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High Yield GROSS

ANATOMY
BACK
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Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral


column

Scoliosis

Lateral deviation of vertebral column


Major feature of cervical vertebrae

Vertebra located at level of iliac crest L4

Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of


vertebrae Ligamentum flavum
Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column
Anterior longitudinal

Ligament which limits skull rotation Alar


Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical
area Pedicle

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Defective portions of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar


area Pars interarticularis;
Lamina

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Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae


Posterior
Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens Transverse
ligament of
Atlas (part of cruciate lig.)
Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc L 4/5

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Transverse foramina

Ligament affected with whiplash injury Anterior longitudinal

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Kyphosis

Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral


disc
Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6
C6

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Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of


auscultation Sixth

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Vertebral level of lumbar puncture L4

L5

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Innervation of suboccipital muscles Suboccipital nerve

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Roof of suboccipital triangle Semispinalis capitis

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Floor of suboccipital triangle Post. arch of atlas; posterior


atlanto-occipital membrane
Major vessel within suboccipital triangle Vertebral artery
Synonym for dorsal ramus of C2 Greater occipital nerve
Inferior extent of dura arachnoid sac SV2
Inferior extent of spinal cord LV2

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Location of internal vertebral venous plexus Extradural


(epidural)
space
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UPPER LIMB
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Most frequently fractured bone of body Clavicle


Most frequently dislocated carpal bone Lunate
Most frequently fractured carpal bone Scaphoid
Name of fracture of distal radius that produces dinner fork
appearance Colles fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle Ulnar
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus Radial

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Nerve injured with wrist drop Radial


Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint
Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve Deltoid, teres minor

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Muscle that initiates abduction of arm Supraspinatus


Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff Supraspinatus

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Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm


Trapezius, serratus
anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint Long head of
biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand Biceps brachii
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula Long thoracic
nerve
Spinal levels of axillary nerve C5 and C6
Spinal levels to muscles of hand C 8 and T 1
Dermatome to thumb C 6
Nerve to thenar compartment Recurrent branch of
median
Innervation of adductor pollicis Ulnar (deep branch)
Innervation of all interosseous muscles Ulnar (deep branch)
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus
Shoulder muscles
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus

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Intrinsic hand muscles


Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome Median
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome Ulnar
Paralysis of which results in total claw hand Lumbricals
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LOWER LIMB
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Boundaries of femoral triangle Inguinal ligament, sartorius,


adductor longus
Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath Femoral nerve
Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral
sheath Femoral vein
Contents of femoral canal Deep inguinal lymph node
Medial boundary of femoral ring Lacunar ligament
Structures that course throughout entire length of adductor
canal Femoral artery and vein
Structures that course through only portion of adductor canal
Saphenous nerve, n. to
vastus medialis, descending
genicular vessels
Muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa Popliteus
Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint Iliopsoas
Muscle that prevents pelvis from tilting when walking Gluteus
medius
Muscle that extends leg Quadriceps femoris
Muscle that unlocks knee joint Popliteus
Muscle affected with foot slap Tibialis anterior
Chief invertors of foot Tibialis anterior and
tibialis posterior
Chief evertors of foot Fibularis longus and
fibularis brevis
Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia
Anterior cruciate
Ligament laxity with positive valgus maneuver Medial collateral
Most commonly injured ankle ligament Anterior talofibular
Ligament stretched with flat foot Spring (plantar
calcaneonavicular)
Joints for movements of inversion and eversion Subtalar and
transverse
tarsal (midtarsal)
Major artery to head of femur in adult Medial femoral
circumflex
Nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula
Common fibular
Tendon affected with avulsion fracture of fifth metatarsal bone
Fibularis brevis
Innervation of adductor magnus Obturator, tibial portion
of sciatic nerve
Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome Tibial
Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot Saphenous (L 4)
Cutaneous innervation to lateral side of foot Sural (S 1)
Cutaneous innervation to heel Tibial

