/x]sf ;'vb If0fdf l;sf/Lsf] af0f
nflu efn] k+IfL e'Od
F f v;]/ 56kl6Fb} k|f0f TofUbf ue{jtL kf]yL k+IfLsf] kL8faf6
dg klUnFbf aflNdsLn] ;a{ k|yd cg'i6'k 5Gbdf …df Û lgiffbÒÚsljtf n]vs
] f
lyP . sljx¿ klg o:t} efj's x'G5g\— aflNdsL h:t} . kjg cfnf]ssf] x[bo klg
bofn] klUnG5 clg sljtfx¿ hlGdG5g\ . @)^$df kfv|Ljf;, wgs'6fdf @)$^
;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt k|hftGqsf] v'zLofnLdf …cfpm pT;j dgfcf}Ú
sljtf hGdG5 kjg cfnf]saf6 . ;g\ !(*%df k]l/;sf] …cfOkm]naf6 ;u/dfyf
x]bf{Ú …ul/dfÚ @)%)df /fi6«kd
]| 5 . c7f]6 q}dfl;s @)$#df k|sflzt …;8ssf]
vf]hLÚdf b]zk|d
] / b]zsf] k|ultsf] c7f]6 b]lvG5 . @)$$sf]] …lgotLÚdf lj;+ult,
kl/j]z / ef]ufOsf] lgolt 5 . @)$%sf] …d]/f] s'nË' Údf hGd ynf]sf] ;+Demgf 5 .
…o'4x¿Údf hLjgsf] kl/efiff / cfbz{ b]lvG5 . of] sljtf @)$&df n]lvPsf]
b]lvG5 .
…kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtfÚ @)^) ;fndf jf0fL k|sfzg, lj/f6gu/af6
k|sflzt sljtf ;ª\ux| xf] . /d]z >]i7af6 cfj/0f lrq agfOPsf] of] s[ltsf]
l8hfOg cfsif{s 5 . jf0fL k|sfzgsf cWoIf k/z' k|wfgsf] k|sfzsLodf
kjgsf] kl/ro / sfJok|j[lQ /f]rs9Ën] k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . k|f=8f= g/]Gb|
rfkfufO{sf] e"ldsf :t/Lo 5, k7gLo 5 . o; ;ª\ux| df kjgsf @)@# b]lv @)^)
;fn;Dd n]lvPsf] krf;j6f sljtfx¿ 5g\ . @)$*df n]lvPsf] / uf]/vfkqdf
5flkPsf] …ltdLÚ sljtfdf k|d
] cg'/fu 5 . kjg jf:tjdf d"nt slj g} x'gx' G' 5\ .
sljtf k|ltsf] pxfFsf] cg'/fu g} xfn pxfFsf] :jtGq hLjg xf] . !((#df a]lh+udf
-rLg_ n]lvPsf] / uf]/vfkqdf k|sflzt …r]o;{ a]lh+uÚdf slj ;f+:s[lts ;xrf/L
x'g' ePsf] 5 . o; sljtfdf ljZjaGw'Tjsf] efjgf 5 . rLgdf g} n]lvPsf] /
uf]/vfkq d} -@)%)df_ k|sflzt …d[To' d]/f] glhs}af6 uofÚ sljtfsf] Pp6f
kmfFsL o:tf] 5 M

k};f lt/]/ lat]sf] hLjg lsGg kfOg] eP
klxn] d afNosfn lsGy]+
To;kl5 hjfgL
clg ljZjzflGt

hLjg / zflGt, hLjg lhpg] lhhLljiff— slt ;'Gb/ cleJolQm 5 o;
sljtfdf . ;g !((#df dlgnf, lkmlnlkG;df n]lvPsf] / uf]/vfkqdf @)%!
;fndf k|sflzt …d]/} Kof/f] df6f] 5Ú sljtfdf b]zk|d
] 5 . @)%@df kfv|Ljf;df
/lrPsf] …;flxlTos ;+uddfÚ k|sflzt …d]/L k|o] ;L kfv|Ljf;Ú df k|sl[ t;Fu ;'Gb/
k|d
] fnfk 5 .
@)$%sf] …d[To' k/flht 5Ú sljtf :j=u0f]zdfg l;+xk|lt cf:yf / >4fsf
k'iku'R5f x'g\ . @)$%sf] sljtf Sofn]08/df 5flkPsf] sljtf …dgÚ hLjgsf]
ef]ufO / kL8f xf] . …cfhsn g]tfHo"nfO{ cf/fd 5}gÚ df /fhgLlt / g]tfk|lt Jo+Uo
5 . of] sljtf @)%% ;fndf n]lvPsf] b]lvG5 . @)%^ sf] …hLjgofqfÚ hLjg–
b[li6 xf] . @)%& sf] …hfpF sxfF hfpFÚdf åGbaf6 cfxt df6f]sf] df]x 5 . @)%*
xf]nL k'l0f{dfdf n]lvPsf] …xf]nL v]Ng dg 5}gÚ sljtfdf lbuf] zflGtsf] rfxgf 5 .
…tkfO{s
+ f] cfˆgf]Ú sljtfdf hLjg / hutk|lt sljsf] wf/0ff k|li6G5 . …d]/f] 6'8'
55 - cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° - 141

\ jf udL{ r]k] gbLdf %= DofpmF ub}{ 5 d'. of] sljtf @)^) df n]lvPsf] 5 . k|sl[ tnfO{ dfof ug]{ slj x'gx' G' 5 .Gbe{ .fwgfdf d pQ/f]Q/ k|ultsf] xflb{s sfdgf ub{5' .] klg cfˆgf] b]zsf] dfof ug]{ slj x'gx' G5 .KnfP / sG6«L— xfd|f] gofF cfO8]G6L6LÚ …o:t} 5 d]/f] b]zsf] va/Údf .Sg] 9f8] la/fnf] Û ^= wtL{df d"n cfsfzdf v8]/L lklNkn] tf/f Û *= k'mn]sf] bf/L t?gL b'nxLsf] u?Ëf] dg Û &= kfgLsf] cfF. :ofª\hf != cfsfz v:5 tf/fx¿ l6k'n F f dgsf n8\8' Û @= oL yf]kf aLp hh{/ df6f]leq v§] e'6e ] m}+ .n] k'5g\ ] xf] s'lGg tf/sf] lrGtf Û )) 56 .' s.6Ls Jo+Uo5 .141 .fdu|L !_ kjg cfnf]ssf s]xL sljtf @)^) @_ sflJos cfGbf]ngsf] kl/ro 8f=uf]ljGb/fh e6\6/fO{ )) @)^% c.f/ #! s]xL xfOj'm hLjgkfgL cf]/fi6]— ^. kjg cfnf]s b]zeQm slj x'gx' G' 5. . tLtf] .To 5 . hxfF a.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .lni6Ú @)^) df hLjg af]w 5 . pxfFsf] sljtf–. #= v'Onf] tfn' 6G6nfk'/] 3fd /f}d + f r'r/{' ] Û $= o'jf–o'jtL hf8f] xf].f dfg{ g. …n]a/ .

sf].d/ of] cGt/fn] k7fPsf] .] . hLjg lrq lnlvt nltsfx¿ em}+ xfjf x'/L em~emfs]xL lrhn] sd\sdfpg g.141 . cGt/fsf] lrÝL k9\g s'g} cft'/tf geP em}+ ul//x]+ .=P= j:g yfn]sf] 5 . Pp6f b[9tf 5. p."os { f] pbo ePem}+ nflu/x]5 / ca cgy{. Ps csf]s { f] . . cfTd uf}/jn] dg km/flsnf] eof] .do / s] s. pQd ljrf/sf] kl/zLngn] cfˆgf] hLjg pQd agfpg] . tnfpdf km}lnPsf t/+udfnf em}+ . pml.Ú . stfstf Pp6f e'mNsf] klg p7Øf] .dsf] cfnf]sn] lje"lift ljj]s¿kL lgd{n . leq st} /lx/x]sf] k|d ] pb\eflift xf]nf eg]/ pm t'?Gt ljR5]lbt x'g vf]H5] .sf lrÝLsf zAb zAb k|sfzsf] pHofnf]df g[To ul//x]sf /+ud~rsf snfsf/em}+ . h8 x[bodf Pp6f rLh dL7f] cg'et" ug{ gkfpFb} csf]{ gdL7f] lrhsf] vf]hLdf dg em6\6 kmfnxfln.f] dfq .s]s ] f] lyof] .':t/L . ./nf cfOk'lug\ d]/f] sf]7d } f ./xGy]+ lgSs} a]/ .Sg] lehfpg g.+.lsPkl5 pgn] emf]naf6 Pp6f vfd lems]/ lbFb} elgg\— ….+rf/ u/fP h'g cGt/fs} pkl:yltdf k|fKt x'GYof] ./nf hfg] ljlQSs} vf]n+] ./nf gcfpGh]n vfd xftdf lnP/ hut ofqfn] yfs]/ zfGt eP em}+ d zfGt al.t …cgnfOgÚ e]6 x'GYof] .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . …lk|o .sf].n] xft}n] lr7L n]vL k|1ff vgfn jfg]Zj/ xfO6÷kmf]g $$&)$#! cfh .fFRr} cjsf] Åbofsfzdf zLtn rGb|dfsf] pbo eof] . d eg] .sf gf}lt/ aflËb} efFlRrPsf cIf/x¿n] dleq Pp6f cfgGbsf] . lrÝL vf]n+] .}n] clglb|t ug{ .S5 kqdf dk|lt cem} 7"nf] cg'/fu b]vfPsL kf] 5 ls < dk|ltsf] df]xnfO{ /]zdsL/f cfˆg} bL3{ tGt'leq a]l/Pe}m+ a]l/P/ kf] a.d'bh | :t} . aftlrt x'bF g} Yof] . .Sg] . 5f]6f] . kq cufl8 k9\g hfg]/} cndn cndn ul//x]— + x'g.a]/b} l] v x[bofsfzdf .f/ e/sf] cufw k|d ] a6'lnP/ d}dfly vlgPem]+ nfUof] . d 5Ss k/]+ pgL o'=P.p.Daf]wg / cgf}krfl/stf .}n] kLl8t kfg{ .\ . cGt/f cd]l/sfdf knfog ePsf] em08} 5 jif{ k'Ug cfF6Øf] .S5 / vu|f."o{ u|x0fsf avtsf] w/tL em}+ lg:t]h aGg' k'U5 .+.'Gb/ nfu] cfkm}nfO{ . otfptf dg nufpg vf]Hy]+ dg leq bGs]sf] Hjfnfsf tfkn] g5f]Pem}+ d cfkm}nfO{ v'a 5ln/xGy+] . d a8f] uDeL/ 5'. ToxfF cflQP/ r/fr'¿u+ L s/fpF5g\ ToxfF cs:dft\ h"gsL/Lx¿ lknlknfpF5g\ .ft jif{ eO. o:t} s'/fx¿sf] t/+u 6'lug gkfpFb} .t efUg rfxG5] . dfG5] dfu{1fg geP/ lu5{ 7"nf 7"nf vf8ndf .fob cfˆg} dgnfO{ b]vfpFb} lyPF d— oL x]/\ d slQ klg r+rn ePsf] 5}g.fl/s df]x Tofu]sf] Pp6f bz{ga]Qf e+m} Pp6f ulDeo{ wf/0f u/]/ al./x+.d/Ú b]Vg] lalQs} . sqf] htgn] sy]sf] syfsf] qmd k]ml/ 6'6Øf] . hLjg hxfF g s. …Od]nÚ x'GYof] t/ vf. dnfO{ nfUYof] pm dl. pm d]/} sf/0f lrQ b'vfP/ lxF8s ] L xf] . p.\ g s.]sL 5 ls < 57 .r " s w"ds]t' pbo x'g kfpg] 5}g d]/f] hLjgdf .f]lr/x]y+] d vf]lh/x]y+] ltdL ofb cfof}+ . s]xL lrh dL7f] d .

