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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

PROJECT REPORT

Parental Styles: Transactional Styles


Inventory--- Parents
Presented to: Ma'am Saba Rana

:Presented By
Adil Masood
Zahir Jan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction
2. Literature review
3. Methodology
4. Analysis
5. Recommendation
6. Conclusion
7. references

Introduction

Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents impact child
development. However, finding actual cause-and-effect links between specific actions of
parents and later behavior of children is very difficult. Some children raised in dramatically
different environments can later grow up to have remarkably similar personalities.
Conversely, children who share a home and are raised in the same environment can grow up
.to have astonishingly different personalities than one another
There are many ideas about how to rear children. Some parents adopt the ideas their own
parents used. Others get advice from friends. Some read books about parenting. Others take
classes offered in the community. No one has all the answers. However, psychologists and
other social scientists now know what parenting practices are most effective and are more
likely to lead to positive outcomes for children. Parents' lives change when a child is born.
Right from the start they need to make decisions: bottle or breast feeding; carriage or stroller;
nanny or day care, work or stay at home; and the list goes on. As children grow older, the
decisions don't stop; they change -- school, meals, allowances, after-school activities,
friendships, holidays. Although solutions to these individual daily dilemmas are important,
it's the parents' overall style and attitude that count as they influence, teach and socialize their
.children
Our research was on that how parents treat their children who are above the age of twenty.
Then we differentiated between that how daughters are being treated and how sons are being
.treated who are above twenty years old

:Research Variables

Supportive
Normative
Problem solving
Innovative
Assertive

Literature Review
The review of literature tells about the variables associated with the Parental styles. These
transactional variables help in assessing the level of parenting effectiveness. This study
explores the interpretation of variables influencing the parental styles of parents having
.children above 20 years of age

:Supportive
In review of the literature Supportive Parenting (SP) and family adversity data
were drawn from home-visit interviews with 585 mothers conducted
prekindergarten. Four SP measures were derived: mother-to-child
warmth ,proactive teaching, inductive discipline, and positive
involvement. HP was indexed as the use of harsh, physical discipline.
Family adversity indicators were socioeconomic disadvantage, family
stress, and single parenthood. Children's adjustment (behavior problems,
social skills, and academic performance) in kindergarten and grade 6 was
assessed via teacher ratings and school records. SP predicted adjustment
in grade 6, even after controlling for kindergarten adjustment and HP. High
levels of SP mitigated the effects of family adversity on later behavior
problems. These findings implicate both direct (main effect) and indirect
(moderator of adversity) processes in the linkage between positive and
.supportive aspects of parenting and children's school adjustment

:Normative

The article reviews empirical studies which emphasize that parenting styles are strongly
influenced by the cultural context of the society. Cultural differences in values, described as
individualism-collectivism, similarly shape understanding of the forms (e.g., authoritative,
authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles) and interpretation of parenting styles. The
review indicates that Malaysian parents from the three ethnic groups (i.e., Malay, Chinese
and Indian) are similar with other parents from collectivist countries which endorse
authoritarian parenting more than individualist parents, and do not regard it as an unfavorable
.style of parenting

:Problem Solving
Interaction Style, Problem-solving Behavior, and Family Problem-solving
Effectiveness. We proposed that an individual's characteristic style of
interaction will predict his or her problem-solving behavior and family
problem-solving effectiveness. We test this hypothesis for mothers,
fathers, and adolescent boys and girls (M age = 12.7 years) in 431 rural
families using both warm and hostile interaction styles. One set of
videotape coders observed a general family discussion and measured
interaction style. A year later, another, independent set of coders
observed a family problem-solving task. Family members reported family
problem-solving effectiveness immediately following the problem-solving
task. The results indicated that a hostile interaction style directly
predicted destructive problem-solving behavior and indirectly predicted
family problem-solving effectiveness. A warm interaction style related
directly to constructive problem-solving behavior and indirectly to family
.problem-solving effectiveness
:Innovative
The current study investigated differences in children's emotional
functioning as a product of their parents' reported disciplinary practices
and child abuse potential. Families with no known history of abuse were

recruited to ascertain whether depressogenic attributional style and


depressive or anxious symptomatology was evident in children of parents
who used harsher physical punishment and who had higher abuse
potential. Forty-two New Zealand children ages 8-12 participated with
their parents. Child-report measures of depression, anxiety, and
attributional style were compared with parents' responses on physical
discipline scenarios and child abuse potential. Children's anxiety
symptoms were higher in those children whose parents obtained higher
abuse potential scores and had harsher discipline practices. Children's
depressive symptoms and some components of maladaptive attributional
style were also found in families with higher abuse potential. Results
suggest emotional difficulties similar to those of maltreated children even
.without identifiable abuse
:Assertive
To evaluate the application of Systems Theory concepts to family functioning,
videotape recordings of 21 families performing two discussion tasks were
analyzed for the frequency of defensive and supportive communications. The
data demonstrated that normal families behaved as adaptive systems, both in
generating and reciprocating high rates of supportiveness. Conversely, system
disintegrating defensiveness occurred at a much lower rate, and was not
reciprocated. As an additional focus, rates of parental defensive and supportive
communications to son were related to rates of son's aggressive behavior. As
hypothesized, son's aggression was positively related to mother's defensiveness,
and inversely related to mother's and father's supportiveness. It was concluded
that although the data were co relational, they provided support for the
hypothesis that the patterns of defensiveness, and supportiveness, of parents
towards their son influences his tendency to act aggressively in other
.interpersonal contexts

