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2009


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ISBN 978-9941-0-1575-5

XXI

sarCevi
winasityvaoba 7
Tavi I
filosofia rogorc fenomeni11
filosofia da msoflmxedveloba 17
miTosuri msoflmxedveloba 26
religiur
i msoflmxedveloba33
filosofia da kerZo mecnierebebi
filosofiis sagani42
filosofia da xelovneba45
Tavi II
logika50
Tavi III
universaluri problemebi. pirvelsawyisis idea67
samyaros kanonzomier
ebis problema filosofiaSi 75
samyaros kanonzomier
i kavSirebi da mimarTebebi 84
Tavi IV
gnoseol
ogiuri problemebi filosofiaSi
Semecnebis arsi da struqtura.92
intuic
ia96
racionalizmi98
empirizmi101
agnosticizmi 105
Tavi V
socialuri da aqsiol
ogiuri problemebi filosofiaSi.
kultura da civilizacia111

adamianis RirebulebiT SefasebiTi


mimarTeba samyarosadmi 128
nihilizmi da RirebulebaTa gadafasebis problema132
Tavi VI
filosofosebi adamianis Sesaxeb msjeloben...146
adamianis problema filosofiaSi 151
adamianuri eqsistencialebi: sicocxlis sazrisi 160
sikvdil-sicocxle 164
siyvarulis filosofia 172
adamiani da Tanamedrove sazogadoebis
Taviseburebani (gaucxoe
bis problema)189
pirovneba, masa da brbo210
destruqciuloba, rogorc avadmyofi
individisa da avadmyofi sazogadoebis niSani 212
XX saukune da axali teqnologiebi. bioeTika 226
Tavi VII
qarTuli filosofiis istoria (mokle eqskursi) 249
danarTi (sakiTxavi masala)
`mokvdi, raTa ar scodo~!274
`filosofosoba sasikvdilod mzadebas niSnavs~277
igavni solomonisa (fragmentebi) 281
eklesiaste287
platoni. `fedoni~ (fragmentebi)302
mokle biografiuli cnobebi 308
saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebul filosofiur
terminTa mokle leqsikoni318

Talesi

epikure

petriwi

sokrate

platoni

heraklite

mark
avreliusi

petre iberi
5

aristotele

seneka

giorgi da eqvTime
mTawmindelebi

dekarti

nicSe

iaspersi

Spengleri

paskali

kanti

huserli

froidi

fromi

sartri

gaseti

nucubeZe

hegeli

Sopenhaueri

berdiaevi

mamardaSvili

`adamiani lerwamia, umweo lerwami, magram, es lerwa


mi azrovnebs. mis gasasresad sulac araa saWiro samyaros
risxva. sakmarisia qaris Semoberva an ubralo wvimis wve
Ti, magram adamiani, gasresili Tundac samyaros mier, ma
inc ufro Rirebulia, vinaidan grZnobs Tavis aRsasrul
sac da Tavis umweob
asac samyarosTan SedarebiT.
maSasadame, mTeli Cveni Rirseba azrovnebaa. swored
azri gvamaRlebs Cven da ara dro da sivrce, romelSic Ca
kargulni varT~
blez paskali

winasityvaoba
winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia araspecialu
ri fakultetis studentebisTvis da maTTvis, vinc filoso
fiur
i problematikiTaa dainteresebuli. filosofiis zRva
masalidan masSi win wamoweulia kacobriobis ganviTarebis
yvela epoqisaTvis saWirboroto problemebi, romlebic, bu
nebrivia, arc Tanamedrove periodSi kargavs aqtualobas,
Tumca, axlebur gaazrebas saWiroebs. yuradReba gamaxvile
bulia im masalaze, romelic aucilebelia azrovnebis kul
turis ganviTarebisaTvis, dasabuTebiTi azrovnebis srul
qmnisaTvis.
saxelmZRvanelos mizania filosofiis swavlebaSi adre
arsebuli naklis SeZlebisdagvarad daZleva; saWiroa axle
buri filosofiuri Tvalsazrisisa da Sesabamisad filoso
fiis kursis axali struqturis SemuSaveba; amave dros, igi
memkvidreobiT iRebs tradiciuli da XX saukunis filosofi
is dadebiT miRwevebs.
saxelmZRvanelo cariel niadagze ar Seqmnila. misi Sedgeni
sas vemyarebodiT rogorc ucxour literaturas, aseve Tana
7

medrove qarTveli filosofosebis Sromebs da saxelmZRvane


loebs. winamdebare naSromic didad aris davalebuli maTgan.
viTvaliswinebT wlebis ganmavlobaSi kursis swavlebisas
gaCenil moTxovnas, rom saxelmZRvaneloSi ganmsazRvreli
iyos adamianis problema, ufro metic, es survili emyareba
Tvalsazriss, rom filosofiuri kvlevis amosavals adamiani
warmoadgens.
Cvens erT-erT mizans Seadgens imis Cveneba, rom filoso
fia ara marto unda ikvlevdes adamians, aramed Tavad filo
sofia Cayenebuli unda iyos adamianisa da sazogadoebis sam
saxurSi. man mecnieruli dasabuTeba unda misces adamianTa
da xalxTa Soris humanuri urTierTobebis, maTi Semoqmedebi
Ti, Tavisufali da demokratiuli cxovrebis aucileblobas.
amasTanave, masSi unda aisaxos qarTuli fenomenis TviTmyo
fadoba, misi tolerantuli, humanuri buneba, romelic gamo
muSavda garkveuli pirobebisa da faqtorebis safuZvelze.
saxelmZRvaneloSi Tavmoyrili masala iTvaliswinebs
Cvens qveyanaSi demokratiuli, Tavisufali da humanuri sa
zogadoebis aSenebis interesebs, qarTuli filosofiuri mem
kvidreobis tradiciebs. Cveni mizania damajereblad vaCve
noT, rom filosofiis sagans Seadgens adamianis yofierebis,
sazogadoebis, bunebisa da maTi urTierTmimarTebis zogadi
kanonzomierebebis dadgena.
saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebulia istoriuli masala, rom
lis gareSec filosofiis swavleba ver iqneba srulfasova
ni. es saSualebas gvaZlevs azrovnebis istoriidan amovarCi
oT problemebi, romelebic aucilebelia mocemuli masalis
TvalsaCinoeb
isaTvis.
adamian
i bunebasa da sazogadoebaSi arsebobs. yoveli ada
mian
i xedavs, rom buneba da sazogadoeba, saerTod samyaro,
mas arsebobis pirobad aucilebel moTxovnaTa rigs uyenebs.
amas emateba sakuTari interesebi, survilebi, romlebic xSi
rad ar emTxveva am moTxovnebs.
adamian
i cxovrobs garkveul pirobebSi da rom icocxlos,
8

unda Wamos, svas, Caicvas, hqondes TavSesafari da a.S. yoveli


adamian
is winaSe, marTalia, sxvadasxva siRrmiTa da sicxadiT,
magram yovelTvis dgas kiTxvebi: ras warmoadgens samyaro?
ras warmoadgens Tavad adamiani? ra adgili uWiravs adamians
am samyaroSi? ra unari aqvs da ra unda akeTos adamianma? es is
kiTxvebia, romlebsac filosofiam unda gasces pasuxi da ro
melTa mizanic adamianis cxovrebis sazrisis garkvevaa. imis
da mixedviT, rogori iqneba pasuxi, ganisazRvreba adamianis
damokidebuleba Tavis TavTan, samyarosTan.
filosofiuri kiTxvebi aReZvris yovel adamians, rogorc
ki gonebis mzeras miapyrobs sicocxles, Cafiqrdeba da gava
Tavisi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis CarCoebidan. magram zogs su
lac ar surs ifiqros araferze garda imisa, rom Wamos, svas,
Caicvas da a.S. aseTi tipis adamiani aucilebel biologiur
moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebas cxovrebis umaRles miznad
saxavs, riTac amJRavnebs sulier siRatakes.
ismis kiTxva: gana yovel adamians aqvs Tavisi filosofia?
diax! oRond sakiTxavia es filosofia SemTxveviTi Sexe
dulebebisa da azrTa `natexebisagan~ aris Sekowiwebuli, Tu
kargad mofiqrebulia da samyarosa da Cveni cxovrebis Secno
bis mcdelobazea damyarebuli. naTelia, rom bunebrivi auci
lebloba, biologiuri arsebobis SenarCuneba ar gvaiZ
ulebs
filosofiur sakiTxebze fiqrs, e.i. filosofosobas. magram
adamian
i gonier
i arsebaa da misTvis arseboba da Rirseuli
arseboba erTi da igive ar aris. Tuki am kuTxidan SevxedavT
adamian
is sicocxles, maSin Cven, georg vilhelm fridrix he
gelis msgavsad, SegviZlia `filosofia miviCnioT yvelaze
ufro aucileblad~.
imisaTvis rom iyo, saWiroa ganuwyvetliv SeiTviso sxvise
uli, radgan adamianisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris mxolod saku
Tari yofier
eba. adamianma unda eZebos sakuTari sicocxlis
azri da daniSnuleba, rameTu SeuZlebelia namdvili, Tavisu
fali, gamTlian
ebuli arseboba pirovnebisa, Tu man ar icis,
ra aris adamiani da ar icis, vin aris an ra aris Tavad.
9

martin haidegeris Tqmisa ar iyos: `Tu gvinda Cven CavwvdeT


Cvens sulier samyaros Tavis safuZvelSi es ki aris erT-er
Ti Cveni umaRlesi amqveyniuri cxovrebis mizani amisaTvis
unda gadavlaxoT Teoriuli, mecnierul-logikuri azrovne
bis sazRvrebi da misive SenarCunebiT SevideT eqsistencia
luri azrovnebis usasrulo saufloSi~.
ia beriZe

10

Tavi I
filosofia rogorc fenomeni
`kulturis mTeli istoriis manZilze filosofiisadmi
sakmaod arakeTilmosurne damokidebuleba aRiniSneba... fi
losofia kulturis yvelaze daucveli mxarea~ es cnobili
rusi filosofosis nikoloz berdiaevis Tvalsazrisia, ufro
swored, misi sulis amoZaxili. SevecadoT gavarkvioT, Tu ram
ganapiroba filosofiisadmi aseTi damokidebuleba.
religia sulis moTxovnilebebze msjelobs da akmayofi
lebs maT. adamiani mzeras ufals miapyrobs: rodesac suli
eradaa SeWirvebuli, rodesac maradisobis winaSe warsdgo
mis SiSiTaa SeZrwunebuli, rodesac mtanjveli simartovis
grZnobiTaa daTrgunuli. mistika ajadovebs mas RmerTTan mi
axloebis SesaZleblobiT, saswaulis imeds uRvivebs...
mecniereba Semmecnebeli gonebis udavo miRwevebis demon
strirebaa. igi civilizaciis burjia da ara marto gvixsnis
WeSmaritebas, aramed bevrad ufro komfortulsa da xan
grZlivs xdis adamianis sicocxles.
filosofia ki, piriqiT. is Seulamazeblad Tavazobs adami
ans sastik simarTles, ukanasknel nugeSs arTmevs mas. filo
sofia uaRresad civi gonebis, saRi azrovnebis damkvidrebis
cdaa, socialuri iluziebis aRmofxvris praqtikaa. igi, Tavi
si mowodebiTa da daniSnulebiT, `ungrevs~ adamians cxovre
bis mowyobis miseul wess, arsebobis tragizms `uSiSvlebs~ da
gamosavlis saxiT, sxvadasxva mosazrebas sTavazobs mas; e.i.
filosofia arCevnis Tavisuflebas aZlevs adamians, raTa man
Tavad agos pasuxi sakuTar cxovrebaze da arCevanze.
rac Seexeba samyaros saidumloebebs, maT idumal, mis
tikur bunebas, filosofia, samyaros aRqmisa da Semecnebis
misTvis damaxasiaTebeli SesaZleblobebidan, cdilobs maT
siRrmiseul, pirvelsawyisamde gaazrebas. ase Cndeba kidev
11

erTi damokidebuleba filosofiisadmi: `simarTle rom vTqvaT, filosofia bundovani eniT gadmocemuli adamianuri
gansjaa~. es mosazreba germanel poetsa da moazrovnes iohan
goeTes ekuTvnis. isev Cndeba kiTxvebi: ratom aris saWiro ma
inc da mainc bundovani, gaugebari enis gamoyeneba? nuTu ar
arsebobs TviTgamoxatvis sxva formebi? an iqneb swored am
formiTaa SesaZlebeli WeSmaritebis dadgena? ra Tqma unda,
ara. sibrZnis moyvarulma im erTaderT, saboloo WeSmarite
bas rom miakvlios, maSin samyaroSi Sesacnobi aRaraferi dar
Ceba da filosofiac aRar iarsebebs. filosofiis paradoqsi
swored imaSia, rom filosofosi iseT problemebze fiqrobs
da msjelobs, romelTa erTxel da samudamod gadawyveta,
gansxvavebiT religiisa da mecnierebisagan, praqtikulad Se
uZlebelia. am paradoqsis gaazrebisaTvis aucileblad unda
gaviTvaliswinoT Semdegi: filosofias samyaros said
umloe
bebis wvdomisa da axsnis miseuli, sxvaTagan gansxvavebuli me
Todebi aqvs.
adamian
i filosofosobs imitom, rom es misi bunebrivi
moTxovnilebaa, TviTgamoxatvisa da TviTdamkvidrebis yve
laze mZlavri saSualebaa.
filosofosi is adamiania, romelic cxovrebas fiqrSi ata
rebs. fiqrobs rogorc Seucnobel, araCveulebriv, ise Cveu
lebriv, yofiT movlenebsa da sagnebze. magram misi fiqrisa da
gansjis mimarTuleba bevrad ufro siRrmiseuli da saintere
soa, vidre sxva profesiis adamianis fiqri da gansja. filo
sofosi erTdroulad kritikosic unda iyos da skeptikosic,
Tavsatexebis axsnac unda uyvardes da maTi mofiqrebac SeeZ
los, moralistic unda iyos, winaswarmetyvelic da WeSmari
tebis maZiebelic. `brmad nuravis endobi, Tavad ifiqre~ - ai,
misi devizi.
platoni gvirCevda: dakavdiT filosofiiT da Tqvenze
axalgazrdebsac amisken mouwodeTo. filosofia moRvawe
obis keTilSobilur da brZnul sferod aris miCneuli. fi
losofosi ki yovelTvis mniSvnelovan figuras warmoadgens.
12

imisaTvis, rom gaverkveT, Tu ras warmoadgens filosofosis


figura, kiTxva ase SegviZlia davsvaT: cxovrobs ki filoso
fosi Tavisi moZRvrebisa da Sexedulebebis mixedviT? an sxva
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: icavs Tu ara igi Tavis principebs, miz
nebs, Rirebulebebs cxovrebaSi?
kacobriobis kulturis istoriaSi, albaT, ver moiZebneba
iseTi popularuli magaliTi, rogoric sokrates gmirobaa.
sokrate sibrZnis ideali gaxldaT. mis Sesaxeb uamravi lite
ratura arsebobs. misi pirovnebac yovelmxriv aris Seswavli
li sicocxle, moZRvreba, sikvdili. marTlac saintereso
da cota ar iyos, ucnauri pirovneba iyo sicocxlis ganmav
lobaSi erTi sityvac ar dauweria. razec fiqrobda, rac awu
xebda, rogor wyvetda urTules filosofiur problemebs
amaze misi mowafeebi mogviTxroben. nuTu saocari ar aris?
gamoCenili moazrovne, romelmac mxolod zepiri sityva dag
vitova.
aTenis sasamarTlom sokrate daadanaSaula im RmerTebis
gmobaSi, romlebsac Zvel saberZneTSi eTayvanebodnen da ki
dev axalgazrda Taob
is SeryvnaSi. mas sikvdiliT dasja mi
usajes. Tavad mosamarTleebsac ar egonaT, rom yvelaferi
ase tragikulad damTavrdeboda. sokrates saSualeba hqonda
Tavidan aecilebina sikvdili. mas SesTavazes gaqceuliyo da
cxovrebis darCenili periodi devnilobaSi gaetarebina, mag
ram sokratem uaryo es SesaZlebloba. mas bevri mdidari me
gobari hyavda, romlebic mis gamosyidvas apirebdnen, magram
filosofosi am SemoTavazebasac ar daTanxmda. da bolos, Ta
vad sasamarTlom SesTavaza sokrates uari eTqva Tavis Rire
bulebebsa da Sexedulebebze da eRiarebina danaSauli. NnuTu
Zalian rTulia amisi gakeTeba sicocxlis sanacvlod?
mosamarTleebma CaTvales, rom gamouval mdgomareobaSi
Cayenebuli sokrate ukan daixevda. magram, ara! sokratem aTe
nelebs dauviwyari zneobrivi magaliTi misca. uari Tqva Sens
Sexedulebebze, principebze niSnavs xazi gadausva mTel Sens
cxovrebas, Sens miswrafebebs, Sens rwmenas. sokratem sulis
13

araCveul
ebrivi simtkice gamoavlina. man Tavad aRasrula sa
samarTlos ganaCeni da cikutiT savse fiala Sesva.
antikuri xanis filosofos-moralisti diogene Turme
kasrSi cxovrobda da dRisiT, mzisiT aTenis quCebSi farniT
xelSi dadioda. `vis eZeb, da Tanac, farniT xelSi?~ ekiTx
ebodnen gaocebuli Tanamoqalaqeebi. `adamians!~... ucnauri
pasuxia, dameTanxmebiT. garSemo uamravi adamiania, is ki, da
uRalavad dadis da mainc adamians eZebs... ras unda niSnavdes
es? diogene adamianis arssa da bunebaze Cafiqrda da mixvda:
cxovrebis yoveldRiurobaSi Cafluli gamvlel-gamomvle
li naklebad Seesatyviseba adamianis WeSmarit arss. namdvili
adamiani sxvagvari unda iyos! mainc rogori?
erTxel diogenem dainaxa, rogor dalia bavSvma peSviT wya
li. man imwamsve amoiRo CanTidan sasmisi da gadaagdo: `bavSvma
cxovrebis ubraloebiT majobao~ aRmoxda. saqme imaSia, rom
Ddiogenes filosofia adamianebs mouwodebda ecxovraT ub
ralod, bunebrivad, zedmeti siamisa da komfortis gareSe.
samyaroSi uamravi mSveniereba da siamea amodis mze, balaxi
bibinebs, wyaros wyali CuxCuxebs. magram adamianebi ar kmayo
fildebian amiT. isini Tavad irTuleben cxovrebas: zogs pa
tiviscema sWirdeba, zogs saxeli, zogs simdidre, zogs Tanam
deboba.
gadmocemiT viciT, rom diog
enesTan sasaubrod aleqsan
dre didi misula. nebismier Txovnas Segisrulebo uTqvams
makedonels. pasuxad ki miiRo: `Camomecale, mzes nu miCrdi
lav~. raze metyvelebs filosofosis pasuxi, uzrdelobaze?
Tu WeSmaritad brZeni adamianis ucnaur xasiaTze? dioge
nesaTvis, romelic praqtikuli cinizmis mamad iTvleboda,
cxovrebiseul
i oromtriali ucxo da miuRebeli iyo. yvelas
sakuTari TavisaTvis sikeTe da keTildReoba surs da gamor
Cenis mizniT did adamians eTayvanebian. magram, nuTu es aris
cxovrebis mizani da amisaTvis unda iRwvodes adamiani? mzis
sxivi, romelic gvaTbobs, bevrad ufro Rirebulia, vidre di
di mxedarTmTavris nebismieri saCuqari Tu wyaloba. ufro
14

metic! gamoCenili mxedarTmTavari amayia Tavisi didebiT,


yovlisSemZleobiT. magram, gana marTla aseTi yovlisSemZlea
igi? mzis sxivebi xom misi brZanebisa da survilis gareSec aT
boben dedamiwas...
diogene cxovrobda sakuTari principebisa da Sexedule
bebis Sesabamisad.
cxadia, aravin aiZulebs filosofoss misdios Tavis swav
lebas yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. es sulac ar niSnavs, rom isi
ni matyuarebi arian. filosofiaSi xom qcevis idealur gegmas
gvTavazoben, romelic TavisTavad sainteresoa. ra Tqma unda,
xdeba xolme, rom es mizani miuRweveli da Seusrulebadia ara
marto sxvebisaTvis, aramed Tavad avtorisaTvis. amis Taoba
ze romaelma filosofosma senekam aseTi mosazreba dagvito
va: `msayveduroben, rom Cemi cxovrebis wesi ar emTxveva Cems
moZRvrebas. amasve sayvedurobdnen platonsac, epikuresac
da Zenonsac. yvela filosofosi miuTiTebs ara marto imaze,
Tu rogor cxovrobs Tavad, aramed imazec, rogor unda ic-
xovro. me vmsjelob saTnoebaze da ara sakuTar Tavze; vebrZvi
naklovanebebsa da codvebs, maT Soris sakuTarsac; roca Sev
Zleb, vicxovreb ise, rogorc saWiroa~.
kacobriobis istoriaSi ar iyo iseTi periodi, filoso
fiaz
e, rogorc sibrZnis siyvarulze moTxovnileba rom gam
qraliyo. savaraudoa, igi arc axla gaqreba. filosofia marad
iswrafvis Seicnos, gaarkvios samyaros kanonzomierebebi,
Caswvdes adamian
is raobas, misi sulis siRrmeebs, RvTaebriv
saidumloebebs. Tumca mware simarTlec arsebobs. filoso
fias, iseve rogorc sinamdvilis, samyaros wvdomis nebismier
formas, Tavisi ganviTarebis periodSi bevri Secdomac dauS
via, bevri mcdari azric daumkvidrebia. miuxedavad amisa, is
arsebobs. isev aris masze moTxovnileba da, albaT, swored
amaSia filosofiis, rogorc kacobriobis mZlavri inteleq
tualuri iaraRis, sidiade.
Tamar fanculaia
15

...
`filosofia (radgan igi vrceldeba yvelaferze, rac mi
sawvdomia adamianuri SemecnebisaTvis) erTaderTi ramaa ise
Ti, riTac velurebisa da barbarosebisagan ganvsxvavdebiT da
yoveli xalxi miT ufro moqalaqeobrivi da ganaTlebulia,
rac ufro ukeT filosofosoben isini. amitom ara aris ra sa
xelmwifosaTvis sxva ram ufro didi sikeTe, vidre yola WeS
mariti filosofosebisa.~
rene dekarti
`filosofiam gvaswavla Cven adamianebis siyvaruli~
lucius aneus seneka
`filosofosobis siZnele imaSia, rom adamiani darCe da
adamianis miRmurs swvde~.
Salva nucubiZe
`adamian
ur xelovnebaTagan yvelaze amaRlebuli da ke
TilSobili aris filosofiis xelovneba.~
al-qindi
`axalgazrdobaSi nurvin daayovnebs filosofosobas. mo
xucobis Jams nurvin moiRleba filosofosobaSi, rameTu si
jansaRe sulisa aravisTvisaa arc naadrevi da arc nagvianevi~.
epikure
`WeSmariti filosofosoba aris `yofierebis mosmena~, da
farulis gacxadeba, daufaraoba, eqsistencis Sinagani aRmav
lobiT TviTsrulyofa, Sinagani eqsistencialuri Tavisuf
lebis real
izacia~.
martin haid
egeri
16

`filosofia hgavs noyier mindors, romlis niadagi masze


gaSenebuli xexiliT aris fizika, masze moweuli Wirnaxuli_
eTika, xolo mindvris damcveli Robe-meseri logika~.
(stoelebis xatovani Sedareba).

filosofia da msoflmxedveloba
filosofia berZnuli sityvaa da niSnavs sibrZnis siyva
ruls. es aris sulieri kulturis damoukidebeli dargi, ro
melic aerTianebs codnas samyaroze, adamianze, adamianisa da
samyaros urTierTobaze. filosofiis daniSnulebaa ikvlios
pirvelsawyis
i, arsebiTi Taviseburebebi, samyaroseuli wes
rigis safuZvlebi, ipovos WeSmariti sazrisi procesebisa,
romelTac samyaroSi, sociumSi, kulturasa da adamianSi aqvs
adgili. filosofia mowodebulia gaxsnas yofierebis bneli,
gamoucnobi labirinTebi.
filosofiuri msoflmxedveloba dasabams iRebs miTolo
giidan da religiidan. filosofia ikvlevs im realobas, rome
lic mxedvelobis miRma rCeba konkretul sabunebismetyvelo
da humanitarul disciplinebs. is asrulebs samyaros suraTis
mTlianobaSi warmosaxvis mZime samuSaos. filosofia Rrmad
da safuZvlianad gaiazrebs kerZo mecnierebebis monacemebs
da mowodebulia iyos adamianis orientiri samyaroSi. igi ena
Tesaveba umaRles sibrZnes, romlis funqcia marto yvelaf
ris codna ki ar aris, aramed mowodebulia gaigos, Seimecnos
is, rac mTavari da arsebiTia, romelic exeba pirvelsawyiss,
msoflio wesrigs, romlis arsis wvdomis gareSe SeuZlebelia
gaazrebuli da Rirseuli arseboba. adamians bevri ram acdu
nebs fuli, simdidre, Zalaufleba, dideba da a. S. filoso
fia mowodebulia gamoarCios universaluri, sayovelTao
mniSvnelobis Rirebulebebi WeSmariteba, sikeTe, silamaze,
samarTlianoba, siyvaruli da sxva.
17

sokrates (Zv. w 469 399) Tanaxmad filosofia aris ara sib


rZne, aramed sibrZnis siyvaruli da misi Zieba, wyurvili sib
rZnisa, WeSmaritebis dauflebisa, vinaidan Tavad sibrZnes
mxolod RmerTebi floben. RmerTi SeiZleba iyos brZeni, ada
mians ki misi siyvaruli SeuZlia. amitomac adamiani unda is
wrafvodes RmerTisaken anu sibrZnis dauflebisaken.
yvela drois filosofia Tavisi epoqis umniSvnelovanesi
problemebiT iyo dainteresebuli. amdenad, filosofiuri
kvleva TviTmizans arasodes warmoadgenda.
filosofiis sagnis sxvadasxva gageba arsebobs, zogi
Tvlis, rom filosofiis sagania samyaros Wvreta; meoreni
Tvlian, rom filosofiis saqmea mecnierebis logikuri ana
lizi; xolo mesameni filosofiis sagnad adamianisa da misi
cxovrebis sazrisis Ziebas aRiareben. Cven romels avirCevT,
es Cvens msoflmxedvelobazea damokidebuli.
yvela drois filosofiaSi miuxedavad am mravalgvaro
bisa, mainc arsebobs saerTo momenti, romelic metnaklebad
saerToa yoveli filosofiuri sistemisaTvis. es aris is, rom
TiToeuls mxedvelobaSi aqvs samyaro, rogorc mTeli. filo
sofias SeuZlia kvlevis obieqtad aqcios sinamdvilis nebis
mieri konkretuli saxe (magaliTad, buneba, adamiani da a. S.),
magram im pirobiT, Tu maT ganixilavs samyarosTan, rogorc
mTelTan, mimarTebaSi. miuxedavad gansxvavebuli probleme
biT dainteresebisa, filosofiaSi erTi mTavari sakiTxi yo
velTvis idga. es aris adamianisa da samyaros urTierToba.
sibrZnis siyvaruli ZvelberZnul filosofiaSi, ZiriTa
dad, aseTi urTierTobis garkvevas niSnavda. amitom sibrZnes
da saerTod codnas didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda adamianTa
yofierebisa da cxovrebis gaazrebaSi. sokrate sibrZnis mniS
vnelobis garkvevis mizniT, svams kiTxvas: vis unda ewodos
brZeni? aqamde brZeni ewodeboda mcodnes, mecniers, magram
sokrates mixedviT codna da sibrZne erTmaneTs ar emTxve
va. sibrZne da misi Zieba emsaxureba WeSmaritebisa da sikeTis
dadgenas, xolo WeSmaritebisa da sikeTis dadgena niSnavs
18