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Cutaneous innervation to dorsal aspect of web between toes 1
and 2 Deep fibular
Cutaneous innervation to most of dorsum of foot Superficial
fibular
Major dermatome to big toe L 4
Dermatome to small toe S 1
Spinal level of patellar reflex L 4
Spinal level of Achilles reflex S 1
Locking of knee when walking suggests Meniscus injury (tear)
Major injury triad with lateral impact to knee Medial collateral,
medial
meniscus, ant. Cruciate
Dermatome around nipple T 4
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula TV7
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium Thymus
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly 2nd rib
Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung Fourth rib
Inferior extent of lung at midclavicular line 6th rib
Inferior extent of pleura in midclavicular line 8th rib
Inferior extent of lung in midaxillary line 8th rib
Inferior extent of pleura in midaxillary line 10th rib
Inferior extent of lung posteriorly 10th rib
Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly 12th rib
Innervation of costal pleura Intercostal nerves
Innervation of mediastinal pleura Phrenic nerve
Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve Left 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of aortic valve Right 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of mitral valve Left 5th interspace,
Midclavicular line
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection Right
ventricle
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THORAX
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Chamber that forms apex of heart Left ventricle


Major chamber that forms base of heart Left atrium
Heart chamber that contains moderator band Right ventricle
Artery that determines coronary dominance Posterior
interventricular
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries Right coronary artery
Location of SA node Crista terminalis
Major vessel that drains musculature of heart Coronary sinus
Innervation of fibrous pericardium Phrenic nerve
Most common cause of systolic ejection murmur Aortic
stenosis
Rib associated with sternal angle Second rib
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle Disc between TV
4 TV5
Location of ductus arteriosus Between left pulmonary
artery and aorta
Nerve potentially injured with repair of patent ductus arteriosus
Left recurrent laryngeal

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Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic Subclavian and


internal
jugular
Veins that unite to form superior vena cava Right and left
brachiocephalic
Termination of azygos vein Superior vena cava
Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct Azygos vein,
aorta
Spinal levels of greater splanchnic nerve T5 9
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve T10 11
Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve T12
Thoracic structures that can compress esophagus Left
bronchus, aorta,
diaphragm
Disease often associated with thymoma Myasthenia gravis
Remnant of umbilical vein Round ligament of liver
Dermatome to umbilical area T 10
Dermatome to suprapubic area L 1
Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery T 12
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ABDOMEN
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Vertebral level associated with origin of superior mesenteric


artery L 1
Vertebral level associated with origin of renal arteries L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of inferior mesenteric
artery L3
Vertebral level of umbilicus Disc L3/L4
Vertebral level of aorta bifurcation L 4
Vertebral level for formation of IVC L 5
Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall T 7 L 1
Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring Aponeurosis of
external oblique
Structure that forms deep inguinal ring Transversalis fascia
Structure that forms floor of inguinal canal Inguinal ligament
Bony attachments of inguinal ligament ASIS and pubic
tubercle
Structures that form conjoined tendon Internal oblique and
transversus abdominis
Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic fascia
External oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with cremasteric fascia Internal
oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia
Transversalis fascia
Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and
indirect Inferior epigastric artery
inguinal hernias
Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring Indirect inguinal
Most common type of hernia Indirect inguinal
Most common side for indirect inguinal hernia Right
Type of hernia that protrudes through Hesselbachs triangle