/L /ft eGg' < c¿ ljsf.{g] ¿Gr] xfF. p. pT. clxn] o. emnemnL emNsg] dLgfh8fpe}m+ a'§b] f/ .s]sf] 5 . d . < Tof] k|d ] df sQ{Jo lyPg. p. d]/f] cGt/ . yf]/} . ePsf] ljifo xf] . p.sf gf/L OR5f.t x'g. udL{df cToGt udL{ hf8f]df lxpF g} lxpF Û hfpFm csf]{ 7fpF eg] bf].f] .n] k|d ] ljsl. To. d]/f] . ljbfsf lbg jl/kl/ g]kfnL e]nf u¥of] . /S. cGt/f d]/f] cfjZostf lyOg . /x/ / cfTdLo x'g] rfxfgfnfO{ .bf cfgGb/t /lx/xg rfxG5 . of] kftfndf dfG5] ktg eP/ hfG5g\. . cg]s ljljwtf af]ss ] f] ePklg of] lkm/+uLsf] b]zdf xfdL afFwfem}+ 5f}+ .g'{ < laxfgb]lv /ftsf] bz aHbf.Dd u'Gb|s ' sf] crf/ vfof] . kqn] cs:dft\ dw'/ . /ftlbg sfd u¥of] lkm/+uLsf] b]zdf.sf] dfq cEof.d:t j}ejsf] b[i6fGt pkef]u u/]sf 5g\ .txL e}lbGy]+ / em08} em08} s'/f p:t} p:t} ul/lbGy]+ ./L ljsl.'Tof] p7\of] k]ml/ pxL sfd . clxn] eg] d cfTdUnflgn] e'tS' s 5' . knfog x'gk' g]{ afWotfsf j'm/f u¥of] cyjf /x/sf s'/f klg u¥of]Ò Ò .s"F . p. d]/f] .fd" .DaGw dfofdo / cjf:tljs lyof].clnslt ck/fw af]w.}n] ToxfF s] cf:yf < s] ljZjf. cGt/f d]/f] 3/sf] b}nf] lnlKbg lyO{.'v k|fKt eP em}+ u/fpg .{b sxfF kfpg' < .Daf]wgljxLg /sdL Jojxf/n] pm lj/lQmg yfnL . ToxfF s]xL :jfy{ lyPg k|d ] s.}sf] s'/f u¥of] . / j}ej x]/ g Û .fIfft pkl:yt 5g\ .'vsf] lglDt jf cfˆgf] k'?iffy{nfO{ wfk df/]/ . df. ca x]g g— 606nfk'/ 3fd 5 s. clnslt jf:tljstfnfO{ :jLsfg]{ cfF6 gu/]/ cw{ k|folZrQ cj:yfdf lhNn kl//x]+ . d]/f] .do ldnfP/ rf/ kfFr 306f .fob Pp6f g Pp6f ljhobfos k/dfgGbsf] k|flKt rfxGYof] .Fu} nf]suLt 3GsfP/ knfog x'gs ' f] kL8f ljl.{Pem}+} u¥of].Snf Û of] elnefFlt cEof.sf] / d]/f] .u{sf s'/f uyL{ .'Gb/ nfe ldNof] t < xfdL g]kfnL 58 .ft–cf7 jif{ xfd|f] k|d ] .dk{0fsf.sf xft}n] 5f]Psf cIf/ d.f| ] bhf{sf] gful/s.' eft / kfP.Lsf] dft r9\b} uPkl5 kfnf}kfnf] 8fFsf] 5f]8/] /f]of] clg ?Fbf ?b} b]zsf] s'/f u¥of].of}+ k6s nft df/]+ .Gtfgsf] :ofxf/ ulb{g yL . x/fpF5g\ . l/emfpg] afWotf lyPg.141 . em08} . ToxfF pm lyOg hxfF l:yt eP/ . cfh p.}sf xftn] n]vs ] f kq k9\bf dgl. s'g 7fpF . lrÝL n]Vg] k'm. cflv/ pm knfog eO{ cd]l/sf . d :jfy{lagfsf] lbuf] k|d ] df cljZjf.bfsf] nflu k/d zflGt k|fKt ug'{ . ylst ylst z/L/.do .'vdf /dfpg rflx/x]y+] ."os { f] tf?0o 36]sf] x'bF g} of] 7fpFdf .Gt'li6 lng] Pp6f kf}?if]o cledfg h'g lhtsf] lkªdf e'n/] .Dd .DklQsf] /Iff ulb{g yL .t km]l/ Pp6f tf/ hf]l8Pem}+ Pp6f g"tg cfgGb kfO/x]em}+ ePsf] 5 . …a]nfa]nfdf ltd|f] / b]zsf] p:t} .+jfb / k|d ] jfbljjfb rln/Xof] .f/f ef]u u/]sf 5g\Ò Ò lagf s'g} afwf Jojwfg ef]u u/]sf 5g\ t/ k|Zg p7\5— k]ml/ dfG5]nfO{ s'g To:tf] .t ePg .f/L nufP/ b]z ljl. Jojxfl/s lhDd]jf/Lljlxg\ k|d ] cGt/fsf] dgf]/fHodf slNkt cfs[ltem}+ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . pm k"0f{ . ef]Ug of]Uo . slt sdfO x'G5. pm df]xdf lyO{ d}n] e|ldt kfl//x]+ .do 5}g . uy]+{ . To. d]/f] ljho clen]v d]/} 5ftLleq n'sfP/ cfTd.Demgf cfO/xG5 .

kl/l:ylt .dn] uj{ u5{g\ / Ps cfsf]s { f] k|.bf ltd|f] cg'sn ' /xf].Sof} xf]nf .f/f .Dd si6 lbO/xnfÒ . lgoldt 5g\ . csf{nfO{ si6 k'Unf eg]/ . xfdLleq bl/b|tf hlQ 5. cfsfztkm{ nfUg pBt x'gk' g]d { f xfdL kftfn efl.Dd e]l6.'vef]usf] pTs07f n]zdfq klg 5}g Ò .d/ Û oxfF xfdLn] e]6s ] f] . xfdL /ftlbg o:tf j'm/f u/]/ yfSb} yfSb}gf} . cg'zfl.Daf]wg ug{ g. cGTodf p. lr7Lleq slt s] n]Vg' < ltdL af}l4stf/lxt\ gfkhfFr kf.fx}« lrQ b'vfp5g\ .]— F …lk|oÒ clt lk|o cGt/f Û ltdL h'g /x/n] ddf k'mNg cfof}.cf–cfˆgf afWotf / kZrtfknfO{ a9fpFb} 9fSb} ul//xG5f}+ . slt lgb{oL x/k 5 of] .Ú pm xft hf]8/] clejfbg u5{ / j'mlbxfN5 dfgf}+ tTsfn lnulnlu sf]6 kUg'kg]{ cft'/tfdf 5 . s:tf] l7Sssf] df}. xfd|f] b]zsf g]tf egfpFbfx¿ g/d]w o1d} cEo:t /xFbf /xFb} s'b/] a}/Lsf] d'ns ' df k'U5g\ u'xf/ dfUg— …nf}g k|e' Û d]/f] b]zsf /fhfnfO{ lu/fOlbg' k¥of] . km]l/ csf]{ s'/f em§ cfpF5 .t 5g\ . pgLx¿ cf—cfˆgf b]zsf .'jfl. dw'afnf rfxGYof}.a} dfG5] cf–cfˆgf] kgdf cf–cfˆg} lsl.n] dnfO{ slt . c1fg¿kL zq'n] d]/f] ljj]swgsf] ckx/0f u/]/ To. To.Ú 59 .Psf 5f}+ .s]sf] 5.Ú pkm. pgLx¿ klg xfdLx¿h:t} :kml6s dl0fn] lgld{tem}+ b]lvg] cUnf dxnsf cUnf cUnf c§flnsf x]//] /dfpF5g\. d]/f d[ut[i0ffx¿ d]/} cgs"n k|d ] ¿kL d]3åf/f zfGt ePsf] 5 .fx} gdHhf nfUof] . pgLx¿ cfˆgf] d'ns ' k|lt OdfGbf/ nfUb5g\ . e}uf]. oxfFsf] . xfd|f] klg t snf sf}zn / ljljw . To:tf] b]jnf]sdf bzf nfu]/ cefuL g]kfnLx¿sf] efUo v/fgLdf xfn]sf] cfx'tL em}+ eof] .\ .\ .'v x/fP rf]6} rf]6 kfof} . o. dnfO{ .s]sf] jf cfk"mleqsf] cxd\nfO{ dnhn u/]sf] kl/0ffd xf] of] .\ cft+sjfbn] ufFhs ] f] cfˆgf] d'ns ' sf] cToGt uDeL/ eP/ s'/f u5{g.tsf] k|To]s e]6kl5 cˆgL . .+{ cfGb|f a6fl/G5 ef]sn] ..j{gfz ul/. cfsfz kftfn .n] o:tf] n]lv5— …. t/ leq dgdf v'zL x'bF g} g\ . . xfd|f] af}l4stf. xfd|f l. ltdL klg dnfO{ xft}n] lr7L n]v x}. kfls:tfg / cGo b]zsf sfG5]x¿ klg xfd|f ldq ePsf 5g\ .Ú …tyf:t' . oxfF lxGb':tfg.+:s[ltsf] wgL b]z .Ú d t'?Gt} cGt/fnfO{ lr7L n]Vg a.ts{ /xG5g\ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . xfdL k"jL{o bz{gn] k|/] Lt. dnfO{ klg cfˆgf] b]zsf] Hofb} dfof nfU5 .h{gfx¿ klg xfdLl.141 )) .df.]js .t} efl. snf / . pFrf] lxdfn . xfdL :jfeLdfgsf aft df5f}. sxfF ToxfFsf] k|km'lNnt /d0fLo jg:ynL. o:tf s'/f 5f8f}+ o:tf s'/f .gLk|lt cem a9L k|d ] knfof] xf]nf . sxfF oxfF .sf] .fob clxn].+tKt d¿:yn . oxfFsf dfG5] cToGt ldlxg]tL 5g\ .d/.d/.flxTo. cx+sf/ plQ 5 .Psf 5g\ . km/s olQ 5 xfdL k'vf{x¿sf] k'¿iffy{df 3d08 u5f}+{ dgdg}. dw'afnfl.do. + f k|z:t u5{g\ . xfdL To:tf] ub}g{ f} . d}n] cGt/fnfO{ .+:s[ltk|lt ljWg} uj{ u5{g. t/ .

] k8sfP uf]nL xfd|f] b]zdf af}nfO{ v]n] /utsf] xf]nL xfd|f] b]zdf Û .\ g 1fg'Ho" Û gofF g]kfn agfpF5f}+ eg]/ efif0fug]{ g]tfx¿ stf uP < eGg'./L ug]{ af6f] to < eGg'.\ g 1fg'Ho" Û )) 60 ./sf/ ag].a} p:t}p:t} nfUgyfn] s:sf] ug]{ hoho < eGg'.\ g 1fg'Ho" Û slxn] x6\5 zª\sf.a}.\ g 1fg'Ho" Û cglulGt cj/f]w / jfwfx¿ l5rf]n/] s.\ lxsf{P.f{P/} ef]6 lht].\ g 1fg'Ho" Û sflkmof / /lbkmh:t} uhnnfO{ rflxg] ljrf/ xf] ls no < eGg'.uhn /fs]z sfsL{ n.\ Ph]N.141 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . .\ g 1fg'Ho" Û hlt 5g\ .+ljwfg n]Vg] sfkL / snd ljb]zL xftdf cGofod} 5g\ slt. cfbz{dfu{. cem} afFsL 5g\ wDSofpg] 6f]nL xfd|f] b]zdf Û . s] xf]nf ef]ln xfd|f] b]zdf < )) uhn vu]Gb| lul/ sf]lknf !÷&$.kmfof eP gdfGg] hlt dfGg]sf] pxL ult 8/n] s/n] af]Sg} k5{ emf]nL xfd|f] b]zdf Û t. g]kfn u~h slxn] x'G5 efUof]bo < eGg'. eo < eGg'. gftfnfO{ tfg]. r'6.

/fh ls/ftL.flxTo l.flxTo k|lti7fgÚ vf]6fªn] ut @)^% df3 $ ut] lbSt]ndf cfof]hgf u/]sf] a[xt\ uhn uf]i7Lsf] cj. …h. To. oltdfq xf]Og./fh sljtf n]Vg'sf] axfgfdf x[bosf] dfld{s jf0fL cf]sNbf /x]5g\ .zQm 9+un] sljtfsf] ¿k lbg .}n] xf]nf gjk':tfsf . To.+hLjgL gf/L .}n] logsf] sljtf ?rfpFg] Pp6f 7"n} hdft 5 of] d'ns ' df .[hgfnfO{ v'n/] tfl/km ug{ logL s+h. logsf tLgj6f sljtf .flxlTos sfo{qmddf logsf] pkl:ylt clgjfo{ h:tf] x'g/] x]5 .d. cfˆgf] ynf] / If]qsf] . .>d a.Sg' rfgr'g] s'/f xf]Og .'s} 6f9f / j'mgfdf /x]/ klg .dlk{t /xgfn] logsf] gfd / k|l.f+:s[lts pTyfgsf lglDt . + f . a? c¿sf] n]vgL / . /fhwfgLsf] .f/f] dg k/fpFbg} g\ .f/ .lsG5 .flxlTos rxnkxn b]lv w]/} 6f9f vf]6fªsf] Pp6f ufpF a'Okfdf a:b} cfP klg cfw'lgs g]kfnL sljtf kmfF6nfO{ xl/of]kl/of] agfpg slDt of]ubfg 7flgPsf] 5}g logsf] ./fh ls/ftL cfw'lgs .ª\ux| — …pHofnf] vf]Hg] cfFvfx¿Ú -@)#^_..h ] Ú klg lbPsf5g\ slj h.'kl/lrt gfd xf] .fdfGo 5 . oBlk cfˆgf] rrf{ / k|. logsf sljtfn] xfdL kf7ssf] dg dfq lrdf]6b\ g} . g]kfnL hghLjgsf] cFWof/f] / pHofnf] kIfnfO{ ./fh ls/ftLsf k|ltlglw sljtfx¿Ú -@)^%_df d'vfl/t logsf] efj / ljrf/ pRr:t/sf] kfOPsf]n] g} /fd|f / :t/Lo sljsf¿kdf logsf] Voflt a9]sf] xf] . vf]6fªdf x'g] s'g} klg .Dd km}lnPsf] 5 .h{gf ug{ .flxTo / .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .lsG5 / kf7s clg af}l4shutsf] dg lhTg . ….j'm/fsfgL M h. — tkfO{s + f] vf]6fª t .f] vf]6fª] o'jf slj sjloqLx¿ lognfO{ cleefjs 7fGbf/x]5g\ .:tf] / clk|o gf/f p5fNg' kbf]/{ x]g5 eGg] j'm/fsf] /fd|f] …d].fdlos r]tsf /fd|f gd'gf klg b]vfPsf 5g\ logn] . ' L ub}g{ g\ . .141 . —1fg'jfs/_ — gd:sf/ Û s] 5 xfnva/ < ± .flxTodf cfˆgf] a]Un} klxrfg agfpgsf nflu …/fhwfgL jfbÚsf] . cfk"mdf k|ltef 5 / nugzLntf 5 eg] /fhwfgLb]lv hlt./n / .a}h.]/ klg cfˆgf] .DkGg u/]sf] df tkfO{s + f] s] k|ltlqmof 5 < 61 .+If]k cleJolQmsf kf7ssf nflu ?lrs/ x'g] 7fg]/ oxfF k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .j .+:s[ltnfO{ dfof ug]{ slj h./fh ls/ftL.flxTo k|lti7fgÚn] olt eJo¿kn] uhn dxf]T. k"jn {] L nf]slk|o ufos s'a/] /fO{n] h:t} cfk"m hGd]sf] ufpF 7fpFd} .“u 1ffg'jfs/ kf}8]n uf}zfnf -h./fh ls/ftLsf sljtfÚ -@)%&_ / …h.+hljgL gf/L ./df e]6 x'bF f al/i6 slj h. olt 6f9f b'ud{ 7fpFdf klg ….Fu ePsf] /dfOnf] s'/fsfgLsf] of] ./fh ls/ftLn] .fx} /dfOnf] 7fpF /x]5 .l4 v]6fªdf dfq xf]Og vf]6fªaflx/ b]zsf s'gf sfKrf .flxTohutsf] .'Gg logL Tolt.