sibrZnis siyvaruls. Tu Cven SevadarebT erTmaneTs RmerTs,


adamians da cxovels aRmovaCenT, rom RmerTi Semecnebis pro
cesiT ar aris SezRuduli, radgan igi mTel sibrZnes flobs.
arc cxovelia SezRuduli codniT, radgan is instinqtebiT
mdidaria, rac garemoSi wonasworobis SesanarCuneblad sWir
deba. erTaderTi arseba dedamiwaze aris adamiani, romelic
SezRud
ulia codnis, Semecnebis aucileblobiT, raTa iar
sebos da SeinarCunos wonasworoba bunebasTan. adamians cxo
velTan SedarebiT Raribi instinqtebi aqvs; codniT RmerTs
emsgavseba, magram ar utoldeba mas. adamiani Sua rgolia maT
Soris, vinc ufro didia, vidre adamianuri da vinc ufro kni
nia, vidre adamianuri. Cvens qveviT warmavlobaa, Cvens zeviT
ki WeSmariteba da maradiuloba.
cxoveli adamians instinqtebiT sjobs. amis naTeli dadas
turebaa futkari, romelic fiWas iseTi sizustiT aSenebs, rom
nebismier arqiteqtors gaawbilebs. frinvelebi mifrinaven
Tbil qveynebSi da brundebian ise, rom arc kompasi sWirdebaT
da arc geografiuli ruka. cxovelebi adamianebze gacilebiT
adre SeigrZnoben miwisZvris moaxloebas, axloblis gardacva
lebas da sxva. magram adamianSi aris is, rac mas cxovelze maR
la ayenebs. es aris azrovnebis, gansjisa da gonebis unari. aqe
dan ki daskvna: Tu adamians ara aqvs ganviTarebuli azrovnebis,
gansjisa da gonebis unarebi, igi cxovelze dabal safexurze
dadis. arCevani adamianzea. man unda airCios: an iaros win Rmer
Tisaken, anu umaRlesi sikeTisa da umaRlesi mSvenierebisaken,
an daeces cxovelis doneze. udavoa, adamiani unda irCevdes
RmerTisken swrafvas, radgan `adamianad yofna niSnavs iyo ima
ze meti, vidre adamiania da Tu adamiani imaze meti araa, vidre
adamiani, maSin igi naklebia, vidre adamiani~ (abraham heSeli).
gonebis Tvali gadavavloT am ukidegano mravalferovan
samyaros, sadac or erTnair foTolsac ki ver ipovis kaci.
uwvrilesi erTujrediani arsebani da gigantur varskvlav
Ta jgufi, caTaziduli mTebi da usivrco okeaneebi, bunebisa
da cxovrebis saswaulebi. SeuZlebelia adamians ar gauCndes
19

kiTxva: ra xelma Seqmna es silamaze?! saidan warmoiSva? vin aris


Semoqmedi? an TuU aris, ratom da risTvis Seqmna? swored aqedan
iwyeba pirveli gakvirveba, pirveli gaoceba, aq ismeba pirveli
kiTxva ratom? e. i. iwyeba kritikuli azrovneba. ase daiwyo
filosofiuri azris istoria Zvel saberZneTSi daaxloebiT
Zv. w. VI saukuneSi da dagvitova mdidari memkvidreoba, rome
lic safuZvlad daedo evropul azrovnebasa da daimkvidra
klasikuri filosofiis saxeli.
filosofiuri Sexedulebebi Zveli aRmosavleTis qvey
nebSi Zv. w. III aTaswleulSi Caisaxa. uZvelesi cnobebi induri
filosofiuri azrovnebis Sesaxeb mocemulia vedur (sanskr.
`veda~ codna) literaturaSi, gansakuTrebiT `rigvedaSi~,
romelic religiuri sagaloblebis krebuls warmoadgens da,
mkvlevarTa varaudiT, Zv.w. II aTaswleulis bolosa da I aTas
wleulis pirvel naxevarSi Seiqmna; garkveuli filosofiuri
msoflmxedveloba Camoyalibebulia `upaniSadebSi~ (sanskr.
`upaniSad~ moZRvris gverdiT jdoma), romlis Seqmna daaxlo
ebiT Zv. w. VIII VII ss. iwyeba. `rigvedasa~ da `upanaSadebSi~ gamo
yenebulia iseTi rTuli kategoriebi, rogoricaa `yofiereba~,
`arayofiereba~ da sxva. am moZRvrebebs, rasakvirvelia, reli
giur idealisturi xasiaTi hqonda.
CineTis filosofiuri azris istorias Zv w. I aTaswleulis
damdegidan iTvlian. cxadia, am SemTxvevaSic mxedvelobaSia
calkeuli filosofiuri elementebi, romlebic religiur
moZRvrebaSi iyo mocemuli. magaliTad, jer kidev Zv. w. VIII VII
ss. gamoTqmuli iyo mosazrebani samyaros Semadgeneli xuTi
elementis (wyali, cecxli, liToni, xe, miwa) Sesaxeb; bunebaSi
arsebuli moZraobisa da cvalebadobis asaxsnelad daSvebuli
iyo urTierTdapirispirebuli Zalebis arseboba. ufro gvian
(Zv. w. VI s.) Camoyalibda konfucianeloba, romelic arsebiTad
eTikur politikur moZRvrebas warmoadgens.
filosofiuri ideebi gvxvdeba Zveli aRmosavleTis qveyne
bis miTologiaSic. magaliTad, miTSi RmerTi mardukis Sesaxeb,
romelic Zveli babilonis saxelmwifos ayvavebis periods mi
20

ekuTvneba, laparakia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor Seqmna RmerTma


mardukma samyaro wylisagan da sxva. aseve hesiodes miTolo
giur TxzulebaSi `Teogonia~ samyaros pirvelsawyisad miCne
ulia qaosi, saidanac kosmosi warmoiSva da sxva. cxovreba mo
cemul SesaZleblobaTa Soris arCevnis gakeTebaa, romelic
xorcieldeba RirebulebaTa da idealebis safuZvelze. ro
mels mianiWebs upiratesobas, ras daisaxavs adamiani miznad, es
mis msoflmxedvelobazea damokidebuli.
adamiani dedamiwaze sicocxlis warmoSobisa da evoluciis
bunebrivi da kanonzomieri Sedegia. igi bunebaSi arsebobs, mag
ram mTlianad masze ar aris mijaWvuli. igi qmnis sruliad axal
samyaros kulturis saxiT. aSenebs sazogadoebas mTeli Tavisi
mravalferovnebiT. amyarebs politikur, samarTlebriv, eko
nomikur, socialur, kulturul, zneobriv, religiur urTi
erTobebs, eweva sulier moRvaweobas, romlis Sedegad iqmneba
miTologia, religia, filosofia, mecniereba, xelovneba da
sxva. e.i. adamiani qmnis goniT samyaros, rac ucxoa nebismieri
sxva arsebisaTvis.
fridrix nicSe (1844 1900 ww.) werda: `adamiani aris xidi
da ara mizani... adamiani aris raRac, rac unda gadailaxos~.
e.i. adamian
ad yofna gulisxmobs zrdas, cvalebadobas, gan
viTarebas. es ki SeuZlebelia naTeli cnobierebisa da msof
lmxedvelobis gareSe. adamiani irCevs, raRac moswons, raRac
ar moswons, raRacas keTilad an borotad Tvlis, ibrZvis, uy
vars an gulgrilia da a. S. is, risTvisac adamiani Tavs gaswi
ravs, risic mas swams, aris misi cxovrebis sazrisi. is, Tu ras
miiCnevs adamian
i Tavisi cxovrebis sazrisad, damokidebulia
mis msoflmxedvelobaze.
msoflmxedveloba aris adamianis TviTcnobierebisa da
TviTrefleqsiis forma, SexedulebaTa da RirebulebaTa sis
tema, romlis mizania adamianis cxovrebis sazrisis garkveva.
msoflmxedvelobas aqvs rTuli struqtura, romlis Semad
geneli elementebia: a) Sexedulebebi da warmodgenebi samya
roze, rogorc mTelze. igi aZlevs codnas adamians sakuTa
21

ri Tavisa da samyaros Sesaxeb. b) Rirebulebebi da idealebi,


romlebic adgenen im ZiriTad mizans, rasac adamiani unda em
saxuros da ris gansaxorcielebladac unda ibrZolos.
msoflmxedveloba or ZiriTad elements Seicavs: codnas
(sayaros suraTs) da ideals. Tumca misTvis mTavari codnis
mocema ar aris. codna misTvis saSualebaa idealis gansazR
vrisaTvis. msoflmxedvelobis mizani adamianis cxovrebis
sazrisis garkvevaa. man pasuxi unda gasces Semdeg kiTxvebs:
1) ra aris samyaro? 2) ra aris adamiani? anu vin var me? 3) rogo
ria Cemi damokidebuleba samyarosadmi? 4) ra unda gavakeTo?
da risi imedi SeiZleba mqondes me?
msoflmxedveloba adamianis cxovrebis maswavlebeli, misi
gzamkvlevia. igi adamians aZlevs RirebulebiT orientacias
ra akeTos, risTvis ibrZolos, ras emsaxuros. garda amisa,
adamians ainteresebs iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa sulis uk
vdaveba, saiqio cxovreba, Tavisuflebis problema da uamravi
sxva ram. es iseTi sakiTxebia, imanuel kantis (1724 1804 ww.)
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, romelTa mocileba adamians ar ZaluZs,
radgan isini misTvis TviT gonebas mouxvevia Tavs, magram arc
gadamWreli pasuxis gacema SeuZlia, vinaidan isini aRematebi
an adamianis gonebis yvela unars. radgan kiTxvebi arasodes
amoiw
ureba, maSasadame, `verc gadaWris da verc aicilebs!~
maS ra saWiroa igi? imanuel kantisaTvis mecnieruli codnis
arseboba faqtia, radganac arsebobs maTematika da fizika, am
gvari codnis SesaZleblobis uaryofa e. i. skepticizmi xe
lovnuri da swavluli uvicobaa. filosofiis valia axsnas am
codnis SesaZleblobis pirobebi. imanuel kants hqonda erTi
principi, romelic aristoteledan aiRo. es principia: `Rmer
Ti da buneba tyuilad arafers qmnis, e. i. Tu raim
e arsebobs,
mas aqvs sakmao safuZveli~. ratom aris ase? ainteresebs
kants, verc gadaWris da verc aicilebs. ratom? imitom, rom
sainteresoa. kanti saWirod Tvlida SeezRuda Teoriuli Se
mecnebis sfero, saerTod moazrebadi gaeTiSa orad Tavis
Tavadi nivTebis sferod da movlenebis sferod. movlenebis
22

sfero es aris nivTebi CvenTvis, e. i. imanenturi sfero, ro


melzec mecniereba Sendeba, e. i. fizikis sfero da TavisTava
di nivTebis sfero, anu fizikis iqiT arsebuli metafizikuri,
anu transcendenturi sfero, romelzec mecniereba ar Sende
ba. es aris rwmenisa da msoflmxedvelobis sfero.
ganasxvaveben Teoriul da araTeoriul msoflmxedvelo
bas. miTosi da religia araTeoriuli msoflmxedvelobaa,
filosofia ki Teoriuli. arsebobs msoflmxedvelobis sa
mi ZiriTadi saxe:
1) miTosi, rogorc msoflmxedveloba.
2) religia, rogorc msoflmxedveloba.
3) filosofia, rogorc msoflmxedveloba.
miTosi warmosaxvis Zalas da naTqvamis avtoritets emya
reba da ase axdens samyaros erTianobis Sesaxeb azris dafuZ
nebas. religia rwmenas emyareba da am gziT midis samyaros
erTianobamde. filosofia ki aris dasabuTebuli msof
lmxedvelobis mocemis cda. igi cnebebisa da kategoriebis
gamoyenebiT ayalibebs msoflmxedvelobas da ase axdens sam
yaros erTianobis dafuZnebas. iq, sadac iwyeba filosofia,
iwyeba kritikuli azrovneba, ismeba kiTxva ratom?
naTqvamidan gamomdinare, msoflmxedvelobebisaTvis sa
erToa samyaros erTianobis gageba. isini amas sxvadasxva
meTodebiTa da xerxebiT aRweven. rogorc ukve vTqviT, fi
losofia aris Teoriuli msoflmxedvelobis mocemis cda,
romelic moiazrebs samyaros mTlianobaSi, arkvevs adamia
nis yofierebis sazriss.
ram gamoiwvia miTosuri azrovnebis svla filosofiu
ri azrovnebisaken? cxovrebis amaRlebam cnobierebamde.
empiriuli anu cdiseuli masalis ayvanam cnobierebamde da
Sefasebis survilma. es rTuli samuSaoa, romelic kacob
riobam Seasrula cxovrebis xedvis ganviTarebaSi. aqedan
erTi daskvna gamodis: msoflmxedvelobebis ganviTareba
ganpirobebulia samyaros suraTis mdgradobis moTxovni
lebiT. blez paskalis azriT, `axla ki dae, adamiani kvlav
23

miubrundes sakuTar Tavs da Seadaros Tavisi arseba yove


live arsebuls. dae, Seicnos, rarig dakargulia da miviwy
ebuli samyaros am miyruebul kuTxeSi. adamiani moqceulia
or araraobisa da usasrulobis ufskruls Soris da mainc
svams kiTxvas ra aris adamiani? araraoba usasrulobas
Tan SedarebiT da yvelaferi araraobasTan SedarebiT. anu
raRac saSualo yvelafersa da arafers Soris. mas ar SeuZ
lia arcerTi ukiduresobis Secnoba, saganTa dasabami da
dasasruli misTvis samudamod dafarulia idumalebis ga
nuWvreteli ukuniT. is erTnairad umweoa Seicnos, rogorc
araraoba, romlisganac iSva, ise usasruloba, romelSic
aris danTqmuli. adamiani eZebs myar sayrdens, romelsac igi
miendoba, magram ver poulobs, rameTu irgvliv araferia
uryevi. aseTia Cveni bunebrivi mdgomareoba da mainc sru
liad arabunebrivad eCveneba is Cvens grZnobebs. Cven xarbad
miveltviT mkvidr samyofels, gvsurs fexqveS vgrZnobdeT
myar niadags, raTa caTaziduli godoli aRvmarTod zed,
magram saZirkveli irRveva.
me ar vici, raa samyaro, ar vici, raa Cemi sxeuli, Cemi
grZnoba, Cemi suli da Cemi arsebis is nawili, romelic fiq
robs, rasac vambob, romelic cdilobs azriT miwvdes da Se
icnos yvelaferi, Seicnos Tavisi Tavic, magram ukeT rodi
icnobs sakuTar Tavs, vidre sxva danarCens. me vxedav samya
ros saSinel sivrces, romelSic var Caketili. me vgrZnob,
rom mijaWvuli var am uvrcesi samyaros mxolod erT kun
Wuls, magram ar vici, rad mxvda wilad es kuTxe da ara rome
lime sxva adgili, an rad meboZa sasicocxlod erTi mswrafl
warmavali wami maradisobis swored am da ara romelime sxva
wertilSi. maradisobisa, romelic win uswrebs Cems dasabams
da romelic mosdevs Cems dasasruls.
me verafers vxedav Cems irgvliv usasrulobis garda,
romelSic atomiviT var Cakarguli. Cemi sicocxle mxolod
Crdilia, romelic mxolod wamiT evlineba usasrulobas,
raTa am wamis waxdomisTanave ukvalod gaqres. me mxolod is
24

vici, rom male movkvdebi, magram yvelaze nakleb vicnob swo


red am sikvdils, romelsac ver gaveqcevi da ver avicileb~!
miTologias, religias, filosofias aqvs pretenzia iyos
mdgradi, gavleniani, iyos sayovelTaod aRiarebuli, magram
icvleba dro, icvleba adamianis msoflgagebac. martin haide
geris (1889 1976 ww.) azriT, SeuZlebelia mudam erTi da ima
ve idealis mimarTulebiT moZraoba. magaliTad iyo periodi,
roca evropuli sazogadoeb
is cxovrebaSi wina planze wamo
vida codnis ideali, magram mudam ase ar iyo da arc mudam ase
iqneba. iyo periodi, roca gansakuTrebiT mwvaved dadga eko
nomikuri problema da misma gadaWram gadamwyveti mniSvnelo
ba moip
ova. iyo iseTi periodic, roca seqsualurma ltolvam
civilizebuli adamianis cxovrebis warmarTvel faqtorTa
Soris lamis yvelaze meti ZaliT iCina Tavi. axla, fiqrobs
haidegeri, civilizebuli kacobriobis cxovrebaSi yvelaze
met rols fridrix nicSes mier nawinaswarmetyvelebi Zala
uflebis ideal
i TamaSobs. kacobrioba am idealis meoxebiT
dRes katastrofis winaSe dgas da Tu ki saboloo daRupva ar
uweria, momavalSi uTuod daaRwevs mas Tavs. naTqvamidan ga
momdinare, adamiani SeZlebisdagvarad sruli saxiT yofnas
mieswrafvis. amisaTvis ki yofnis sistemis gagebas cdilobs,
swored amitomac iqca adamianisaTvis aucileblobad filo
sofiuri azrovneba, romelic arsebiTad gansxvavdeba mecnie
ruli, miTologiuri, religiuri azrovnebisagan.

25

miTosuri msoflmxedveloba
filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebas istori
ulad win uZRoda miTologiuri da religiuri msoflmxedve
lobis arseboba. miTologiuri msoflmxedveloba Seiqmna ka
cobriobis warmoSobis pirvelsave safexurze.
miTologia aris sxvadasxva epoqebisa da xalxebis miTebis
da legendebis erTobliob
a. isini mogviTxroben samyaros,
RmerTebis, fantastikuri arsebebis da adamianebis Sesaxeb.
miTosuri azrovneba adamianuri cnobierebis Tavdapirveli
formaa. igi warmoiSva calkeuli miTebis da legendebis saxiT,
TandaTanobiT xdeboda maTi mowesrigeba da sistematizacia.
bevri ram iyo uZvelesi adamianisaTvis idumali da Seucno
beli, amasTan SiSis momgvreli da Semzaravic: stiqiuri ube
dureba gvalva, wyaldidoba, miwisZvra, qariSxali, qarborba
la; bunebis sxvadasxva movlenebi wvima, setyva, Weqa-quxili,
mousavlian
oba, gamyinvareba, mzisa da mTvaris dabneleba, we
liwadis droTa monacvleob
a; piradi cxovrebidanac ki Zi
li, sizmari, avadmyofoba, sikvdili... adamianis cdebi, aexsna
da Caswvdomoda maT saidumloebas, uSedegod mTavrdeboda.
Tavisi ganviTarebis dabali donis gamo, mas ar Seswevda unari
Seecno movlenaTa arsi da pasuxi gaeca iseT kiTxvebze, rom
lebsac dRes daufiqreblad upasuxebs skolis moswavle. im
uxsovar droSi ki yvelaferi es uxilavi RmerTebis neba-sur
vilis gamovlinebad miaCndaT da miTebSi cdilobdnen bunebis
movlenebis axsnas, sikvdilisa da sicocxlis saidumloeba
Ta Secnobas, adamianisa da samyaros urTierTobis garkvevas.
swored amitom uwodeben miTologias `winafilosofias~.
aristoteles azriT, adamianebma filosofosoba pirvelad
gaocebis Sedegad daiwyes. igi Tvlida, rom adamiani, romel
sac uyvars da TviTonac Txzavs miTebs, garkveuli azriT ukve
filosofosia, rameTu sibrZne gulisxmobs mizezTa codnas,
xolo miTebi ki bunebis movlenaTa mizezebis axsnaa.
uZveles xalxTa miTebs Soris erT-erTi TvalsaCino da sa
26

patio adgili ukavia Zvel berZnul miTologias, romelsac


sxva xalxebis miTologiisagan, ZiriTadad, ori Tavisebureba
gamoarCevs anTropomorfizmi da bedisweris principi. Zvel
berZenTa warmodgeniT, samyaro ase Seiqmna:Y Tavdapirvelad
arsebobda mxolod maradiuli, usazRvro, bneli qaosi, ro
melSic iyo qveynierebis sicocxlis wyaro. yovelive, mTeli
samyaro da ukvdavi RmerTebic, usazRvro qaosidan warmo
iSva. qaosidan warmoiSva dedamiwis qalRmerTi gea Zalumi,
sicocxlis momniWebeli yovelisTvis, rac masze cocxlobs
da izrdeba. Sors, miwis qveS ki, ise Sors, rogoradac Sorsaa
Cvengan ukidegano, naTeli ca, ganuzomel siRrmeSi daib
ada
pirquSi tartarosi sazareli qveskneli, savse maradiuli
wyvdiadiT. qaosidanve, sicocxlis wyarodan, iSva diadi Zala,
yovlis gamacocxlebeli siyvaruli erosi. daiwyo qveynie
rebis Seqmna. usazRvro qaosma Sva maradiuli wyvdiadi ere
bosi da bneli Rame niuqsi. Ramisa da wyvdiadisagan warmoiS
vnen maradiuli Suqi eTeri da sixarulis momgvreli, naTeli
dRe hemera. sinaTle moefina mTels qveynierebas da daiwyo
dRisa da Ramis cvla. yovlisSemZle dedamiwam Sva unapiro
lurji ca uranosi, da gadaiSala zeca. amayad aRimarTnen
cisaken miwis Svilebi maRali mTebi da farTod gadaiSala ma
rad mRelvare zRva. qalRmerTma Ramem gaaCina sazarel RvTa
ebaTa mTeli dasi: Tanatosi sikvdili; erida ganxeTqileba;
apatu sicrue; keri ganadgureba; hipnosi Zili, saSinel
moCvenebaTa mTeli gundiT, romlebmac ar ician Sebraleba,
nemesida SurisZieba danaSaulisaTvis. saSineleba, ganxeT
qileba, sicrue, brZola da ubedureba moitanes am RmerTebma
qveynad.
samyaro SemosazRvruli iyo vrceli mdinariT, romelsac
okeanes uwodebdnen. okeanis aRmosavleTiT yovel diliT amo
dis mze RmerTi heliosi, xolo dasavleTiT (imave dros) Ca
dis mTvare qalRmerTi selene. mTel samyaros ganagebs zevsi
y
M vela RmerTisa da adamianebis mama da mbrZanebeli. igi yov
lisSemZlea. zevsi ganagebs casa da ciur movlenebs. igia Weqa-
27

quxilis RmerTi elvisa da mexis mfrqveveli zevsi. misi sur


vilisamebr ikribeba Rrubeli caze, igi ugzavnis adamianebs
wvimas, misi brZanebiT moZraobs qari, icvleba weliwadis dro
ni. man daamyara qveynad sazogadoebrivi wesrigi da dauwesa
adamianebs kanonebi. adamianTa bedi zevsis nebas emorCileba.
olimpos mTidan ugzavnis igi adamianebs wyalobasa da risxvas.
RmerTebi monawileoben adamianTa cxovrebaSi, isini aswavlian
adamianebs garkveul saqmes da mfarveloben maT saqmianobas.
aTenam aswavla safeiqro xelovneba. hefestom mWedloba da
sxva. RmerTebs adamianisTvis moaqvT, rogorc sikeTe, ise bo
roteba, rogorc bedniereba, ise ubedureba. ismis kiTxva: Tu
yvelaferi RmerTebis nebiT xdeba, xolo isini mravalia da da
moukideblad moqmedeben, maSin, xom ar sufevs samyaroSi qa
osi da ganukiTxaoba? miTologia miiCnevs, rom samyaro mkac
rad mowesrigebuli mTelia. amgvar samyaros kosmosi ewodeba.
masSi batonobs uryevi wesrigi da gardauvaloba, sadac gamo
ricxulia yovelgvari SemTxveviToba da TviTneboba. ra Zala
udevs safuZvlad am rkinisebur aucileblobas? es aris be
diswera, romelic winaswar, erTmniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs
yovelive imas, rac samyaroSi xdeba. moxdeba mxolod is, rac
bedisweriT aris dadgenili da gadawyvetili. vervin gaeqce
va imas, rac uweria. bedisweras berZnulad moira hqvia, rac
`wils~, `xvedrs~ niSnavs. yovel sagans, maT Soris adamiansac,
Tavisi wili, xvedri aqvs miCenili.
Tebes mefis memkvidrem laiosma, pisaSi mefe pelopTan
stumrad yofnis dros, misi qaliSvili qrisipe moitaca da Ta
visTan waiyvana. ganrisxebulma da danaRvlianebulma mamam
laiosi dawyevla RmerTebma Cemi Svilis gamtacebeli imiT
dasajon, rom sakuTarma Svilma daRuposo. garkveuli drois
Semdeg, laiosi menekevsis asul iokasteze daqorwinda, mag
ram Svili ar eRirsaT. apolonis qurumma qalma piTiam laioss
RmerTebis neba auwya: Svili geyoleba, magram pelopis wyevla
giwevs da sakuTari Svilis xeliT sikvdili giweriao. Tavzar
dacemulma laiosma gadawyvita, Svili dabadebisTanave moek
28

la. asec moiqca axalSobils fexebi RvediT Seukra, terfebSi


wvetiani rkina gauyara, uxmo monas da ubrZana yrmis dagdeba
kiTeronis ferdobze, raTa iq gareul mxecebs daeglijaT. mag
ram monam ar Seasrula mefis brZaneba. bavSvi Seecoda da korin
Tos mefis monas gadasca. korinTos mefe uSvilo iyo da bavSvis
gamoCena RmerTebis wyalobad miiCnia. man gadawyvita ymawvili
sakuTari SviliviT aRezarda da memkvidred gamoecxadebina.
bavSvs saxelad oidiposi uwodes. erTxel nadimze erTma Se
zarxoSebulma megobarma gazrdil da davaJkacebul oidiposs
naSvilebi uwoda. oidiposma simarTlis dadgenis mizniT del
fos orakuls miakiTxa. sxivnaTelma apolonma misan piTias pi
riT oidiposs misi sazareli bedi gaando: Sen moklav mamaSens,
SeirTav sakuTar dedas da am qorwinebidan geyoleba Svilebi,
dawyevlili RmerTebisagan da SeZulebuli adamianTagan. SeZ
rwunebulma oidiposma ganizraxa uTvistomo, unaTesavo, sam
Soblos moklebul moxetiale yaribad darCeniliyo. magram
gana SeiZleba vinme bedisweras gaeqces? oidiposma ar icoda,
rom, rac ufro Seecdeboda gaqceoda Tavis bedisweras, miT
ufro mtkiced wavidoda im gziT, rac bedma ganuCina. gzad mi
mavals, parnasis mTis Ziras, SemTxveviT ucnobi berikaci Semo
akvda. oidiposi Tavs damnaSaved ar grZnobda igi xom mxolod
Tavs icavda. alalbedze arCeulma gzam oidiposi TebeSi Caiy
vana. qalaqSi glova sufevda sfingiones mTaze dasaxlebuli,
tiTonisa da eqidnas naSieri sfinqsi sul axal-axal msxverpls
iTxovda da kidev, viRac ucnobs Tebes mefe laiosi moekla.
oidiposma moqalaqeTa daxmareba gadawyvita.
saSineli sanaxavi iyo qalis Taviani, uSvelebeli lomis
tanis, basri klanWebiTa da uzarmazari arwivis frTebiani
sfinqsi. RmerTebis gadawyvetilebiT sfinqsi manamde unda
darCeniliyo TebeSi, vidre vinme mis gamocanas ar amoxsnida.
mravalma scada, magram amaod, yvela daiRupa. sfinqsma oidi
possac uTxra Tavisi Tavsatexi:
miTxari, vin dadis diliT oTx fexze, SuadRisas orze da
saRamos samze? arcerTi miwier
i arseba ar icvlis saxes masa
29

viT. roca oTx fexze dadis, maSin naklebi Zala aqvs da ufro
nelac moZraobs, vidre sxva dros. wamiTac ar dafiqrebula
oidiposi, ise upasuxa: es adamiania! roca pataraa, mxolod
dilaa misi sicocxlisa, maSin sustia da oTx fexze daxoxavs.
dRisiT, e.i., simwifis asakSi, or fexze dadis, xolo saRamos,
e.i. siberis dros, sustdeba, dasayrdeni sWirdeba da joxs iye
nebs, maSin sam fexze dadis.
SeZlo oidiposma am Tavsatexis gamocnoba. sfinqsma ki
frTebi aiqnia da kldidan zRvaSi gadaeSva. aseTi iyo RmerTe
bis neba sfinqsi unda daRupuliyo, Tuki vinme mis gamocanas
gamoicnobda. ase gaaTavisufla oidiposma Tebe ubedurebe
bisagan da madlierma xalxma igi mefed gamoacxada. oidiposma
colad SeirTo qvrivi dedofali da misgan ori vaJi da ori qa
liSvili SeeZina. brZnulad marTavda oidiposi Tebes, xalxis
siyvarulic daimsaxura, magram vin gaqcevia bedisweras? isev
didi gansacdeli daatyda Tavs Tebes apolonma saSineli seni,
Savi Wiri mouvlina qalaqs. uamravi adamiani daixoca. misanma
tiresiam ubedurebaSi oidiposi daadanaSaula, rogorc saku
Tari mamis mkvleli da Tavisi mSobeli dedis qmari. SeZrwune
bulma, sasowarkveTilma oidiposma Tvalebi daiTxara aRar
surda ecqira mzis sinaTlisaTvis, aRar surda Svilebis xil
va, romlebic misTvis imavdroulad debi da Zmebic iyvnen. ax
la misTvis yovelive daiRupa. amaod cdilobda oidiposi beds
gaqceoda! veravin Seclis RmerTebis nebas, TviT zevsic ki.
berZnul miTologiaSi Taviseburi asaxva hpova bunebis
kultmac. am TvalsazrisiT erT-erT yvelaze momxibvlel mi
Tad miCneulia Zveli berZnuli Tqmuleba nimfa eqos Sesaxeb.
mSvenieri nimfa eqo qalRmerTma heram dasaja. amieridan eqos
mxolod masTan mosaubris mier warmoTqmuli ukanaskneli
sityvis gameor
eba SeeZlo... da ai, eqos Seuyvarda saxemSveni
eri Wabuki narcisi. ver SesZlo eqom Tavisi unugeSo siyvaru
lis gandoba. uaryo igi narcisma. martod cxovrobda amieri
dan ukacriel da miuval gamoqvabulSi eqo, mZimed ganicdida
Tavis siyvaruls. Camoxma da mxolod Zvlebi da uwindeli xma-
30