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Direct inguinal
Boundaries of Hesselbachs triangle Inguinal ligament, rectus
abdominis, inferior epigastric
artery and vein
Type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings
Indirect inguinal
Fluid in processus vaginalis Hydrocele
Communication between greater and lesser sacs Epiploic
foramen
Superior border of epiploic foramen Caudate lobe of liver
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Inferior border of epiploic foramen Part one of duodenum
Posterior border of epiploic foramen IVC
Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct
Hepatoduodenal
(lesser omentum)
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid in left paracolic
gutter Phrenicocolic ligament
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid within infracolic
compartment Root of mesentery
Superior extent of right paracolic gutter Hepatorenal recess
Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity in female Rectouterine
pouch
Structures supplied by celiac artery Stomach, duodenum, liver,
spleen, gallbladder, pancreas
Branches of celiac artery Left gastric, common hepatic,
splenic
Blood supply to stomach Right and left gastroepiploics,
right, left and short gastrics
Major structures of stomach bed Pancreas, spleen, left kidney
and suprarenal, diaphragm
Ducts that join to from common bile duct Cystic and common
hepatic
Structure that separates right and left lobes of liver Falciform
ligament
Origin of cystic artery Right hepatic artery
Ribs directly related to spleen Ribs 9 11
Organs related to spleen Stomach, colon, left
kidney, tail of pancreas
Artery to small intestine SMA
Organs supplied by both celiac artery and SMA Duodenum,
pancreas
Organ supplied by both SMA and IMA Transverse colon
Vessel located posterior to head of pancreas IVC
Vessel located posterior to neck of pancreas Portal vein
Veins that unite to form portal vein Splenic, superior
mesenteric
Clinically important organs for portacaval anastomoses
Esophagus, rectum, liver
Two structures that lie posterior to SMA near its origin Left
renal vein,

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Duodenum
Three distinguishing features of large intestine Tenia coli,
Haustra, fatty
appendages
Termination of left ovarian (testicular) vein Left renal vein
Termination of right ovarian (testicular) vein Inferior vena cava
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Location of initial pain of appendicitis Umbilical region
Motor innervation of diaphragm Phrenic
Sensory innervation of diaphragm Phrenic, intercostal nerves
Spinal levels of phrenic nerve C3 5
Vertebral level that inferior vena cava traverses diaphragm T8
Vertebral level that esophagus traverses diaphragm T10
Structures that traverses diaphragm with esophagus Right and
left vagus nerves
Vertebral level that aorta traverses diaphragm T12
Structure that traverses diaphragm with aorta Thoracic duct
Structures that traverses diaphragm through crura Greater,
lesser and least
splanchnic nerves
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PELVIS AND PERINEUM


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Structure that separates pelvis and perineum Pelvic


diaphragm

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Two major components of pelvic diaphragm Levator ani,


coccygeus
Two major components of levator ani Pubococcygeus,
iliococcygeus

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Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall Obturator internus,


piriformis
Means by which obturator internus exits pelvis Lesser sciatic
foramen
Means by which piriformis exits pelvis Greater sciatic foramen
Innervation of detrusor muscle Pelvic splanchnics (S2 4)
Remnant of umbilical arteries Medial umbilical ligaments
Chief artery to rectal mucosa Superior rectal
Most common type of pelvic inlet in females Gynecoid
Two remnants of gubernaculum in females Ovarian ligament,
round ligament
Ligament that contains ovarian vessels Suspensory ligament
of ovary
Lymph nodes for ovary and testis Lateral aortic (lumbar)
Normal position of uterus Anteverted, anteflexed
Chief uterine support Pubococcygeus
Ligament that contains uterine vessels Lateral cervical
(cardinal)
Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy Ureter
Relation of ureter to uterine artery Ureter is inferior
Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces

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Perineal membrane
(Inferior fascia of UGD)
Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles Ischial
tuberosities
Lateral wall of ischioanal fossa Fascia of obturator
internus
Structure that forms pudendal canal Fascia of obturator
internus
Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids
Pectinate line
Lymph nodes for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal
Internal iliac, inferior
mesenteric
Lymph nodes for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal
Superficial inguinal
Major structure of deep perineal space Sphincter urethrae
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Lymph nodes for glans penis Deep inguinal
Muscle which compresses bulb of penis Bulbospongiosus
Muscle which compresses crus of penis Ischiocavernosus
Muscles which meet at perineal body Superficial and deep
perinei, bulbospongiosus,
external anal sphincter,
pubococcygeus
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HEAD AND NECK


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Vertebral level of hyoid bone CV3


Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage CV4,5
Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage CV6
Muscles that are innervated by CN XI Trapezius,
sternocleidomastoid
Structures that course between anterior and middle scalene
Brachial plexus,
Subclavian artery
Innervation of omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid Ansa
cervicalis
Innervation of digastric muscle Anterior belly, CN V3
Posterior belly, CN VII
Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body CN IX, CN X
Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to
Auditory tube
superior constrictor muscle Levator veli palatini
Nerves of pharyngeal plexus CN IX, CN X, sympathetics
Only muscle innervated by CN IX Stylopharyngeus
Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane Internal laryngeal
nerve,
superior laryngeal artery
Only muscle to abduct vocal cords Posterior cricoarytenoid
Innervation of cricothyroid External laryngeal nerve
Innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid
Recurrent laryngeal
Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords Cricothyroid

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Sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords Internal


laryngeal
Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords Recurrent
laryngeal
Site of aspirated lodged fishbone Piriform recess
Afferent efferent limbs of gag reflex CN IX CN X
Afferent efferent limbs of cough reflex CN X CN X
Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thyroid surgery
Recurrent laryngeal
Chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus CN VII
and VIII
Foramen where CN VII exits skull Stylomastoid foramen
Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura Middle
meningeal
Major cutaneous nerve of face CN V
Major artery to internal structures of head Maxillary
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Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head T1 and T2
Autonomic ganglion for CN III Ciliary
Sensory ganglion for CN VII Geniculate
Autonomic ganglia for CN VII Submandibular,
Pterygopalatine
Autonomic ganglion for CN IX Otic
Muscle attached to disc of TMJ Lateral pterygoid
Muscle which retracts mandible Temporalis
Major nerve to TMJ (pain with TMJ syndrome)
Auriculotemporal
Specific nerves that elicit secretion from parotid gland
Tympanic branch of CN IX;
lesser petrosal
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to parotid
Auriculotemporal
Structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity
Posterior ethmoid sinus
Structures that opens into middle meatus of nasal cavity
Frontal, maxillary, anterior
and middle ethmoidal sinuses
Structure that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal duct
Major artery to nasal cavity Sphenopalatine
Most common site of nose bleed Kiesselbachs plexus
Innervation of levator veli palatini CN X
Muscle that opens auditory tube Tensor veli palatini
Innervation of tensor veli palatini CN V3
Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue Chorda
tympani
Site of cell bodies for nerve that has taste to anterior 2/3rds of
tongue Geniculate ganglion
Specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland
Chorda tympani
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to

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submandibular Lingual
Nerve injured when tonsillar pillars sag and uvula deviates
Vagus
Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy Glossopharyngeal
Muscle that protrudes tongue Genioglossus
Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue Ipsilateral
CN XII
Specific nerve that stimulates tear production Greater petrosal
(CN VII)
Sensory nerve to cornea CN V1 (Nasociliary)
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Muscle that elevates and abducts eye Inferior oblique
Muscle that depresses and abducts eye Superior oblique
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
Lateral horn, T1 and T2
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
Superior cervical ganglion
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit constriction of pupil
Edinger Westphal nucleus
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit constriction of pupil
Ciliary ganglion
Innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane
Auriculotemporal, CN X
Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane CN IX
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MIXED TOPICS
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Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of aorta


TV4/TV5
Level where arch of aorta is continuous with descending aorta
TV4/TV5
Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs Bronchodilation
Vasoconstriction
Effect of parasympathetic nerves on lungs Bronchoconstriction
Vasodilation
Glandular secretion
Rationale for aspirated small objects to go to right primary
bronchus Wider diameter, shorter, more
Vertical
Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping Superior to 12th
rib posteriorly
Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of
Conus arteriosus or
pulmonary trunk Infundibulum
Name given to orientation where uterus and vagina intersect at
Anteversion
angle of 90 degrees
Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix
Anteflexion
intersect at angle of 10 15 degrees
Ridge located between sinus venarum and right auricle Crista
terminalis

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Nerve at risk when repairing a patent ductus arteriosus Left


recurrent laryngeal
Nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy Both left and
right
recurrent laryngeal nerves