s sfoqmd dfg]sf] 5' .n \ ufot\ . — /fhgLltn] . — df]km. lsg xf]nf < ± JolQmut ljjztfx¿ y'k}| 5g\ . cfsf]t{ km{ pd]/n] klg 8fF8f] sf6\b5 } . o:tf] cj:yfdf cfˆgf] ufpF 7fpF afx]s cGoq d k/b]zL h:tf] 5' . + f vf]Hg] / dfUg]x¿ . To. lglDt d ….Fu /x]sf] cj:yf / kl/0fltx¿ To.\ eg]/ ul/g] .fdfGo hLjgdf h] 36\5. O{Zj/jNnex¿ aLr cfˆgf] :yfg sxfFlg/ kfpg'xG' 5 < ± tkfO{n + ] gfd lng'ePsf d]/f cfb/0fLo al/i7 slj JolQmTjx¿sf bfFhf]df d Pp6f .Dd dnfO{ nfU5— cfkm}.flxTo k|lti7fgÚsf ljdnf s]o/ n].f]lwPsf] 5 .fy} .+lhjgL gf/L ./n / .a}n] eGg] u/] h:t} hLjg .\ .kgfnfO{ /fhgLltn] k|of]udfq ug]{ h'g rl/q 5 To. 62 .ndf a.+x rfdln+u.a} alxgL / 5f]/Lx¿df pRr eljiosf] nflu z'esfdgf klg lbG5' . . — cfˆgf] Pp6f sljtfdf cfk"mnfO{ …ljr/fÚsf ¿kdf k|:t't ug's { f] So} cy{ / sf/0f 5 < ± sljtfdf cleJoQm ePsf lrqx¿.± vf]6fªh:tf] .flxTon] ug'k{ 5{ .lsPkl5 ToxL xltof/ e'Q] agfO{ ˆofFSg] k|jl[ Qk|lt tkfO{s + f] b[li6sf]0f s] 5 < ± /fhgLltsf] l3gnfUbf] k|jl[ Q xf] of] . — hLjg s:tf] x'g' k5{ lg < ±.fob .[hgf klg xf]. ug'k{ 5{ . / . afFRg . j}/fuL sfOFnf. t/ d Tof] afFlr/fÚ 5}g . — cfˆgf] ufpF.f/} /fd|f] n]Vg'xbF' f] /x]5 lg < ± sljtf /fd}|} x'gk' 5{ eGg] egfO /xFbf/xFb} klg sljtfn] s] eGg vf]hs ] f] xf] Tof] 5n{u+ eof] eg] sljtf /fd|f] x'gF ] /x]5 .xL . ul//fv]sf] klg 5 .xh ePF ls eg]/ tkfO{s + f] dgzfodf of] .xh x'g rfxG5' . — hLjg s] xf] < ± .[hgf .h{s xf]Ogg\ eGg]] d]/f] ljrf/ 5 .}n] sljtf cfˆgf] dfq lrq x}g— of] ef]Ug' k/]sf] / ef]lu/x]sf] cj:yfsf] klg lrq xf] . c¿n] ga'emf].ls/x]sf] 5}g .xh / .141 .lsG5 . xl/eQm s6'jfn.+3if{ xf] eGg] egfO g} plrt nfU5 . sf7df8f}s + } k|z.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . rl/qx¿ hxfF.y{ d . d]/f] .nsf w]/} sljx¿ /fhwfgLnfO{ ufnL u/]/ klg rlr{t x'g vf]H5g\— tkfO{n + ] of] af6f] lng' ePg < ± xLgtfaf]w jf cfTdZnf3f Hofbf ePsf sf/0f sf7df8f}+nfO{ ufnL ug]x{ ¿ w]/} 5g\ . df]km. — u'dfgl.fgf] ljGb' dfq x'F .[hgf ug{ .flxTosf] ljZjf. h] x'G5 ToxL g} d]/f] sljtfsf] ljifo xf] .flxTonfO{ xltof/ rflxF agfpg] t/ sfd . df]xg sf]O/fnf.a}n] a'‰g] . t./n x'gk' 5{ . ljlzi6 zAb / z}nLn] dfq sljtf pRr x'G5 eGg] d]/f] wf/0ff k6Ss} 5}g ./n / .dfh. — tkfO{ sljtf t . cfˆgf] lhNnf 5f8]/ cGoq hfg'xG' g /x]5 .a} b[li6n] lk5l8Psf] lhNnfdf cfof]hgf ul/Psf] of] sfo{qmdnfO{ d}n] P]ltxfl. — cfˆgf sljtfsf] ljifoj:t' sxfF km]nf kfg'{ x'G5 < ± sljtfsf] ljifoj:t' d vf]lHbgF . dnfO{ w]/} uj{sf] cg'ej e}/x]sf] 5 .leq .dflxt x'G5 eGg] d]/f] ljrf/ 5 . o.sf] e08fkmf]/ . .uF :ki6 x'gs ' f.]/ .

flxTo k|lti7fgÚsf] cfof]hgfn].t ePsf] lyof] .+uf] JofVof x'gk' 5{ . — s:tf] u'gf.kmn ePsf 5g\ .141 . s] 5 tkfO{s + f] of] ufpF a'Okfdf To:tf] cGoq hfg} dg gnfUg] < ± /fO{ lnDa'x¿ nfx'/] x'gd ' f /fi6«kl| tsf] a]jf:tf klg xf] ./L u'lh|/x]5 t < ± So} ug{ g. t/ o.n ug{ .Sg' xf] / < tkfO{s + f] n]vg s] .lqmotfdf ePsf] of] a[xt uhn uf]i7Ln] eljiodf .flxTo s:tf] x'g' k5{ < ± . d logLx¿sf] . — w]/} h. cJojl:yt eL8leq klg Jojl:yt hLjg x'G5 . /fhgLltnfO{ g} .[hgfTds of]ubfgsf] sb/ of] .lsg] cj:yf 5 . t/ cfkm}l.sf/fTds 5 . — hLjg s.f] 5 ls 5}g lg < ± 5}g . vf.t rflxF u'gf.[hgf ug'{ s] So} ug{ g.fy{s kl/0ffd b]vfpnf ls gb]vfpnf < ± d t o.flxTo s. — clg .fy{stf ax't} b]lv/x]5' .kmntfsf] af/] cfzfjfbL 5' .q hgf 5f]/f–5f]/LnfO{ s.flxTo .sf] d"Nosf] ljifodf d}n] So} klg pknlAw xfl. — tLgf]6L kTgLx¿nfO{ s. Tof] d}n] lgjf{x u/]sf] 5' .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .t s'g} u'gf.fyLx¿sf] . ef]ln s] x'g] xf] eg]/ ls6fg clxn] ug{ g. — clxn]sf] /fhgLlts pyn k'yn / c/fhstfaLr b]zsf] eljio s:tf] b]lv/xg' ePsf] 5 < ± w"ldn jftfj/0f b]lv/x]5' . of] a]jf:tfsf] sf/0f lr/kmf/ ug]{ d]/f] cfˆgf] JolQmut :jefj s]6fs]6Ld} ddf ljsl.lsPsf] of] yf]qf] lhGbuL laxfg p7fpg] / a]ns ' L .sf] .flxTodf hLjg / hutsf] l.+lhjgL gf/L ./L x'sf{pg' eof] < .}nfO{ v'zL agfpg] jf b'vL agfpg] k|of]hg / k4lt xf]Og .jf]k{ l/ 7fGg' eGbf vf]6fªsf gf/Lx¿n] /fhgLltnfO{ g} r'gf}tL lbg] ¿kdf of] .f] /fO{ lnDa'x¿ ls nfx'/] aG5g\ ls t :jb]zs} .f] 5 .3{if ug'{ k/]g < ± Jojl:yt hLjg t d}n] afFrs ] } 5}g .lsgF .flxlTos sfo{qmd eJo ¿kdf ug{ . cfˆgf] hGde"ldeGbf Kof/f] dnfO{ c¿ j'mg} klg 7fpF nfUb}g .— .DxfNg' ePsf] 5 < / .u/L ljdnf s]o/n]. — lbSt]ndf cfh ….DaGwdf tkfO{s + f] wf/0ff s] 5 < ± .]gfdf etL{ x'G5g\— tkfO{+ rflxF cfˆg} ufpFdf /dfpg' eof] .fy{s sfd x}g / < ± Ps cy{df xf]— t/ d z"GojfbnfO{ dg k/fpF5' t/ d z"GojfbL klg xf]Og x} Û — hLjgl. . — gjk':tfsf oL vf]6fª] uhnsf/x¿sf . — cfˆgf] .\ / pgsf .dfh / of] /fi6«n] u/]g eGg] b'Mv 63 .f] < ± hLjgnfO{ cd"No 7flgG5 .'tfpg] afx]s csf]{ ljz]if s]xL sfd 5}g ./L . — zx/n] tkfO{n + fO{ glrg]sf] xf] ls tkfO{n + ] zx/nfO{ dg gk/fPsf] xf] < ± Tof] b'O6{ } s'/f] x}g .

f]Wg 5'6fPklg eGg dg nfu]sf] s]xL s'/f 5 eg] eGg'xf].f] l.} To:tf] s]xL eGg' 5}g . To. ± olt 6f9f vf]6fËdf cfP/ dnfO{ cfˆgf s]xL egfO /fVg] cj. d}n] To:tf] s'g} cfk]Iff klg u/]sf] 5}g . t}klg gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f x'bF 5 } eGg] h'g Pp6f xNnf 5 Tof] xNnf dfq geP/ oyfy{d} lgdf{0f x'gk' 5{ . 64 .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° ./ lbg'ePsf]df tkfO{n + fO{ klg w/} w]/} wGojfb 1fg'jfs/hL Û )) kf“r xfOj'm pHHjn hl=.\ t h./fgL .sf] d 3f]/ eT.flxTosf/nfO{ /fHon] h'g 9+un] pk]Iff u/]sf] 5 To.|i6fx¿sf] nflu klg :yfg agf]. + fsf] w'jf‘+ . $= a'4sf] cf‘v + f c‘W+ of/f] 5 n'lDagL lx‘.\ eGg] rfxgf 5 . dfofsf] tf}n .do lbg' ePsf]df w]/} w]/} wGojfb 5 .141 . #= blGsof] cfuf] k|d ] sf] k|tLIffdf lr. t/ . — cGTodf d}n] .leq tdfd . )) %= k|d ] k|:tfj h'jfdf cGwf] Rof‘v + ] nfUb}g bfpm ./jfbL klg xf]Og . — x./fh bfO Û tkfO{n + ] xfdLnfO{ olt . d cj.flxTo / .du| .L= != elTsof] dg cljZjf.of Sn]z tkfO{s + f] dg /Xof] ls /x]g < ± To:tf] s}ns ] fxL+ dgdf cfpg' dfgjLo :jefj xf] .L x'/Ln] hfUof] ljt[i0ff . @= cfsfz hqf] gb]lvg] ljZjf. \ Û ± vf.{gf ub{5' .