Ra SemorCa. bolos Zvlebic qvad iqcnen, magram darCa eqos xma.


veravin xedavs mas udabur tyeebsa da maRal mTebSi, Tumca
yvelas esmis misi xma...
CvenTvis sainteresoa is faqti, rom Zvel berZnul miTo
logiaSi vrceli da Taviseburi asaxva hpova Zveli saberZne
Tis urTierTobam qarTul-kavkasiur samyarosTan: amorZale
bi, meom
ar qalTa miTiuri tomi, Zvel berZenTa warmodgeniT,
Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosavleT sanapiroze cxovrobdnen md.
Termodontis maxloblad; berZen gmirebs polidevkesa da
kastors (dioskurebs) kolxTa qveyanaSi dauarsebiaT qalaqi
dioskuria; kavkasionis qedze iyo mijaWvuli berZenTa gmiri
promoTe. magram berZnul miTologiaSi Zvel saqarTvelos
Tan urTierToba yvelaze ufro naTlad aisaxa TqmulebaSi
argonavtTa kolxeTSi laSqrobis Sesaxeb. straboni gvawvdis
Semdeg cnobas: `(kolxeTSi)... mdinareebs CamoaqvT oqro, ra
sac barbarosebi daxvretili varclebiT da bewviani tyavebiT
agroveben. aqedan momdinareobs miTi oqros sawmisis tyav
ze...~ sxvaTaSoris, oqros mopovebis es wesi svaneTSi, e.i. is
toriul
i kolxeTis mTian raionebSi, yofila SemorCenili.
svaneTSi aseTi gadmocemaa Semonaxuli: TiTqos leSxvara
ze mdgara orsarTuliani taZari. miwisqveSa sarTulSi oqros
ganZeuloba inaxeboda. aqve iyo oqros jaWviT dabmuli oqros
verZi...
axla vnaxoT, rogoria qarTuli miTosuri panTeoni: `mTa
ze cxraTvala, bedgautexeli, caswvermibjenili cixe dgas. aq
aris RvTis kari: oqros taxtze morige RmerTi zis da oqro
save bageebs Zravs. aqve dgas qvesknelSi fesvgadgmuli alvis
xe, romlis wverSi oqros cxrakeci Sibi hkidia. alvis rtoeb
ze `yurebad sanatreli~, TeTrmxriani RvTisSvilebi sxedan,
xolo mis fesvebSi ukvdavebis veSa-wyaro Cqefs. veSa-wyaros
RvTaebrivi veSapi patronobs. cixidan wyaromde `miwi-miw~
darani Cadis. am daranidan moZraoben varskvlavTa ganmasaxi
erebeli, erTmaneTis mode-moZme RvTisSvilebi~ (T. Cxenkeli).
qarTvelebs mravali RmerTi hyavdaT. RmerTTa mamamTavars
31

erqva `morige~, anu wesisa da rigis gamrigebel-gamkanonebe


li. is iyo qarTvelTa zevsi. mas hyavda RvTisSvilebi, igive
naxevarRmerTebi kopala, iasaxari, laSarela, pirquSi da
sxvani; qalRmerTebi dali, xelsamZivari, pirimze da mzeqa
la; maTze dabla dganan gmirebi, igive piroflianebi amira
ni, xogais mindi, sulkalmaxi da sxvani.
yvelas sakuTari adgili da Tvisebebi gaaCnia. magram mi
Tosur fantazias Tavisufleba uyvars da xSirad saxes uc
vlida RmerTebs. RmerTebi Tu naxevarRmerTebi adamianurad
iqceodnen: uyvardaT, ibrZodnen, mxiarulebas Tu mwuxarebas
eZleodnen. gmirebi ki zogjer RvTaebriv Zalas avlendnen
da RmerTsac ki eWidebodnen. RvTismebrZoli gaxda amirani,
rogorc promeTe. promeTem xom adamianebs cecxli moupo
va, RvTaebrivi cecxli, romelsac manamde mxolod RmerTebi
flobdnen. amitom igi kavkasionze miajaWves. miTosis Tanax
mad, igi sul gaTavisuflebas elis. aseTia amiranic. amiran
Si adamianuric aris da RvTaebrivic. igi mxatvruli saxea da
masSi sxvadasxva azri SeiZleba amovikiTxoT. akakim xom mijaW
vuli amirani Tavisuflebis momlodine tyvedqmnil saqar
Tvelod warmoidgina. Zvel miTologiur saxeebs unari aqvT
axali drois ideebic gamoxaton.
erTi SexedviT, miTosuri Tqmulebani fantastikur ambebs
Seic
avs. es ambebi daujerebelia, zRaprulia. magram, sulxansaba orbelianisa ar iyos, am sicrueSi sibrZnea. Cven igi unda
amovicnoT.

32

religiuri msoflmxedveloba
religia (laT. religio keTilmsaxureba, RvTismoSiSe
ba, RvTismosaoba, siwminde) SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc
msoflmxedveloba da msoflSegrZneba, agreTve adamianis Se
sabamisi grZnobebi, qcevebi da specifikuri moqmedebebi, ro
melic emyareba zebunebrivi Zalis rwmenas.
religia sulieri kulturis fenomenia, romelic mxolod
adamian
ebs, moazrovne arsebebs aqvT. ismis kiTxva: arsebobs
Tu ara RmerTi? SeiZleba vupasuxoT erTmniSvnelovnad di
ax! arsebobs, magram ratomaa sakamaTo es kacobriobis mTeli
istoriis manZilze? saqme imaSia, rom RmerTi maTTvis arse
bobs, visac igi swams, da ar arsebobs maTTvis, visac ar swams.
aTeisti moiTxovs dasabuTdes RmerTis arseboba da misi moq
medebebi. aris ki samarTliani es moTxovna? ratom aviwydebaT
maT, rom codna da rwmena, mecniereba da religia sul sxvadas
xva fenomenebia. ratom ar ixseneben pavle mociqulis sity
vebs: `amqveyniuri sibrZne RvTis winaSe aris ugunureba~. es
xom qristian
obis amosavali debulebaa. rwmena mxolod imi
tom arsebobs, rom rwmenis obieqtis Sesaxeb codna SeuZlebe
lia. imas, rac viciT, rwmena ar sWirdeba; rac ar viciT, rwme
nac swored mas exeba. samyaroSi gana yvela movlena Seimecneba
da dasabuTdeba? amitom sworia debuleba: `iwameT RmerTi
zebunebrivi (sawinaaRmdegod bunebrivisa, romelic drosa da
sivrceSi arsebobs, SegrZnebebSi gveZleva da amdenad Semec
nebadia), radganac Tqven ar SegiZliaT gaig
oT, icodeT is~.
ganvixiloT imanuel kantis mosazreba am sakiTxTan dakavSi
rebiT. igi wers: `SevzRude codna, raTa adgili dameTmo rwme
nisTvis~. rogorc ukve viciT, kantma moazrebadi samyaro ga
yo or nawilad, TavisTavadi nivTebis sferod da movlenebad.
movlenebi es fizikis sferoa, romelzec mecniereba Sendeba,
e. i. cdaSi gveZleva. es imanenturi sferoa. TavisTavadi niv
Tebis sfero ki fizikis iqiT arsebuli sferoa, e. i. transcen
denturi sfero, romelic cdaSi ar gveZleva da romelzec
33

mecniereba ar Sendeba. es rwmenis sferoa. kantma isic gviC


vena, rom dasabuTebis TvalsazrisiT, ramdeni argumenticaa
RmerTis arsebobis damadasturebeli, zustad imdenivea misi
uarmyofeli. aseT SemTxvevaSi, arcerTi araa dasabuTebuli.
miuxedavad imisa, Tu romels miiReben adamianebi, amiT Rmer
Tis arsebobas araferi daakldeba.
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinareobs erTi daskvna: cod
na da codnis sfero sxvaa (is exeba bunebriv movlenebs, dro
sa da sivrceSi rom arseboben), xolo rwmena da rwmenis sfero
sxva. es ukanaskneli exeba zebunebrivs, RmerTs, romelic ar
eqvemdebareba dasabuTebas. igi rwmeniT unda miviRoT. maT
Tvis, visac swams RmerTi, igi iseTive arsebulad iTvleba, ro
gorc aTeistisaTvis bunebrivi movlenebis arseboba. xom ar
veWvobT imaze, rom arsebobs Cvens garSemo movlenebi? ara,
imitom rom maT vxedavT, isini SegrZnebebSi gveZleva. aseve ar
eWvdeba morwmune RmerTis arsebobaze, isic `xedavs~, oRond
ara SegrZnebebiT, aramed misdami garkveuli sulier - xedviT
mdgomareobaSi CadgomiT. Tu rogor xdeba es, amis aRwera ise
ve SeuZlebelia, rogorc RmerTisa da masTan dakavSirebuli
zebunebrivi movlenebis dasabuTeba gadmocema. e.i. movle
nebis wvdoma Semecneba ufro advilia, vidre zebunebrivis,
RmerTis wvdoma.
adamian
ebi yovelTvis eswrafvodnen Caswvdomodnen da Se
ecnoT saocrad idumali da amaRlebuli fenomenis religi
is arsi. ra ganapirobebs adamianis rwmenas daucvelobis
grZnoba? siyvarulisa da Tanaziarebis nakleboba cxovre
baSi? sikvdilis winaSe SiSi? an ukvdavebisaken maradiuli
swrafva? Tu... ? ufali uxilavia, Cven ki, Tanamedrove adami
anebi, vazrovnebT mxolod konkretuli kategoriebiT, aRviq
vamT mxolod konkretul movlenebsa da sagnebs da `gviWirs~
maTi ganzogadeba. maS, rogorRa gvwams RmerTis, Tu ki mas ver
vxedavT, ver aRviqvamT, ar gvesmis misi xma? mitropolit an
ton suroJels saubrebis ciklSi _ `Sexvedrebi RmerTTan
cxovelTan~ _ metad sagulisxmo mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli,
34

raTa agvixsnas, migvaxvedros, ras niSnavs religiuri grZno


ba, uxilavi RmerTis siyvaruli: `sastumro `ukrainasTan~
taqss velodebodi. axalgazrda kaci momiaxlovda da mkiTxa:
`Tqveni samosi mimaniSnebs, rom morwmune xarT. sasuliero pi
ri brZandebiT?~ `diax~ vupasuxe me~. `ai, me ki, RmerTis ar
mjera...~ `Zalian samwuxaroa!~ vupasuxe. `rogor damimtki
cebT RmerTis arsebobas?~ `rogori, ra saxis damtkiceba
gWirdebaT?~ `xelis gulze maCveneT Tqveni RmerTi da viwa
meb...~ man xeli gamomiwoda da me mis TiTze saqorwilo beWedi
SevamCnie. `daoj
axebuli xarT?~ vkiTxe. `diax~. `bavSvebi
gyavT?~ `diax, myavs~. meuRle giyvarT?~ `ra Tqma unda,
miyvars~. `bavSvebi?~ `bavSvebic~. `ai, me ki, amisi ar mjera!~
`rogor Tu, ar gjeraT? me xom geubnebiT...~ `diax, magram me
mainc ar mjera. damideT Tqveni siyvaruli xelis gulze, me mas
Sevxedav da davijereb...~
f. dostoevskis gmiri, ivane karamazovi erTi aTeistis is
torias mogviTxrobs, romelsac saiqio cxovrebis ar swamda da
romelsac sikvdilis Semdeg RmerTma mosananieblad miliardi
milis gavla miusaja. aTeisti gzaze dawva da milioni wlis man
Zilze uars ambobda am gzis gavlaze. magram, erTxel igi wamodga
da sakuTari nebis sawinaaRmdegod, gaiara es manZili. da rodesac
mas, bolos da bolos, neba darTes warmsdgariyo uflis winaSe,
imwamsve aRiara, rom saufloSi 5 wuTis yofnac ki Rirs imad, rom
aTjer meti sigrZis gza ganvlo.
sakmarisia CaviZiroT sakuTar `me~-Si, CavuRrmavdeT Cveni su
lis idumal, gaucnobierebel siRrmeebs, sadac azri da sindisi
erTmaneTs emTxveva (`svindisi mamxilebeli goneba~, sulxan sa
ba orbeliani), rom vigrZnoT, rogori daucvelebi varT, rogor
varT damokidebuli garemomcvel samyaroze, usasrulo yofi
erebaze da raoden didia masTan erTianobis gancdis survili.
es grZnoba Cveni, adamianuri bunebidan gamomdinareobs, rameTu
TiToeuli Cvengani absoluturi sawyisis matareblebi varT da
ara aqvs mniSvneloba, ganaTlebuli xar, Tu naklebad naziarebi
codnas, SeuZlebelia ar igrZno am sawyisis arseboba SenSi da ar
35

dageuflos masTan miaxlebis, urTierTobis moTxovnileba. es


gancda mxolod gonier arsebas uCndeba, radganadac mxolod igi
acnobierebs sakuTar sasrulobasa da arasrulyofilebas da mi
iswrafvis, cdilobs SeuerTdes usasrulobas da eziaros mara
diul WeSmaritebas.
religia adamianisaTvis absolutTan uSualo urTier
Tobisaken swrafva da moTxovnilebaa. adamiani mudam eZebs
RmerTs, dalxinebuli da SeWirvebulic, imediani da nugeSis
maZiebelic da arasodes rCeba gacruebuli sulier saz
rdos iRebs, zneobrivad ixveweba, Svebas, nugeSsa da imeds
povebs masSi. anu, es aris cocxali urTierToba RmerTsa da
adamians Soris da swored amaSia rwmenis arsi da Zala.
yoveli religia msoflmxedvelobaa, e.i. Camoyalibebu
lia garkveuli warmodgenebi RmerTze, samyarosa da mas
Si mimdinare procesebze, gansazRvrulia adamianis raoba,
cxovrebiseuli mizani da misi amqveyniuri daniSnuleba. am
azriT, religia emTxveva filosofias, maTi Sinaarsi igi
veobrivia. religia da filosofia ar emTxveva erTmaneTs
kerZo aRmoCenebSi, midgomebsa da damokidebulebaSi. abso
lutis cnobiereba, romelic filosofiaSi viTardeba ganye
nebuli formiT, religiaSi mocemulia RmerTTan cocxali
urTierTobis formiT, rac mTel adamianur cxovrebas mo
icavs. Tu filosofia absolutis ganyenebuli Semecnebaa,
xolo religia ki absolutTan cocxali urTierToba, ma
Sin filosofia religiaze upiratesi ver iqneba. Tumca, es
arc aris saWiro. filosofia verasodes Seucvlis adamians
religias, iseve, rogorc religia ver ugulebelyofs fi
losofiis mniSvnelobasa da daniSnulebas adamianisaTvis.
rogorc f. bekoni aRniSnavda, zereled miwodebuli fi
losofia gvaSorebs religias, siRrmiseuli filosofia ki
gvabrunebs mis wiaRSi.
magram, visac RmerTis Sesaxeb warmodgena Camoyalibebu
li ara aqvs, igi mis siaxloves ver igrZnobs. ufali adamia
nebs imdenad aZlevs misi Secnobis saSualebas, ra xarisxi
36

Tac adamianis gonebas SeuZlia misi arsis wvdoma da gageba.


religia viTardeba ara imitom, rom religiuri grZnobebi
da Sexedulebebi icvleba, aramed imitom, rom adamianis gone
ba viTardeba, ufro siRrmiseuli xdeba misi damokidebuleba
samyaros, masSi mimdinare procesebisa da sakuTari Tavisadmi.
kacobriobis istoria mraval religias icnobs, primitiu
li Sexedulebebidan dawyebuli ganviTarebuli msoflio re
ligiebiT damTavrebuli:
1) pirvelyofili religiuri formebi:
animizmis (laT. anima suli) mixedviT, yvela materialur
obieqtsa da process bunebaSi Tavisi zebunebrivi oreuli
hyavs. es termini mecnierebaSi daamkvidra e. teilorma. tei
lors religia, ZiriTadad, esmoda, rogorc sulieri arse
bebis rwmena, anu animizmi, romelsac igi `religiis minimums~
uwodebda. animisturi rwmena, misi mosazrebiT, ganpirobe
bulia adamianis codnis dabali doniT. am periodis adamiani
axsnas ver uZebnida iseT biologiur movlenebs, rogoricaa
Zili, sizmari, gulyra, sikvdili. cdilobda ra aexsna es mov
lenebi, `veluri-filosofosi~ mivida sulis, patara oreu
lis ideamde, romelic yvela adamianSia Casaxlebuli da to
vebs mas Zilis, sizmrebisa (am dros suli mogzaurobs da am
mogzaurobis STabeWdilebebi aisaxeba adamian
is sizmrebSi)
da sikvdilis (am SemTxvevaSi suli adamianis sxeuls aRar ub
rundeba) SemTxvevaSi.
magia (berZ. magia jadoqroba) gulisxmobs bunebasa da
adamianze zemoqmedebis zebunebrivi saSualebebis arsebobas
(magaliTad, ritualuri wes-Cveulebebi, specifikuri moqme
debebi da sxva). magiis saxeebi mravalferovania: TeTri magia,
Savi magia, sasiyvarulo magia, samkurnali magia, sasoflo-sa
meurneo magia da a.S.
fetiSizmi `mojadoebuli sagani~, `gakeTebuli~, ase uwo
debdnen portugalieli mogzaurebi im materialur obieq
tebs, romlebsac Tayvans scemda da aRmerTebda maT mier dapy
robili teritoriebis aborigeni mosaxleoba. es aris bunebis
37

garkveul
i movlenebisa da sagnebis religiuri Tayvaniscema
da gaRmerTeba. fetiSebs miewerebodaT zebunebrivi Tvisebe
bi. magaliTad, Cv. w. pirvel saukuneSi Zveli germanelebisaT
vis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani da yovlisSemZle fetiSi
iyo naZvi. zamTarSi isini gansakuTrebul pativs miagebdnen
mas, ferad-feradi saCuqrebiT rTavdnen, mRerodnen da cek
vavdnen misTvis, Txovdnen daxmarebasa da Semweobas. Cveni sa
axalwlo naZvis xis tradicia swored am Zveli wes- Cveulebis
Taviseburi gagrZelebaa.
totemizmi (`misi gvari~, sityva `totemi~ aRebulia Crdi
loamerikel indielTa erT-erTi tomis enidan). totemizmis
mixedviT, cxovelTa da mcenareTa garkveuli saxeobebi ama
Tu im Temis an tomis mfarvel-winaprebs warmoadgenen. maTi
mokvla akrZaluli iyo, magram weliwadSi erTxel, religiuri
mizniT, adamian
ebi valdebuli iyvnen moeklaT Tavisi totemi
da SeeWamaT misi xorci. iTvleboda, rom es rituali sasargeb
lo iyo rogorc adamianisaTvis, aseve cxovelisaTvis ada
mianze gadadioda totemis Zala da yovlisSemZleoba, xolo
cxovels ki gamravlebaSi uwyobda xels.
2) poliTeizmi anu mravalRmerTianoba. poliTeizmi win
gadadgmuli nabiji iyo pirvelyofil religiur formebTan
SedarebiT. Tu pirvelyofil religiebSi adamiani emorCile
ba bunebis brma Zalebs, axla emorCileba adamianuri saxisa da
moqmedebis RmerTebs.
3) Tanamedrove ganviTarebuli monoTeisturi religiebi,
romelTa Soris ganasxvaveben msoflio da nacionalur reli
giebs.
a) iudaizmi nacionaluri monoTeisturi religia, ro
melic, ZiriTadad, mxolod ebraeli eris religiuri msof
lmxedvelobas, ideologias warmoadgens.
b) budizmi safuZveli Caeyara Zv. w. VIV saukuneebSi in
doeTSi. igi xuTi saukuniT `ufrosia~ qriatianobaze, xolo
islami ki Tormeti saukuniT axalgazrdaa masze. misi warmo
Soba ukavSirdeba mogzaur-mqadageblis sidxartxas saxels,
38

romelic Tavis Tavs budas (`WeSmaritebiT gasxivosnebuls~)


uwodebda. mravaljeradi xelaxali dabadebis Semdeg, budam
airCia SakiamunTa gvaris ufliswul sidxartxas saxe da erTa
derTi mizniT moevlina dedamiwas aswavlos cocxal arse
bebs tanjvisagan gaTavisuflebis, xsnis gza. am religiis qva
kuTxedia budas swavleba da oTxi keTilSobili WeSmariteba:
tanjva, tanjvis mizezi, tanjvisagan gankurneba (mospoba) da
gankurnebis saSualebebi. gankurneba (gaTavisufleba) am Sem
TxvevaSi niSnavs nirvanas. budizmSi gansakuTrebuli adgili
aqvs daTmobili karmis cnebas, romelic gagebulia, rogorc
gansakuTrebuli mentaluri struqtura.
b) qristianoba msoflioSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli reli
giaa, romelic warmoiSva romis imperiaSi, palestinaSi.
Zv.w. VII saukuneSi winaswarmetyvelma ieremiam Tqva: ase am
bobs ufali: me davdeb adamianebTan axal aRTqmas, axal kav
Sirs,... igi amotvifruli iqneba gulebSi... da, ai, 700 wlis
Semdeg, patara oTaxSi Seikriba 12 adamiani da aRsrulda
msxverplTSewirva. es rituali uwin yovelTvis sisxlis Tan
xlebiT sruldeboda. sisxli xom sicocxlis simboloa, si
cocxle ki mxolod RmerTs ekuTvnis. ase iyo moses drosac. im
Rames ki, Cv.w. 30 wlis gazafxulze, ieso nazarevelma aRasru
la es wesi, magram aq sisxli ar iyo, iyo Rvino da puri. man ga
texa puri, dauriga TiToeul iq myofs da uTxra: ai, Cemi xor
ci xorcTagani, rogorc samsxverplo kravi adamianebisaTvis.
Camoasxa Rvino fialaSi, Camoatara da dasZina:Pai, Cemi sisxli,
romelic me adamianebisaTvis gaviRe. es axali aRTqmaa Cems
sisxlSi. amgvarad, am wminda trapezSi RmerTi da adamiani Se
erTda ara realur, fizikur sisxlSi, aramed miwis simbolur
sisxlSi, rameTu yurZnis wveni, Rvino miwis sisxlia, puri ki
miwis xorci. es RmerTia, romelic CvenTvis Tavs wiravs. `giy
vardeT erTmaneTi, rogorc me SegiyvareT Tqven~ (ioan. 15.12)
es siyvarulis umaRlesi, miuwvdomeli formulaa, idealia,
romelic ieso qristem samoqmedod dagvitova da amitomac
gvTxovs Cven, adamianebs, visac masTan yofna surs, ukuagdos
39

Tavisi siam
aye, didebismoyvareoba, ampartavneba, itvirTos
Tavisi jvari da gahyves qristes gzas.
qristian
oba axali eTika ar aris. qristianoba axali cxov
rebaa, romelic saSualebas aZlevs adamians uSualod iurTi
erTos RmerTTan. sad aris aq saidumlo? ratom izidavs anda
mativiT es religia adamianebs? gansakuTrebiT ieso qristes
pirovneba? mis sityvebSi xom ar iyo aRmosavleTis poetebisa
da filosofosebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli bundovaneba, ma
Ralfardovneba? macxovari yovelTvis martivad da gasage
bad saubrobda. misi igavebic Cveni cxovrebiseuli magaliTe
bi iyo. es said
umlo, mRvdel aleqsandre menis azriT, irkveva
aseTive martiv sityvebSi: filipe ekiTxeba: gviCvene mama, mama
yovelivesi, berZnebi rom arxes uwodeben. sad aris igi? da ie
so pasuxobs, rogorc ar upasuxia arcerT filosofoss: amde
ni xania TqvenTan var da Sen ar micnob? vinc me mnaxa, man mamac
naxa. ieso qriste aris usasrulos, auxsnelis, Seucnobelis
adamianuri saxe, CvenTvis movlenili, vinc CvenTan erTad
tvirTulobs Cveni cxovrebis simZimes, vinc msxverplad See
wira adamian
ebs da gamoisyida kacobriobis codvebi, CvenTvis
rom axali cxovrebis dawyeb
is saSualeba moeca.
qristian
obis gavrceleba, Zveli aRTqmisa da wminda weri
lebis safuZvelze, ar iyo mxolod religiuri fenomeni. qris
tianobiT daiwyo kacobriobis Tvisobrivad axali era, ro
melic dRes evropuli da dasavluri civilizaciis saxeliT
aris cnobili.
d) islamis mimdevrs musulmani hqvia, rac arabuli sity
vaa (muslimi) da niSnavs `mindobils~, `morCils~. islami yve
laze axalgazrdaa ganviTarebul monoTeistur religiaTa
Soris. igi aseve warmoiSva axlo aRmosavleTSi, eyrdnoboda
igive ideebs, efuZneboda imave kulturul tradiciebs, ra
sac qristian
oba da iudaizmi. es religiuri sistema, Tavisi
uaRresad mkacri da dasrulebuli, SeiZleba iTqvas, ukidu
resobamde miyvanili monoTeizmiT, Camoyalibda misi ori wi
namorbedis niadagze. ase, rom maTi gavlena igrZnoba rwmenis
40

simboloSi, kultis principebSi, moralur mcnebebSi da a.S.


da, mainc, miuxedavad amisa, islami, rogorc msoflio religia
TviTmyofadi da ganumeorebelia. am religiis rolisa da ad
gilis Sefasebisas bevrad ufro arsebiTia is, rom praqtikaSi,
aziisa da afrikis xalxTa yoveldRiur yofasa da kulturaze
kolosalur zemoqmedebaSi, islams gaaCnia ara marto Tavisi
ganumeor
ebeli saxe, aramed sakmaod specifikuri xasiaTic.
es specifika imdenad didi da sagrZnobia, rom SemTxveviT ar
saubroben `islamur samyaroze~, islamur (arabul-islamur)
civilizaciaz
e.
aseTia mokled religiis istoriaSi cnobili ZiriTadi
msoflmxedvelobani. ra Tqma unda, es ar aris sruli suraTi.
yoveli msoflio religia Tavis TavSi Seicavs mraval mimdi
nareobas, romlebic erTmaneTisagan sakmaod gansxvavdebian
TavianTi SexedulebebiT.
filosofiisa da religiis mimarTeba progresulad mo
azrovne sazogadoebaSi normaluria. ra Tqma unda, isini ro
gorc sulieri kulturis formebi, erTmaneTze zemoqmedeben,
urTierTs amdidreben da saerTo jamSi emsaxurebian adamia
nis sulier da zneobriv srulyofas.

