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# 1.

## Bssic Toolbox issues & design:

One of the reasons why I published this toolbox is as a teaching aid for an
individual who wishes to write something like this on their own. I'll try to discuss
any pertinent factors I considered in my toolbox design. Serious questions may
best be answered by editing the appropriate codes in my toolbox, at least to see
how I resolved a problem.
The most important issues to consider is the structure that underlies your custom
class. In this case, its a sympoly. I chose to put only three fields in a sympoly object.
They are "Var", "Exponent", and "Coefficient". So first, let me describe the family
of polynomial functions that can be represented in a sympoly.
A single term in a sympoly is anything of the form
C * x1^k1 * x2^k2* ... *xn^kn
Where C is a scalar numeric constant, {x1, x2, ... , xn} are variables, and
{k1, k2, ... , kn} are any real exponents.
A sympoly itself can be made of one or more of these terms, added together.
We can see that the minimum information content that we need to store in a
sympoly is the names of each variable, the leading numerical coefficient, and
the exponent of each variable. If a variable does not appear in a term, then
its exponent is zero. Its easiest to explain this by example. The expression
(x+1)^2 will have three terms when expanded as a sympoly. We can see this
reflected is the size of the Exponent and Coefficient fields of the result.
sympoly x
struct((x+1)^2)
ans =
Var: {'' 'x'}
Exponent: [3x2 double]
Coefficient: [3x1 double]

Also note that a pure constant has no variable defined, so an empty variable
name ('') will be used.
z = sympoly(1);
struct(z)
ans =
Var: {''}
Exponent: 0
Coefficient: 1

The fundamental tool for any class is the class constructor. This is the
function sympoly. Sympoly has several different modes of operation.
It can be called as a function
p = sympoly('x');
In which case the linear sympoly 'x' will be created and put into the variable p.
Sympoly can also be used on a numeric variable, thus
p = sympoly(0);
will generate a constant (0) sympoly. Likewise,
p = sympoly(eye(3));
will generate an array of sympoly constants.
Finally, sympoly can be called as a command, thus
sympoly a b c x y z w
will generate 7 sympoly variables with the designated names, assigning
them into the current workspace.
Finally, an important issue in sympoly arithmetic is that arithmetic with

## a numeric variable is also implemented. Thus, we need to able to do

operations like x + 2, 2*(y+1), etc. The main issue is to force matlab to
always use the sympoly overloaded tools when executing calls like 2+x
(which then becomes plus(2,x) as Matlab sees it.) This is accomplished
via a call to the function superiorto inside the sympoly constructor.

## 1. Specifics - disp & display

A very important task to is to write the function disp and display. These
should be among the first functions overloaded for any class. As you write
and test your other functions, disp and display will prove to be crucial to
have in place. Otherwise, how else will you look at what has been done?

Once we have the ability to define a sympoly variable, we ned to be able
to do arithmetic on it. We need for example to handle simple addition.
sympoly x y
z = x+y;
When matlab sees an expression like x+y, it converts this into plus(x,y).
If you execute the command
which plus -all
in Matlab, you will see many different versions of plus. In order to add two
sympoly's, we will need a version of plus.m in the @sympoly directory.
sympoly/plus is fairly simple. It first ensures that both x and y use the same
variable set. It does this with a call to equalize_vars. Then it need merely
concatenate both the Exponent and Coefficient fields and apply my
consolidator code to the result.
The actual addition operation is just bookkeeping. The point of my discussion
of plus.m is that for every operation between a pair of sympoly variables,

## I needed to overload the appropriate operator in matlab. Below is a list of

the operators I chose to overload:
x+y
-x
+x
x-y
x .* y
x*y
x ./ y
x/y
x .^ p
x^y
[x, y]
[x; y]

-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->

plus.m
uminus.m
uplus.m
minus.m
times.m
mtimes.m
rdivide.m
mrdivide.m
power.m
mpower.m
horzcat.m
vercat.m

## Of these operators, only a few actually needed to do really low level

operations on a sympoly. For example, once I had plus and uminus
overloaded, there was no need to write code for minus. I simply wrote
the operation x-y as x+(-y). While this may not be as efficient as I would
like, it made for the simplest code. All basic addition operations must
eventually go through plus. Likewise, mtimes is the code for matrix
multiplication operations, but it is fairly simple by itself. The function
mtimes need only implement the high level matrix multiplication rules.
Then times.m (.*) is called for the actual low level scalar multiplies.
The same is true for rdivide (./) and mrdivide (/), and power (.^) versus
mpower (^).
There were also a few functions that I chose to overload
roots(p)
diag(p)
det(p)
diff(p)
sqrt(p)

-->
-->
-->
-->
-->
-->

## Computes the roots of a single variable sympoly

extracts the diagonal, or creates a diagonal matrix from a vector
determinant of a square sympoly array
differentiates a sympoly
sqrt of a scalar sympoly
gradient vector of a scalar sympoly

double(p)
sum(p)
prod(p)

-->
-->
-->

## reverts a constant sympoly scalar or array to a double variable

sums a vector or array sympoly
prod of a vector or array sympoly

## I should probably have added cumsum and cumprod for completeness.

The functions (real, imag, conj, ctranspose) proved necessary to make complex
arithmetic work correctly.
real(p) -->
Real parts of the coefficients of a sympoly
imag(p)
-->
Real parts of the coefficients of a sympoly
conj(p)
-->
real(p) - i*imag(p)
ctranspose(p) --> conj(p.')
Note that transpose, i.e., the non-conjugate transpose (p.') is not necessary
to overload, since Matlab handles that properly.
Two functions that are absolutely imperative to overload, at least if you wish
to access the fields of a sympoly from the commandline, or index into an array
sympoly are subsref.m and subsasgn.m.

3. Helper functions
A few functions were useful to do basic bookkeeping and clean up on a sympoly.
- equalize_vars.m is a tool that takes a pair of sympolys, extracts their
respective list of variables, then uses union on those lists to define
a common list of variables, expanding the exponents in each sympoly
as appropriate.
- clean_sympoly.m is a tool to do garbage collection on a sympoly. It uses
consolidator to merge terms with the same exponent sets, summing the
corresponding coefficients. (This is neat, in that this entire aggregation
process can be achieved in one line.) Other garbage collection process
are removal of terms with a zero coefficients, and removal of variables
that have entirely zero exponents.

## - syndivide.m is a helper function that is called by only one function - rdivide.

I left it in the open because a synthetic division, resulting in a quotient and
remainder seemed useful at times. When called by rdivide, I just check to
verify that the division was possible to accomplish with no remainder.
- subs.m is a very important tool, allowing you to substitute either a numeric
scalar or another sympoly for any variable of an existing sympoly.

Once the main operators are fully implemented, sympoly functionality is
easy enough to extend.
I did need to work at a low level inside a sympoly to write int.m, but then
defint calls subs twice, and subtracts the results.
- int.m --> indefinite integral of a sympoly
- defint.m --> definite integral of a sympoly
- adjoint.m --> adjoint matrix of a square sympoly array. While I cannot
easily write code for the actual inverse matrix of a sympoly, because
this would require the ability to manipulate the larger family of rational
polynomials. (See my comments below on extensions.) We can write
the inverse of a matrix M as
- orthpoly.m --> generates orthogonal polynomials. Orthogonal polynomials
are easy to generate using a 3 term recurrence relationship. Orthpoly
does this, all I needed to do was to program the proper coefficients in
that 3 term recurrence for each family of orthogonal polynomials.