ljof]uL a'9fyf]sL.QfTds cljsl.h{gfn] cfw'lgs g]kfnL sljtf ljwfsf] cf+lzs b|"tt/ ljz]iftf xfdL 7Dofpg .h{s df]ldnf. . .t .+rflnt b. b'j. pkdf]8. k"0f{lj/fd.njfn. >j0f d'sf?ª.}gL lszf]/ cflb sltko .fy} /fli6«o hLjgsf . lbg]z clwsf/L. uLtf sfsL{ / /Ltf vqLh:tf s]xL .S5g\ . gf/fo0f ltjf/L.fsf/.dfj]zLs/0f.dfhdf w]/yf]/ k[ys¿kdf cleJoSt x'gs ' f] cfˆgf] .h{s / sjloqLx¿sf] cfTdaf]w / j:t'af]w lkt[. :jtGq Gofok|0ffnL / nf]stGq geOsg s'g} s'/fsf] u+eL/tf Pj+ cy{jQf x'bF g} . /f.+jt\ @)^% sf] u0ftGq h:tf sltko /fhg}lts 36gfqmdn] .+jt\ @)%@ df . /fhgLlt / k4ltdf df}lns clwsf/. ljdn sf]O/fnf. cfzf.Hf{ssf] cleJo+hgfsf] cfˆgf] k|efjj[Q 5 hf] y'k}| eGbf s]xL a]Un} 5 . ufoqL.d.do.fk]Iftof uLtf sfsL{sf] …dnfO{ 65 . 1fg'jfs/ kf}8n ] .GWof kxf8L. b'an { tf./:jtL. clgn kf}8n ] .jifL{o hg . r/0f. gj/fh sfsL{. sjloqLsf lrGtg . tLy{ >]i7.d/. xl/ clwsf/L. ljZj ljdf]xg >]i7. s0ffb dxlif{. bfdf]b/ k'8f.+a4 g]kfnL k':tf / hgtfnfO{ .hfklt. ljjz kf]v/]n.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . dg' d+lhn.u+ xf] / ljsf.fksf]6f.fdlostfjfbL wf/f cyf{t\ ldl>t oyfy{jfbL wf/fcGtu{t .dfhsf] x}sd. ljz]iftofM df]xg sf]O/fnf / logsf s]xL k|v/ . . . . uf]j4{g k"hf.fljqL. nfj0o .+jt\ @)$^ sf] P]ltxfl. g]kfnL sljtfsf] 5ofnL. dlxnf . zzL e08f/L./fxgLo k|.s hgcfGbf]ng.xkL8f 5 / To. ax'ntf."rs k|fb]lzs ax':j/ d'vl/t ePsf] 5 .f.f]Gd'v uTofTdstf oxL :j:y z}nLdf ljsl. uLtf / /Ltf k|el[ t sf]xL x'g .'Aaf.fIffTsf/ u/fPsf]n] em08} b'O{ bzsfjlwleqsf . /d]zh+u l. ljdn lgef. tf]of u'?ª. gs'n l.+rt] gfjfbL oyfy{jfbsf] csNkgLo df]8. >]i7 lk|of kTy/.fDa 9sfn.+u} cfw'lgs g]kfnL sljtfnfO{ ult lbg] sfo{ eO/x]sf] kfOG5 .|i6f g]kfndf cNk 5g\ . ljqmd . pkr/0f. . cljgfz >]i7.j{kIfLo ljifonfO{ JoSt ug]{ .sf] u+eL/tf Pj+ cfGtl/s dd{nfO{ . k"0f{ OGkmfbf. . k'?ifk|wfg . d+h' sfFrn ' L.t . lji0f' lje' l3ld/]. pHjn lh. hubLz l3ld/]. /d]z >]i7.f]Q/sf] sfnv08n] .h{snufot\ k':tfk/s . :jo+df of] .141 . zfvf / k|zfvfl.h{ssf] l.+u.zSt k/Dk/fdf an yKg] sjloqL x'g\ – uLtf / /Ltf . alatf. cf/= cf/= rf}nfufO{.h{gfdf ax'ntf. .' If]qL.+jt\ @)^# sf] hgljb|fx] Pj+ . dx]z k|.f}Gbof{ge ' l" t / ljrf/fg'el" tsf] .fk]If j:t'tf Pj+ o'uaf]w . . ljdnf. z}nG] b| .uLtf / /Ltfsf] k|ltlgWofTds sljTj /d]z uf]vf{nL jL/u~h o'uk|jfx .L.t x'g' k5{ .djtL{sfe}m+ j:t'ut oyfy{nfO{ cfTdaf]w / bfloTjaf]wsf b[li6n] c+ufNg] . Zofdn. piff.hu t'NofPsf] e]l6G5 tyf ltgsf l. .S5f}+ / logsf sljtfnfO{ sfnfjlws cf/f]xcj/f]xsf] ljZn]if0fLo afGsLsf ¿kdf u|x0f ug{ ldN5 . x]d xdfn. P:kL sf]O/fnf.fO{.'lwhgn] klxNofpg' k5{ .cltjflbtf / .r]tgf / efje"ldsf] k|dv ' kIf xf]— . hoGtf. s[i0fe"if0f an. uf]kfn k/fh'nL.Ltf.dsfnLg r/0fsf] . k|df]b :g]xL.

dfg'el" t / dgf]åGb s:tf] xFb' f] xf] .+ti' 6 kfg]{ . .f}Gbof{ge ' l" t . . …ljlgld{t k|jfxÚdf qmflGtr]tgfsf] o'uWjlg.+uLsf] k|tLIff.f]rf}."on { fO{ lk7ØFd " f af]s/] -dlGb/af6 x/fPsf zflnu|fd.xcl:tTjsf] hl6ntf. . dfgjLo r]tgf. sljtfs[ltn] :jR5Gbtf.+Vos s'/f .dfwfg k|f/Deb]lv ljZjhLjgdf k/:k/sf] sf/s /x]sf 5g\ .oyfl:ylt / cu|udgnfO{ d'Vo cfwf/ agfP klg uLtfsf] cleJo+hgf eGg' kl/j]z.d:of / .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .+sL0{ftf / ckf/blz{tfnfO{ Jo+lht u/]sf] 5 / ljljw s6' oyfy{ logsf l.h{gfTds pks/0f / k|ljlwdf w]/yf]/ pQ/sfnLg gjLgtf / gjLg cfu|x e]§fpg . …ltdLn] dnfO{ bf]>f] bhf{sf] agfof}Údf 9f]u+ L k|d ] Lsf] :jfyL{ dfofsf] kl/ro.'v / .'Aojl:yt ug{' kg]{ logsf] ts{ cToGt u|x0fLo 5 .h{ssf] . …cf3f}+ . k|jl[ Qut cflbd b'i6tfaf6 ar]/ cfˆgf] / c¿sf] hLjg lgwf{/0fnfO{ . n}l+ us Gofo. k|To]sn] uBsljTjsf cf–cfkmgf] cGtj{:t'.dofjlwsf] :d/0f.cFWof/f] g} rflxG5Ú -@)^@_ / /Ltf vqLsf] …km"n /f]Pkl5Ú -@)^$_ . .+ cd]l/sL / o'/f]kn ] L txsf] ljsl. …lzjTjsf] vf]hLÚdf ljn'Kt ljz]iftfsf] cGj]if0f. k|of]usfl/tf / .+ro.DdÚdf hLjg.V+ osnfO{ . w]/yf]/ . . cfofd / lzNknfO{ 5n{U+ ofpFg vf]hs ] f] b]lvG5 .d[l4 ePsf] eP g]kfnL .t Psfsf/ x'g] OR5f.+ufnfaLr k|yddf #% / bf]>f]df $) u/L s'n &% j6f /rgf 5g\ ."Id lsl.fn cf¿ eP/ k'm' n g x} ÛÚdf g]kfn cfdfsf] ljbL0f{ 5lj tyf …sfuÚdf b'hg{ sf] 3f]lift c3f]lift ¿k k|tLsfTds 9+udf lrq0f ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . …j}hgL 3fd 6f+luPsf] cfsfz.dosf] cf:yfÚdf lg/y{s JotLt .djtL{sf] ljz]if lrGtg 7DofP klg logsf l. .d:ofu|:t 5g\ . k|d ] fg'el" t.gLo . dfG5]sf] hLjgsf k|To]s lbg / k|To]s If0fsf] x/ lx.fa Pj+ ljZn]if0f ubf{ ax'.xg' kg{] dfgjLo cl:tTj.+tf]if k|fKt x'g] :jb]z¿kL s}nfzdf lzjTjsf] cefj v6\lsP klg cljrlnt x'g k|To]snfO{ /rgfdf oL .doqmd yf]/} /x]sf] e]l6G5 .lsG5 .Qfk|ltsf] b[li6sf]0f xf] . dfG5]sf] afWotfnfO{ ljlgld{t lgolt 7fGb} To:t} kl/l:yltdf k|To]sn] . k[–@_ 66 .h{såon] cfˆgf] jl/kl/sf] cu|h k':tf / . …a'4 /f]Psf cfFvfÚdf r/d g}/fZodf hLjgzlStsf] . qmddf uLtfsf] …dnfO{ cWofF/f] g} rflxG5Ú sljtfs[ltdf lg¿k0f ubf{ …dlGb/af6 x/fPsf zflnu|fdÚdf .t k4lt.h{gfsf] ljZj. . b'O{ . …b'3l{ 6t cl:TfTjÚdf z]ifkZrft\sf] lj:d[t k|s/0f. j}lzi6\o.'¥ofpg] ul5{g\ .+3if{ u/L afwf Aojwfg l5rf]Ng' kg]{ logsf] cfFl6nf] k/fdz{ 5 .fWo si6 / kL8f . k|lts"n oyfy{sf] k'~hn] dfgjLo hLjgsf] zfZjt kIf wldlnPsfn] clw.h{gfdf ljrf/0fLo 9+udf k|sl6t 5g\ .141 .+ljwfg Pj+ . …dnfO{ cWFof/f] g} rflxG5Údf uLtfsf efjf]bu\ f/ oL x'g— \ -ljb|fx] sf] k/fsfi7f _ Oltxf. /fHo Joj:yf / ljZj. …z"Go cfsfzsf] lrqÚdf k|sl[ tl.d'2Z] o b]lvG5 . …Pp6f d'bf{ .df cfUnf] nfu]sf] lbg cfuf] an]/ v'ns ] f lyP tuf/fx¿ cfsfz gf£b} lyP .dsf] ljj]rg sjloqLsf] l.fw'Tjsf] lgoldt k/fho. k|jl[ Qut lgDgtf / gLrtfsf] . o.Qfsf oL lj/f]wL x'g\ .'b9[ dWofj:yf gcfOsg k|f/+e / cGTosf] c. z}nL.

…h"g k|.k"t .jsf] .lxt\ ax'kf| b]lzs Pj+ dxfgu/Lo jftfj/0fsf] sf]nfxn k|tLsfTds 9+udf .kmn l5g\ . …Tof] /ftÚdf cAoSt /flqrof{. …o'usf] jf:tljstfÚdf odb"tdf kl/0ft k|To]s dfG5]sf] lrgf/L.f}Gbo{ r]tgfsf] efj sdgLo 5 Pj+ tL af]wuDo 5g\ .xLbk|lt kl5Nnf] g]tT[ jn] u/]sf] u2f/L.ssf e|d/j[lQdf k|sfz.dosf] cf:yf. …gofF jif{Údf af¿bL .Demgfn]Údf dfofn'sf] cefjdf vNnf] ag]sf] hLjgsf u+eL/ k|:t'lt 5g\ . gkfOP klg ltgdf of}6f b"/ufdL vf]hlt/ logsf] .h{gfdf k'g/fj[Q x'g' k|z. …ltdLaf6 hlGdg] 5f]/f]Údf .h{g' k5{ . k[–& _ czfGt / c/fhs :jb]zsf] j0f{g _ w]/} eof] s}nfz z"Go 5 lzjsf] b[li6xLg s}nfzdf d's{§fx¿sf]pT. k[–@_ -sFf8f3f/Ldf bu'b{} cufl8 a9\g] 3f]if0ff _ ljlgld{t lgoltdf clj/n k|jflxt eP/ g} csf]{ o'ukxf8 l. …d[t 5f]/fl.kgf / cfkmGtÚdf >4]o w/f]x/ . k|tLs / ljDax¿sf] dfWodn] t'ngf ug]{ tyf ltgnfO{ vf]tNg] . tf]of u'?ª .kgfÚdf dxTjfsf+IfL gf/Lsf] lrGtg / … ltd|f] ./L d'vl/t b]lvG5— -eljiok|ltsf] u+eL/ . …htftt} o:t} 5 oxfÚdf kfOnf e|ldt x'bfFsf] ysysL.Gb]z. zfSod'lg dxfTdf uf}tda'4sf] b[Zok/s k|tLslk|otfn] cft+sjfb eGbf .} k|sf/ /Ltfsf] …km"n /f]Pkl5Ú .jflg/f lul/ / a]h + s " f j:t'lgi7 pb\uf/. cfk"m hGd]sf]. …ej/fF HofbtLx¿Údf /l.L e§Lx¿ wfO/xbfF k|bl" ift va/x¿aLr 67 .f]r cled'vLs[t kfOG5 . + gLo 5 . o. x'ss {] f] / cfk"mn] 6]ss ] f] kj{tLo .'/Do kl/j]z.f.x:q lxdkft al. k[–!@ _ hLjg / hutnfO{ cg]sfg]s kof{j/0fLo pkdf.a}sf] enf] x'g] logsf] lgisif{ l. …phfl8Psf a:tLx¿Údf Wj:t cf>oe"lddf gAoFl" emg] dfG5]x¿sf] lr/:d[lt.Demfpg logL . …k"mn /f]Pkl5Údf /Ltfsf] efjhut o.dfg s7f]/ cleJo+hgfsf] cfef.a}sf] x'g] .+ufnfsf] …hLjg.tÚdf .xdlt.-gjkysf] uGtAo_ >flkt efUou|:t cf:yfsf] k|f/+e / cGTo b'vs ] f] of] If0f csf]{ .{g' k5{ -ljlgld{t k|jfx.j 5 -lzjTjsf] vf]hL."rs O{dfgbf/ zflGtjfbn] . . …k|d ] o'4df xf/Údf k/flht k|d ] sf] ctLt.+rt] gf _ ldt]/L ufF.Gtfgsf] nfn.141 .'¿ªu|:t wtL{df zflGtk|d ] L of]4fsf] vf]hL.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . …eljiokL8fÚdf /f]uu|:t jt{dfgdf eljiosf] lrGtf.h{ssf] .do cf:yfsf] k'n afFw/] d cfufdL ofqfsf] gofF af6f] to ub}5 { ' -Pp6f d'bf{ .