41

filosofia da kerZo mecnier


ebebi
filosofiis sagani
filosofiuri msoflmxedveloba, rogorc ukve vTqviT,
universaluri msoflmxedvelobaa, mTeli sinamdvilis Sesaxeb
SexedulebaTa sistemaa. kerZo mecnierebebi swavloben Tvalxi
lul, dakvirvebad, drosa da sivrceSi arsebul sinamdviles. fi
losofia ar aris erT-erTi kerZo mecniereba sxva mecnierebaTa
Soris. igi specifikuri msoflmxedvelobaa, romelic tvirTad
iRebs kerZo mecnierebaTa miRwevebis gaTvaliswinebas, raTa
Seqmnas sinamdvilis, rogorc mTelis srulyofili suraTi.
imisaTvis, rom gavarkvioT filosofiisa da sxva mecniereba
Ta urTierTmimarTeba, saWiroa gavaanalizoT mecnierebisa da
msoflmxedvelobis cnebebi.
mecnierebis zogadi gansazRvreba did siZneleebTan aris
dakavSirebuli, radgan ar arsebobs erTi mecniereba. arsebobs
mecnierebis ramdenime tipi, romlebic erTmaneTisagan gansxvav
debian codnis xasiaTiT, SinaarsiTa da kriteriumebiT. Tanamed
rove gagebiT, arsebobs mxolod kerZo mecniereba, sxva e. w. fi
losofiuri mecniereba ar arsebobs. mecnierebis arsi zogadad
aseTia: mecniereba aris intersubieqturi meTodebiT dasabuTe
buli obieqturi codnis sistema. igi iyenebs iseT problemebs,
romelTa dadebiTi da uaryofiTi gadawyveta xdeba erTmniSvne
lovnad. mecniereba adgens utyuar da ueWvel debulebebs, ro
melTac axasiaTebs WeSmariteba, maTi sapirispiro debulebebi
mcdaria.
Zvel saberZneTSi filosofia mecnierul codnasTan erTad
daibada da masTan iyo gaigivebuli. am droisaTvis mecniereba
da filosofia gayofili ar iyo. amitom yvela didi mecnieri
amave dros didi filosofosic iyo. Zveli berZeni filoso
fosebi aseve iyvnen maTematikosebi, astronomebi, fizikose
bi, fsiqologebi, logikosebi da sxva. mecnierebisa da filo
sofiis aseTi damokidebuleba TiTqmis XIX saukunis bolomde
gagrZelda. didi maTematikosebi da fizikosebi dekarti (1596
42

1650 ww.), laibnici (1646 1716 ww.), paskali (1623 1662 ww.)
da sxvebi didi filosofosebic iyvnen. rodesac mecniereba
Si damkvidrda eqsperimentuli meTodi, daiwyo konkretul
mecnierebaTa diferenciacia. gaCnda mravali sabunebismety
velo, socialuri da fsiqologiur-eqsperimentaluri mecni
ereba; amas mohyva mecnierebaTa funqciebis dayofa. amrigad,
mTeli samyaros Semadgeneli sferoebi danawilda konkretul
mecnierebebze, magram es danawileba TviTneburad ar momxda
ra. is sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis praqtikuli moTxovnilebe
bis safuZvelze warmoiSva. yvela konkretuli mecniereba Se
iswavlis ra romelime konkretuli sferos kanonzomierebas,
am codnis safuZvelze axorcielebs am sferos movlenebisa
da procesebis winaswarxedvas da prognozirebas, analizs
ukeTebs miRebuli Sedegebis mniSvnelobas. es aris yvela kon
kretuli mecnierebis praqtikuli daniSnuleba. es iTqmis ara
mxolod sabunebismetyvelo da socialur mecnierebaze, ara
med fsiqologiazec. eqsperimentuli fsiqologia Seiswavlis
ra qcevebs, mis xasiaTs, nebisyofas, temperaments da sxva fsi
qologiur Tvisebas, amis safuZvelze axdens imis prognozi
rebas, Tu rogor moiqceva esa Tu is adamiani ama Tu im kon
kretul situaciaSi. aseT gamokvlevebs farTo praqtikuli
gamoyeneba aqvs medicinaSi, pedagogikaSi, iurisprudenciaSi
da sxva sferoSi. ibadeba kiTxva: radgan mTeli samyaros sfe
roebi danawilda konkretul mecnierebebze, ra darCa filo
sofias Sesaswavli da ra praqtikuli daniSnuleba aqvs mas?
filosofiurma kvleva-Ziebam swored maSin monaxa Tavisi
namdvili Sesaswavli sagani, rodesac samyaro konkretulma mec
nierebebma dainawiles. mecnierebaTa aseTma diferenciaciam fi
losofias saSualeba misca epovna misTvis mniSvnelovani, wminda
filosofiuri problemebi. darCa iseTi kiTxvebi, romelsac arc
erTi konkretuli mecniereba ar Seiswavlis. mas mxolod filo
sofia ikvlevs. es kiTxvebia: ra kavSiria materialur da sulier
samyaros Soris? ra aris sulieri da materialuri samyaros sa
fuZveli anu sawyisi? ras warmoadgens am samyaroSi sazogado
43

ebrivi yofiereba? gaaCnia Tu ara sazogadoebriv yofierebas


kanonzomiereba? SeiZleba Tu ara sazogadoebrivi yofierebisa
da sazogadoebrivi istoriis marTva? ras warmoadgens am samya
roSi adamiani? ra aris adamianis sicocxlis azri da cxovrebis
mizani? da sxva. am kiTxvebze sxvadasxva filosofiur sistemebSi
gansxvavebuli pasuxebi arsebobs, magram miuxedavad amisa, yve
la pasuxs aqvs Tavisi Rirebuleba, radgan is garkveul msof
lmxedvelobas warmoadgens da adamianTa sulieri moTxovnile
bebis dakmayofilebas emsaxureba. mTavari ki mainc is aris, rom
dReisTvis arsebobs filosofiis dargi, romelsac mecnierebis
filosofia ewodeba. Tavis mxriv, es iyofa bunebaTmecnierebis
filosofiad da sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa filosofiad. ar
sebobs teqnikis filosofia, kibernetikis filosofia, fsiqo
logiis filosofia, istoriis filosofia, samarTlis filoso
fia, kulturis filosofia, religiis filosofia da sxva.
amrigad, filosofia ar emijneba arc mecnierebas da arc re
ligias. filosofia im kuTxiT awarmoebs aRniSnul sferoebSi
Tavis kvleva-Ziebas, rac aucileblobiT sWirdeba filosofi
uri msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebas. aqedan kargad Cans fi
losofiis praqtikuli daniSnuleba. yvela problema adamianis
sulieri moTxovnilebidan gamomdinareobs da amdenad Tavad
adamiani aris sulieri kulturis erT-erTi fenomeni. garda
amisa, filosofia TviTon ikvlevs kulturas da kulturul
Rirebulebebs da es aris misi umTavresi daniSnuleba. aqedan
gamomdinare, cxadia, rom filosofia mniSvnelovan rols asru
lebs sakacobrio Rirebulebebisa da kulturis ganviTarebaSi.
es aris misi sazogadoebrivi funqcia da praqtikuli daniSnu
leba. amitom filosofiis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi sabolood
moxsnilia da is arasodes ar daismeba sanam kacobrioba da misi
kultura iarsebebs. aq dasaSvebia poziciis arCevis SesaZleb
loba. poziciaSi Camoyalibebuli ideebi, Sexedulebebi da prin
cipebi warmoadgenen kulturul Rirebulebebs, romelebic sa
fuZvlad udevs adamianTa cxovrebis wess da mas filosofiuri
msoflmxedveloba ewodeba.
44

filosofia da xelovneba
xelovneba sulieri kulturis specifikuri formaa, romelic
sinamdviles mxatvrul saxeebSi asaxavs. xelovneba aris sinamdvi
lis esTetikuri dauflebis umniSvnelovanesi xerxi. adamiani
dRidan misi warmoSobisa upirispirdeba misTvis ucxo sinam
dviles. am sinamdvilesTan urTierTobis mogvarebis sxva
dasxva formaTa Soris xelovnebas gansakuTrebuli adgili
uWiravs. xelovnebas, rogorc sulieri kulturis erT-erT
formas, mWidro urTierToba aqvs filosofiasTan. xelovneba
garkveuli sulieri informaciis wyaroa, romelic SinaarsiT
da formiT religiis, mecnierebis da filosofiis identuri
ar aris.
xelovneba sxvadasxva formiT arsebobs (leqsi, proza, qan
dakeba, musika, ferwera da sxva). igi grZnobadi formebisagan
Sedgeba. unda davinaxoT da movisminoT, rom davtkbeT xelov
nebis nawarmoebiT, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom xelovneba da
naxuliT da mosmeniliT amoiwureba. magaliTad: ferweruli
nawarmoebi gadmogvcems ama Tu im obieqtis grZnobad-konkre
tul xats, magram amave dros am nawarmoebSi vxedavT mxatvris,
xelovanis damokidebulebas obieqtTan, obieqtis ganwyobile
bas da bedsac. amgvar damokidebulebas xelovnebis nawarmoeb
Si ver dainaxav da verc moismen. amitom xelovnebis nawarmoebi
ori Srisagan Sedgeba. pirvelis elementebia grZnobad arsebu
li formebi, ferebi, bgerebi, riTac vxedavT, SevigrZnobT da
vismenT. meorisa sulieri cxovrebis elementebi da faqtebi,
romelTac grZnobadi xati ara aqvT (siwminde, ubraloeba, er
Tguleba, siyvaruli, siZulvili, SiSi, Suri, da sxva). xelovne
baSi arsebobs grZnobadi da zegrZnobadi fenebi. xelovnebis
fenaTa Sinaarsis gaxsna iwyeba grZnobadiT. aRniSnul fenaTa
urTierTmimarTeba Taviseburia. grZnobadi fena aris safuZ
veli, saidanac aragrZnobadi fenebi aRmocendebian.
xelovnebis Sinaarsi arasodes aris neitraluri. igi an
45

mSvenieria, an amaRlebuli, an tragikuli, an komikuri, an er


Tdroulad mSvenieric da amaRlebulic, tragikulic da ko
mikuric. xelovnebis Sinaarsi udidesi emociuri zemoqmede
bis Zalisaa. ra aZlevs xelovnebas, mis Sinaarss emociurobas?
said
an aqvs mas Tvalwarmtaci, `jadosnuri~ momxibvleloba?
ra elementebisagan Sedgeba igi? xelovnebis Sinaarsis ele
mentebs, uwinares yovlisa, Seadgenen bunebisa da admianTa
yofa-cxovrebis faqtebi. masSi CvenTvis cnobili sinamdvilea
asaxuli. xelovnebis zogierTi dargi, magaliTad mxatvruli
literatura, ara marto asaxavs sinamdviles, aramed ama Tu im
movlenis Sesaxeb garkveul codnasac Seicavs. xelovneba ara
marto imecnebs sinamdvilis konkretul movlenebs, aramed
afasebs kidec maT. xelovnebis nawarmoebs Tu davukvirdebiT,
is ara marto imas gviCvenebs rac aris, aramed Semoqmedebacaa,
axlis qmnacaa.
xelovnebis SemoqmedebiTi buneba araa RvTaebrivi qmnado
bis igiveobrivi. RmerTi samyaros qmnis araradan, Tavisufle
bidan. igi, rogorc umaRlesi Semoqmedi arafriT ar aris gan
sazRvruli, garda Sinagani aucileblobisa; xelovani qmnis
mxolod axal kompoziciebs. zogjer bunebrivad daukavSire
belsac ki akavSirebs erTmaneTTan mxatvruli saxisa da Semoq
medebis meSveob
iT.
xelovneba Semoqmedebaa. igi axal kompoziciebs, axal kav
Sirebs qmnis. magram, aqvs ki raime mizani am saqmianobas, Tu igi
ubralo garTobaa? iqneb ucnauri mxatvruli saxeebis Seqmnis
TavisuflebiT tkbobaa? nawilobriv es sworia. xelovnebaSi,
radganac igi Semoqmedebaa, aris TamaSis momentic, magram mo
tivi, romelic axali sinamdvilis Sesaqmnelad amzadebs xe
lovans, aris adamianis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizani, Tavisi ide
alebis mixedviT gardaqmnas samyaro, yvelasaTvis misawvdomi
gaxados igi. xelovnebas qmnis adamiani, romelic sazogadoe
bis produqtia. kacobriob
is sxvadasxva tipis sazogadoebebs
sxvadasxva sazrunavi da saocnebo hqondaT. amitom xelovne
bis istoriaS
i arsebobs gansxvavebuli idealebiTa da idee
46

biT sulCadgmuli sxvadasxva epoqis xelovneba. magaliTad:


antikuri, Sua saukuneebis, aRorZinebis epoqis da sxva.
xelovneba warmoadgens Semoqmedebis erT-erT specifi
kur sferos. gasagebia is, rom Semoqmedeba ver daemTxveva xe
lovnebas, radganac Semoqmedeba ufro farTo cnebaa, vidre
xelovneba. yovelgvari Semoqmedeba ar aris xelovneba, xolo
yovelgvari xelovneba Semoqmedebaa. aris SemTxveva, roca xe
lovani gvevlineba rogorc formis, ise Sinaarsis Semoqmedad.
ra Tqma unda, Tvisobrivad axali Sinaarsi axal formas moiTx
ovs. es ki yovel saukuneSi ar xdeba. mas sWirdeba garkveuli
epoqebi, romelTa momzadebasac axdens sazogadoebis rTuli
Sinagani winaaRmdegobani da maTi gadalaxva. aseT dros sa
Wiroa geniosi xelovani, romelsac Semoqmedeba xelovnebaSi
ahyavs filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis simaRleze. aseTi
xelovanis Sefasebisas yovelTvis iyeneben cneba `filosofi
urs~. filosofosi cnebebis meSveobiT aRwevs SemoqmedebiT
warmatebas, xelovani mxatvruli saxeebiT. Sinaarsi orive
SemTxvevaSi uzogadesia, magram did epoqebs Soris arseboben
talantebi xelovnebaSic da filosofiaSic, romlebic `baZa
ven~ geniosebis mier Seqmnil sinamdviles formisa da Sinaar
sis TvalsazrisiT. magaliTad: filosofiaSi platoni neop
latonikosebi, kanti - neokantianelebi da sxva. xelovnebaSi
-klasicizmi, romantizmi, formalizmi, realizmi, abstraqci
onizmi da sxva. am saxis xelovanTa meSveobiT epoqis filoso
fiur
i gaazreba gasagebi xdeba maTTvis, visTvisac igi filo
sofiurad gaugebaria. aseTia mokled xelovnebis specifika.
filosofiasa da xelovnebas Soris kavSiri rom arsebobs, es
udavoa. filosofia uzogadesi msoflmxedvelobaa, Teoriu
lad gaazrebuli da am msoflmxedvelobam angariSi unda gau
wios am `msoflioSi~ kanonieri adgilis mqone xelovnebis mi
er Seqmnil sinamdviles, romelic mTeli sinamdvilis nawilia.
nawilis gareSe ki mTeli ar iqneba, xolo msoflmxedveloba _
srulyofili.
sulieri kulturis sxva formebTan SedarebiT xelovneba
47

filosofiur msoflmxedvelobasTan yvelaze axlos imyofe


ba. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, xelovneba Semoqmedebaa. Semoqme
deba gulisxmobs axali sinamdvilis Seqmnas subieqtis, Semoq
medis mier. filosofiac Semoqmedebaa, igi sinamdvilis axali
suraTis Seqmnaa, romelic ar daiyvaneba sinamdvileze. filo
sofia rom Semoqmedeba ar iyos, maSin erT filosofiur prob
lemaze erTi WeSmariteba iarsebebda, iseve rogorc es kerZo
mecnierebebSia mocemuli, magram erT da imave problemaze
filosofiaS
i imdeni azri arsebobs, ramdeni filosofiuri
msoflmxedvelobacaa filosofiis istoriaSi. rogorc vi
ciT, filosofia msoflmxedvelobaa da `mxedveli~, subieqti
gansxvavdeba adgilsamyofeliT, rac ganapirobebs Sexedule
baTa sxvadasxvaob
as, magram es ar niSnavs, rom igi subieqtu
ria. esa Tu is Sexeduleba mainc obieqtiTaa gansazRvruli.
xelovnebaSic aseT mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme. filosofi
asa da xelovnebaSi rac ufro metia Semoqmediseuli, pirovne
biseuli, miT ufro didia esa Tu is nawarmoebi. mecnierebebSi
es procesi sawinaaRmdegoa. mecnieruli azri rac nakleb su
bieqturia, SeiZleba iTqvas, maSin iTvleba metad Rirebulad.
filosofiasa da xelovnebas Soris gansxvavebac Zalian di
dia. xelovanis mier qmnadoba xorcieldeba mxatvruli saxe
ebis meSveobiT, filosofosi ki, ZiriTadad, cnebebiT operi
rebs. iyenebs rogorc formalur, ise filosofiur logikas,
romelic racionalur azrovnebasTan erTad iracionalur
azrovnebasac gulisxmobs. xelovnebis interesis obieqti
aris bunebisa da sazogadoebis esa Tu is movlena. xelovnebis
daniSnulebaa am movlenebis mxatvruli ganzogadeba, romel
sac Zalian didi mniSvneloba aqvs sazogadoebisaTvis. filo
sofiis sfero ki vrceldeba mTels sinamdvileze, arsebulze
mTlianad, romelSic Sedis xelovnebis mier ganzogadebuli,
Seqmnili sinamdvilec.
aseTia xelovnebisa da filosofiis msgavseba gansxvave
bis zogierTi aspeqti. es ufro kargad gamoCndeba filosofi
isa da kerZo mecnierebaTa mimarTebis garkvevis Semdeg.
48

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ras Seiswavlis filosofia?
ra aris msoflmxedveloba?
daasaxeleT msoflmxedvelobrivi kiTxvebi.
ram gamoiwvia miTosuri azrovnebis svla filosofiuri
azrovnebisaken?
riT gansxvavdeba filosofiuri msoflmxedveloba miTo
suri da religiuri msoflmxedvelobebisagan?
ra aris saerTo msoflmxedvelobebisaTvis?
ra aris poliTeizmi? monoTeizmi?
gaanalizeT imanuel kantis mosazreba: `SevzRude codna,
raTa adgili dameTmo rwmenisaTvis~?
ra problemebs ikvlevs filosofia?
ra urTierTmimarTebaa filosofiasa da kerZo mecniere
bebs Soris?
rogor gesmiT `filosofia azrovnebis avantiuraa~?

49

Tavi II
logika
filosofia hgavs nayofier
mindors, romlis niadagi masze
gaSenebuli xexiliT aris fizika,
masze moweuli Wirnaxuli eTika,
xolo damcveli Robe meseri
logika.
stoelebi

logika aris mecniereba mwyobri, Tanmimdevruli, swori


azrovnebis formebisa da kanonebis Sesaxeb.
am ganmartebaSi igulisxmeba, rom azrovnebis simwyobre,
misi Tanmimdevruloba anu siswore, sxva ramaa da misi WeSma
riteba, sinamdvilesTan misi Sesabamisoba, sxva. is imecnebs
garkveul
i tipis obieqtebs, romelTac Tavisi Sinaarsi da
struqtura aqvT. is ganyenebas axdens ara Sinaarsisagan, ara
med materiis
agan (masalisagan).
aviRoT ori winadadeba: `yoveli adamiani mokvdavia~ da
`yoveli xe mcenarea~. logikas ar ainteresebs am winadadeba
Ta konkretuli Sinaarsi, romelic exeba `adamians, `xes~, `mce
nares~ da a. S. maTi kvleva Sesabamis mecnierebaTa (anatomi
is, fiziologiis, botanikis da a. S.) da ara logikis saqmea. am
ukanasknels ainteresebs am winadadebaTa zogadi struqtura,
romelsac gamoxatavs sqema: `yoveli A aris B~. winadadeba uSi
naarso rodia. mas Tavisi logikuri Sinaarsi aqvs, romelic
ganyenebulia konkretuli masalisagan anu, materiisagan. Sem
degi magaliTi ki aseTia: `yvela liToni eleqtrobis gamtaria
da rkina liTonia, maSasadame, rkinac eleqtrobis gamtaria~.
zemoTqmuli sworia, Tanmimdevrulia da amave dros masSi Sema
vali azric (winadadebac) eTanxmeba sinamdviles, WeSmaritia.
mocemuli ganmarteba aris logikis yvelaze gavrcelebu
50

li, oRond mxolod miaxloeb


iTi da amasTanave arasakmarisad
mkafio daxasiaT
eba.
logikis, rogorc mecnier
ebis damoukidebeli dargis Sem
qmnelia aristotele. sityva `logika~ mecnierebis am dargis
saxelad ufro mogvianebiT SemoiRes. igi berZnuli sityvaa
(`logos~), rac niSnavs sityvasac, sityviT gamoxatul azrsac
da gonebasac saerTod.
WeSmariteba da mcdaroba. azrovnebis erT-erTi mizania si
namdvilis Semecneba, WeSmaritebis dadgena, magram raze da ra
pirobebSi vambobT, rom WeSmaritia an mcdaria?
TxrobiT winadadebaSi gamoTqmul azrs vaxasiaTebT, ro
gorc WeSmarits an mcdars. sityva `azri~ ki niSnavs raime vi
Tarebis, sagnobrivi viTarebis mosazrebas, cnobierebaSi mis
warmodgenas (reprezentacias), cnobierebis Sinaarsad gadaq
cevas. cnobierebis Sinaarsad misi gadaqceva msjelobiT xde
ba. msjeloba aris TxrobiT winadadebaSi gamoTqmuli azri,
romliTac cnobierebaSi mocemulia raime sagnobrivi viTa
reba da am viTarebis sinamdvileSi ganxorcielebis dasturi
an uaryofa. magaliTad: `es vardi wiTelia~ adasturebs sinam
dvileSi am vardis siwiTles; xolo msjeloba: `mze ar brunavs
dedamiwis garSemo~ uaryofs dedamiwis garSemo mzis brunvas.
Tu msjeloba adasturebs raime sagnobrivi viTarebis gan
xorcielebas sinamdvileSi da es viTareba marTlac arsebobs,
an Tu uaryofs am viTarebis arsebobas da es viTareba marTlac
ar arsebobs, maSin msjeloba WeSmaritia. winaaRmdeg SemTxve
vaSi, igi mcdaria.
bWoba da daskvna. rogor axerxebs adamiani imis dadgenas,
rom esa TuU is winadadeba aris WeSmariti Tu mcdari? amis da
sadgenad ori gza arsebobs: sinamdvileze uSualo dakvirveba
da gansja anu bWoba.
WeSmariteba winadadebisa `fanqari, romelic jibeSi mi
devs, aris mwvane~, SeiZleba davadginoT sinamdvilis Wvretis,
aRqmis, gancdis gziT: Sexedav fanqars da SevigrZnob, is mar
Tla mwvanea, Tu ara. Tumca yvela SemTxvevaSi ase ver moiqce
51

vi. mecnierebis kanonebis, magaliTad, mizidulobis kanonis


WeSmaritebas dakvirvebis, aRqmis gziT ver davadgenT. SeiZ
leba dainaxo, rogor vardeba Zirs qva, magram mizidulobis
kanons veraviTar SemTxvevaSi ver dainaxav. mecnierebis kano
nebi, jer erTi, exeba usasrulod bevr sagans, xolo usasru
lod bevri sagnis aRqma SeuZlebelia da metic, imas, rasac es
kanonebi adgens, arc feri aqvs da arc gemo, rom SevigrZnoT.
aseTi winadadebebis WeSmaritebasa da mcdarobas mxolod gan
sja, bWoba adgens.
bWobis, gansjis procesSi adamiani cdilobs ukve cnobili
WeSmariti winadadebebis gamoyenebiT sarwmuno gaxados sxva
winadadebebis WeSmariteba. bWoba winadadebebis sasruli mim
devrobaa. is iwyeba da mTavrdeba. masSi, erTis mxriv, gamoi
yofa winadadebebi, romelTa WeSmariteba CvenTvis bWobamde
iyo cnobili, maT bWobis wanamZRvrebi, sabuTebi, argumente
bi ewodebaT. meor
es mxriv, bWobaSi gvaqvs winadadeba, romlis
WeSmaritebis dasadgenad tardeba es bWoba. mas bWobis Tezi
sebi ewodeba. bWobis procesSi wanamZRvrebidan Tezisebze
gadasvla da misi WeSmaritebis dadgena TandaTanobiT xdeba.
jer erTi winadadebis WeSmaritebas davadgenT, Semdeg meori
sas da a. S. yoveli aseTi gadasvla da amiT codnisTvis kidev
erTi axali winadadebis Semateba, daskvniT xorcieldeba.
magaliTad: A an durgalia, an mWedeli, an kalatozi.
A ar aris arc durgali da arc kalatozi.
A aris mWedeli.
pirveli da meore winadadeba wanamZRvrebia,
A aris mWedeli daskvnaa.
logikis Rirebuleba gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans adamianTa
saqmianobis iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa kamaTi (diskusia) da
dasabuTeba. bWobis wanamZRvrebSi SesaZloa, Cvenda uneburad,
mcdari winadadeba gagveparos, xolo mcdarma wanamZRvrebma
SeiZleba mogvces mcdari daskvna. am SemTxvevaSi vityviT, rom
daSvebulia ZiriTadi Secdoma.
Tu wanamZRvrad gamoviyeneT TviTon bWobis Tezisi an wina
52

dadeba, romlis WeSmaritebis dasadgenad bWobis Tezisi gamo


iyeneba, es dausabuTebeli wanamZRvris kerZo SemTxvevaa da mas
mankieri wris Secdoma hqvia.
azrovnebis ZiriTadi kanonebi. arsebobs uzogadesi moTx
ovnebi (maT azrovnebis ZiriTad kanonebs uwodeben), romleb
sac unda akmayofilebdes yovelgvari bWoba, Tuki gvinda, rom
is usagno, ufro metic, uazro laparaki ki ara, marTlac Cvens
xelT arsebuli codnis gamarTuli, Tanmimdevruli gafarTo
ebis cda iyos. maTi dacva aucilebelia, magram arasakmarisi pi
robaa bWobis sisworisa. bWobis siswores maT garda sakuTari
kanonebic aqvs. es kanonebia: igiveobis kanoni, winaaRmdegobis
SeuZleblobis kanoni, gamoricxuli mesamis kanoni, sakmao sa
fuZvlis kanoni. davaxasiaToT TiToeuli cal-calke.
igiveobis kanoni. igi azrovnebis, bWobis garkveulobis
moTxovnaa. bWobis procesSi yoveli cneba, yoveli sityva unda
vixmaroT erTi da imave mniSvnelobiT. igiveobis kanons Tu da
varRvevT da terminebSi xan erT mniSvnelobas CavdebT, xan meo
res, gaqreba azrebs Soris kavSiri, SeuZlebeli gaxdeba urTi
erTgagebineba, raimes dasabuTeba. igiveobis kanonis darRvevis
tipiuri SemTxveva gvaqvs Semdeg gamoTqmaSi: `urems aqvs Tvali,
Tvali ki mxedvelobis organoa~. arsebobs igiveobis kanonis
sxvagvari gagebac: `A aris A~, anu yoveli sagani drois yovel
momentSi Tavisi Tavis igiveobrivia.
winaaRmdegobis SeuZleblobis kanoni. igi azrovnebis, bWo
bis, TviTTavsebadobis, Tavis TavTan Tanxmobis moTxovnaa.
Cvens azrebs Soris, bWobaSi Semaval winadadebebs Soris ar un
da iyos winaaRmdegoba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Tuki raRac
saganze vamtkicebT raimes, igive imave sagnis Sesaxeb ar unda
uarvyoT kidec (imave dros, imave azriT). magaliTad: Tuki Cven
Tvis cnobilia, rom yvela liToni eleqtrobis gamtaria da spi
lenZi liTonia, ar SeiZleba WeSmaritad virwmunoT isic, rom
spilenZis naWeri, romelic me axla xelSi miWiravs, ar atarebs
eleqtrobas, radgan es debuleba ewinaaRmdegeba pirvel ors.
winaaRmdegobis SeuZleblobis kanoni amtkicebs, rom arc53

erTi TxrobiTi winadadeba, arcerTi msjeloba ar SeiZleba


erTdroulad WeSmaritic iyos da mcdaric.
gamoricxuli mesamis kanoni. es kanonic azrovnebis, bWo
bis, Tavis TavTan Tanxmobis moTxovnaa. Tuki winaaRmdego
bis SeuZleblobis kanoni moiTxovs, rom ar vamtkicoT ori
erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego, erTmaneTis uarmyofeli winada
deba, gamoricxuli mesamis kanonis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia
erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego winadadebebidan uarvyoT erTic
da meorec. radgan ori erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego winadadebi
dan erTi aucileblad WeSmaritia. spilenZi an atarebs eleq
trobas, an ar atarebs; es vardi an wiTelia, an ar aris wiTeli.
mesame SemTxveva gamoricxulia.
amrigad, gamoricxuli mesamis kanoni amtkicebs, rom yove
li TxrobiTi winadadeba an WeSmaritia, an mcdari. winaaRmde
gobis SeuZleblobis kanonsa da gamoricxuli mesamis kano
nebs erToblivad orfasobis principi ewodeba. igi amtkicebs,
rom yoveli TxrobiTi winadadeba an WeSmaritia (da ar aris
mcdari) an mcdaria (da ar aris WeSmariti).
sakmao safuZvlis kanoni. am kanonis Tanaxmad, arcerTi wi
nadadeba ar SeiZleba iyos WeSmariti, Tu ar arsebobs sakmao
safuZveli imisa, ratom aris am winadadebaSi aRwerili viTa
reba swored aseTi da ara sxvagvari. xSirad es kanoni gagebu
lia, rogorc moTxovna, WeSmaritad ar miviCnioT winadadeba
misi dasabuTebis gareSe. sakmao safuZvlis kanoni daufiqre
beli da zerele bWobis winaaRmdegia. magaliTi: `A imyofebo
da quTaisSi im dros, roca B mokles TbilisSi~, sakmao safuZ
velia imisaTvis, rom WeSmaritad miviCnioT debuleba: `A-s ar
mouklavs B~.
deduqciuri daskvnebi. daskvnas, romlis wanamZRvrebis
WeSmariteba aucileblobiT ganapirobebs daskvnis WeSmari
tebas, deduqciuri daskvna ewodeba. magaliTad: Tu manqanas
sawvavi gauTavda, maSin misi Zrava gaCerdeba. manqanis Zrava ar
aris gaCerebuli. maSasadame, manqanas sawvavi ar gauTavda.
deduqcia zogadidan kerZoze gadasvlaa.
54

deduqciuri daskvna xasiaTdeba Semdegi TaviseburebebiT:


