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Learning

Activity
Logical-

Inputs

manipulation

Problem

of limited

Structurdness

Abstractness

Efficient

control and
Logical

Succes criteria Context

manipulations;
Puzzle

number of

Abstract

moves or

task

variables;

manipulation

solve puzzle
Procedural

required

Discovered

Abstract,
discovery

sequence of
manipulation
s; algoritmic

Answer or

process
Algorithm

applied to

Formula or

similiar sets

procedure

of variables;

product
matches in
values and

Abstract

Procedural

Absract,

formulaic

predictable

procedural

form

calculating or
producing
correct
answer
Disambiguate
variables;

Answer or

select and
apply

Story with

Story

algorithm to

formula or

Problem

produce

procedure

correct

embedded

answer using

product
matches in
values and
form; correct
algorithm
used

prescribed

Constrained
to
predefined
elements,
shallow
context

Well-defined
problem
classes;
procedural

method
Procedural

Situation in

Productivity

Purposeful

Unpredicted

Problem

process

constrained

(number of

academic,

outcome

constrained

system;

relevant or

real world,

by rules;

finite rules

useful

constrained

answers or

aplly rules to

products)

produce
system

simulation

predictable

Rule-Using

select and

Limited

Need based

contrained
answers or
products
Identifying
benefit and
limitationsl
Decision

weighting

Making

options;
selecting
alternative

Decision

Answer or

situation

product

with limited

matches in

alternative

values and

outcomes

form

Malfunction

Fault(s)

ing system

identification;

with one or

efficiency of

more faults

fault isolation

Life

Finite

Personally

decisions

outcomes

situated

Finite faults

Problem

and justifying
Examine
system; run
test; evaluate
results;
hypothesize
Troubleshooting

and confirm
fault states
using
strategies

Closed
system, real
world

and outcomes situated

(replace,
serial
elimination,
space split)
Troubleshoot
system faults;
select and
DiagnosisSolution

evaluate
treatment
options and
monitor;
aplly problem

Strategic

schemas
Applying

Strategy
Complex
system with
fauls and
numerous
optional
solutions

used;
effectiveness

Real world,

and

technical,

efficiency of

mostly

treatmen;

closed

justification

system

Finite faults

and outcomes situated

of treatmen

Real-time.

selected
Achieving

Real time

Complex

strategic

performance strategies;

meet strategy

performance

objectives

in real time;

with

structured

complex

competing

tactics

Performance tactics to

Problem

Ill-structured Contextually
well-

situated

performance
maintaining
situational

needs

awareness
solution
Case
Analysis

indentification,
alternative
actions, argue
position

Complex,
leisure-time
system with

Multiple,

Real world

multiple ill-

unclear

constrained

Multiple,

Complex,

undefined

real world

criteria; no

degrees

right or

freedom;

wrong, only

limited

better or

input and

worse

feedback

Case
situated

defined
goals

Acting on

Designs

Ill-structured

goals to

Vague goal

produce

statement

artifact;

with few

problem

constraints;

structturing

requires

and

structuring

articulation
Reconciling

Ill-structured

Problems
situated

complex,

Dilemmas

nonpredictive,

Situation

Articulated

Topical,

Finite

vexing

with

preference

complex,

outcomes,

Issue

decisions with

antinomous

with ome

inter-

multiple

situated

no solution;

positions

justification

discilinary

reasoning

perspectives
irrenconcilable

Learning Activity Inputs

Success

Logical-control

criteria
Efficient

and

manipulations;

Logical

manipulation of

Problem

limited

Puzzle

Context

number of

Abstract

moves or

task

variables; solve

manipulation

puzzle

required

Structurness Abstractness

Discovered

Abstract,
discovery

Learning Activity Inputs

Success
criteria

Context

Structurness Abstractness

Abstract

Procedural

Absract,

formulaic

predictable

procedural

Procedural
sequence of
manipulations;
algoritmic
process
Algorithm

applied to
similiar sets of

Answer or
Formula or
procedure

variables;

product
matches in
values and
form

calculating or
producing
correct answer
Disambiguate

Story
Problem

variables;

Answer or

select and

product

apply algorithm
to produce
correct answer
using

Story with
formula or
procedure
embedded

prescribed

matches in
values and
form; correct
algorithm
used

Constraine
d to
predefined
elements,
shallow
context

Well-defined
problem
classes;
procedural

Limited
simulation

predictable

method
Procedural
process
constrained by

Productivity

rules; select

Situation in

(number of

Purposeful

Rule-Using

and aplly rules

constrained

relevant or

academic,

Unpredicted

Problem

to produce

system; finite

useful

real world,

outcome

system

rules

answers or

constrained

contrained

Need based

products)

answers or
Decision

products
Identifying

Decision

Answer or

Life

Finite

Personally

Making

benefit and

situation with

product

decisions

outcomes

situated

limitationsl

limited

matches in

Learning Activity Inputs

Success
criteria

Context

Structurness Abstractness

Closed

Finite faults

system,

and

real world

outcomes

weighting
options;

alternative

values and

outcomes

form

hypothesize

Malfunctioning

Fault(s)

Trouble-

and confirm

system with

identification;

shooting

fault states

one or more

efficiency of

using

faults

fault isolation

selecting
alternative and
justifying
Examine
system; run
test; evaluate
results;

Problem
situated

strategies
(replace, serial
elimination,
space split)
Troubleshoot
system faults;
select and
DiagnosisSolution

evaluate
treatment
options and
monitor; aplly
problem

Strategic

schemas
Applying

Strategy
Complex

used;

system with

effectiveness

fauls and

and efficiency

numerous

of treatmen;

optional

justification of

solutions

treatmen

Real world,
technical,

Finite faults

mostly

and

closed

outcomes

situated

system

selected
Real-time.

Achieving

Real time

Performanc tactics to meet

Complex

strategic

performance strategies;

strategy in real

performance

objectives

time; complex

with

structured

performance

competing

tactics

maintaining

needs

situational

Problem

Ill-structured Contextually
well-

situated

Learning Activity Inputs

Success

Context

Structurness Abstractness

Multiple,

Real world

Ill-

Case

unclear

constrained

structured

situated

Multiple,

Complex,

undefined

real world

criteria; no

degrees

right or

freedom;

wrong, only

limited input

better or

and

worse

feedback

Articulated

Topical,

Finite

preference

complex,

outcomes,

Issue

with ome

inter-

multiple

situated

justification

discilinary

reasoning

criteria

awareness

Case
Analysis

Designs

Solution

Complex,

indentification,

leisure-time

alternative

system with

actions, argue

multiple ill-

position

defined goals

Acting on goals

Vague goal

to produce

statement with

artifact;

few

problem

constraints;

structturing

requires

and articulation

structuring

Ill-structured

Problems
situated

Reconciling
complex,
nonpredictive,
Dilemmas

Situation with

vexing decisions antinomous


with no solution; positions
perspectives
irrenconcilable
Logical-control

Efficient

and

manipulations;

Logical

manipulation of

Problem

limited

Puzzle

number of

Abstract

moves or

task

variables; solve

manipulation

puzzle

required

Discovered

Abstract,
discovery