ljdlt / lj. cfˆgf] . k[–@# _ .ft ub{} hfg] b]lvG5 .S5' d -anTs[t .'GtnLsf] d[To'df pTkGg /f]if _ -.Qf lj?4sf] d.Dk"0f{ kL/x¿ lal.+ejtof b'MvfGTo k|To]s dfG5]sf] :jfefljs kl/0flt / lgolt xf] . …hLjg ko{GtÚdf hLjgf]2Z] o 68 . dfgjLo hLjgsf c:jfefljs / ljk/Ltfy{s kl/bz{g x'g\ .h{sn] l6k]sL 5g\ / qmdzM ltgsf] u"9 cy{ logn] cfTd.Dk|/] ssf] pRrtf. …Sofgef.f}Gbo{sf] leGg leGg cg'el" t.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . k"jL{o / kfZrfTo tyf k|frLg Pj+ cfw'lgs.flGgWosf] uf]Kotf.' dfG5]sf] eofjx :j¿k _ pm pm pm of] pm km"njf/LnfO{ uf]nfjf/L b]V5 kfgLnfO{ /ut b]V5 r6ØfªnfO{ ad b]V5 o'usf] jf:tljstf dfG5]nfO{ sfn b]V5 -csNkgLo v'zLsf] cfNxfbk"0f{ If0f _ -o'usf] jf:tljstf.jt{dfg /f]ufpg .141 . …cl:tTjsf] vf]hLÚdf c¿nfO{ pHofnf] / cfkm"nfO{ cFWof/f] 5fGg] .+u} a'‰g'kg]{ sltko hLjg oyfy{nfO{ .h{gf kN6fP klg .S5 /f]ufPsf] jt{dfgleq Eljio b'Vg . …k"l0f{dfsf] rfbFgLÚdf k|sl[ tk/s . …cr]n sljtf x/fPÚdf z'is l.S5' d g t uGg g} . Aojxf/ / cg'ejk/s k|f9} tf .fn k|bz{g." k[–$! _ ljx+ufjnf]sg ubf{ k"mn / k'm6an. …:kz{Údf cfTdLosf] .df sf7df08fÚdf s'lrsf/n] lrqf+lst /fhwfgLsf] kl/b[Zo.flxTo / l. k|To]s ynf]df ljkof{._sf] kxf8 b]lV5g\ logL . sxL+sf] .} u/L uLtfsf] …dnfO{ cFWof/f] g} rflxG5Úsf] …cFWof/f]sf] h'n.dosf g]kfnsf] zfSo u0ft+qsf pQ/flwsf/L zf. k[–@^ _ Vffln km"nnfO{ ufnL u/]5' slxNo} gk'mNg cfu|x u/]+ udnf km'6fP/ laGtL u/]+ km"n Û ltdL slxNo} hjfg gx'g" -km"n Û ltdL slxNo} hjfg gx'g.xgLo l:ylt 5 .. …>4f+hlnÚdf dfnLsf] zjdf clk{t k'iku'R5f. k[–!!_ -/Stlkkf.h{gfk|lt ljiffb. afbn / r§fgnfO{ :kz{ljDasf] dfWodn] cYof{P klg ljWj+.S5 -eljio kL8f. o. -Kof/f8S.+ultnfO{ k|To]s dfG5]n] hLjgko{Gt ef]Ug' kg]{ c.s dxfTdf a'4 hLjgb]lv lsg j}/fluP eGbf ToxfF b'Mv lgjf/0fsf] k/d j:t'jfb km]nf kb{5 . ' Údf cljj]sL .{P/ olt ¿em]sL5' v'zLdf olt x/fPsL5' v'zLdf g t eGg g} .DaGw.

dfGotf / ljZjf. …cfhs} gu/f nfu]sf] cfhÚdf afFemf] wtL{nfO{ c.SsnL :j¿k _ ha Ps sbd .Sg] dfG5]sf] afWotf Pj+ …bfOnfO{ lr7LÚdf 6fl9Psf /x/sf] dfGoj/ .dflhs / .f/] uLtsf] sf]. ltdL .Qfdf s'g} ljGtL /ftn] .dLk k|i6Ls/0f h:tf cg]sf+uL tYo 5g\ . /fi6« Pj+ ljZj kl/j]zdf hl6ntf yk]sfn] . …Pp6f lzz'sf] hGdÚdf nf]st+qsf] k|flKtdf ck|flKtsf] .'jf.fj{lqs pHofnf] / .'/lIft 5f} -ltdLn] dnfO{ bf]>f] bhf{sf] agfof}..h{s plåUg l5g\ .f+:s[lts k|To]s 7fpFdf k|bi" f0f Pj+ u+hfuf]n AofKt 5 ./]/ ltdLn] dnfO{ afn'jfsf] 5f/f] xfGof} ck.+st] .nfO{ km'sfpg' kg]{ uLtfsf] . TofHo .fn cf¿ eP/ k'mng x} Û k[–!^_ -ljdfgjLos/0fsf] jLeT.141 .cfgGb /x]sf] . k[–@%_ -lqmofsnfksf] ljljw kIf_ hLjfZd eP/ ltd|f :kz{x¿ cflbd :kz{df kms]{ eg] ef]ln laxfg ltdL zfnLg eP/ cfpg'Ò Ò -:kz{.f xf] . k[–!& _ -/fi6«dftfsf] lg/Lxtf_ . r/df]Tsif{_ Oltxf.a}hgf ldnL To.ft\ / dfof ug{d ' f ufGwLjfbL / ljZj]Zj/jfbL bz{gsf] w]/yf]/ pbf/Ls[t lnKttf xf] .\ eGg] pTs6 O{dfgbf/ nfn.lu{s clwsf/sf] lgoldt cfGbf]ngsf] r/dtf / z+v3f]if xf]— …. zLif{sk/s cFWof/f]sf] df]xkfz / rfxgf. .+zofTds kL8f.Gbe{nfO{ cfTd.'gg] -cFWof/f]sf] h'n'. cfr/l0fs / Aofjxfl/s s'l6ntf Pj+ c:ki6tfn] kl/ j]zut cfly{s.+jb] gf klUnPg 3gf cGwsf/sf] . k[–#@_ j}olSts / .jf{ª ps'r klN6Psf 3fpx¿ lnP/ b|fk} bL ePsL cfdf x]g{ .f]r Û d'."rs :jfy{ Pj+ cb"/blz{tfn] .dfh.d} k|sfz aGws k/]sf] a]nf lxdfnsf] .lsgF ltd|f] gUgtf d]/f cfFvfdf k§L afFlwlbP x'G5 -cf3f+} . oyfy{tM k|To]ssf] lx:.l' dt km"njf/LÚ .k"0f{ s'. uLtfsf] sljTjsf cGo kl/rof+z oL x'g— \ -kfv08L k|d ] Lsf] .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .fb{} Psk6s eGof} 5f]l8 b]pm Û d 5'.fdf afSn} pHofnf]sf] rf]S6f k/f].ljgo cfu|x e]l6G5 .dli6. dfgjLo g}. …r+ufÚdf lghfTds sdhf]/L gfKg g.n ] L. 69 .sf] lj36g / lj:d[ltn] .fdflhs hLjgdf clgjfo{ d"Noaf]w v'lDrPsf]df . d"No.

}sf cfb]zsf s7f]/ aGwgx¿ -.t dfgj]t/ hLjfTdfsf] u'gf. …c.141 .f}Gbo{nfO{ em+} dfof u/ -kz'kIfL / dfG5].u/dfyf cem} 6'So| fpm. …dgÚdf lgoGq0fxLg sNkgfzLntf. …kz'kIfL / dfG5]Údf lg0f{ostf{l.'/lIftsf] eljioÚdf c.f .xfo ag]sf] dfG5]sf] hLjg tyf …d]/L ufpFsL sfG5LÚdf lgZ5n u|fdafnfsf] dxfgu/Lo ef]ujfbL cZnLntfk|ltsf] cfIf]k k|el[ t kf7ssf] ÅbonfO{ cfGbf]lnt ug]{ ljleGg hLjgaf]w ljBdfg 5g\ . /Ltfsf cGo kBfTds cGtgf{b o:tf 5g\— -afwsx¿nfO{ xfFsk"0f{ r'gf}tL_ ToxL+ 5 d]/f] v'zLsf] . …kxf8 :d[ltÚdf .f6]/ dfofdf k}. …P d]/f ofqfsf af3x¿ xf]Údf lg/Gt/ . k[–$&_ -pkef]StfjfbL . k[–$#_ -kof{j/0fLo . ….cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .3g cfTdLo efj. rf]O6\ofpm / af]n hyfefjL – hxfF ltd|f] xf/ / d]/f] hLt lglZrt 5 -P. k[–%!_ .qmdfGt/sf] /Ltfsf] …km"n /f]P kl5Úsf] …ltdL h] .h{sx¿sf] .Ld cf. ….Gt'li6Údf :jt+qtfdf cGtlg{lxg k|.dfh.dfgtfÚdf ljZjsf] e]befjk"0f{ juL{o .Ggtf.f].'/lIft gf/Lk/s cl:dtf. …d gbL lsgf/fsf] 9+u' f]Údf sdhf]/x¿sf] lgeL{s r'gf}tL. …km"n ltdL slxNo} hjfg gx'gÚ" df anfTsf/L b'i6af6 c.+aGwÚdf k|0fokIfLo bf]xf]/f] xflb{stf.doaf]w / ljZjaf]wnfO{ Wofg lbFbf gf/L. …k|tLIffÚdf k|tLlIftsf] cfudgsf] cjoSt v'zL.+q:t :jb]zL kj{tLo If]q. d]/f ofqfsf af3x¿ xf].f6]/ gfFluPsf] dg kb{g} -d]/L ufpFsL sfG5L.+:s[ltk|ltsf] ljt[i0ff_ d]/L ufFpsf] sfG5LnfO{ cfˆgf]kg u'ds ] f] dg kb}g{ k}:ffdf dfof .Gt'li6.GtnfO{ e+m} dfof u/ cfFvfn] . k[–$@_ -:jt+qtfk|ltsf] c.f]rÚdf cfTdLok|ltsf] . …hLjgsf] s'¿If]q .Qfsf] hfu/0f / 70 .+3if{ ub}{ hLjgkydf cl3 a9\g] k|lt1f.lSt_ :jLsfo{ 5}g dnfO{ d]/f] :jtGq cfsfzdf s'lx/f]sf kbf{x¿ :jLsfo{ 5}g dnfO{ s.xaGwgsf] csf6Ø t:jL/_ xfd|f] cfu|x 5 ltdLnfO{ xfd|f] laGtL 5 ltdLnfO{ dfG5] ltdL xfdLnfO{ k"mnn] j.

Eotfsf o:tf hl6ntf / ljifdtfnfO{ . …. …l/Qf ufu|Lx¿df cg"lbt b]zÚdf cefju|:t b]zsf] b[Zof+sg.fFem cfuf]sf 5fofx¿ Ph]lnofsf . b]z.kfxL aGb}5g\Údf c¿sf] . k|ljlw / lj1fgsf] ce"tk"j{ ljsf.f}+ ztfAbLdf ljZjhLjg Psbd .lsG5 . k[–%@_ cFWof/f] .lsPg cfkm}+ a'4 aGg rfxG5' -rfFk u'/fF.+3if{zLn p7\g] oyfy{ tYo_ .lqmotfsf] kQf] kfOG5 .n] PSsfO.+3if{sf] lIflth 6]s/] d 71 . k[–$& _ -eL/lt/ nDs]sf] b]zsf] .s]5 -ult/f]wn] ynf k/]sf] k|dv ' nIo_ -l/Qf ufu|Lx¿df cg"lbt b]z.h{såon] o:t} ljljw r'gf} tLdf k|foM u/L k|sfz kf/]sf 5g\ . k[–%$_ -:jfyL{x¿ aLr .141 .x¿ 3fon l.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . …dnfO{ cWFof/f] g} rflxG5Ú sf s]xL afGsL] oL x'g— \ -cfw'lgs sfndf dxflelgiqmd0fsf] b[i6fGt_ Df efUo/]vfsf] k|f/+eljGb' ltd}| xTs]nfdf lgdf{0f ug{ rfxG5' dfkm u/ Û a'4nfO{ k5ofpg . sljtf>[V+ fnf aLr uLtfsf] …dnfO{ cFWof/f] g} rflxG5Ú sf] …k|sl[ t :jo+ ltdLnfO{Údf zlStsf] cEor{gf. { u+ Ú} df åGb Aoj:yfkgsf] pRrtd k|of.fd|fHo aGb/ufxdf sˆo{" nfu]sf] .fFem.+rt] gfsf] ljk'ntf 5fDGf .fWo 5g\ . + f.d'bs [ f] 5ftLdf alu/x] xf].+3if{sf] syfÚdf dfG5]sf] hLjgsf cgluGtL b'¿xtf.+emgf. …aGb/ufxdf skmo{" nfu]sf] . …rfFk u'/fF.kgfx¿ . w|j' Ls[t ¿kdf e]l6g] dfgjLo .. …kmf6]sf] 3'd / Wj:t . alu/x]Ò Ò -aGb/ufxdf skmo{" nfu]sf] .x¿ 3fon l.fGTjgf.fFemÚdf k/flht pHofnf]sf] …zAblrq. cGtl/If.fgf] lrq_ ztfAbLsf] lk/fdL8 af]s/] yfx} gkfO{ sltv]/ b]z l/Qf ufu|Lx¿df cg"lbt eO. …b[ZofGtdf kxf8 pleG5g\Údf cfdfsf] k"js { fnLg dfofsf] .kgfx¿Údf :jb]zsf] 8F9]nf]df ljb]zL em/Lsf] .gLo dgf]el" dnfO{ WjGofTds / k|efjsf/L 9+udf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .kfxL aGb}5g\..h{gfdf pknAw 5 .fFul' /Psf] 5 / k|To]sdf . …snf / k'tnLÚdf k|sl[ tsf] dlxdfufog Pj+ …km]l/ /ft v:nfÚdf dfG5]sf cljZj. …x/]s lbg pbfpg] .+ul7t ¿kdf xn ug{' kg]{ Aou|lrGtg l.kgf layf]Ng]sf nflu :jo+ tyfut aGg] pb3f]if0ff. …lag eP/ afFRg'Údf nf]sf]ksf/L hLjgsf]kz | . . t/ OR5'ssf k|ultdfu{df cu0o afwf / Aojwfg 5g\ Pj+ tL Ps k|sf/n] si6. k|bz ] / dxfb]zsf k|To]s gful/s :jtGq k|lt:kwf{n] cufl8 a9\g rfxG5g\ ."o.