1) Tu deduqciuri daskvnis wanamZRvari WeSmaritia, maSin
misi danaskvic WeSmaritia. an kidev, deduqciuri daskvnis wa
namZRvrebidan danaskvi logikurad gamomdinareobs.
2) Tu deduqciuri daskvnis wanamZRvrebidan erT-erTi ma
inc mcdaria, maSin danaskvi SeiZleba mcdaric iyos da WeSmari
tic. maSasadame, mcdari wanamZRvrebidan SeiZleba logikurad
gamomdinareobdes rogorc WeSmariti, ise mcdari danaskvi.
3) Tu deduqciuri daskvnis danaskvi mcdaria, maSin misi wa
namZRvrebidan erTi mainc (SesaZloa yvela) mcdaria.
4) Tu deduqciuri daskvnis danaskvi WeSmaritia, maSin misi
wanamZRvrebidan yvela, zogierTi an arcerTi WeSmariti araa.
mcdari wanamZRvrebidan WeSmariti daskvnis magaliTia:
yvela cxeni aris adamiani. yvela adamians aqvs fafari, maSasa
dame, yvela cxens aqvs fafari.
induqciur
i daskvnebi. daskvnas, romlis wanamZRvrebidan
danaskvi logikurad ar gamomdinareobs, magram romlis wanam
ZRvrebic garkveuli xarisxiT adastureben danaskvs, induq
ciuri daskvna ewodeba.
induqcia aris kerZoob
iTi an erTeulovani winadadebebi
dan zogad winadadebaze gadasvla (e.i. kerZodan zogadze ga
dasvla).
A dros gaixsna onkani da wamovida wyali.
B dros gaixsna onkani da wamovida wyali.
G dros gaixsna onkani da wamovida wyali.
yovelTvis (nebismier dros), roca gaixsneba onkani, wamo
va wyali. Tuki ar Segvxvedria SemTxveva, rom gavxseniT onkani
da ar wamovida wyali, maSin Cveni molodini zogad xasiaTs mii
Rebs da sarwmunod gveCveneba, rom yovelTvis, roca gaixsneba
onkani, wamova wyali. Cvens magaliTSi rwmenis xarisxi sakmaod
dabalia. maTi wanamZRvrebis WeSmaritebis sruli rwmena Sede
gad ar gvaZlevs danaskvis WeSmaritebis srul rwmenas.
miCneulia, rom deduqciuri daskvna ar iZleva axal cod
nas, xolo induqciuri daskvna Cvens codnas afarToebs.
55

logika iyofa or nawilad: deduqciuri logika da induq


ciuri logika. deduqciuri logika Tavisi mniSvnelobiT uf
ro fundamenturia da safuZvlad udevs induqciur logikas.
cneba, msjeloba, daskvna. msjeloba TxrobiTi winadadebis
iseTi Sinaarsia, romelic adasturebs an uaryofs garkveuli
sagnobrivi viTarebis ganxorcielebas.
daskvna msjelobebis (an maTi gamomTqmeli TxrobiTi wina
dadebebis) erTobliobaa.
cneba aris samyaros asaxvis erT-erTi forma Semecnebis im
safexurze, romelic dakavSirebulia enis gamoyenebasTan. is
sagnebisa da movlenebis ganzogadebis formaa (xerxia). cneba
sagnis arebiT niSnebs asaxavs.

Secdomebi dasabuTebaSi
raimes gakeTebis cda ar niSnavs imas, rom es cda warmate
biT damTavrdeba. es asea adamianis yovelnair saqmianobaSi. maT
Soris bWobaSic. bWoba yovelTvis ver aRwevs mizans, radgan
zogjer bWobis procesSi raRac ise ar an ver xdeba. e. i. bWo
baSi uSveben Secdomebs. bWobaSi daSvebuli Secdomebis wyaro
SesaZlebelia iyos gamoyenebuli terminebis mniSvnelobebisa
da maTi xmarebis xarvezebi (enis Secdomebi) da bWobis Tezisi
sa da argumentebis SerCeva an sakuTriv bWobis msvlelobaSi
daSvebuli uzustobani (enisgare Secdomebi). Tu Secdoma bWo
bis msvlelobaSi, demonstraciaSia daSvebuli, mas formaluri
Secdoma ewodeba.
deduqciur bWobaSi formaluri Secdoma mxolod maSin
aris daSvebuli, rodesac am bWobis wanamZRvrebidan misi Tezi
si ar gamomdinareobs. formalur Secdomas yovelTvis iwvevs
romelime araswori daskvnis swor daskvnad miCneva. Tu Secdo
ma daSvebulia imis gamo, rom sakmarisi yuradRebiT ar moveki
deT bWobis wanamZRvrebis (argumentebis, sabuTebis) da Tezi
sis SerCevas, maSin mas araformaluri (materialuri) Secdoma
56

ewodeba. araformaluri Secdomebis oTxi umniSvnelovanesi


saxe ZiriTadi Secdoma, dausabuTebeli wanamZRvris Secdo
ma, mankieri wre da Tezisis Secvla enobriv gamosaxulebaTa
orazrovneba (omonimia, maTi sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT xmareba)
SeiZleba iqces araswori, gaumarTavi bWobis wyarod, usagno
kamaTis mizezad.
Tu mTeli gamosaxulebis, iqneba es calkeuli fraza, winada
deba Tu daskvna, orazrovneba gamowveulia romelime sityvis
orazrovnebiT, mas ekvivokacia ewodeba, xolo Tu es gamosaxu
lebis struqturis orazrovnebiTaa gamowveuli amfibolia.
pirveli saxis Secdomis tradiciuli magaliTia Semdegi das
kvna: `raimes dasruleba misi srulyofaa. sikvdili sicocxlis
dasrulebaa, maSasadame, sikvdili sicocxlis srulyofaa~. bWo
ba ar aris gamarTuli, radgan pirvel wanamZRvarSi sityva `das
ruleba~ naxmaria xorcSesxmis, Canafiqris mTlianad ganxorci
elebis, meoreSi daboloeba-damTavrebis azriT.
Secdomebis mimoxilvis safuZvelze SemuSavebulia garkve
uli wesebi (sifrTxilis zomebi), romelTa dacva aucilebelia
imisaTvis, rom bWoba iyos dasabuTeba da ara mxolod dasabu
Tebis warumatebeli mcdeloba. dasabuTebis es wesebia:
1) Tezisi unda iyos zustad da naTlad Camoyalibebuli;
2) Tezisi mTeli bWobis manZilze ar unda icvlebodes;
3) argumentebi WeSmariti, an sakmaod kargad dadasturebu
li debulebebi unda iyos;
4) argumentebis WeSmariteba dadgenili unda iyos Tezisis ga
mouyeneblad;
5) argumentebidan Tezisi unda gamodiodes (ar aris gamoricx
uli, rom es mxolod albaTobis garkveuli xarisxiT dafuZneba
iyos).

57

kamaTi (polemika) da misi saxeebi


mokamaTeTa urTierTobis principebi
dasabuTebas komunikaciuri funqciac aqvs. igi ganisazR
vreba Semecnebis socialuri xasiaTiT, raTa ara mxolod
efeqturad viazrovnoT da movipovoT codna, aramed sxvac
davarwmunoT Semecnebis Sedegebis sisworeSi. mecnierebis
farglebs gareT dasabuTebis komunikaciuri funqcia mJRav
ndeba adamianTa inteleqtualur urTierTobaSi. igi aq saku
Tari mosazrebis WeSmaritebaSi an gadawyvetilebaTa siswo
reSi sxvebis darwmunebis saSualebaa.
adamianTa inteleqtualuri urTierTobis erT-erTi saxea
kamaTi anu polemika. kamaTis Teoriis, misi logikuri aspeq
tis Seswavlas didi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan kamaTSi SeiZle
ba CavebaT cxovrebis nebismier sakiTxze. dava mezoblebs an
politikur Zalebs (partiebs) Soris, saparlamento debate
bi, molaparakeba, samecniero diskusia, sasamarTlo procesi,
eqimTa konsiliumi da sxva, kamaTis tipiuri nimuSebia. garda
amisa, Tanamedrove msoflioS
i arsebobs uamravi teqnikuri
saSual
eba (radio, presa, televizia, filmebi, reklama da a.S),
romelTa gamoyenebiTac adamianebs arwmuneben sxvadasxva,
xSirad urTierTsawinaaRmdego debulebebis Sefasebebisa da
Tvalsazrisebis samarTlianobaSi. adamians unda hqondes una
ri, mis fsiqikaze xelovnurad Tavsmoxveuli zemoqmedebisa
gan gaarCios gonieri, racionaluri gansja; miiRos SemoTava
zebuli dasabuTeba an win aRudges mas, daarRvios is. amisTvis
aucilebelia kamaTSi dasabuTebisa da ukugdebis xerxebis,
kamaTis warmarTvis elementaruli wesebis codna.
kamaTi (polemika) aris adamianis erT-erTi ZiriTadi uf
lebis sakuTari azris gamoTqmisa da dacvis realizacia.
ufro metic, dialogSi, saubarSi, romlis kerZo saxesac war
moadgens kamaTi, vlindeba adamianis WeSmariti arsi. sazoga
doebriv Zalebs Soris polemikis usafrTxoebis garantiebi,
sazogadoebaSi demokratiis sayrdenia.
58

kamaTSi Cabmis motivebis mixedviT SeiZleba gamoiyos kama


Tis (polemikis) sami tipi: 1) Teoriuli polemika; 2) praqtiku
li polemika; 3) kamaTi Sejibri;
1) Teor
iul
i polemikis mizania raime sakiTxze WeSmarite
bis dadgena;
2) praqtikuli polemika, romelic miznad isaxavs samoqme
do gadawyvetilebis miRebas an moqmedebis Sefasebas;
3) kamaTi Sejibri, Tundac sxva adamianTa Tvalis asaxvevad, miznad isaxavs mowinaaRmdegeze gamarjvebas.
pirvelsa da meor
es dialeqtikuri kamaTi ewodeba. mesames
eristikuli.
dialeqtika aris kamaTis (an ufro zogadad dialogis) war
marTvis ostatoba da moZRvreba mis Sesaxeb. eristikac analo
giuri disciplinaa, oRondac misi obieqti, Sejibri pole
mika, yvela saSualebiT kamaTSi mowinaaRmdegis damarcxebis
xelovnebaa. orive es disciplina Seiqmna da farTod gavrcel
da Zvel saberZneTSi. amis safuZveli iyo is udidesi roli,
rasac qveynis sulier cxovrebaSi sajaro polemika da disku
siebi TamaSobda. polemikis umaRlesi saxea diskusia azrTa
Tematurad mkafio da formiT koreqtuli urTierTgacvla
raime sakiTxis erToblivi ZalebiT gadaWris mizniT.
Tu kamaTi mimdinareobs zneobrivi normebis darRveviT,
mowinaaRmdegeTa dasarwmuneblad araracionaluri, logiku
rad gaumarTavi saSualebebis moSveliebiT, is Cxubi, cilobaa.
aseT kamaTs Zveli berZnebi logomaxias uwodebdnen. kamaTi
rom CxubSi, logomaxiaSi an dogmatur monologSi ar gadai
zardos, saWiroa davicvaT ramdenime martivi cneba, romle
bic xels uwyoben kamaTis zneobrivad jansaRi da fsiqologi
urad gawonasworebuli kalapotiT warmarTvas:
pativi eci oponents! piradi urTierToba masTan, Seni
azri mis Sesaxeb, ar aris argumenti misi Tvalsazrisis
dasarRvevad. mas iseve ainteresebs sakamaTo sakiTxe
bis gadawyveta, rogorc Sen (zneobrivi tolerantobis
moTxovna).
59

oponentis azri ar miiCnio miuReblad, Tuki ara gaqvs


saamiso argumentebi! araviTari azri ar SeiZleba iyos
mcdari mxolod imis gamo, rom Sen mas ar iziareb (gno
seologiuri tolerantobis moTxovna);
ar gamoiyeno araviTari iaraRi, garda kamaTis TemasTan
dakavSirebuli codnisa, gansjisa da warmosaxvis una
risa (kamaTis racion
alurobis moTxovna).
kamaTis yovel monawiles aqvs sakuTari mosazrebis
dacvisa da mowinaaRmdegis naazrevSi Secdomebis mxi
lebis Tanabari ufleba, miuxedavad imisa rogoria Ti
Toeuli maTganis piradi Tvisebebi, sazogadoebrivi
mdgomareoba, Tu prestiJi (kamaTis demokratiulobis
moTxovna).
moToke emociebi! polemika metoqeTa paeqrobaa da ma
Sinac ki, rodesac is mxolod WeSmaritebis mopovebas
isaxavs miznad, SeuZlebelia grZnobebisagan sruli ga
Tavisufleba. marjved moZebnili argumenti sixarulis
wyaroa, mowinaaRmdegis mier mxilebuli Secdoma, uneb
lie gulistkivils iwvevs, magram am grZnobebs gasaqani
ar unda misce. aRelvebuli mokamaTe susti mokamaTea,
igi argumentebis nacvlad lozungebs isvris, yviris,
yvirili ki mis debulebebs ar asabuTebs (emociuri zo
mierebis moTxovna).
daiviwye jibri! ar iTakilo ukan daxeva, Tuki darwmun
di, rom simarTle mowinaaRmdegis mxarezea! kamaTi Ta
namSromlobis saxea (gonieri kompromisis moTxovna).

60

kamaTis warmarTvis xerxebi


radgan kamaTis mizania ara mxolod debulebis dasabuTeba,
aramed dasabuTebis meSveob
iT darwmunebac, argumentebisa
da argumentebiT Tezisis logikuri dafuZnebis garda mniS
vneloba aqvs agreTve kamaTis xerxebs, anu kamaTSi Tavis dac
vis da mowinaaRmdegeze Setevis ileTebs. marTalia es xerxebi
erTs uadvileben, xolo meores uZneleben kamaTs, magram es ar
unda xdebodes usamarTlod, mowinaaRmdegis SecdomaSi Sey
vanis xarjze: patiosan dialeqtikur kamaTSi am xerxebis gamo
yenebis mizania sakuTari poziciis Zlieri da mowinaaRmdegis
susti mxareebis win wamoweva.
ganvixiloT kamaTis warmarTvis ramdenime xerxi.
1) dasabuTebis tvirTi. rodesac ori mxare kamaTobs, is
mxare, romelic valdebulia daasabuTos raime debuleba, an
gaamarTlos sakuTari moTxovnebi, uares mdgomareobaSia me
oresTan SedarebiT. radgan meor
e mxare mxolod Semmowmeb
lis rolSi gamodis. magaliTad, Tu vinme faqtobrivad flobs
sakuTrebas, xolo meore pretenzias acxadebs masze, faqtob
rivi mflobelis ufleba sakuTrebaze avtomaturad iqneba
cnobili, Tuki pretendenti ver SesZlebs sakuTari preten
ziebis samarTlianobis damtkicebas. amitom swored mas awveba
dasabuTebis tvirTi. asevea bralmdeblisa da braldebulis
`davaSi~. dasabuTebis tvirTi ekisreba bralmdebels. amdenad
braldebuli udanaSaulod iTvleba, Tuki bralmdebeli ver
daasabuTebs mis braleulobas. aqedan gamomdinare, mokamaTi
saTvis sasargebloa ise warmarTos kamaTi, rom dasabuTebis
tvirTi mis mowinaaRmdeges daekisros.
2) yuradRebis koncentracia mowinaaRmdegis argumente
bis, gansakuTrebiT misi dasabuTebis ZarRvis kritikaze xde
ba. Tu dasabuTeba deduqciuria, mowinaaRmdegis argumente
bis ukugdeba arRvevs mis dasabuTebas, magram sakmarisi ar
aris Tezisis mcdarobis dasamtkiceblad. induqciuri dasa
buTebis dros, irRveva Tezisi anda mcirdeba misi sarwmuno
ebis xarisxi.
61

3) imanenturi kritika, anu dasabuTeba `iqidan, rasac mo


winaaRmdege eTanxmeba~. mowinaaRmdegis mier wamoyenebuli
argumentebidan iseTi daskvnis gamotana, romlebic Seica
ven winaaRmdegobas, ewinaaRmdegebian oponentis Teziss, an
da uSualod adastureben Seni debulebis samarTlianobas.
gadmocemis Tanaxmad, berZeni filosofosi sokrate pole
mikis didostati iyo. mis meTods igi bebiaqalis xelovnebas
adarebda da varaudobda, rom igi iseve exmareboda mokamaTes
WeSmariti azris dabadebaSi, rogorc bebiaqali exmareba mSo
biares Svilis SobaSi.
4) dazustebis da naTelyofis moTxovna. kamaTSi wamo
yenebuli yoveli debuleba rac SeiZleba mkafiod da arao
razrovnad unda iyos Camoyalibebuli. mowinaaRmdeges unda
moeTxovos mis mier wamoyenebul debulebaSi gamoyenebuli
saeWvo Sinaarsis cnebebis gansazRvra, mTeli winadadebis
sruli formulireba. aseT moTxovnaze pasuxis Semdeg SeiZ
leba mowinaaRmdegem TviTonve moxsnas Tavisi Tezisi, an ise
Ti saxe misces mas, romelic sakamaTo aRar iqneba.

sofizmebi
kamaTSi warmatebis miRwevisaTvis arsebiTi mniSvneloba
aqvs mowinaaRmdegis mier bWobaSi daSvebuli Secdomebis aR
moCenas. yoveli amocnobili Secdoma aris mowinaaRmdegis
bWobaSi susti adgilis gamovlena, xolo misi daZleva, kidev
erTi nabijia WeSmaritebis Ziebisaken. zogjer dasabuTebi
sas Secdomas uneblied uSveben. bWobaSi uneblie Secdomas pa
ralogizmi ewodeba. magram kamaTi polemika gonebis garda,
grZnobebisa da ltolvebis sarbielicaa. warmatebis miRwevis
mizniT, zogierTi mokamaTe ganzrax uSvebs Secdomas, anda mi
marTavs araseriozul xerxs, romlis meSveobiTac cdilobs
mowinaaRmdeges sinamdvile TavisTvis sasurvelad moaCvenos
da ase daarwmunos garkveuli debulebis WeSmaritebaSi. es ar
aris darwmuneba dasabuTebis meSveobiT, darwmuneba raciona
62

luri saSualebebiT. bWobaSi ganzrax daSvebul Secdomas, an


masSi araracionaluri xerxebis gamoyenebas, sofizmi ewodeba.
ganvixiloT zogierTi maTgani.
1) Zalisadmi mimarTvis (joxis) argumenti. Tu erTi ver ar
wmunebs meores an susti argumentebia, an maT damajereblo
ba ar aqvT, bWoba gaumarTavia. kamaTis gagrZeleba moiTxovs
sakiTxSi CaRrmavebas, gansjis daxvewas, mowinaaRmdegis inte
resisa da xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebas. amaze ki yvelas ar miuw
vdeba xeli. amitom pirveli mimarTavs Zalas an Zalis muqaras
(SesaZloa faruls), raTa meor
e aiZulos miiR
os, aRiaros misi
winadadeba. es `ugunuri argumenti~ Zalian gavrcelebulia
politikaSi Cabmul, dogmaturad moazrovne da pativmoyvare
adamian
ebSi. politikuri represiebic Zalisadmi mimarTvis
argumentis gamovlenaa.
2) pirovnebisadmi (adamianisadmi) mimarTvis argumenti. am
Secdomas uSveben maSin, rodesac raime debulebis mcdaroba
Si an WeSmaritebaSi dasarwmuneblad Sesabamisi dasabuTebis
motanis nacvlad, uteven da ganaqiqeben an aqeben da xotbas
asxamen pirovnebas, vinc es debuleba wamoayena. am xerxs opo
ziciasTan davaSi xSirad mimarTaven avtoritaruli xelisuf
lebis warmomadgenlebi. imisaTvis, rom ukuagdon opoziciis
moTxovnebi (magaliTad, informaciis saSualebebis Tavisuf
lebis, adamianis uflebebis dacvis, ekonomikis liberali
zaciis
a da kerZo sakuTrebaze gadasvlis aucileblobis da
sxva), lanZRaven opozicias, pirovnul Seur
acxyofas ayene
ben mis calkeul warmomadgenels. bWoba, romelSic gamoye
nebulia pirovnebisadmi mimarTvis argumenti, swori ar aris,
radgan pirovnebis Tvisebebs araviTari logikuri kavSiri ara
aqvs imasTan, rasac is amtkicebs. rac ufro dabalia adamianis
azrovnebis kultura, miT ufro naklebad Seswevs mas unari
gamoyos bWobis Zala simpaTiisa da antipaTiis grZnobebisa
gan, romlebsac mas `Zlierni ama qveynisa~ unergaven. amitomac
63

is ufro iolad eqceva aseTi `argumentis~ gavlenis qveS da


mas WeSmaritad miiCnevs.
3) xalxisadmi mimarTvis argumenti. am dros cdiloben wa
moyenebuli debulebisadmi brbos mxardaWeras miaRwion ise
Ti vnebebisa da grZnobebis gaRvivebiT, romlebic adamianebs
akargvineben bWobis mimdinareobisadmi kontrolis unars.
am gziT xdeba rwmenis Tavs moxveva da ara rwmenis aRmocene
ba dasabuTebis safuZvelze. am sofizms xSirad mimarTaven
propagandistebi da demagogi politikosebi, romlebic argu
mentad iSvelieben `yvelas azrs~. aseTi msjeloba arasworia,
radgan yvelas Tanxmoba ar aris WeSmaritebis garantia. sasa
marTlo praqtikaSi xSiria SemTxveva, rodesac kamaTisas dac
vis mxare, sakuTari mosazrebis sisworis damtkicebisaTvis,
cdilobs mowinaaRmdeges gansasjelis mimarT aRuZras sibra
luli da TanagrZnoba. esec amgvari sofizmis erT-erTi saxea.
4) avtoritetisadmi mimarTvis argumenti gulisxmobs ra
ime debulebis WeSmaritebaSi mowinaaRmdegis darwmunebas
gamoCenili adamianis Sexedulebis damowmebiT. am arguments
Zala ara aqvs, radgan azri WeSmariti ver iqneba mxolod imis
gamo, rom mas viRac, Tundac gamoCenili adamiani (xelmZRvane
li, beladi da a.S) eTanxmeba. WeSmaritebis garantia sinamdvi
lesTan Sesabamisobaa. miuxedavad am argumentis sofisturi
xasiaTisa, mainc unda gavarCioT misi gamoyenebis is SemTxveva.
roca miuTiTeben codnis mocemul sferoSi aRiarebuli spe
cialistis Sexedulebebze. marTalia aseTi miTiTeba dasabu
Teba araa, magram mas sakmao damarwmunebeli Zala aqvs.
5) arcodnisadmi mimarTvis argumenti aris debulebis WeS
maritad miCneva imis gamo, rom misi mcdaroba dasabuTebuli
ar aris. es sofizmi mkafiod vlindeba uCveulo fenomenebTan
(magaliTad, telepatiis, telekinezis an amoucnob mfrinav
obieqtebTan) dakavSirebul bWobaSi. am sofizmis gamoyenebis
64

sferoSi erTi mniSvnelovani gamonaklisia: adamiani iTvleba


udanaSaulod, Tuki misi danaSauli sasamarTlos mier dam
tkicebuli ar aris.
6) adamianis mdgomareobisadmi mimarTvis argumenti saxe
zea, rodesac erTi adamiani ki ar usabuTebs meores raime de
bulebis WeSmaritebas, aramed cdilobs uCvenos mas, rom igi
valdebulia daeTanxmos am debulebas sakuTari mdgomareo
bis gamo. es sofizmia, radgan debulebis WeSmariteba ar aris
damokidebuli adamianis mdgomareobaze. miuxedavad amisa, es
argumenti Zalian Wris. magaliTad, monadires kicxaven imis
gamo, rom is umowyalod xocavs nadirs. is ki pasuxobs ratom
maSin ar gawuxebT sindisi, rodesac uwyinari saqonlis xorcs
SeeqceviTo? aq monadire ar asabuTebs sakuTari moqmedebis
samarTlianobas, aramed cdilobs uCvenos, rom misi mowinaaR
mdegis sityva da mdgomareob
a ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs. mo
nadiris Sepasuxebis ususurobas maSinve davinaxavT, rogorc
ki warmovidgenT, rom mas vegetarianeli akritikebs.
7) mravlobiTi kiTxva. uZvelesi droid
an cnobilia eSmaku
ri kiTxvebi, romlebic TiTqos moiTxoven mkafio `ho~ an `ara~
pasuxs, magram mopasuxes CixSi aqceven, radgan nebismier Sem
TxvevaSi igi garkveul pasuxs aZlevs agreTve sxva, farulad
nagulisxmev kiTxvasac. magaliTad, `gaanebe Tavi avi gzebiT
siaruls~? `kidev scem cols~? rogori pasuxic ar unda gae
ces am kiTxvebs, orive SemTxvevaSi dadasturdeba, rom pasu
xis gamcemi adre an avi gzebiT dadioda, an cols scemda. am
sofizms xSirad mimarTaven araobieqturi gamomZieblebi da
demagogi politikosebi.

65

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ras Seiswavlis logika?
daaxasiaTeT azrovnebis ZiriTadi kanonebi.
romeli daskvna afarToebs Cvens codnas _ induqciuri
Tu deduqciur
i?
ra saxis Secdomebi SeiZleba iqnas daSvebuli bWobaSi?
rogor SeiZleba Tavidan aviciloT Secdomebi dasabuTe
baSi?
ras niSnavs dialeqtikuri da eristikuli kamaTi?
ras niSnavs kamaTis zneobrivad jansaRi da fsiqologiu
rad gawonasworebuli meTodiT warmarTva?
ra aris sofizmi?
ra aris WeSmariteba da mcdaroba?