Daughters
Nurturing

Regulating

Task

16%

Adaptive

Assertive

Innovative

17%

18%

17%
18%

15%

Now comparing the variables of parents having daughters 17% of the parents had a nurturing
transactional style, 17% of the people had a regulating approach towards their daughters,
15% of the parents had a task oriented parental style, 18% of the people had a Adaptive
approach about transactional styles of parents, 18% of the people had an assertive style
towards their daughters and lastly 16% of the people had an innovative parental style. Then
individually analyzing the variables I find that all the variables were somewhat played an
equally important role. So by analyzing the results of parents having daughters I find that
.most of the people had a more assertive approach

noS
gnirutruN

gnitalugeR

ksae
TvitpadA

%61

evitressA

evitavonnI

%71

%61

%71
%71

%61

Now comparing the variables of parents having sons 17% of the parents had a nurturing
transactional style, 17% of the people had a regulating approach towards their sons, 16% of
the parents had a task oriented parental style, 17% of the people had a Adaptive approach
about transactional styles of parents, 16% of the people had an assertive style towards their
sons and lastly 16% of the people had an innovative parental style. Then individually
analyzing the variables I find that all the variables were somewhat played an equally
important role. So by analyzing the results of parents having sons I find that most of the
.people had a more supportive approach

DAUGHTERS Bar Chart

eltiT trahC
naeM
evitavonni

32.4

evitressa

86.3

evitpada

12.3
ksat

75.3

gnitaluger

68.3

gnirutruN

54.3

smroN
DS naeM

smroN DS

01

06

52
01

06

72
01

06

72
01

55

32
01
62
01
62

05
56

:Mean and Standard Deviation


The focus of this analysis was to determine how parents having daughters are with the
various scales measured by this survey. The variables used for analysis the highest mean
which is 27 for adaptive and assertive and the task style has the lowest mean as compared to
other variables which is 23. So I find that parents having daughters has more assertive and
.adaptive approach, whereas the most least variable is task

SONs Bar chart

eltiT trahC
naeM
evitavonni

35.2

evitressa

75.2

evitpada

25.2
ksat

90.3

gnitaluger

18.2

gnirutruN

69.2

smroN
DS naeM

smroN DS

01

06

72
01

06

72
01

06

82
01

55

72
01
82
01
82

05
56

:Mean and Standard Deviation


The focus of this analysis was to determine how parents having daughters are with the
various scales measured by this survey. The variables used for analysis the highest mean
which is 28 for adaptive regulating and nurturing and innovative, task and assertive styles has
the lowest mean as compared to other variables which is 27. So I find that parents having

sons has more nurturing, regulating and adaptive approach, whereas the most least variables
.are task,assertive and approach

-:Analysis
According to our answers on the questionnaire we found our that parents having daughters
more had an assertive approach where as compared to parents having sons more had a
supportive and a normative approach. The mean of daughters is 154.04 and standard
deviation came out to be 8.076 which show that there is a lot of deviation between mean and
standard deviation. and the mean of sons is 165.4 and standard deviation came out to be
10.944 which again showed that there is a lot of deviation between mean and standard
.deviation

:Methodology
The methodology or instrument used for the Parental Style survey comprises of both the
primary research and the secondary research. The primary research includes the filling of
questionnaires from the Parents of children above 20 years of age and secondary research
.includes the literature review from the web and digital library of Lahore school of economics
The sample comprises of 50 parents in which 25 parents who have a son above 20 years were
asked to fill the questionnaires on a scale from one to five and then 25 questionnaires were
filled from parents who have a daughter above 20 years were asked to fill in on the same
scale. The questionnaires were filled by Parents. Then the results of both were compiled on
the excel sheets and graphs and charts are made for the analysis of data. After compiling both
the result sheets the both sheets were compared to measure the level of transactional styles
.about a parent having daughter or a son

Recommendations

The development of personality, morals, goals and problem-solving that


occurs during the first years of life is critical and developmentally unlike any

other time in the life course.


It is important for family policy-makers and family support service workers to
aid new parents in adopting appropriate parenting techniques and strategies to
ensure that children receive guidance that will best allow them to succeed in

later life.
However, research into the broad applicability of certain types of parenting
techniques must continue so that policy-makers can tailor advice and
guidelines to optimize outcomes for every child.

:Conclusion
This survey report helps in assessing transactional styles of parents who have children above
the age of 20 years and their different approach towards their children. Parents of daughters
were rather more assertive as compared to parents of sons. Though parents of sons were more
supportive and problem solving. However, through this research we came across that
Information and education on optimal parenting styles and early establishment of effective
practices are both important to a childs social adjustment and success. In many situations,
adoption of a flexible and warm authoritative parenting style is most beneficial for a childs
social, intellectual, moral and emotional growth. However, research in the area of parentchild interaction must continue to expand to evaluate not only outcomes in a broader variety
of ethnic/racial/cultural and socioeconomic groups, but also outcomes in children of different
.ages so that families in all types of situations can reap the full benefits of research

:References

www.Jstor.com
www.Google.com
http://www.jstor.org/stable/350873
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131193
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1132041
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3312337
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3599892 .

European Journal of Social Sciences Volume 10, Number 1 (2009)