Gt pdfg{] . k[–%&_ . To. …kfgLÚdf k|f0fL / hnfwf/sf] cljlR5Gg .x/Údf k"l0f{dfsf] .Dk"0f{ k[YjLel/ j.plSn. . …d cfdf xFb' L x'F t <Údf .Qfsf] lgGbf.fy{s kIf sfJosfl/tfdf 5g\ .u/dfyf cfsfzs} uf]/6] f eP/ tf/fx¿ eg] h"gsf] dnfdL hfFb} lyPÒ -. /Ltfsf] …km"n /f]Pkl5Ú sljtfs[ltsf] …dnfO{ dfkm u/Údf IftljIft /fli6«otfk|ltsf] .'Gb/tf lgofNg] gful/ssf] efj'stf h:tf ljljw .lbR5f./L ult lbPsf 5g\ ltgsf] k'gd{N" of+sg cfjZos 5 . …l.df /fi6«sf] Ifltsf] . k[—%#_ kfgL Ps lbg cfkm} cfpg] 5' ltdLsxfF To.+:sf/k|lt k|jl[ Qut b[li6 _ -dnfO{ dfkm u/. …cflTds k|d ] Údf b}lxs eGbf 7"nf] xflb{s k|d ] sf] dxQf.+u eL/af6 v.lxbufyf_ d/]/ klg afFrs ] f 5f}+ ltdL afFr/] klg d/]sL 5' d 72 . …nf]Ug] dfG5]Údf g/.kmntfsf] .fgL alxgLsf] caf]wtf Pj+ …O{iof{sf] .flng nfu]sL d]/L cfdfnfO{ .+efNg] lxDdt 5}g d:+fu -lxGb" . u0ft+qf]Q/o'usf] k|f/+les cfw'lgs g]kfnL sljtfsf] gj:jR5GbtfjfbL k|jfx / k|0fofg'el" tnfO{ df]ldnf / uLtf h:tf s]xLn] h.+3if{sf] syf.dfGftf / juL{o r]tgfsf] . …km"n /]fP kl5Úsf sljtfTds pTsif{ af]N5g\ – -dft[el" dsf] ljbUw kl/l:ylt _ olta]nf b'vs ] f] 7fpFdf nufpg] dnd 5}g d.141 -kfgL.f]kfg lgs6 k'¥ofpg] ub{5 . …a]sfd km"nx¿Údf g]kfnLsf] dg gb'vs ] f] 36gfk|lt tLj| Ao+Uo.]sf] e]l6G5 .t /fi6«sf dlxnfsf] lg/Lxtf.ts{ k|ultjfbL .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .dtfjfbsf] ux|uF' f] efj psf. k[–%&_ sd{7 .+rt] gfjfb / k|ultjfbsf] kl/is[t :j¿k / gjLg sljtfTds k|flKt xf] eGbf st} cGoyf xFb' g} . …3/leq}af6Údf . …hLjg lrtfdf hn]kl5Údf .dfJxfgn] /Ltf.lxt s]xLn] . …xtf/Údf o'un hf]8Lsf] ldngsf afws tTj.+rt] gf. …t:jL/df gr9fPsf] km"nÚdf /fli6«o . …clwsf/df tfNrfÚdf cNk ljsl.fptL.+kbfsf] ljWj+. a]nf ltd|f] st{Ao ltd|f] lhDd]jf/L d]/f] v/fgL aufpg'k5{ ltdLn] d]/f] c:t' aufpg'k5{ ltdLn] -slxNo} g6+l' ug] .s]sf] 5' cfsfzsf] . nf]st+q k|fKt ePklg k|jl[ Qut :jR5tf gkfPsfn] cFWof/f]sf] sjr klx/]/ uLtf pHofnf]sf] uLt ufpFl5g\ / j}wflgs t/ntf Pj+ /fhg}lts cb"/blz{tfn] /fli6«o uf}/j l5GgleGg ePsf] 7Dofpg] ul5{g\ ./s k|d ] Údf k|0fokIfLo pi0ftfsf] .+sL0f{ dof{bfk|ltsf] ljbf]x.xLb bfh'sf] k|tLIff ug]{ .}n] uLtf / /Ltfsf] sljtf eGg' .+aGwsf] sYo.'vfg'el" t.+nUgtf / k|lta4tfn] dfG5]nfO{ .

cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .+aGw.dGjodf cfwfl/t hLjg. ' .141 . k[–^&_ cflv/ Wj:t . :kz{.fdflhs Gofo / ax'ntfjfbL .fn cf¿ eP/ km'n g x} Û cWofF/f]sf] h'n.f}hGosf] jr{:j x'g' . Pp6f d'bf{ . b'vs ] f] /ut Pj+ O{iof{sf] .ftf}+ / o'uLg k|jfxnfO{ ljrf/f]Gd'v t'Nofpg] k|ltefzfnL uLtf sfsL{.xefj / oyfy{ . /Ltf vqL. kfgL.kfxL aGb}5g.Gt'li6.h{sdf .x/df.+oldt l7s 9+udf sxL+ st} Tolt k'likt / kNnljt x'g . b'V5 -O{iof{sf] .d:t/Lo cw'gftg lrGtg.dfgtf. cf:jfbgLo / :f+ki]| f0fLo 5g\ . . aGb/ufxdf sˆo{" nfu]sf] . pkef] S tfjfb. uTofTds rf.h{gfdf ljBdfg 5g\ .>4fh+ln t d/]sfx¿nfO{ kf] lbOG5 d/]/ afFrs ] fnfO{ s] lbg] -ljWj+. rfFk u'/fF. . g}lts på]ng. dnfO{ dfkm u/. . ljlgld{tk|jfx.+jb] gf /x]sf] k|dfl0ft x'G5 . lzjTjsf] vf]hL .b}j b'Tsf/]sf] b]lvG5 .fFem a:tLx¿ /utfDd] x'bF f cfˆg} /ut b'vs ] f] x'G5 -b'v]sf] /ut.+:s[lt_ km"n /f]Pkl5 j. .fdGtjfbnfO{ logLx¿n] k|f/+eb]lv . Hof]lt h+un. km"n ltdL slxNo} hjfg gx'g. :jR5Gbtf / zflGtjfbk|ltsf] cld6 clenfiff sjloqLåosf] l.+u6] b\ } nf]so'usf] 5}7f].'. .jfb.+ : s[ l tjfb / ljlg{df0fjfbnfO{ pQ/cfw'lgs cl:tTjjfbL k|v/ r]i6fn] .k|d ] LnfO{ /fli6«otfsf] lzIff_ -t:jL/df gr9fPsf] km"n.'vb 5 . t:jL/df gr9fPsf] km"n. :jtGqtfnfO{ :yfoL ¿kdf . .+3if{sf] syf tyf /Ltfsf] …km"n /f]Pkl5Ú s[ltdf o'usf] jf:tljstf.x/df cflb u/L @%-!@±!#_ j6f sljtf cToGt k7gLo.Qfjfb. . cGo sltko /rgf lzNkut Pj+ .+/rgfx¿ aLr cfˆg} Iflt ePsf] x'G5 x/]s .+:yfut ug{ Psflwsf/jfb / . ljdnf t'Dv]jf / O{Zj/L sfsL{ …jiff{Ú 73 .h{ssf] cg'ej / cg'el" tdf k|foM u/L k|0fofg'go.dosf] cf:yf. l/Qf ufu+L| x¿df cg"lbt b]z. k[i7 – &$_ cf:yfjfbL / j:t'jfbL k|z:t O{dfgbf/ .cf3f}+ .x¿ 3fon l. kz'kIfL / dfG5].wtL{ b'V5 hgtfx¿ b'V5g\ s] s] b'V5.f]. n}l+ us .+ . cfVofgjfb.Gt ¿G5 lj5f]8 ePkl5 d'6' b'V5 cfsfz b'V5 ./:jtL k|tLIff.+ufnfsf sltko /rgfx¿ aLr dlGb/ af6 x/fPsf zflnu|fd. k[–^(_ -. Oltxf.dfof]hg e]l6P klg . kf/blz{tf.s]sf] kfOFbg} . nf]stGqjfbL / k|ultjfbL cGtj{:t'sf] . nIdL pk|t] L. .fFem." P d]/f ofqfsf af3x¿ xf].ltdLn] dnfO{ bf]>f] bhf{sf] agfof} . Åbosf] :jR5tf. d]/L ufpFsL sfG5L. uLtfsf] …dnfO{ cWofF/f] g} rflxG5Ú .

h{gfdf lghfTds df}lns 9+udf uLlt z}nL / /Llt z}nL -<_ sf] qmdzM pGgog / pk:yfkg xFb' } hfg' dnfO{ >]o:s/ / 1fgj4{s /x]sf] cg'el" t x'G5 .{/+ rgfsf] gjLgtf – .fy{sj[Qsf] .Gbe{_ sf] ljz]if0fn] .+jb] gf a'‰g uLtf / /Ltfsf oL sljtfk+h ' pkof]uL 5g\ . l.Ddflgt x'gd ] f k5{g— \ sltko .+/rgf eGbf lj/rgf tyf lgdf{0fLs/0f eGbf ljlgdf{0fLs/0flt/ k|jQ [ cfw'lgsf]Q/ k|efj 7Dofpg . efiffz}nL.lxt\ ljj]lrt u|Gysf .h{sLo >d / . PsTj eGbf ax'Tj.+ufnfsf s]xL ljlzi6 a'bF f oL x'g\— – k|ultjfbL :jR5Gbtf – . kb kbfjnLsf] cf}lrTo./L c+uLsf/ u/]sf] 5 To. o:tfsf ultnf l. sfljlQs :t/Ls/0f lgofNbf Iflqof0fLåo . zLif{sLo ljwfg.flxTosf] k|jfxzLn sfnv08sf] dxTjk"0f{ b:tfj]hn] ljsf. lzNkljGof.t kl/lrt u/fPsf] x'g' .u/dfyfsf] g[TodUg cfTdfÚ -@)^%_ h:tf g]kfnL sljtf .'lj1 / af}l4s hdftn] lg¿k0ffTds 9+udf k|fT] .+sG] b|sf] >Lj[l4 ug{ b'as } f] k|of.lsg] 7fpF / . uLtf sfsL{ / /Ltf vqLsf] l.an j}rfl/s cfu|x – zflGtk/s k|tLs / ljDadf .'vb 5 . / kl/isf/fTds kIfdf . ….Ddfg ug{ . ck]lIft 5 .141 . .+efjgfx¿ 5g\ .qmlds k|ltefnfO{ h.du|tM efj. s]Gb| eGbf gjs]Gb|.h{s af}l4s kf7sx¿aLr qmdzM nf]slk|o xFb' } hfg] l:ylt 5 .zSt /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 .fy{s sljtfTdstfn] ubf{ /LtfnfO{ .+/rgfdf .dsfnLg g]kfnL sljtfsL /fhs'df/Lsf ¿kdf . …dNffO{ cFWof/f] g} rflxG5Ú -@)^@_ / …km"n /f]P kl5Ú -@)^$_nfO{ k|sflzt u/L df]/u+ sf] jf0fL / emfkfsf] efg' k|sfzgn] pQd sljtfs[ltl.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .} .h{sn] Wofg lbb}+ hfg' h¿/L 5 . cfw'lgs g]kfnL .dk{0fsf] cem} vfFrf] b]lvG5 sljtfTds .h{s .+af]wg ug{ ldNg] b]lvG5 .+of]hg.h{gfsf] wf/fTds .lqmo nfU5g\— oL .dfhjfbsf] clenIf0f . ljDa .dfJxfg – j:t'ut cGt. :jLsfo{ .kmn l5g\ . d'Votof . .fdfGo s'/f / cGtn{odf u+eL/tfn] k|sfz kfg{ /Ltf / ljz]if tYo Pj+ lzNk af]w u/fpg uLtf . c:t' . ljifoj:t'.flxt ug{k' 5{ . cfTd:yfkg eGbf lj:yfkg. )) 74 .dfGftf – /fli6«otfr]t .fj{ef}d pRrtf / cfofdnfO{ k|fKt ug{ .'b9[ s8Ldf qmdzM .h{gfnfO{ .hu l.femf k|Zgdf dt}Sotf – cfw'l' gsf]Q/ .h{gf / uLtfnfO{ Pslgi7 Plngf -cd]l/sfnL gf/LjfbL n]lvsf Plngf z]fjfN6/sf] .k|el[ t s]xLnfO{ . . .flxTodf gf/L n]vg / gf/L .h{såo .d]t .+If]kdf cg'eT" ofTds / k|ltlgWofTds -k|ltlglwd"ns_ s]xL sljtf s]nfpbfF nf]stf+lqs u0ft+q g]kfnsf] sljtf ljwf .+rt] gfsf] 1fg – gjzf:qLotfdf cle?lr – j}1flgs .