66

Tavi III
universaluri problemebi
pirvelsawyisis idea
filosofiuri problemebi universaluri xasiaTisaa. maT
Si moiazreba ontologiuri, gnoseologiuri da aqsiologiu
ri problemebi. amjerad pirvels ganvixilavT, Semdeg ki Seve
xebiT gnoseologiur da aqsiologiur sakiTxebs.
ontologia (ontos arsebuli) aris moZRvreba samyaros
arsis Sesaxeb. samyaros arsSi igulisxmeba rogorc sazogado
ebrivi, ise Tavad adamianis pirovnuli yofierebac. ontolo
giis centralur sakiTxs warmoadgens substanciis anu pir
velsawyisis problema. aqedan gamomdinare, yvela filosofia
Taviseburad wyvets samyaros kanonzomierebis sakiTxs.
Zvel saberZneTSi antikuri filosofia ontologiuri
problemebiT daiwyo. sakiTxi dadga yovelives ganmsazRvre
li erTis aRmoCenisa da dasabuTebis Sesaxeb. amitom pirveli
filosofiuri problema Camoyalibda rogorc erTisa da sim
ravlis damokidebulebis problema. pirveli filosofosebi
eZebdnen erTs, rogorc samyaros sawyiss. berZnuli filoso
fiis ganviTarebis pirvel periods kosmologiuri periodi
ewodeba, xolo samyaros pirvelsawyisis problemas substan
ciis problema hqvia.
substancia laTinuri sityvaa da niSnavs qvemdebares, anu
imas, rac safuZvlad devs, anu arxes. substanciis problemas
sxvagvrad `arxes~ problema hqvia. swored amitom mas aristo
tele `qvemdebares~ uwodebda.
ontologia aris moZRvreba substanciis Sesaxeb. substan
cia mTeli sinamdvilis pirvelsafuZvelia. benediqt spinozas
(1682 1677 ww.) azriT, igi aris `kau sa sui~ `mizezi Tavisi Tavi
sa~.
ismis kiTxva: xom ar arsebobs am mravalferovnebis erTi
Ziri, safuZveli, arxe? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemiT daiwyo fi
67

losofiuri azrovneba Zvel saberZneTSi. substanciis prob


lema filosofiaSi erT-erTi ZiriTadia, romelic Semdgom
ori aspeqtiT daisva: 1) mTlianad samyaros da 2) individua
luri sagnis mimarT.
Seqmnilia samyaro Tu ara? am kiTxvaze ori Tvalsazrisi
arsebobs: 1) religiuri da 2) arareligiuri. religia Sesaqmi
dan amodis. arareligiuri miiCnevs, rom samyaro maradiulad
arsebobda, arsebobs da momavalSic iarsebebs. aq orgvari
pasuxia: pozitivisturi da metafizikuri. pozitivisturi
sxvadasxva mecnier
ebis monacemebze dayrdnobiT Tvlis, rom
substanciis problema aramecnieruli, usazriso problemaa.
misi mecnier
uli, dasabuTebuli, erTmniSvnelovani gadawy
veta ar arsebobs. igi metafizikuri Sinaarsis mqonea. Semovi
fargloT mxolod imiT, rac cdaSi gveZleva.
metafizikuri Tvalsazrisi aRiarebs substanciis arsebo
bas, magram mis SigniT azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa, imis mixedviT, Tu
ramdeni substanciaa erTi, ori Tu mravali. Sesabamisad, Ca
moyalibda sami mimarTuleba monizmi, dualizmi da plura
lizmi.
ontologiur problemebze saerTod uars ambobs neopo
zitivisturi filosofia. amisagan gansxvavebiT aRniSnul sa
kiTxze Seiqmna ramdenime seriozuli gamokvleva: huserlis
(1859 1938 ww.) `transcendentaluri ontologia~; hartmanis
(1859 1938 ww.) `kritikuli ontologia;~ haidegeris (1889
1976 ww.) `fundamenturi ontologia;~ da sxva. amdenad, Tu
tradiciuli ontologiuri sistemebi ZiriTadad samyaros,
substanciisa da kanonzomierebis problemebs ikvlevdnen,
Tanamedrove filosofiaSi kvlevis obieqti gaxda TviTon
adamiani, misi Semadgeneli unarebi, emociebi, gancdebi da sa
erTod sulieri fenomenebi.
berZnuli filosofia TalesiT (Zv. w. VII) iwyeba. man pir
velma Cauyara safuZveli mileTis fizikis skolas da dasva sa
kiTxi, Tu ra aris mravalferovani movlenebis sawyisi. misi az
riT, samyaros mravalferovnebas erTi da yvelasaTvis saerTo
68

sawyisi unda hqondes. Talesi mas bunebaSi eZebs. misi azriT,


samyaros sawyisi unda iyos wyali, radgan yvelaferi wylisagan
warmoiSoba da wylad iqceva. kiTxvaze Tu ra amoZravebs wyals,
Talesi pasuxobs: wyali TviTmoZravia, radgan sulieria. aseT
Tvalsazriss filosofiaSi hiloZoizmi ewodeba.
Talesis Sexedulebas ar eTanxmeba misi mowafe anaqsiman
dre (610 546 Zv. w.). misi amosavali debulebaa: `arafrisagan
raime ar warmoiSoba da raime araferSi ar gadava~. am debu
lebas ver uZlebs Talesis azri, radgan bunebaSi aris iseTi
sagnebi, romlebic wyals ar Seicaven. aseTia magaliTad: rki
na, cecxli da sxva. anaqsimandres azriT, wyali gansazRvruli
stiqiaa da amitom is yvelafris Ziri ver iqneba, arxed ar ga
modgeba. arxe unda iyos ganusazRvreli, romelic yvelafers
Seicavs. gansazRvrul movlenaTa sawyisi unda iyos TviTon
ganusazRvreli, rasac anaqsimandrem apeironi (berZnulad
ganusazRvreli) uwoda. misi azriT, apeironi usazRvroa Tvi
sobrivadac da raodenobrivadac. is arc magaria, arc Txie
ri, arc haerovani, arc Tbili da sxva. apeironi moculobiTac
usazRvroa da droSic usasrulo. apeirons SeuZlia Tavisi
Tavidan warmoSvas yvelaferi, amitom is yovlad Zlieria, is
usazRvrod gasulierebuli nivTierebaa. rac Seexeba sagne
bis warmoSobas, es niSnavs apeironidan mis gamoyofas. es sag
nebi apeironSi mzamzareulad arseboben da drodadro axor
cieleben gamoyofas da masSi ukan dabrunebas.
anaqsimandres Sexedulebas ar iziarebs aseve mileTis
skolis Semdegi warmomadgeneli anaqsimene (Zv.w. 588 525).
anaqsimenes azriT, anaqsimandre Talesis sapirispiro uki
duresobaSi gadavida. TalesisaTvis es iyo gansazRvruli
substanciis daSveba, xolo anaqsimandresTvis substanciis
gaurkvevloba. anaqsimenes mixedviT, gaurkvevlobidan mzam
zareuli sagnis warmoSoba niSnavs araraobidan raimes war
moqmnas. es ki SeuZlebelia. anaqsimenem am siZnelis daZleva
raodenobrivi principiT scada. is fiqrobs, rom arxe sawyisi
nivTierebaa, sadac ar aris saganTa gansxvavebani. sagnebi er
69

Ti meorisagan gansxvavdeba mxolod am pirveli, sawyisi niv


Tierebis raodenobriobiT. saganTa Tvisobriobas pirveli
nivTierebis raodenobrivi moculoba gansazRvravs. anaqsi
menes azriT, haeri aris is pirveli nivTiereba, romlis gasqe
leba da gaTxeleba iZleva samyaros mravalferovnebas. haeri
raodenobrivad da Tvisobrivadac ganusazRvreli kosmosia.
is aris msoflio suli, romlis gareSe msoflio daiSleboda
da qaosad gadaiqceoda.
mileTis skolis gulubryvilo da stiqiuri materializ
mi ganaviTara heraklite efeselma (Zv. w. 530 470). herakli
tem, mileTelebisagan gansxvavebiT, samyaros substanciad
marad ucvlelis nacvlad maradcvalebadi cecxli aRiara.
igi ambobs: `es kosmosi, romelic erTi da igivea mTeli ar
sebulisaTvis, ar Seuqmnia araviTar RmerTs da araviTar ad
mians, aramed igi mudam iyo, aris da iqneba marad cocxali,
romelic kanonzomierad inTeba da kanonzomierad qreba~.
mTeli es procesi logoss (kanons) emorCileba, romelic obi
eqturia. heraklites mixedviT, samyaros sagnebi ara mxolod
raodenobriobis mixedviT gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan,
aramed isini Tvisobrivadac erTimeores upirispirdebian
da ebrZvian. miuxedavad amisa, am sagnebs swored es dapiris
pireba da brZola aerTianebs. sicocxles azri aqvs sikvdi
liT, sikvdils ki sicocxliT. yvelaferSi winaaRmdegoba
da cvalebadobaa, yvelaferi icvleba, rogorc cecxli. xo
lo TviTon cvalebadoba maradiulia. cecxli maradiuli
cvalebadobaa.
ZvelberZnul gulubryvilo materializms daupirispir
da Zveli berZnuli idealisturi filosofia, romelic ele
aturi metafizikis saxeliT aris cnobili. misi warmomad
genlebi arian qsenofane kolofoneli, parmenide, Zenoni da
meliso. eleaturi metafizika warmoadgens mileTis fiziko
sebis sapirispiro Teorias. metafizika berZnul filoso
fiaSi niSnavda aragrZnobad sinamdviles. is SegrZnebaSi ar
eZleva adamians, aramed misi Semecneba mxolod gaazrebiT
70

SeiZleba. eleaturi metafizikis mTavar arguments warmo


adgens swored is debuleba, rom fizikuri sinamdvile, ro
melic grZnobaSi eZleva adamians, mudam icvleba. aq sagnebi
mudmivad warmoiSvebian da ispobian. amitom fizikur sinam
dvileSi substanciis Zieba uazrobaa. maTi azriT, substan
cia unda iyos iseTi ram, rac ar warmoiSoba da arc ispoba,
rac TviTon ar moZraobs, magram sxvas amoZravebs. is, rac
moZraobs moCvenebiTobaa, WeSmariteba mxolod uZravs da ma
radiul sinamdviles aqvs.
eleaturi metafizikis yvelaze TvalsaCino warmomadge
neli parmenide (Zv. w. 540 480) Tavis filosofias afuZnebs
aseT aqsiomaze: `rac aris, is aris da rac ar aris, is ar aris;
anu, arsi aris da ararsi ar aris`. misi azriT, WeSmaritebis
miReba mxolod am debulebaze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba. herak
lites filosofia am debulebas ver uZlebs, radgan herak
lites mixedviT, sagnebi warmoiSvebian da qrebian, e. i. isi
ni arian da arc arian. debulebidan arsi aris da ararsi ar
aris gamomdinareobs is, rom arsi aris erTi. igi erTze meti
ar SeiZleba iyos. arsi rom ori an meti iyos, maSin maT Soris
iqneboda sazRvari. sazRvari niSnavs ararss. ararsis daS
veba ki Secdomaa, radgan ararsi ar arsebobs. e. i. arsi unda
iyos simravle. arsi aris sruli, unaklo, ucvleli, maradi
uli, ganuyofeli. es arsi droisa da sivrcis gareSea. droSi
da sivrceSi mxolod fizikurad cvalebadi sagnebia. parme
nides filosofiam safuZveli moumzada didi berZeni moaz
rovneebis platonis (Zv.w. 427 347) da aristoteles (Zv.w. 384
322) filosofias.
sanam platonisa da aristoteles Sexedulebebs ganvixi
lavdeT substanciis Sesaxeb, unda SevexoT kvlav berZnul
materialistur filosofias, romelmac brZola gamoucxa
da eleatur metafizikas. mileTis materialistebisa da fi
zikosebis naazrevi ganaviTares empedoklem (Zv. w. 487 424)
da anaqsagoram (Zv.w. 500 428). empedokles mixedviT, erTi
substanciidan mravlis axsna saswauls niSnavs. misi azriT,
71

samyaros mravalferovnebas aqvs oTxi substancia. esenia:


wyali, haeri, cecxli da miwa. yvelaferi am oTxi elementi
dan iwyeba da am oTx elementad iSleba. sxvadasxva sagnebis
arsebobas ganapirobebs am oTxi elementis sxvadasxva zomiT
Serwyma. amiT empedoklem safuZveli Cauyara pluralistur
materializms.
empedoklesgan gansxvavebiT, anaqsagoram samyaros sub
stanciad bunebis usasrulo mcire nawilakebi miiCnia. isini
substanciebia im gagebiT, rom dayofas ar eqvemdebarebian da
maTi SeerTeba usasrulo mravalferovan samyaros iZleva.
empedoklesa da anaqsagoras pluralisturi materializ
mi ufro maRal doneze aiyvana demokritem (Zv.w. 460 371).
demokrites materialisturi moZRvrebis amosavals warmo
adgens buneba. misi azriT, saWiroa bunebis mravalferovani
sagnebis axsna da ara uaryofa, rogorc amas eleatelebi ake
Tebdnen. parmenides sawinaaRmdegod, romelic samyaros ga
nuyofel erT arss aRiarebda, demokritem simravlis arse
boba dauSva. parmenidesaTvis miuRebeli da dauSvebeli iyo
simravle, radgan is TavisTavad moiTxovda sazRvris arsebo
bas, romelic parmenidesTan niSnavda araarsebobas, sicari
eles. demokritem swored es sicariele gamoiyena simravlis
asaxsnelad. parmenidesTan buneba usasrulod dayofilia da
qreba. demokrites mixedviT, es dauSvebelia, radgan bunebis
arseboba faqtia da misi gaqroba SeuZlebelia. amis gamo, de
mokritem dauSva ganuyofeli nawilebis anu atomebis (atomi
berZnulad ganuyofels niSnavs) arseboba, xolo am atomebis
moZraobis pirobad sicariele aRiara. demokrites azriT, vi
naidan atomi ganuyofelia da Seuvalia, unda arsebobdes si
cariele, raTa atomebis dajaxebis dros SesaZlebeli iyos
gadaadgileba. demokritem atomebs substanciebi uwoda. man
mTeli samyaro atomebiT, moZraobiT da sicarielis cnebe
biT axsna. rac Seexeba samyaros mravalferovnebas, es gamow
veulia gansxvavebuli formis, sididis atomebis SeerTebiT.
demokrites azriT, adamianis azrovnebac atomebisgan Sed
72

geba. mxolod es atomebi Tavisi formiT da TvisebebiT sxva


atomebTan SedarebiT cecxlovani da daxvewilia. e.i. mTeli
samyaro mxolod usasrulod mravali gansxvavebuli mate
rialuri atomisgan Sedgeba. atoms sivrciTi ganzomilebac
aqvs. ase rom ar iyos, maSin unda dagveSva araraobidan raimes
warmoSoba. demokritem atomisturi SexedulebebiT aago Ta
visi kosmogonia. misi azriT, msoflios ara aqvs dasawyisi da
dasasruli, xolo kosmosi ki warmoSobadia. kosmosi warmo
iSva gabneuli atomebis moZraobis procesSi SeerTebiT. ase
warmoiqmneba ara erTi, aramed mravali kosmosi. demokrites
filosofiam, da saerTod berZnulma gulubryvilo materia
lizmma, safuZveli moumzada me-XVII-XVIII saukuneebis meqanis
tur da metafizikur materializms.
berZnul materialistur filosofias mkveTrad daupi
rispirda ideal
isturi moZRvreba. platonma gansakuTrebiT
kritikulad Seafasa da uaryo heraklites filosofia, ro
melic moZraobis maradiulobas aRiarebda, xolo eleaturi
filosofia, romelic moZraob
is moCvenebiTobas asabuTebda,
mTlianad gaiziara. platonma amis gamo samyaro orad dayo:
1) fizikuri, moZravi, moCvenebiTi, amqveyniuri movlenebis
samyarod da 2) maradiuli, uZravi, srulyofili ideebis im
qveyniur samyarod. misi azriT, amqveyniuri movlenebis moZ
raobas iwvevs imqveyniuri ideeb
isaken swrafva, e.i. movlenebs
amoZravebs mizani. es mizani mdgomareobs srulyofilebisken
swrafvaSi. amitom moZraobs mxolod is, rac naklovania, xo
lo ideebs maTi srulyofilebis gamo araviTari moZraoba ar
sWirdebaT. eleaturi metafizikisagan gansxvavebiT, platon
ma dauSva miznis cneba. amiT samyaros moZraobas kanonzomieri
xasiaTi misca. platonis azriT, amqveyniur samyaros hyavs Sem
qmneli mizezi anu demiurgi, romelic awesrigebs yvelafers.
es aris RmerTi. RmerTi aris umaRlesi sikeTec da Semoqmedic.
RmerTi absoluturi substanciaa. platonis azriT, RmerTma
amqveyniuri samyaro anu movlenebis samyaro ideebis samya
rosTan daakavSira msoflio sulis saSualebiT.
73

platonis azriT, obieqturad da WeSmaritad arsebobs


mxolod is, rac ucvleli da maradiulia, rac zogadia yve
la erTeulisaTvis, xolo is, rac droSi da sivrceSi moZra
obs da cvalebadobs, aris aranamdvili moCvenebiTi arseboba.
amis gamo platonis filosofias obieqturi idealizmi ewo
deba. platonis obieqturi idealizmis Teoria kritikulad
gaiziara da ganaviTara aristotelem.
aristotelem safuZveli Cauyara mraval mecnierebas: fi
zikas, astronomias, logikas, fsiqologias, eTikas, esTeti
kas, ritorikas, politikas da sxv. kiTxvaze ra aris mecnie
rebis sagani? aristotele pasuxobs: es aris sibrZne, xolo
sibrZne aris pasuxi kiTxvaze `ratom?~ aristotele pirvel
filosofias uwodebs mecnierebis im dargs, romelic samya
ros pirvelmizezs anu substancias ikvlevs. substancia aris
damoukideblad arsebuli pirveli mizezi, romelzedac yve
laferia damokidebuli, es aris yvelafris arseba anu `usia~.
mecnierebis im dargs, romelic sxvaze damokidebul sagnebs
anu bunebas Seiswavlis, aristotele `meore filosofias~
anu fizikas uwodebs.
aristoteles mixedviT, platonis umTavresi Secdoma
mdgomareobs movlenaTa da ideaTa samyaroebis erTimeorisa
gan mowyvetaSi. misi azriT, ar SeiZleba grZnobadi da konkre
tuli sagnebi davaSoroTD ideebs anu zogadobas; ar SeiZleba
ideebi sagnebis miRma arsebobdes. zogadi idea yovelTvis er
TeulebSi arsebobs formis saxiT. SeuZlebelia arsebobdes
adamianobis idea adamianebis gareSe. aristoteles azriT,
yovel arsebuls aqvs oTxi mizezi: formaluri, materialu
ri, moqmedi da bolovadi mizezi anu mizani. materia mxolod
SesaZleblobis saxiT arsebobs, misi gaformeba da moqmede
ba niSnavs ganviTarebas pirvelmizezisaken, anu miznisken,
romelic sinamdvilea. SesaZlebloba aris sinamdvilis Se
saZlebloba da is yovelTvis sinamdvilezea damokidebuli.
sinamdvile ki damoukidebelia. sinamdvile mizania da is win
uswrebs imas, risi mizanic aris.
74

aristoteles mixedviT, samyaro sam sferod aris dayofi


li: materia, buneba da RmerTi. rac ar moZraobs da imoZra
vebs, aris materia, rac moZraobs da imoZravebs, aris bune
ba da rac mxolod amoZravebs da ar moZraobs, aris RmerTi.
RmerTi aris samyaros mamoZravebeli mizezic da mizanic.
mTeli buneba moZraobis procesSi formisa da materiis sxva
dasxva doniT SeerTebis `ierarqiul kibes~ warmoadgens. Tu
formaTa gansxvavebis kibes dabla davyvebiT, maSin ufro
meti materiisa da naklebi formis mqone sagnebTan gveqneba
saqme. sul bolos iqneba uformo materia; Tu piriqiT, kibes
maRla avyvebiT, meti formisa da naklebi materiis sagnebs
vixilavT. sul bolos ki iqneba umaterio forma, anu formis
forma. swored am formis formas uwodebs aristotele sabo
loo mizans, substancias anu RmerTs.
formaTa gansxvavebis mixedviT, samyaro ase lagdeba: ara
cocxali buneba (uformo materia), mcenareTa samyaro, cxo
velTa samyaro, adamiani da bolos RmerTi. samyarosa da
substanciis aseT damokidebulebas, sadac yvelaferi sabo
loo mizniT ganisazRvreba, teleologia ewodeba.

samyaros kanonzomierebis
problema filosofiaSi
garda substanciis problemisa, ontologiaSi Semdegi Zi
riTadi kiTxvebi dgas: rogori kanonzomierebis aris samyaro?
ra kanonebSi gamoixateba samyaros moZraoba cvalebadoba?
ra aris misi forma da Sinaarsi? aqvs Tu ara moZraoba cvale
badobas mizez Sedegobrivi kavSiri? ra aris sinamdvile da
SesaZlebloba? ra kavSiria aucileblobasa da SemTxveviTo
bas Soris? da sxva. yvela es kiTxva da masze gacemuli pasuxi
samyaros kanonzomier
ebis problemas exeba.
kanonis cneba. zemoT dasmuli kiTxvebi rom gairkves, upir
veles yovlisa, saWiroa gavigoT ra aris kanoni. am SemTxvevaSi
75

saqme exeba obieqtur mecnierul kanons da ara normatiul ka


nons, romelsac saxelmwifo adgens an auqmebs. obieqturi imas
niSnavs, rom is araa damokidebuli adamianis cnobierebaze,
is TavisTavadia. e.i. kanonis pirveli niSani aris obieqturo
ba. garda obieqturobisa, kanoni unda iyos zogadi xasiaTis.
es imas niSnavs, rom im sferoSi, sadac kanoni moqmedebs, igi
yvela sagans exeba. asxvaveben specifikur, gansakuTrebul da
uzogades kanonebs. uzogadesi kanoni mTel samyaroSi moq
medebs, gansakuTrebuli ramdenime sferoSi, xolo speci
fikuri mxolod erT sferoSi. zogadobasTan da obieqtu
robasTan erTad, kanoni vrceldeba romelime sferos yvela
movlenaze. es principi ase gamoiTqmis: erTi da igive movlena
erTsa da imave pirobebSi erTsa da imave Sedegs iZleva.
kanonis Semdegi niSania arsebiToba. kanoni uxilavia, Seg
rZnebebSi ar gveZleva, kanonis arseba mxolod movlenebSi
vlindeba. misi Semecneba azrovnebiT xdeba. yvela am niSans,
riTac kanoni xasiaTdeba, unda daematos mizezobriobis ni
San-Tviseba. movlenaTa mizezobrivi kavSiris gareSe araviTa
ri kanoni realurad ar vlindeba.
amdenad, kanoni SeiZleba ase ganvsazRvroT: kanoni aris
movlenaTa iseTi kavSiris wesi, romelic xasiaTdeba obieqtu
robiT, zogadobiT, arsebiTobiT, aucileblobiT, sayovel
TaobiT da aCvenebs movlenaTa ganviTarebis tendencias anu
mimarTulebas. kanonis gamoyenebiTi mniSvneloba swored ima
Sia, rom is movlenebisa da procesebis mimarTulebas aCvenebs;
swored amis safuZvelze xdeba samyaros mecnieruli suraTis
Seqmna da mecnieruli prognozireba. am gagebiT, mecnieruli
kanonebi warmoadgenen samyaros Semecnebisa da misi gardaqmnis
meTodologiur safuZvlebs. filosofia, rogorc msoflmxed
velobrivi mecniereba, cxadia, emyareba da iTvaliswinebs bune
bis da sazogadoebis obieqtur kanonzomierebas, magram filo
sofiur kvleva Ziebas Tavisi meTodologia aqvs.
meTodis problema. meTodis ganxilva unda daviwyoT, uwi
nares yovlisa, kiTxvis dasmiT, ra aris filosofia? am struq
76

turuli analiziT iwyeba aRniSnuli problemis ganmartebis


piroba. kiTxva, ra aris filosofia? exeba filosofiis rao
bas, mis arss. es ki niSnavs, dadgindes ra aris filosofia Ta
visi sagnis mixedviT. e. i. ganisazRvros sfero, romelTanac
mas saqme aqvs. es ki moiTxovs naCvenebi iyos is wesebi, romli
Tac filosofia kvlevas awarmoebs Tavis sferoSi, e. i. rogor
swavlobs is Tavisi sakvlevi sagnis raobas, ra wesiT, ra xer
xiT, ra midgomiT anu ra meTodiT. meTodi damokidebulia fi
losofiis sferosadmi midgomis amocanaze. maSasadame, kiTxva
ra aris es? moiTxovs kiTxvas rogor gavigoT es?
yovel filosofiur sistemas Tavisi meTodi aqvs. ar ar
sebobs filosofiaSi erTi universaluri meTodi, iseve ro
gorc ar arsebobs erTmniSvnelovani pasuxi filosofiis sag
nis Sesaxeb. ramdeni filosofiuri sistemacaa, imdeni meTodi
arsebobs. amitom arasworia, roca filosofiaSi or ZiriTad
meTods asaxeleben: dialeqtikisa da metafizikis.
garda dialeqtikisa da metafizikisa, arsebobs logikuri
analizis meTodi, romelsac iyenebs logikuri pozitivizmi,
ekleqtikuri meTodi ciceronTan, intuiciuri meTodi ber
gsonTan, materializmSi dialeqtikuri meTodi, romelic
upirispirdeba metafizikur meTods, huserlis fenomenolo
giuri meTodi, transcendentaluri meTodi da a. S.
zogadad mokled mimovixiloT ramdenime maTgani.
metafizika. metafizikis cneba filosofiaSi ori ZiriTa
di mniSvnelobiT ixmareba. metafizika rogorc filosofiis
sinonimi da metafizika, rogorc erT-erTi meTodis aRmniS
vneli cnebaa.
termini `metafizika~ pirvelad gamoiyenes aristoteles
pirveli filosofiis mimarT. imis gamo, rom am Sromas saTauri
ar aRmoaCnda da ido aristoteles Sromis `fizikis~ Semdeg, mas
ewoda meta ta fizika, `is, rac fizikis miRmaa~. droTa ganmavloba
Si am terminma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. metafizi
kiT aRniSnavdnen yvela filosofiur moZRvrebas yofierebisa
da Semecnebis sawyisebze. ufro zustad, ontologiisa da gno
77

seologiis umTavres sakiTxebze. imanuel kantis mier dasmuli


kiTxva, rogoraa SesaZlebeli metafizika rogorc mecniereba,
sxvas arafers niSnavs, Tu ara imas, rogoraa SesaZlebeli fi
losofia. kantma, gamijna ra, transcendenturi da imanentu
ri, codna da rwmena, uaryo metafizikis, rogorc zegrZnoba
dis, transcendenturis Sesaxeb mecnierebis SesaZlebloba.
kantis mixedviT, metafizika arsebobs rogorc adamianis go
nebis moTxovnileba. igi ar arsebobs, rogorc mecniereba. ada
mians awuxebs iseTi sakiTxebi, romelTa mocileba ar ZaluZs,
radgan isini TviT gonebas mouxvevia Tavs misTvis, magram arc
pasuxis gacema SeuZlia, vinaidan isini aRematebian adamianis
gonebis yvela unars. adamiani mas verc gadaWris da verc ai
cilebs. maS ra saWiroa? rogorc ukve viciT, mas hqonda erTi
principi, romelic aristoteledan aiRo: , `RmerTi da buneba
tyuilad arafers qmnis, e. i. Tu raime arsebobs mas aqvs sakmao
safuZveli.~ Tanamedrove pozitivizmis mixedviT, metafizika
aris usazriso spekulaturi azrovneba. mas mecnieruli Sina
arsi ar gaaCnia. amitom Tanamedrove pozitivizmi metafizikas
saerTod uaryofs `abakabadra~ absurdia, usazrisoa, sisu
lelea ase uyurebs pozitivizmi metafizikas.
metafizika, rogorc meTodi, amtkicebs, rom samyaroSi
araviTari axlis warmoSoba da ganviTareba ar xdeba, yvelafe
ri mocemulia erTxel da samudamod. samyaroSi marto moZra
oba cvalebadobaa, romelic mxolod raodenobriv zrdas an
klebas niSnavs. am moZraoba cvalebadobaSi adgili aqvs Zve
lis gameorebas da wreSi trials. amitom samyaros movlenebi
veraviTar gavlenas ver axdenen axlis warmoSobaze; e. i. mov
lenebs Soris ar arsebobs sayovelTao kavSirebi. es aris Zve
li metafizikuri Teoria, romlis mixedviTac marad ucvleli
teleologiuri mizniT samyaroSi yvelaferi gansazRvrulia.
am Teoriis mixedviT, RmerTma ise Seqmna samyaro, rom SemdegSi
araviTari axlis warmoSoba da Semoqmedeba ar xorcieldeba.
metafizikis aseT Teorias ar eTanxmeba bergsonis (1859
1941 ww.) `SemoqmedebiTi evoluciis Teoria~. bergsoni aris
78

sicocxlis filosofiis warmomadgeneli, romelic ewinaaR


mdegeba teleologiur principebs da asabuTebs, rom RmerTs
samyaro ar moucia erTxel da samudamod ucvleli principe
bis mixedviT; is Semoqmedebis SesaZleblobas utovebs bunebas
da adamians. bergsonis azriT, RmerTi TviTon aris Semoqmedi,
magram bunebasac aniWebs Semoqmedebis niWs, bunebis sagnebs
aZlevs sasicocxlo swrafvis unars da am swrafvis procesSi
adgili aqvs axlis warmoSobas. am sasicocxlo swrafvas aqvs
Tavisi mimarTuleba. bunebaSi yvelaferi miiswrafvis srul
yofilebisaken anu RmerTisaken. aseTi gageba teleologi
isgan ver Tavisufldeba, radgan RmerTis daSvebiT, miznis
winaswar daSvebac xdeba, xolo axlis warmoSoba auxsneli
rCeba.
amdenad, samyaros ganviTarebisa da axlis warmoSobis prob
lema materializmSic da idealizmSic mxolod daSvebis da ara
mtkicebis doneze wydeba. materializmi uSvebs, rom samyaros
ganviTarebis da axlis warmoSobis SesaZlebloba devs mate
riaSi, xolo idealizmis mixedviT RmerTSi. es daSvebebi fi
losofiis sadavo problemebs ganekuTvneba da misi erTmniS
vnelovnad mtkiceba mecnierebas ar SeuZlia. miuxedavad amisa,
filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobisaTvis didi mniSvneloba
aqvs, romel gadawyvetilebas avirCevT, anu romel poziciaze
davdgebiT, radgan poziciaze dgomis gareSe araviTari Semoq
medeba ar arsebobs. poziciaze dgoma cxovrebis wesis arCevas
niSnavs. aq TavisuflebasTan gvaqvs saqme. adamiani aTeisturi
wesiT icxovrebs Tu RmerTis rwmeniT, amas didi mniSvneloba
aqvs misi msoflmxedvelobisaTvis.
metafizikuri meTodis sapirispiro meTodia dialeqtika.
sityva dialeqtika berZnulia da saubars, msjlobas niSnavs.
ZvelberZnul filosofiaSi `dialego~ kamaTis xelovnebas
niSnavda. kamaTi iyo is meTodi da saSualeba, riTac WeSmarite
ba unda daedginaT. SemdegSi dialeqtikis cneba gafarTovda.
hegelma dialeqtika samyaros Semecnebisa da azrovnebis
ganviTarebis sayovelTao principad miiCnia. hegelis mixed
79

viT, Semecnebis procesi iwyeba azrisa da arsis dapirispire


biT. es aris is pirveli safuZveli, romelic adamians ubiZgebs
TviTSemecnebisaken. Tavisufleba yovel etapze awydeba wina
aRmdegobas codnasa da arcodnas Soris. am aRmaval procesSi,
es Sinagani winaaRmdegoba warmoSobs codnis sul axal-axal
kategoriebs da kanonebs. am gziT xdeba absoluturi sulis
anu RmerTis TviTSemecneba. es azrovnebis ganviTarebis pro
cesi Sewydeba mxolod maSin, rodesac absoluturi suli Ta
visTavs bolomde Seicnobs. amis Semdeg araviTari ganviTare
ba azrovnebas aRar sWirdeba. e. i. dialeqtikuri procesi da
saerTod dial
eqtika mxolod azrovnebisTvis aris damaxasi
aTebeli. araviTari ganviTareba bunebas ar sWirdeba da arc
arsebobs bunebaSi ganviTareba. rac Seexeba RmerTs, is abso
luturi srulyofilebaa da srulyofilebas ganviTareba ar
sWirdeba. azrovnebis dialeqtikuri swrafva mxolod adamia
nisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. amdenad, hegelTan ganviTareba
exeba mxolod azrovnebis process. ganviTareba gulisxmobs
Zvelis uaryofiT axlis warmoSobas. xolo es axali azrebi
da cnebebi kvlav uariyofa sakuTari winaaRmdegobebis sa
fuZvelze da a. S. azrovnebis TviTSemecnebis procesis dia
leqtikuri meTodi niSnavs imas, rom am procesSi yvelaferi
yvelaferTan kavSirSia. ar arsebobs araviTari izolirebuli
da TavisTavadi cnebebi. Tu gvinda gavigoT romelime cneba,
unda gaviTvaliswinoT yvela danarCeni. amitom dialeqtiku
ri azrovnebis wesi amave dros samyaros Semecnebis da gagebis
meTodic aris. hegelis mixedviT, mTeli samyaro absoluturi
gonis gamovlenaa. misi Semoqmedebaa bunebac, sazogadoebis
istoriac da adamianuri azrovnebac. amaTgan ganviTarebadia
mxolod azrovneba, radganac mxolod mas SeuZlia hqondes ab
soluturi gonis TviTSemecnebis survilic da unaric.
hegelis idealisturi dialeqtika materialisturad ga
daam
uSaves marqsma (1818 1883 ww.) da engelsma (1820 1895 ww).
maT hegelis moZRvrebidan RmerTis cneba uaryves da mis nac
vlad samyaros sawyisad materia gamoacxades, xolo hegelis
80

dialeqtikuri meTodi Tavisi filosofiis meTodad aRiares.


amis gamo marqsistul filosofias dialeqtikuri materia
lizmi ewoda.
huserlis (1859 1938 ww.) fenomenologiuri meTodi filo
sofiuri kvlevis erT-erTi yvelaze daxvewili instrumentia.
man ganviTareba hpova haidegerTan, SelerTan, sartrTan da
a.S. huserlis mier Seqmnilma subieqtur - idealisturma mi
marTulebam didi gavlena moaxdina axali drois filosofi
aze. fenomenologiis cneba cnobierebis `intencionaluro
ba~ (misi mimarTuloba obieqtze) gamiznulia ganamtkicos
subieqtur idealisturi principi: `ra aris obieqti subieq
tis gareSe~. fenomenologiuri meTodis ZiriTadi moTxovnaa:
fenomenologiuri reduqcia, e. i. Semecnebis subieqtis gan
xilva ara rogorc realuri, empiriuli, socialuri da fsiqo
fiziologiuri arsebisa, aramed rogorc `wminda~ transcen
dentaluri cnobier
ebisa.
determinizmi da indeterminizmi. aq sakiTxi exeba kanon
zomierebis obieqturad arsebobas. axasiaTebs Tu ara igi sam
yaros? samyaroSi wesrigia Tu qaosi, kanonzomierebaa Tu Sem
TxveviToba? procesebi determinirebulia (ganpirobebulia),
Tu TviTneburia (ganupirobebelia)? filosofiis istoriaSi
am kiTxvebze erTmniSvnelovani pasuxi ar arsebobs. aman gana
piroba ori dapirispirebuli mimarTulebis determinizmi
sa da indeterminizmis warmoSoba. meore pirvelis funqciaa,
radgan mas sakuTari dadebiTi Sinaarsi ar gaaCnia. igi gani
sazRvreba determinizmTan dapirispirebiT. indeterminizmi
uaryofs imas, rasac amtkicebs determinizmi. amis gamo, upir
veles yovlisa, determinizmi unda ganvsazRvroT.
es mimarTuleba sxvadasxvagvarad iyo gagebuli filoso
fiis istoriaSi. yvelaze ufro mizanSewonilad migvaCnia Sem
degi gageba: determinizmi aris Teoria, romelic amtkicebs
kanonzomierebis obieqturad arsebobas. movlenebisa da pro
cesebis mimdinareob
a samyaroSi kanonzomieria. araferi ar
xdeba TviTneburad da mxolod SemTxveviT. yvelaferi gan
81

pirobebulia da determinirebuli. indeterminizmi ki aris


Teoria, romelic kanonzomierebis obieqturad arsebobas
uaryofs da amtkicebs, rom yvelaferi, rac samyaroSi xdeba
TviTneburi da SemTxveviTia.
maSasadame, determinizmis ZiriTadi principia kanonzomi
erebis obieqturobis aRiareba, xolo indeterminizmis misi
uaryofa.
yvela Teoria, romelic samyaros kanonzomierebas aRia
rebs, deterministulia. magram sxvagvarad xdeba kanonzo
mierebis arsis gageba da misi dafuZneba. ra ganapirobebs
kanonzomierebas? ra aris misi safuZveli? am kiTxvaze pa
suxi araerTgvarovania, ris Sedegad saqme gvaqvs determi
nizmis gansxvavebul saxeebTan.
upirveles yovlisa, unda ganvasxvaoT mecnieruli da
aramecnieruli determinizmi. orives miaCnia, rom samyaro
kanonzomieria, magram sxvagvarad esmiT misi safuZveli.
pirvels kanonzomierebis safuZvlad miaCnia TviT samya
rosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Sinagani da obieqturi kavSire
bi, romlebic gamoixateba Sesabamisi kanonebis meSveobiT.
meore kanonzomierebas afuZnebs raRac zebunebriv Zala
ze, romelic samyarosaTvis miRmuri da garegania. aramec
nieruli determinizmis magaliTebia fatalizmi da provi
dencializmi. fatalizmi aRiarebs, rom bediswera swored
is zebunebrivi Zalaa, romelic gansazRvravs samyaroSi
arsebul mkacr kanonzomierebas anu gardauvalobas. pro
vindencializmi miiCnevs, rom RvTis neba gangebaa is sa
fuZveli, romelic mkacrad gansazRvravs samyaros kanon
zomierebas.
fatalizmi da providencializmi aramecnieruli Sina
arsis deterministuli moZRvrebebia. mecnierebis safuZ
veli determinizmia. sxvagvarad arseboba mas ar SeuZlia.
iq, sadac kanonzomiereba da movlenaTa ganpirobebuloba
ar arsebobs, mecnierebis adgili ar aris. igi qmnis Tavise
bur deterministul Teorias, romelic sxva analogiuri
82

Teoriebisagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom kanonzomierebis sa


fuZvlad miaCnia realoba da misi Sinagani kanonebi.
samyaros kanonzomierebis axsna da dafuZneba TviT masSi
moqmedi kanonebis meSveobiT ai mecnieruli determinizmis
ZiriTadi Tavisebureba. mecnierebis mizanic sxva araferia,
Tu ara am kanonebis aRmoCena, maT safuZvelze cnobil movle
naTa axsna da ucnob movlenaTa winaswarmetyveleba.
mecniereba ganasxvavebs kanonTa or saxes dinamikurs
da statikurs. Sesabamisad, arsebobs mecnieruli determi
nizmis ori forma dinamikuri da statistikuri. dinamiku
ri determinizmi mkacri da erTmniSvnelovania. igi kanonzo
mierebas aigivebs gardauvalobasTan, romelic gamoricxavs
SemTxveviTobis SesaZleblobas, albaTobis da Tavisuflebis
obieqturobas. statistikuri determinizmi aramkacri da al
baTuria. mas kanonzomiereba esmis rogorc aucileblobisa
da SemTxveviTobis erTianoba, romelic uSvebs SesaZleblo
bis, albaTobis da Tavisuflebis obieqturobas. dinamikuri
determinizmis mier movlenaTa axsna da winaswarmetyveleba
absoluturad utyuari da ueWvelia, xolo statistikuri de
terminizmis mier mxolod albaTuri.
jer kidev antikur epoqaSi dinamikur determinizms da
sabami misca demokritem. igi aRorZinda klasikuri meqanikis
safuZvelze XVIIXVIII saukuneebSi, ramac gamoxatuleba hpova
spinozas, hobsis, holbaxis koncefciebSi. statistikuri de
terminizmi Camoyalibda XX saukuneSi da safuZvlad udevs
Tanamedrove mecnierebas. igi miiCnevs, rom samyaros funda
menturi kanonebi albaTur statistikuri xasiaTisaa.

83

samyaros kanonzomieri
kavSirebi da mimarTebebi
samyaro mravalferovania. igi Sedgeba sxvadasxva movleni
sa da procesisagan, romelTa Soris uSualo da gaSualebuli,
faruli Tu aSkara, determinirebuli Tu aradeterminirebu
li kavSirebi da urTierTobebia. filosofia maT uzogades da
Zireul tipebs kategoriebis meSveobiT axasiaTebs. sazoga
dod, kategoria aris is Zireuli da fundamenturi cneba, ro
melsac filosofiuri azrovneba emyareba. igi kategoriaTa
safuZvelze ayalibebs sistemas.
kategoriis arsi. vinaidan filosofia cnebebiT da katego
riebiT moazrebuli da dasabuTebuli msoflmxedvelobis mo
cemis cdaa, amitom mizanSewonilia ganvmartoT, ra aris cneba
da kategoria.
sityva `kategorias~ mravali mniSvneloba aqvs. filosofi
uri mniSvneloba mas pirvelad aristotelem mianiWa. es sityva
berZnuli warmoSobisaa da Tavdapirvelad niSnavda dadana
Saulebas, msjavris gamotanas. aristotelem am sityvas axali,
filosofiur
i datvirTva misca. is mxilebaa ara adamianisa,
aramed arsebulisa saerTod. kategoria aris cneba, romelic
gamoxatavs arsebulis Zireul niSans. kategorias gansazR
vraven, rogorc uzogades cnebas. kategoriis cnebas ar mo
epoveba masze `maRla~ mdgomi cneba. kategoriebi arsebulis
Zireul, safuZvelmdebare mxareebs gamoxataven, magram es Zi
reuli sxvadasxvagvaria. zogi maTgani yvela arsebuls axasi
aTebs, zogi ki mxolod arsebulTa garkveul saxes. pirveli
tipis kategoriebs SeiZleba vuwodoT universaluri katego
riebi, meor
e tipisas specifikuri.
kategoriebs adamianebi iyenebdnen jer kidev maSin, roca
araferi icodnen maTi arsebobis Sesaxeb. yoveli kategoria
cnebaa, e. i. azris garkveuli formaa. rogorc hegeli ambobda:
swored yoveldRiuri enaa kategoriebis Tavdapirveli adgil
samyofeli.
84

XIX sauk
unis meore naxevarSi kidev ufro gamdidrda kate
goriaTa sistema. igi Seivso axali Semecnebis Teoriuli, aq
siologiuri, anTropologiuri da sxva tipis kategoriebiT.
yuradReba mieqca iseT cnebebs, rogoricaa Rirebuleba, mniS
vneloba, sazrisi, ideali, norma, adamian
i, sicocxle da Aa. S.
XX sauk
uneSi yvelaze didi wvlili kategoriaTa moZRvre
baSi Seit
anes n. hartmanma da m. haidegerma. ar arsebobs kate
goriis bunebis erTi gageba, Sesabamisad, arc kategoriaTa
erTi sistema. TiTqmis yvela did filosofoss kategoriaTa
Tavisi sistema aqvs, romlis meSveobiT igi cdilobs gadawy
vitos mis winaSe mdgari problemebi. miuxedavad amgvari gan
sxvavebisa, SeiZleba gamovyoT ramdenime igiveobrivi momenti.
kategoria aris fundamenturi, ZiriTadi cneba, romlis
gamoyenebiT ama Tu im filosofiur sistemaSi xdeba garkve
uli obieqtis gaazreba da daxasiaTeba. kategoriaTa sistema
qmnis im kategorialur aparats, romlis meSveobiT filoso
fosi azrovnebs da imecnebs Tavis sagans. yovel filosofiur
moZRvrebas Tavisi Sinaarsi da sagnis Sesatyvisi kategoriaTa
sistema aqvs. amdenad, filosofiuri Teoriebi erTmaneTisa
gan gansxvavdebian kategoriaTa konkretuli SinaarsiT, mag
ram arcerTi maTgani ar arsebobs kategorialuri aparatis
gareSe. filosofiuri azrovneba kategoriebiT azrovnebaa.
filosofosoba SeuZlebelia kategoriebis gareSe.
filosofiur kategoriaTa Tavisebureba isaa, rom isini
sagnebs axasiaTeben samyarosTan, rogorc mTelTan, mimar
TebaSi. filosofiur kategoriebs Soris gamoyofen gansxva
vebul tipebs. es SeiZleba moxdes sxvadasxva principis sa
fuZvelze. Sesabamisad, miviRebT kategoriaTa gansxvavebul
tipebs. erT-erT principad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT filoso
fiur disciplinaTa gamijvna. yovel maTgans Tavisi specia
luri kategoriebi aqvs. Sesabamisad, arsebobs Semdegi tipis
kategoriebi:
1) ontologiuri (yofiereba, realoba, dro, sivrce, mize
zobrioba, SemTxveviToba, SesaZlebloba, sinamdvile da sxva);
2) gnoseologiuri (Semecneba, subieqti, obieqti, WeSmari
85

teba, WeSmaritebis kriteriumi, cda, dakvirveba, abstraqtuli


azrovneba, intuicia da sxva);
3) socialuri (sazogadoeba, civilizacia, kultura, Sroma,
politika, ekonomika, saxelmwifo, samarTali, zneoba da a. S).
analogiurad SegviZlia vimsjeloT sxva filosofiur dis
ciplinaTa kategoriebze. mocemul TavSi sagangebo bWobis sa
gania ontologiur kategoriaTa is jgufi, romelic gamoxatavs
samyaros kanonzomier kavSirebsa da mimarTebebs. maT ricxvs mi
ekuTvneba Semdegi: mizezi da Sedegi, aucilebloba da SemTxve
viToba, SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile, erTeuli da zogadi, ar
seba da movlena, Sinaarsi da forma, sistema da struqtura.
mokled davaxasiaToT TiToeuli maTgani.
mizezi da Sedegi. mizezobrivi kavSiri aris mimarTeba mov
lenaTa or rigs Soris, romelTagan erTi mizezia, xolo meore
Sedegi. cxadia, rom yovelgvari kavSiri movlenebs Soris ar
aris mizezobrivi. igi Taviseburi kavSiria, romelsac axasia
Tebs Semdegi niSnebi:
1) droSi Tanmimdevroba da sivrceSi mezobloba. mizezi win
uswrebs Sedegs. jer mizezia, Semdeg ki Sedegi. SeuZlebelia
iyos piriqiT, Sedegi win uswrebdes mizezs. aseve SeuZlebelia
maTi erTdroulad arseboba. Tundac mcire, magram drois ra
Rac intervalSi mizezi win uswrebs Sedegs.
maSasadame, sivrcesa da droSi daSorebul movlenebs Soris
mizezobrivi kavSiri myardeba Sualeduri rgolebis saSuale
biT. maTi meSveobiT es movlenebi erTmaneTs xvdeba sivrcisa
da drois romeliRac monakveTSi. amgvari Sexvedris gareSe mi
zez Sedegobrivi kavSiri ar xorcieldeba.
2) genezisuri kavSiri. mizezi warmoqmnis, warmoSobs, iw
vevs Sedegs. is rom Sedegi moxda, amis Ziri mizezSia saZiebeli.
mizezs miuZRvis `brali~, rom moxda Sedegi. mis gareSe igi ar
moxdeboda. mizezobrivi mimarTeba arsebobs mxolod iq, sadac
adgili aqvs erTi movlenis mier meoris warmoqmnas, gamowvevas.
swored esaa mizezobrivi kavSiris Tavisebureba.
3) aucilebloba. mizezi Sedegs iwvevs aucileblobiT da ara
SemTxveviT. is rom Sedegi moxda, aucileblobiT ganapiroba mi
86

si gamomwvevi mizezis arsebobam. Sedegi xdeba ara SemTxveviT,


TviTneburad, aramed mizezis gamo aucileblobis ZaliT.
aRniSnuli niSnebi aucilebeli da sakmarisia imisaTvis,
rom ganvsazRvroT mizezobrivi kavSiri. mizezi aris movle
na, romelic sivrceSi mezoblobs da droSi win uswrebs meore
movlenas da aucileblobiT iwvevs mas. mizezobriobis Ziri
Tadi principia Semdegi debuleba: erTi da igive mizezi erTsa
da imave pirobebSi iwvevs erTsa da imave Sedegs.
aucilebloba da SemTxveviToba. aucileblobis da Sem
TxveviTobis klasikuri gansazRvreba mogvca aristotelem.
igi ase JRers: aucilebloba aris is, rac xdeba ase da ara
sxvagvarad. igi Tavis TavSi gamoricxavs sxvagvarad moxdenis
SesaZleblobas. movlena SemTxveviTia niSnavs, rom igi ki mox
da ase, magram SeiZleboda sxvagvarad momxdariyo. masSi moce
mulia alternativa `an-an~. amasTan arcerTi mxare winaswar
gansazRvruli ar aris.
Tanamedrove mecnierebis mixedviT, SemTxveviToba obieq
turia da igi emorCileba statistikur kanonzomierebas. mi
si Semecneba mecnierebas SeuZlia, magram mxolod albaTuri
codnis farglebSi.
axla ganvixiloT formula: mecniereba SemTxveviTobis
mteria. igi samarTliania mecnierebisaTvis, romelic arse
bobda XX saukunemde, radgan mas samyaros fundamentur ka
nonzomierebad miaCnda dinamikuri aucilebloba. XX saukunis
mecniereba ar aris SemTxveviTobis mteri, radgan igi samya
ros fundamentur kanonzomierebad aRiarebs statistikur
aucileblobas. dinamikuri aucilebloba gardauvalobaa,
amitom igi SemTxveviTobas gamoricxavs, statistikuri ara.
Tanamedrove mecnierebis Tanaxmad, rogorc aucilebloba,
ise SemTxveviToba statistikur albaTuri bunebisaa.
SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile. SesaZlebloba da sinamdvile
gamoxatavs arsebobis or gansxvavebul tips SesaZleblo
bisa da sinamdvilis saxiT arsebobas. pirveli aris Canasaxis
tendenciis, midrekilebis, xolo meore ukve realizebuli,
ganxorciel
ebuli, mza saxiT arseboba.
87

sinamdvilis cneba ixmareba farTo da viwro azriT. pirve


li aRniSnavs yovelgvar, nebismier arsebobas. sinamdvile mo
icavs ara mxolod ganxorcielebul, aramed tendenciis saxiT
arsebobasac. sinamdvile farTo azriT, ar upirispirdeba Se
saZleblobas, aramed moicavs mas rogorc arsebobis erT-erT
tips. SesaZleblobas upirispirdeba mxolod viwro azriT
gagebuli sinamdvile. igi aRniSnavs arsebobis mxolod erT
tips, ukve real
izebuli, ganxorcielebuli saxiT arsebobas.
igi aRiarebs mxolod imas, rac SesaZleblobis sinamdviled
gardaqmnis Sedegad miiReba. SesaZlebloba gamoxatavs mxo
lod imas, rac SeiZleba moxdes, magram aseve SeiZleba ar mox
des. igi yovelTvis exeba SemTxveviTs. SesaZlebloba arsebobs
mxolod iq, sadac SemTxveviTobas aqvs adgili. mas gamoricx
avs gardauv
aloba. Tu movlena gardauvalia, maSin aucileb
lad moxdeba, radgan sxvagvarad SeuZlebelia. SeuZlebeli ki
aucileblad ar moxdeba, radgan misi moxdena gamoricxulia.
SesaZlebeli moTavsebulia gardauvalsa da SeuZlebels So
ris. misi moxdena SesaZlebelia, amitom arc gardauvalia da
arc SeuZlebeli. igi usaTuod Seicavs alternativas `an-an~,
rac niSnavs, rom raRac SeiZleba moxdes, magram aseve SeiZle
ba ar moxdes.
sinamdvile aris ganxorcielebuli, realizebuli SesaZ
lebloba. ganasxvaveben SesaZleblobis ramdenime saxes: for
malur da real
ur SesaZleblobas.
formaluria SesaZlebloba, Tu misi moazreba da daSveba
ar Seic
avs logikur winaaRmdegobas. mas moeTxoveba Sesaba
misoba logikis kanonebTan. mniSvneloba ar aqvs imas, igi See
satyviseba Tu ara realobas.
real
uria SesaZlebloba, Tu misi ganxorcieleba ganpiro
bebulia real
obis kanonzomierebiT. misi kriteriumia Sesaba
misoba realobis kanonebTan. mas moeTxoveba aucilebli Sesa
bamisoba real
obasTan. amis gareSe realuri SesaZlebloba ar
arsebobs.

88

erTeuli da zogadi. erTeulisa da zogadis klasikuri


ganmarteba mogvca aristotelem.
erTeuli aris individualuri erTi sagani, Tviseba, mov
lena, procesi da a. S., romelic drosa da sivrceSi lokalize
bulia. igi `aq~ da `axla~ arsebobs; erTjeradi, ganumeorebe
li da amitom unikaluria.
zogadia is, rac axasiaTebs simravles. igi ar aris drosa
da sivrceSi lokalizebuli. ar arsebobs `aq~ da `axla~. zoga
di axasiaT
ebs simravlis nebismier elements, amitom saerTo
da ganmeorebadia. amrigad, erTeuli damaxasiaTebelia erTi
saTvis, xolo zogadi simravlisaTvis. magaliTad: Tbilisi,
mtkvari, SoTa _ erTeulia, xolo qalaqi, mdinare, poeti
zogadi. erTeulisa da zogadis erTmaneTTan Sefardebas di
di mniSvneloba aqvs adamianis praqtikul saqmianobaSi.
arseba da movlena. arseba da movlena gamoxatavs sinamdvi
lis or gansxvavebul mxares. arseba aris Sinagani, romelic
dafaruli da miuwvdomelia grZnobadi aRqmisaTvis. xolo
movlena garegania, grZnobad aRqmadia da gveZleva uSua
lod.
arseba aris sagnis is Sinagani, dafaruli, grZnobadad mi
uwvdomeli mxare, romelic mis Taviseburebas gansazRvravs.
movlena aris sagnis garegani, principulad uSualod mo
cemuli grZnobad aRqmadi mxare, romelic arsebis gamovle
na da gamJRavnebaa.
sagnis aRqma uSualod xorcieldeba Sesabamisi grZnobis
organos saSual
ebiT. magaliTad: vxedavT TvaliT, vismenT
yuriT da a. S., magram aRqma SeiZleba ganxorcieldes saTana
do xelsawyoebis gamoyenebiT da daxmarebiT. magaliTad: eqim
ma diagnozi SeiZleba dasvas samedicino aparatis meSveobiT,
magram samedicino aparatis meSveobiT dafiqsirebuli Sedegi
eqimma unda aRiqvas.
forma da Sinaarsi. sistema da struqtura. ganasxvaveben
ori saxis mimarTebas: materias da formas erTi mxriv, xolo
Sinaarssa da formas, meor
e mxriv. pirveli garegania, xolo
meor
e Sinagani.
89

materias
a da formas Soris mimarTeba aris masalasa da mis
gaformebas Soris mimarTeba. materia aris is masala, rome
lic gaformebis meSveobiT iZens garkveul saxes. forma gar
kveulobaa, romelic Sesabamisad aformebs mas. magaliTad,
mimarTeba siTxesa da WurWels Soris aris amgvari damokide
bulebis nimuSi. siTxe iRebs im WurWlis formas, romelSic is
asxia. WurWeli siTxis mimarT garegania. igi ar gansazRvravs
mis Tvisebebs, indiferentulia misi Sinaarsis mimarT. Wur
Weli ganapirobebs ara siTxis Sinaarss, aramed mis arsebobas
garkveul
i saxiT. forma masalis mimarT garegania im azriT,
rom erTsa da imave masalas SeuZlia miiRos sruliad sxvadas
xva forma.
sul sxvagvaria mimarTeba Sinaarssa da formas Soris. igi
Sinagani da arsebiTia. Sinaarsi gansazRvravs formas da piri
qiT. maT Soris mimarTeba erTmniSvnelovania. yovel Sinaarss
Tavisi Sesatyvisi forma aqvs. man ar SeiZleba sxvadasxva for
ma miiR
os.
axla zogadad ganvmartoT Sinaarsis da formis cnebebi.
Sinaarsi aris sagnis elementebis organizacia, erTianoba;
forma aris sagnis elementebis organizaciis wesi. davaxasia
ToT sagnis Sinaarsi niSnavs davaxasiaToT erTianoba im ele
mentebisa, romelTagan igi Sedgeba. sagnis formis daxasiaTe
ba ki gulisxmobs im wesis garkvevas, romelic mis Semadgenel
elementebs aerTianebs.
yoveli sagani Sinaarsisa da formis erTianobaa. isini mi
si mxareeb
ia. maT Soris ganuyreli da organuli kavSiria. erT
Sinaarss erTi forma aqvs da piriqiT. ar SeiZleba, rom erTsa
da imave Sinaarss sxvadasxva forma an sxvadasxva formas erTi
da igive Sinaarsi hqondes. erTis Secvla aucileblobiT iw
vevs meoris Secvlas.
Sinaarsisa da formis monaTesave cnebebia struqtura da
sistema.
struqtura gamoxatavs sagnis Sedgenilobas, aRnagobas.
igi misi elementebis erTobliobaa. struqtura Sinaarsis mo
naTesave cnebaa, magram misi igiveobrivi ar aris. sistema gu
90

lisxmobs wesrigs elementebis simravleSi. igi ori momentis


Semcvelia. erTi mxriv, raRac elementebis simravle, xolo,
meore mxriv, wesi, romelic am elementebs erTmaneTTan akavSi
rebs. sistema mowesrigebuli simravlea. mas Tavisi Sinaarsi da
forma aqvs. sistema mTlianobaa, romlis Semadgeneli elemen
tebi misi nawilebia. aq myardeba mTelisa da nawilis mimarTe
ba. isini ar arseboben erTmaneTis gareSe. magaliTad, cocxa
li organizmi sistemaa, romelic misi Semadgeneli nawilebis
mTlianobaa. yoveli nawili Tavis funqcias asrulebs mxolod
mTelSi da misi meSveobiT. misgan damoukideblad da mowyve
tiT igi ukve sicocxlis unars kargavs da kvdeba. magaliTad,
adamianis romelime organo Tavis funqcias asrulebs mxolod
mTliani organizmis normaluri arsebobis farglebSi.