df lj=. dfq .j{Zjx/0f ul/lbP] . g]kfnsf] Oltxf.t} h]ndf lyP . .f]rdf 8'la.dy{ ePsfn] pgL Nxf. pgL .fb cfrfo{ lyP eg] cGo JolQmx¿df /fdx/L zdf{. pgL . oqtq /f0ffx¿sf] zf]if0f.fdf sf]7L ePsf Ps . !((& .j{Zj x/0f ug]{ aGbL agfpg] / xTof ug]{ h:tf sf08 u/fof] h'g sf08 !((&sf] sf08sf] gfdn] lrlgG5 .fx"sxfF d'Vo aGhf eP/ ! uP . pgL To:tf] s7Lg hLjg ofkg u/]/ a:g c. bz/yrGb| 7s'/L./ wd{/Tg oldn] kfpg . o.f] Ol:txf/ hf/L ePkl5 k|hf kl/ifb\s} kl5Nnf . pgL Ps hgf ef/ tLo qmflGtsf/L >L cGgbfgGbaf6 lgSs k} e | fljt ePsf lyP .fg} b]lv lg8/ tyf :jfledfgL vfnsf lyP .Sb}glyP / rfxb}g lyP klg .sf/0f s'g} klg :s'n] lzIff bLIff kfpg] cj. afx«v/L .nfO{ dgnfUof] To.]/sf] gLlt 8/nfUbf] lyof] .@ cflv/df .fndf /f0ffzfssf] lj?4df krf{sf08 u/]kl5 /f0ffzf.+u/ 6+s k|.sn] 8/fP/ Ol:txf/ .+lIfKt rrf{ 8f= zf]ef kf]v/]n kf6g .uF klg 8/fpFbg} y] .fndf aGbL hLjg ljtfpFg afWo ePsf wd{/Tg old klg ljleGg aGbLx¿ dWo] Ps lyP .fn Pp6f o:tf] .141 .kl5 oldsf lktf sf7df8f}d + f a:g g.g 6f]nsf] Ps wgL kl/jf/d} ePsf] lyof] t/ klg b}jsf] nLnf eGg] ls /f0ffzf.}sf] afFsL a'ema'emf/ydf bf]if nufP/ kl/jf/sf] .gsf] rsrsL eGg]— rGb|zdz]/ h:tf s'6Ln /f0ff zf. wfld{s.d]t hf/L u/]sf lyP .}. !(($ .ndf vnfFtL rnfpg] / sk8fsf] h'Qf l. h'g a]nfdf pgL sf7df8f}+ cfP Tolta]nf g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts kl/l:ylt ljifd lyof] . oldsf] hGd t sf7df8f}s + } c.ssf] la?¢df Pp6f .dosf] k|tLIff lyof] .do xf] h'g .+:yfsf cWoIf /f0ff zf. To.cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . pg}af6 qmflGt ug]{ k|/] 0ff kfPsf old g]kfndf g} kms]/{ qmflGtsf] nx/ km}nfpg] .P .fdf cfˆgf lktf sxfF hfg tlD.Dd hfg]sf wd{/Tg cfˆgf dfjnL 3/df a:y] / Hof. g]kfn k|hf kl/ifb\n] !((& . jf:tjdf rGb|zd./sf/n] !((& df h.fydf ef? @% dfq lnP/ o]gs]gk|sf/]0f old Nxf. To.s]/ Nxf.don] gofF lkF9LnfO{ s]xL ug{sf nflu k|/] 0ff lbG5 .} . .o'Qm SofDk.DkGgzfnL ePsf] b]Vg .ssf] rqmJo"xdf old kl/jf/ klg k¥of] .fwf/0f hgtfnfO{ .}n] pgn] oldsf lktfnfO{ klxn] Pp6f 7]Ssf lbP / To.fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts zf]ifsx¿sf] lvNnL p8fpFy] .+=df :yfkgf ePsf g]kfnsf] k'/fgf] /fhgLlts . cGgbfgGb Ps a+ufnL leIf' lyP . wd{eQm dfy]df.fb cfrfo{x¿ l.b:on] k|hfkl/ifb\sf] cfGbf]ngsf] e08fkmf]/ ul/ lbPsf] x'gfn] /f0ff .b:ox¿dWo] s'g} Ps .}an ] f wd{/Tg old klg aGbL agfOPsf x'g\ . lyrf]ldrf] / cGofo–cTofr/sf] dfq jr{Zj sfod lyof] .+= !((& .s]gg\ .pg] sfd u/]/ lbgsf] tLg rf/ cfgf sdfpy] .3if{sf] yfngL u¥of] . pgL klg 6+sk|. 75 . hLj/fh zdf{ cflb lyP . .ssf] cfFvfsf sl.fndf pgL sf7df8f}+ cfP . To. !((# la=.}nfO{ k8sg].+:yf …g]kfn k|hf kl/ifb\Ún] PstGqLo /f0ff zf.s]sf lyP .f k'u] . pgL xQkQ s.wd{/Tg old M Ps . of] yfngLsf Bf]ts o.

TonfO{ k|s6 u/]/ c. oldn] …g]kfnsf s'/fÚ n]v/] g]kfnsf] tfTsfnLg /fhgLltdf rfv /fVg] kf7sju{sf] OR5fnfO{ s]xL xb.f| ] .\ wd{/Tg oldn] w]/} s'/f] .Gt'li6sf nflu sfdgf ub{5f}+ .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .dLIffTds Oltxf. :jo+ n]vsn] s]xL k|lt cfˆgf ldqx¿nfO{ pkxf/ :j¿k ljt/0f ul/Psf] afx]s c¿ .Tosf] kbf{kmf./L g} ….fy} oldsf] v/f] / ?vf] af]nLrfnLnfO{ o. csf]{ .fb cfrfo{nfO{ cf/f]k nufP/ h'g s'/f] k|:t't u/] Tof] plrt xf]Og h:tf] nfU5 lsgeg] g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts Oltxf.s]g .L gePsf RofDk6L em} 3'dfpg ldNg] cflb eg]sf] s'/f] pgLx¿sf] cfk.dfh klqsfsf] k|wfg . o.s] . …g]kfnsf s'/fÚdf …/fhg}lts ax'¿kL 6+sk|.Qf k|ltsf] 9[8 nfnr lyof] . wDsL b]lv t. wd{/Tg oldn] 6+sk|.+:s/0f lgsfn]/ pxfFsf] lbj+ut cfTdfsf] . k':tssf] bf]. ] df k|fo wd{/Tg old cfO/xGy] / ukmufkm 5nkmn eO/xGYof] eGg] s'/f cfh klg dl0f/fhhL :d/0f ub{5g\ .f/ x'g . h. o.+:s/0f lgsfNg klg cg'sn ' ldn]g .fb cfrfo{ st} klg ax'¿kL b]lvFbg} g\ . 6+s k|.f| ] . …g]kfnsf s'/fÚ @)!$ . pgL .+:s/0f k|sflzt ePsf] 5 .dfhsf] Ps emnsÚ gfds n3' pkGof.To b]lvb}g ./L /fdxl/ zdf{sf] cfTdj[QfGt -!(%(_n] /fdxl/ zdf{af/] hfgsf/L lbG5 To.t hf]l8Psf] ePtf klg pgL wfld{s cGwljZjf. k':tsnfO{ k|ltaGw nufPsf] lyof] .Dkfbs >L dl0f/fh pkfWool. h]xf].Dd k"/f ul/lbPsf 5g\ .]/ n]vs ] f lyP .fbsf] dGqL d08nÚ eGg] lzif{sdf 6+sk|.dfh / /fi6«af/] cfˆgf ljrf/x¿ k|s6 u/]sf 5g\ .}.a} k|lt hkmt ePaf6 Jofks ¿kdf k|rf/ k|.snfO{ kq n]vs ] f] eGg] s'/fsf] k|df0f st} 5}g .n] :ki6 kfl/lbPsf] 5 ./sf/n] o.L jf ¿9LjfbL ljrf/sf lyPgg\ .t /~hgf l.af6 kf7sx¿nfO{ oldk|ltsf] ?lr cem a9\g . of] k':ts lgSs} rfvnfUbf] x'gs ' f. pgL a|fDx0fjfb ?rfpFbg} lyP . pgsf] . . .df 6+sk|.$ 76 . pgdf olb nfnr} lyof] g} eg] cfˆgf] /fi6sf] cv08tf / .sf] efiff / z}nL /fd|f] x'g g.pgL sf7df8f}+ cfpFbf pgn] cfˆgf] .fbsf] JolQmTj / sfdsfjf{xLsf] cWoog ubf{ pgL s.fy}df lnP/ cfPsf lyP . pgsf] Oltxf.141 .Defjgf b]vf k/]sf] 5 . pgL Ps :jfledfgL / lg:jfy{ /fi6«jfbL b]zeQm b]vf kb{5g\ . pgn] sflnËkf]Ëdf a.+=@)!$_sf tkm{af6 elgPtf klg @)%* . wd{/Tg oldsf] gfd wd{l.fb cfrfo{nfO{ /fhgLlts df.Fu h'em\b} n8\b} lgs} kl5 dfq cfk"mnfO{ .fFrf] / 7f8f] af]ns ] f]] ePtf klg s]xL s]xL s'/f rflxF . ug]{ sfo{df pgL st} r'ss ] f b]lvb}gg\ . lgSs} /fd|f] 5 .s]tf klg qmflGtsf/L lx.dfhsf] Ps emnsÚn] wd{/Tg old af/] /fd|f] lrgf/L lbG5 .fndf k|sflzt ePkl5 tTsfnLg . .f] pkGof.y{ clxn] bf].fj{ef}d.fydf …. wd{/Tg oldn] lgSs} kl5 k|lts"n kl/l:ylt.g]dfxn lg/sf] g]zgn lk|lG6+uk|.Sg] .{g] / nf]e nfnr ePsf :jfyL{ JolQm b]lvFbg} g\ .uF 8/fpg].# eGg] …g]kfnsf s'/fÚ sf] k|sfzs -lj=. …xfd|f] /fli6«otfÚ.L dte]bsf sf/0fn] eg]sf]h:tf] dfq b]lvG5 lsgeg] 6+sk|. pgn] …Gjfv+ k'rnÚ.nfO{ a+Uofpg vf]Hg' eg]sf] /fi6dfly s'7f/f3ft ug'{ hlQs} xf] .Ú cflb k':tsx¿ n]v/] .:+ s[t agfP tyf leqleq}af6 qmflGtsf Hjfnfx¿ bGsfpg . pQm pkGof. …a'4 dflg. .fndf cfP/ dfq o.fbnfO{ hftRo"t u/]kl5 pgn] …kfgL rnfO{ kfpÚF eg]/ /f0ff zf.'lzlIft tyf .Tosf] kIfdf lg/Gt/ nfu]sf lyP . 6+s k|.'.fan] pkGof.fb cfrfo{n] hlt b]zsf] nflu of]ubfg lbg] g]tfx¿ g]kfndf lj/n} 5g\ .

ltldnf old yfkf.!* df lnPsf] cGtjf{tfaf6 )) df/–sf6 dw'. Gx'R5]zf]ef t'nfw/. sf7df8f}+. oldaf/] eGg' kbf{ pgL Ps :ki6jQmf.wd{/Tg oldsf] efiff . >]o kTgLx¿nfO{ klg ldNg' kb{5 .lsG5 . lrl/sfzf]ef tfd|fsf/.f]Rg' s] g} 5 / < of] b]zsf bIf o'jf ljb]lzg yfn] ljsfz xf]nf b]z egL 7fGg' s] g} 5 / < sf]xL d/] jL/ult sf]xL d/] d[To' g]kfnL g} . != l. lxl."bg l3ld/] gofF afg]Zj/ df/–sf6 va/ afx]s . wd{b]jL /fhe08f/L.l4r/0f >]i7.gsf lj/f]wL lyP .f] x'g uPsf] xf] . olb jt{dfg /fhg}lts kl/l:yltdf klg pgL hLljt} eOlbPsf] eP g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts Oltxf.Fw} 8fª 8'ª zflGt xf]nf b]z egL cfz s] g} 5 / < of] …dw'Ún] uhn s}n] n]vs ] f] lg 5}g uhn n]Vbf kmhn eP eGg' s] g} 5 / < df/–sf6 vj/ jfx]s .141 .Sg'sf] k5fl8 pgLx¿sf kTgLx¿sf] 7"nf] xft 5. wd{/Tg oldnfO{ …oldÚ agfP/ g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts /+ud~rdf lrgfpg] >]o pgsL wd{kTgL lx/fb]jLnfO{ lbg .fwf/0fn] afFRg ufx|f] . sof]b]jL old. :jfefljs klg xf] afnssfndf kl/l:yltjz lzIffdf alGrt x'g' k/]sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . lg8/ JolQmTj / /f0ff zf.a} d/] eGg' s] g} 5 / < .+emgf. @)%@ k[= !!@ @= P]hg #= wd{/Tg old g]kfnsf s'/f -sf7df8f}+. g]kfnsf w/} /fhgLlt1x¿n] rrf{df cfpg . @)%* $= dl0f/fh pkfWofol. rf? >]i7.n] cem a9L kf]ifs tTj kfpFYof] xf]nf .!.nf old.t @)^^. sf/fuf/sf] .fRg' s] g} 5 / < )) 77 .'Gg' s] g} 5 / < pFef] nfU5 b]z egL .fx«} 7f8f] / 6/f]{ b]lvG5 .'Gg' s] g} 5 / < pFef] nfU5 b]z egL .

w'Daf/fxL -065=8=13_ 8f= lzj]zrGb| /]UdL M HjfFO .t ljx] gu/]/ lsg xfd|L . sf]if/fh Gof}kfg] M clg.++hLjgL gf/L . ) 1fg'jfs/ M s]6Lx¿ k9\g] n]Vg]h:tf a'4L a9fpg] sfdlt/ gnfu]/ vfln >[Ëf/ k6f/d} .Ddfg sfo{qmd.. c¿nfO{ klg pxfFsf] …uf}/LÚ -v08 sfJo_ k9g] . k9Øf} < Ò Ò 5flklbpmF ls Sofxf] o. lbQm]n -065÷10÷4_ ladnf s]o/n].141 .lsFbg} .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° . …uf}/LÚ k9]kl5 sfG5L gNofO{ a:g} g.lsg] efÚYof] . ) cleJolQm sfof{nodf j'mg}lbg g/fz M slj uf]kfn k/fh'nLn] Pp6f cGt/jftf{df …d t gf]jn ] k'/:sf/ kfpg nfos slj x'F . tkfO{n + ] Jo+Uo eg]/ 5fk]sf] j'm/fnfO{ xfd|f kf7s÷. 8f= w|j' rGb| uf}td M x}g.fk Û tkfO{n + ] d]/L alxgLnfO{ klxnf] b[li6d} dg k/fP/ ljx] ug'e { Psf] xf] t < 1fg'jfs/ kf}8n ] M klxnf] b[li6d} eGg'knf{Ò lsgeg] To.t n8\5] . -066=1=25_ sdndl0f bLlIft M -dGtJosf] qmddf_ d t sljj/ dfwj l3ld/]sf sljtfsf] eQm x'bF x} F' .f]emL alxgLnfO{ g} /f]Hg'ePsf] lg < 1fg'jfs/ M cf]xf] Û hfu?s s]6L.flxTosf/x¿n] ….Nnfx lbFb} s] klg eGg rfxG5' eg] of] s[lt k9]kl5 g/f]O{ a:g} .pFbf]df l. )) 78 .hd36x¿af6 ofofj/ uhn dxf]T.S5g\ .f/f .lsg] klg t xf]nf lg Û ) l. ) 8f= „'jz ] rGb| /]UdL M tkfO{h + :tf] slj dfG5]n] s'g} hfu?s s]6Ll. cem a9L g} hfu?s k/L eg] t r'gjj} n8\5]Ò Ò. a]nf cfFvf kfs]/ d]/f] bf]. x}g .Fb/' nfpg' kg]./ nf]Ug]l.Fu t slxNo} ljx] ug{' x'Gg . To.:yfg.fFRr}Ú eGg] 7flglbg .\ M ljjfx ubf{ s]6Lsf] l. clNn a9L hfu?s 5] eg] 5/–l5d]s.f] gug'.f] ldnfP/ …hd36x¿Úsf] Jo+Uodf .j.{ s]6fnfO{ rflxF of] lgod nfu' gx'g] lsg xf]nf < 1fg'jfs/ kf}8n ] M tfn' v'On]x¿nfO{ cK7Øf/f] gk/f]. lsgeg] hfu?s >LdtL cS. { \ .do lsg latfpF5g\ < k'gd sfsL{ pkflzsf M s]6fdfG5]x¿ u'0fsf] s]xL zf]rljrf/ ub}g{ g\— vfln s]6Lsf] cg'xf/ dfq} x]5g{ \ eGg]jm' /f yfx kfP/ lg . afg]Zj/ SofDk.Fu klg n8\5] . ) /fi^«sljsf] .f| ] b[li6 t x]g{} g.\ eg]/ lg .tf/jbs *f= lzj]zrGb| /]UdLsf] lgjf.flxTo k|lti&fg.Ú eGg'ePsf] /x]5 lg.

dfKt ePkl5 To.{gf u/] . eT.+3Úsf] :ykgf u/L To.ldltsf] a}7sdf pkl:yt .+3sf] .s.}t+ L. n'6df/.d:of . t/ Tof] .d:of cjut u/fpg].Dd JolQmut¿kdf / . o:tf sfuhL lj/f]w t xfdLn] w]/} jif{ cl3b]lv ub}c cfheGbf 5QL.] .Sg'k5{— h'g xfdLaf6 x'bF g} .sfnflu lgs} .'g."rgf ljefusf] o:tf] kIfkftk"0f{ Jojxf/k|lt s.do @)@( . l7s xf].Gsf] klg efFrg] . .dodf u/L nueu tLg b.DalGwt dGqLnfO{ e]6L cfˆgf] .] s.a]nfsf k|foM .d:of–dsf{ a'em] h:tf] klg u/] / .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .jf/L . g/]Gb|axfb'/ >]i7 tyf /fw]Zofd n]sfnLx¿sf . { fPsf xf}+ .a} .Dk"0f{ n]vs.dfwfg ug]{ arg klg lbP."rgf ljefun] . uf}/Lgu/ cleJolQmsf . .efkltx¿— cRo't/d0f clwsf/L. cGofo / cTofrf/sf] lj/f]w ug'{ k5{— u/f}F . cGTodf— . lsl.fndf xfdLn] …. To.dsf] lzi6 lj/f]wsf] .flxlTos kqsf/ .Dk"0f{ g]kfnL bfh'–efO tyf lbbL–alxgLx¿df gofFjif{ @)^^ sf] xflb{s dËndo z'esfdgf .xof]uLx¿sf .Lnn] jif}l{ kR5] n]vf k/LIf0fsf] em~em6 .+tl' i6sfnflu dfq x'G5— cfTd/lt h:t} .sf/0f xfd|f] of] sfuhL lj/f]w t xfd|f] cfTd.+3sf] k|ltlglw d08ndf .fPsf] n'tf]h:tf] dfq 7x5{— lsgeg] .+3if{ u/]sf lyof}+ .]sfx¿sf] s'. ejfgL l3ld/]sf] .fy} .efkltsf] sfo{sfn .dfwfgsf pkfo atfpg] sfd klg u¥of}+ . xTof. .Dk"0f{ .}n] Pp6f l.} . 79 . o.}n] v]b k|s6 u/. k|foM ./L c/fhstfsf] xb kf/ u/]/ . x]dGt >]i7.Dk/LIf0f u5{ . lgj]bg÷k|ltj]bg lbg] / . .141 .}n] Iff]e .DkfbsLo . kIfkftk"0f{ sfo{sf] 3f]/ lj/f]wdf plqg] lg0f{o u/] . k|lta4tf klg JoQm u/] t/ sfdsf xsdf s.flxlTos kqsf/ ./sf/sf] Wofg cfslif{t ug{ t 6fo/ afNg' k5{ .DkfbsLoaf6 .8s hfd ug'{ k5{ .Lnsf] juL{s/0fnfO{ j'mg} dfGotf lbFbg} .+3 dfk{mt\ cGo sltko P]ltxfl. lj1fkgbftf. ] sfpG. anfTsf/ / ckx/0f ug'{ k5{ .. juL{s/0f klg u5{ .flxlTos kqsf/ .ª\3Úsf] sfo{ .flxlTos klqsfl/tfk|lt b]vfPsf] pk]Iff / ckx]ngfsf] lj/f]w u/]. kf7s.}n] /f]if k|s6 u/]./sf/n] j'mg} jf:t} ub}g{ ."rgf ljefusf] o. z'elrGts Pjd\ . t/ dnfO{rflxF s] nfU5 eg]] o.}n] cfqmf]z .efkltTjsf] cleef/f d]/} sfFwdf cfPsfn] d}n] d]/f] sfo{sfndf clg dkl5sf . k~rfotsfnsf] s7f]/td .lDdlnt eP/ To.+rf/ dGqfno / .flxlTos kqsf/x¿n]— ."rgf ljefun] k|. j'mg} jf:t} ub}g{ . \ ufP/ P3f/ k[i7 nfdf] k|. lj/f]wsf] yfngL cf–cfˆgf klqsfsf] cfufdL cÍsf] .–. .s sfo{qmdx¿sf cltl/Qm . ] sfpG."rgf ljefusf] lj/f]wdf n]Vg] lg0f{o klg eof] .d]tn kmd{ eg{ nufpF5 .L{ xNnfpg .a b'Mv– em~em6 a]ˆjfFsdf a]. ut r}q #) ut] . /.fwg / 3/–k.flxlToskqsf/ ejfgL l3ld/]sf] g]tT[ jdf. ljZjljdf]xg >]i7.DkfbsLo gu]Gb|/fh zdf{ kDa'dfu{. aif{ cufl8b]lvg} cu|h .'? ug]{ cyf{t\ cfufdL cÍsf] ./sf/df a. .nx¿df tf]8kmf]8 ug'{ k5{— cfuf] nufpg' k5{ .flxlTos kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf.DkGg ePsf] …g]kfn . s./sf/L tyf lghL .a} dGqLx¿n] xfd|f j'm/f . s.

141 .+:sf/ g} b]lvPg eg]/ . snfsdL{.f/sf] j'mg} klg b]zn] cfˆgf] b]zsf] . nfv ?k}ofF ljlgof]hg ug]{ e/tdf]xg clwsf/Lx¿ k|lt cfh k'gM xflb{s j[mt1tf JoQm ug{ rfxG5' .} cleJolQmaf6 / cGofGo kq–klqsfx¿af6 klg . lghL nufgL.Qfsf] lg/Gt/ lvrftfgL / .8s agfpnf. j'mg} a]nf. t/ s]xLu/L ./sf/sf kfnfdf . g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fg dfk{mt\ ljt/0f x'gk' g]{ pQm /sd klxnf] jif{ t nueu 5 nfv hlt ljt/0f klg ul/of] clg klxnf] jif{sf] afFsL / To. | sfplG.+:yfx¿nfO{ . g]kfn .+uLtsdL{x¿sf] :jf:yf]krf/ sfnflu k}tF L.flxlTos kqsfl/tfnfO{ dfof ug]{ tLghgf k"j{ dGqLx¿nfO{ d .sfnflu eg]/ klxnf] k6s >L % sf] . sn sf/vfgf agfpnf t/ gf/fo0f uf]kfnsf] unf agfpg ./L .sf gfddf .gfsf] k|ltkmn xf] .flxlTos kqsfl/tfsf] bogLo l:ylt b]v/] a]nf a]nfdf d}n] klg o:t} sfuhL lj/f]w u/]sf] lyPF.xof]u ug{ .flxlTos klqsfnfO{ . ))) 80 ./sf/n] klg ug{k' g{] xf] t/ xfd|f] b]zdf Tof] .n].uF j'mg} cfzf÷ck]Iff gu/Lsg rnfpFg rfxG5' .–.+ul7t¿kdf w]/} k|of. . s./sf/— j'mg} klg .flxTosdL{.}. ./L cfh.sf] nfng–kfng / e/0f–kf]if0f ug{ rfxG5' .}u/L rnfpFg rfxG5' .kl5sf jif{x¿df k|1f–k|lti7fgnfO{ nuftf/ k|fKt eO/x]sf] /sd s] x'G5.flxlTos klqsf Pjd\ . gq eg] xfd|f] o:tf] sfuhL lj/f]wsf] j'mg} . :d/0fLo 5. t/ .ndf . j'mg} nngL gufO{sg r'krfk aGb ul/lbG5' .flxlTos klqsfsf] ljs.ª\3–.flxlTos klqsfsfnflu kGw| nfv / .+3if{ ug{' ePsf] lyof] t/ Tof] klg s]xL sfd nfu]g ./sf/n] …cleJolQmÚ jf s'g} klg .b'kof]u u5{— xfdLnfO{ yfx 5}g .cleJolQm ÷ k")ff{° .flxlTos klqsfsf ljsf. To. sxfF.'ljwf lbPg / cfh.d'Ggltsf nflu cfjZos nufgL ub{5— ug'{ k5{ . /.s].fg} /sd ePklg k'/:sf/÷./sf/sf] oxL csd{0otfk|lt dfq d]/f] u'gf.Dd. cfdfn] cfˆgf] aRrfnfO{ u/]h:t} d cfk}mF o.Dd …x'nfs btf{Ú. xfd|f] .flxlTos .xof]u./sf/ clg cfh …k|r08Úsf] . lghL kl/>d / kl.lsg eg].x'lnot–./sf/df k]ml/ To:tf ljj]sL / jfª\do k|d ] L] JolQm sblrt\ .xof]u pknJw u/fP/ k|fT] . lsg xf] t eg]— .lDem/xx]5' . cleJolQms} . cfqmf]z JoQm u/]sf] lyPF— o.flxTo.+. ctM .sfnflu . xf].'s} b'Mv nfu] klg.'gj' fO{ xf]nf h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . pk– .flxlTos kqsf/sf] k|ltlglwTj ug'e { Psf] a]nfdf klg …./sf/sf] @)%^–)%& sf] jflif{s ah]6df b'On { fv ?k}ofF 5'§ØfpFg] dx]z cfrfo{ / )^!–)^@ sf] ah]6df . lxhf] >L %sf] .flxt ug]{ clg gf/fo0fuf]kfn lj/fdL eP/ jL/ c:ktfndf /x]sf] a]nfdf pgnfO{ . . /ËsdL{ / . .ldltÚ u7g u/]/ w]/} . o.@)%)–@)%%sf] cjlwdf …/rgfÚsf ./sf/ ablng] qmddf./sf/.xof]u u/]g eg]/ rflxF xf]Og .a]nf .Dd rnfPF ef]ln klg To. ejg agfpnf.Sb}gÚ eg]/ /f]:6ddf s'ln{g] If]qk|tfk clwsf/LÙ . snf.j[mo .a]nfsf :t/Lo .÷. j'mg} .Gbe{df eGg'kbf{ t d]/f] egfO s] 5 eg]— cleJolQmsf] k|sfzg d]/f] lghL OR5f.flxlTos kqsfl/tf ljsf.f] xf] . . sxfF hfG5Ò s. h./sf/nfO{ 3R3RofpFb— } …ljsf./sf/n] .DalGwt dGqfnodf k'u] eg] j'm/f cs}{ xf].flxTo tyf .+rf/ dGqfnon] .Dd klg lbPsf] 5}g .+:j[mlt cflb jfª\dosf] . s.Dkfbs /f]rs l3ld/]n] k].flxlTos kqsfl/tfnfO{ j'mg} .flxlTos kqsf/x¿nfO{ kl/rfng u/L . hlt.

Related Interests