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ras Seiswavlis ontologia?
ra ewodeba samyaros pirvelsawyisis problemas filoso
fiaS
i?
ra aris monizmi? Ddualizmi? Ppluralizmi?
rogor esmodaT mileTis skolis warmomadgenlebs sub
stanciis problema?
ra mniSvnelobiT ixmareba filosofiaSi metafizikis cne
ba?
ra ZiriTadi niSnebiT xasiaTdeba kanoni?
SesaZlebelia Tu ara ganviTareba moZraobis gareSe?
ra ZiriTadi principi axasiaTebs determinizmsa da inde
terminizms?
romeli kategoriebi gamoxataven samyaros kanonzomier
kavSirebsa da mimarTebebs?
ra niSnebi axasiaTebs mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirs?

91

Tavi IV
gnoseologiuri problemebi filosofiaSi
Semecnebis arsi da struqtura.
Cvens garSemo mravali sagani da movlena arsebobs. Tu
dakvirvebixarT, rom maTi umravlesobisadmi Cveni damoki
debuleba gaucnobiereblad `avtomaturia~? - vrTavT tele
vizors, vuyurebT gadacemebs; viRebT telefons, vkrefT no
mers da vsaubrobT uxilav, magram nacnob adamianTan. nuTu es
saoc
ari ar aris? yovelTvis gvaxsovs, rogor da ra saxiT fa
raven sivrces es uxilavi talRebi? vsxdebiT TviTmfrinavSi
da ramdenime saaTis frenis Semdeg CavdivarT sxva qalaqSi, sa
xelmwifoSi, kontinentze. yovelTvis vacnobierebT, bunebis
romeli kanonebi uzrunvelyofen Cven warmatebul frenas?
uamrav informacias vflobT, maT Soris mecnierulsac. viciT
an yovelTvis gvainteresebs vin, rogor da rodis mogvigrova
is? samyaros saidumloebebidan bevri ram CvenTvis cxadi da
naTelia. magram dgeba momenti, rodesac TiTqosda sruliad
Cveulebrivi ram gagvaoc
ebs netav ra aris es? vikiTxavT
da adamian
is yovlismcodneobis pretenziis mqone goneba iwy
ebs am `raRacis~ wvdomas, Semecnebas. SevecadoT, gavarkvioT,
ra aris goneba.
adamian
ebs araCveulebrivi unari gvaqvs: roca movisur
vebT, sakuTar warmodgenaSi nebismieri ram, magaliTad, uxso
vari drois movlenebi da faqtebi SegviZlia `gavacocxloT~.
unari Segvwevs siRrmiseulad `CaviZiroT~ da kritikulad ga
vaanalizoT Cveni fiqrebi, vimsjeloT, SevicnoT, SevafasoT,
gavakeToT logikuri daskvnebi. adamiani marto instinqtebs
ar ugdebs yurs. igi gacnobierebulad moqmedebs kidec, rac
ganpirobebulia misi gonebrivi SesaZleblobebiT. swored
es gacnobierebuli moqmedeba aris adamianis gasaocari niWi
da unari, anu goneba. goneba gagebisa da gaazrebis saSuale
baa. gonebis meSveob
iT vwvdebiT movlenaTa universalur kav
92

Sirebs. es imdenad bunebriv da organul Tvisebad migvaCnia,


rom arc ki gvaxsendeba, rom swored gonebis Zala gvansxvavebs
cocxali bunebis sxva warmomadgenlebisagan.
goneba SeimuSavebs siRrmiseul da ganzogadebul cod
nas, uzrunvelyofs aratrivialuri, arastandartuli, Se
moqmedebiTi gadawyvetilebebis miRebas. misTvis azris moq
niloba da sisxartea damaxasiaTebeli. gonebis Zalas SeuZlia
gaaanalizos ara marto grZnobadi cdis Sedegebi, aramed ga
akritikos sakuTari gadawyvetilebebi. gonebas Seswevs una
ri gascdes Sesamecnebeli amocanis farglebs da axali, mou
lodneli ideebi, Tvalsazrisebi da Sedegebi SeimuSaos.
Semecnebis procesSi gonebas gansja da azrovneba exmare
ba. gansja gonivruli moRvaweobis sawyisi safexuria. igi Se
iZleba ase ganvmartoT: gansja aris fsiqikuri aqti, romlis
drosac xdeba msjelobis, daskvnis cnebebis SemuSaveba da am
masaliT gonebis `momarageba~. gansjis safuZvelze adamia
ni Tanmimdevrulad da naTlad msjelobs, axdens movlenaTa
klasifikacias da azrobrivad awesrigebs miRebul codnas.
azrovneba aris SemecnebiTi procesi, romlisTvisac da
maxasiaTebelia sinamdvilis ganzogadebuli, gaSualebuli
saxeebis Seqmna. adamiani konkretuli movlenebis ganyenebis
gziT avlens maTTvis damaxasiaTebel zogad da arsebiT Tvi
sebebs. azrovneba xorcieldeba enisa da metyvelebis meSveo
biT. misi ZiriTadi formebia: cneba, msjeloba, daskvna.
risTvis gvWirdeba saerTod codna? vTqvaT, piradad me,
konkretul adamians, mWirdeba ki vicode, aris Tu ara sicocx
le sxva planetebze, rogor viTardeba istoria, SesaZlebelia
Tu ara materiis umciresi nawilakebis aRmoCena da sxva? aseT
codnas praqtikul gamoyenebas xom ver movuZebniT? da, Ta
nac, eklesiastes rCevas Tu gaviziarebT, `mravlis Secnoba
adamians wuxils umravlebs~. magram, saqme imaSia, rom codnis
wyurvili adamianis maradiuli moTxovnilebaa. yvela cocxa
li arseba samyaros iRebs iseTs, rogoric aris. mxolod ada
miani cdilobs gaarkvios, rogor aris samyaro mowyobili, ra
93

kanonebs eqvemdebareba misi ganviTareba, ra gansazRvravs mis


dinamikas. ratom sWirdeba amisi codna adamians? rTuli kiTx
vaa, miTumetes, rom bolomde samyaro Tavisi arsiT Seumec
nebelia. ra Tqma unda, Cven vagrovebT codnas, vwvdebiT si
cocxlis procesebs, vxsniT yofierebis axal saidumloebebs,
magram ukanaskneli, dasabamiseuli saidumlo saidumlodve
rCeba. saboloo WeSmariteba CvenTvis miuwvdomelia.
filosofiaSi aris aseTi termini `gnoseologia~.
gnoseol
ogia berZnuli sityvaa (`gnosis~ niSnavs cod
nas) da aris moZRvreba Semecnebis bunebis da kanonzomiere
bis Sesaxeb. Semecneba niSnavs codnis miRebas da cnobierebis
Sinaarsis gafarToebas. cxadia, amis gareSe araviTari aqtiu
ri moqmedeba ar sruldeba. magram filosofiis mizans Tavad
codnis Sinaarsis kvleva ki ar warmoadgens, aramed mas ainte
resebs codnis SesaZleblobisa da sinamdvilesTan misi Sesa
bamisobis sakiTxi. codna, romelic Camoyalibebulia mecni
erul kanonebSi, kategoriebSi da TeoriebSi faqtia da amaze
mecniereba msjelobs, magram filosofias ainteresebs, ro
gor aris SesaZlebeli am codnis sayovelTaoba.
gnoseol
ogiaSi Semdegi kiTxvebi dgas: ra aris Semecnebis
subieqti da obieqti? SeuZlia Tu ara subieqts Seimecnos obi
eqti? ra unarebiT da meTodebiT xdeba es Semecneba? ra aris
WeSmariteba? da sxva. am sakiTxebis kvleva TviTmizans ar emsa
xureba, aramed misi mizania materialuri da sulieri proce
sebis urTierTdamokidebulebis garkveva da amis safuZvelze
praqtikuli saqmianoba.
sakiTxi codnis kanonzomierebis Sesaxeb jer kidev Zvel
berZnul filosofiaSi daisva. sokratem codna orad dayo:
1) codna sagnebis Sesaxeb da 2) codna TviTon codnis Sesaxeb
(anu codnis codna). misi azriT, adamianisaTvis ufro mniSvne
lovania meore rigis codna, romelic TviTSemecnebiT xor
cieldeba. filosofiis mizans swored aseTi TviTSemecneba
warmoadgens. sokratem amgvari moTxovna wamoayena: `Seic
an
Tavi Seni~, raTa gaigo ra SegiZlia, ra ici. amiT codnas ki ar
94

uaryof, piriqiT, amiT mouwodeb sakuTar Tavs axali codnis


Semecnebisaken.
zemoT dasmul kiTxvebs pasuxi rom gaeces, saWiroa vi
codeT ra aris Semecnebis subieqti da obieqti. Semecnebis
obieqti orgvaria: 1) is, rac subieqtisagan damoukideblad
arsebobs da 2) TviTon subieqtis Sinagani sulieri samyaro.
mTlianobaSi, Semecnebis obieqts warmoadgens materialuri
da sulieri samyaro. rac Seexeba Semecnebis subieqts, es aris
pirovneba, romelic Seimecnebs. amdenad, subieqti Semecnebas
mimarTavs mis gareT, transcendentur da mis SigniT, imanen
tur sinamdvileSi.
axla vupasuxoT kiTxvas: ra unarebi aqvs adamians Semecne
bis gansaxorcieleblad? adamiani samyaros da sakuTar Tavs
sami unariT Seicnobs. es unarebia: a) grZnobadoba; b) gansja
anu logikuri azrovneba; g) intuicia. samyaros da mis sagnebs
aqvs rogorc garegani, ise Sinagani kanonzomiereba. grZnoba
doba sinamdvilis garegan mxares imecnebs, xolo logikuri
azrovneba Sinagan kanonzomier
ebas. rac Seexeba intuicias,
is orive SemTxvevaSi aracnobierad funqcionirebs.
grZnobadobas aqvs sami forma: SegrZneba, aRqma da warmod
gena. SegrZnebebSi miRebul saganTa sxvadasxva Tvisebas aR
qma amTlianebs. amitom aRqma aris sagnis mTlianobiTi asaxva,
xolo warmodgena adre aRqmulis cnobierebaSi gaxseneba.
grZnobadoba sinamdvilis uSualo Semecnebas warmoadgens,
xolo logikuri azrovneba, gaSualebulia grZnobadi Semec
nebiT.

95

intuicia
intuic
ia, rogorc aracnobieri unari, did rols asru
lebs ara mxolod xelovnebaSi, aramed mecnierebaSic da yo
veldRiur praqtikul saqmianobaSic. aravin davobs imaze, rom
didi mecnierebi TavianT aRmoCenebs aracnobier intuicias
ukavSireben. intuiciis unari aseve mniSvnelovania sulieri
fenomenebis SemecnebaSi.
filosofiis istoriaSi gnoseologiuri Teoriebi erTma
neTisagan swored imiT gansxvavdebian, Tu vin romel unars
aniWebs upiratesobas SemecnebaSi da WeSmariti codnis miRe
baSi. im Teorias, romelic asabuTebs, rom WeSmariti codna
mxolod logikuri azrovnebiT miiReba, racionalizmi ewode
ba; xolo Teorias, romelic amtkicebs, rom WeSmariti codna
mxolod SegrZnebebSi da cdaSi gveZleva, empirizmi ewodeba.
Teorias, romelic ar iziarebs arcerT warmodgenil Sexedu
lebas da amtkicebs intuiciiT miRebuli codnis upirateso
bas, iracion
alizmi da intuitivizmi ewodeba, xolo agnosti
cizmi saerTod uaryofs samyaros Semecnebis SesaZleblobas.
ganvixiloT yvela cal-calke.
sityva `intuicia~ Cveulebriv metyvelebaSi xSirad ixma
reba. masSi umetesad gulisxmoben winaTgrZnobis dafarul
unars, romelic ama Tu im situaciaSi garkvevis utyuar gezs
iZleva.
sityva `intuiciis~ qarTuli Sesatyvisebia `alRo~, `guma
ni~. intuiciis e. w. `yoveldRiuri~ Sinaarsi adamianis fsiqi
kuri samyaros kidev erT Taviseburebaze mianiSnebs. amitom
intuicia, pirvel rigSi, fsiqologiuri mecnierebis `velSi~
unda Sesuliyo, ramac Zalauneburad Seqmna intuiciis fsiqo
logiur
i interpretaciis prioriteti da miuxedavad imisa,
rom filosofiuri azrovnebis istoriam Camoayaliba aRniS
nuli problemis filosofiuri saxe, bevri mkvlevari ver po
ulobs sazRvars intuiciis filosofiursa da fsiqologiur
gagebas Soris. arada es aucilebelia.
96

fsiqologiisTvis, romelsac adamianis fsiqika aintere


sebs, intuicia garkveuli faqtia. filosofias ainteresebs
obieqtis Seswavla metafizikur WrilSi, anu misi ontologi
uri, gnoseologiuri da aqsiol
ogiuri suraTis mocema.
intuic
ia esmiT rogorc uSualo wvdoma. Tumca, erTia
uSualo wvdoma, rogorc ama Tu im pirovnebis individualu
ri Tavisebureba, fsiqikuri maxasiaTebeli (aseTi intuicia
gvevlineba droSi mimdinare fsiqikur procesad da mecnie
rebaSi axal ideaTa aRmoCenis, Semoqmedebis iaraRia); meorea,
uSualo wvdoma, romelic ar aris adamianis individualobis
unari. pirvelis kvleva fsiqologiis saqmea, meorisa filo
sofiis. rogorc ukve vTqviT, is mimarTuleba filosofiaSi,
romelic gonebis samsjavros winaSe wyvets yvela problemas
racionalizmia. inteleqtualuri intuiciis cneba swored
XV saukunis racionalizmSi iRebs saTaves dekartesTan, spi
nozasTan da laibnicTan. bergsonis intuitivizmi gacilebiT
gvian yalibdeba. es aris mimdinareoba, romelSic inteleqtu
aluri samyaros adekvaturi Semecnebis iaraRad Tavidan bo
lomde intuicia cxaddeba. aq inteleqtualuri da grZnobadi
intuic
iis cnebebs Soris sazRvari moSlilia. intuitivizmma
Tavad filosofiuri codna gaigo rogorc intuic
iuri Se
mecneba. aRniSnuli mimdinareob
is mixedviT, inteleqtiT mec
niereba muSaobs, filosofiisTvis amosavali unda iyos intu
icia. intuit
ivizmi aris iracionalizmi.

97

racionalizmi
racionalizmi aris iseTi filosofiuri Teoria, romelic
WeSmariti codnis miRebis erTaderT unarad gonebas miiC
nevs, xolo SegrZnebebiT miRebul codnas, arasarwmuno cod
nad Tvlis. racionalizmis mixedviT, cdidan miRebuli codna,
mxolod erTeul cvalebad sagnebs exeba da TviTonac cvale
badia. maTi azriT, namdvil codnas unda axasiaTebdes maradi
uloba da sayovelTaob
a.
es problema Zvel berZnul filosofiaSi daisva da pla
tonma is raconalisturad gadawyvita. platonis mixedviT,
sayovelTaobis da zogadobis matarebel codnas mxolod
obieqturi ideebis Semecneba iZleva. kiTxvaze, saidan movida
cnobierebaSi codna? platoni pasuxobs: codna TanSobilia
adamianSi, radgan TviTon adamianic ideaTa samyaros gamovle
naa. maS, ras niSnavs Semecneba? platonis azriT, Semecnebis mi
zans warmoadgens TanSobili ideebis gacnobiereba. gacnobie
reba anu Semecneba ki niSnavs am ideebis gonebidan dabadebas.
platonis azriT, gonebidan ideebis dabadeba xorcieldeba
kamaTis anu dialogis saSualebiT. amdenad, namdvili codna
mxolod TanSobil ideebs axasiaTebs, xolo rac Seexeba grZno
badobiT miRebul codnas, is warmavali da moCvenebiTia.
racionalizmis yvelaze TvalsaCino warmomadgenelia
frangi filosofosi da maTematikosi rene dekarti (1596
1650 ww.). dekarti Tavis racionalistur filosofias afuZ
nebda RmerTis arsebobis mtkicebaze. dekarti ase msjelobs:
radganac Cven gonebaSi gvaqvs yovlad srulis, yovlad Zlie
ris anu RmerTis idea, saWiroa gairkves, said
an movida Cvens
gonebaSi es yovladsrulis idea? misi azriT, dauSvebelia
ideis warmoSobis mizezi iyos cda, romelsac SegrZnebebiT
vukavSirdebiT. aseTi ideis Seqmna arc adamians SeuZlia, rad
gan adamian
i ar aris yovlad sruli, amitom is ver Seqmnis mas
ze ufro srul ideas; ar SeiZleba mizezi naklebi iyos Sedeg
ze. amitom adamianma unda dauSvas RmerTis arseboba.
98

amis Semdeg dekarti svams aseT kiTxvas: rogor varsebob


me? ra aris imis damamtkicebeli, rom me varsebob? e. i. me eW
vi miCndeba Cems arseboba ararsebobaze, magram Cems arsebo
bas amtkicebs is, rom me veWvob. radgan veWvob, e. i. vazrovneb
da radganac vazrovneb, e. i. varsebob. radganac vazrovneb da
varsebob, Cemi mizezi anu Semqmneli unda iyos Cemze Zlieri,
yvelafris SemZle substancia anu RmerTi. amitom RmerTis
idea Cadebulia CemSi RmerTis mier. sxvagvarad me RmerTis
ideas ver gavigebdi. saidan xdeba is, rom adamiani uSvebs Sec
domebs? svams kiTxvas dekarti da pasuxobs: adamians, garda
gonebisa, aqvs nebisyofa anu arCevnis SesaZlebloba. nebis
yofa ufro farTo cnebaa, vidre goneba. is vrceldeba iseT
sagnebzec, rac gonebas ar aqvs cxadad moazrebuli. adamiani
msjelobis procesSi uSvebs Secdomebs, Torem gonebaSi ar
sebuli ideebi yovelTvis WeSmaritia. xolo, rodesac idee
bi cxadad eZleva adamians, maSin igi Secdomebs aRar uSvebs.
amitom sicxade aris WeSmaritebis kriteriumi. yvelaze cxadi
debulebaa: vazrovneb, maSasadame varsebob. es debuleba de
kartis filosofiis amosavali principia, romelic logiku
ri dasabuTebidan ki ar gamodis, aramed intuiciurad miiReba.
vazrovneb, maSasadame varsebob, es ar aris ori an meti gan
sxvavebuli codnidan miRebuli axali codna, aramed is aris
mxolod erTi msjelobidan miRebuli cxadi azri anu aqsioma.
dekarti aseT cxad aqsiom
ebze dayrdnobiT ayalibebs maTe
matikisa da filosofiis Teor
ias. Semecnebis meTodis rols
dekartTan daeWveba asrulebs. daeWvebis gziT sicxadeze ga
dasvlas mivyavarT WeSmaritebamde.
amdenad, dekartis Semecnebis Teoria adamianis gonebaSi Ca
ketil imanentur folosofias warmoadgens. magram, Tu materia
da suli ori damoukidebeli sinamdvilea, rogor imecnebs ada
miani bunebis wesrigs? am kiTxvaze dekarti ase pasuxobs: Rmer
Tma iseTive wesi da rigi Cado bunebaSi, rogorc Cvens gonebaSi,
amitom Cveni gonebis wesrigs Seesabameba bunebis wesrigi. amiT
man Semecnebis SesaZleblobis sakiTxic dadebiTad gadawyvita.
99

dekartis racionalisturi filosofia ganaviTara germa


nelma filosofosma da maTematikosma laibnicma. dekartis
msgavsad, laibnicic ideebis Tandayolilobas aRiarebs. misi
azriT, faqtebis Semecneba umniSvneloa, radgan iqedan ara
viTari WeSmaritebis miReba ar SeiZleba. laibnicma jon lo
kis empiristul debulebas gonebaSi araferia iseTi, rasac
SegrZnebebSi ar gaevlos upasuxa: gonebaSi araferia iseTi,
rasac SegrZnebebSi ar gaevlos, garda Tavad gonebisa. amiT
laibnici uaryofs lokis azrs, imis Sesaxeb, rom goneba aris
dauw
ereli dafa. Tu lokisaTvis gonebis Sinaarsi sxva arafe
ria Tu ara SegrZnebebiT miRebuli codna, laibnicisaTvis go
nebaSi arsebuli codnis Sinaarsi isev gonebiT ganisazRvreba.
racionalizmis mixedviT, samyaros Semecnebis SesaZleb
loba adamianis gonebisaTvis, upirveles yovlisa, SeuzRuda
via imis gamo, rom Sesamecnebeli samyaros maradiuli ideebi
anu principebi TviTon gonebaSia mocemuli. amdenad, goneba
sakuTari imanenturi SesaZleblobiT am problemas SeuzR
udavad wyvets. aseTi racionalisturi gnoseologia Tavi
seburad ganaviTara hegelma. rogorc yvela racionalisti,
hegelic aRiar
ebs absoluturi gonis anu RmerTis arsebobas
da aqedan gamohyavs mTeli samyaro. hegelis mixedviT, yvela
movlenis safuZvelia absoluti, sulieri da gonieri sawyi
si `absoluturi idea~, `msoflio goneba~. TviT adamiani da
adamianTa istoriac swored misi gamovlenaa. amitom adamia
nis azrovnebas TviTSemecnebis gziT SeuZlia amaRldes abso
luturi ideis cnebamde da amiT gaigos da Cawvdes imas, ramac
is gamoavlina. es procesi, marTalia, rTuli dialeqtikuri
procesia, magram masSi ar arsebobs gadaulaxavi sazRvari
codnasa da arcodnas Soris. racionalizmis Semecnebis Teo
rias upirispirdeba empirizmi.

100

empirizmi
empirizmi (berZ. empiria cda) aris racion
alizmis sapi
rispiro gnoseologiuri Teoria. maTi ganmasxvavebeli niSne
bia: 1. racionalizmi emyareba gonebis maradiul principebs,
xolo empirizmi cdas da SegrZnebebs; 2. racionalizmi Ta
vis Teorias deduqciuri meTodiT ayalibebs, xolo empiriz
mi induqciur meTods iyenebs; 3. empirizmis argumenti raci
onalizmis winaaRmdeg Semdegia: racionalizmi emyareba iseT
zogad principebs, romelic TviTon moiTxovs kritikul ga
dasinjvas; mcdari safuZvlidan yovelTvis mcdari codna mi
iReba. racionalizmis zogad principebs empirizmi dogmebs
(berZnulad dausabuTebeli) uwodebs, romelic arafriT gan
sxvavdeba religiuri sqolastikisagan.
arsebobs orgvari empirizmi: materialisturi da idea
listuri. materialisturi empirizmis mixedviT, codna, ro
melic SegrZnebebiT da aRqmebiT miiReba, Seesabameba obieq
tur sinamdviles, sadac obieqturi sinamdvile gansazRvravs
codnas. xolo idealisturi empirizmis mixedviT, SegrZnebebs
TviTon aqvT specifikuri subieqturi Tvisebebi, riTac ada
miani ukavSirdeba sinamdviles. amitom aq SegrZnebebi TviTon
gansazRvraven obieqtur sinamdviles. racionalizmis winaaR
mdeg brZola swored bunebis eqsperimentuli kvlevis Semdeg
daiwyo.
ingliselma materialistma frensis bekonma (15611626 ww.)
gaakritika racionalisturi filosofia, romelsac ucvlel
dogmebze dayrdnobiT, deduqciuri meTodiT gamoyavda mcda
ri anu yalbi codna. misi azriT, aseTi yalbi codniT danagvia
nebulia adamianTa cnobiereba, romelic gawmendas moiTxovs.
cnobierebaSi arsebul yalb codnas bekoni idolebs uwodebs.
es idolebi mcdari tradiciebidan momdinareobs da saWiroa
misgan gaTavisufleba, ris erTaderT saSualebad bekoni in
duqciur meTods miiCnevs. misi azriT, mxolod induqciis
gziT miRebuli zogadi codna iZleva WeSmaritebas.
101

bekoni mxolod induqciur meTods emyareboda da racio


nalizmis msgavsad, meor
e ukiduresobaSi gadavida. Tu raci
onalizmSi erTaderT dasayrden meTods deduqcia warmoad
gens, bekonma aseve erTaderT meTodad induqcia gamoacxada.
rogorc konkretul mecnierebebSi, aseve filosofiaSic ase
Ti ukiduresobis daSveba miuRebelia, radgan induqcia da de
duqcia erTimeoris gareSe WeSmaritebas ver adgenen.
material
isturi empirizmis gnoseologiuri Teoria Ca
moayaliba ingliselma filosofosma jon lokma (1632 1704
ww.). loki icavs bekonis Sexedulebas imis Sesaxeb, rom adami
anis bunebaze gabatonebis mTavar dasayrdens TviTon bunebis
kanonebis codna iZleva. igi akritikebs dekartis mtkicebas
RmerTis arsebobis Sesaxeb. dekartis sawinaaRmdegod, loki
amtkicebs, rom RmerTis idea yvela adamians ar gaaCnia. aTe
istebs RmerTis idea ar gaaCniaT da amitom ideebis arsebobi
dan realuri arsebobis gamoyvana Secdomaa. adamianis suli
aris dauwereli dafa, sufTa furceli, sadac Tavdapirvelad
ver ipoviT veraviTar ideas, veraviTar princips, aramed ide
ebs adamian
i ayalibebs cdaze damyarebuli da cdidan mopove
buli masalis safuZvelze. amiT lokma uaryo Tandayolili
ideebis arseboba. loki sruliad sxvagvarad wyvets codnis
da saerTod ideebis warmoSobis sakiTxs. is ase msjelobs: ra
ki ar arsebobs Tandayolili ideebi, maSin unda damtkicdes,
rogor arian isini miRebuli gare samyarodan. lokis azriT,
ideebis miRebis erTaderTi safuZveli aris cda, magram cda
orgvaria, garegani da Sinagani. garegan cdas warmoadgens Seg
rZnebebis kavSiri sagnebTan, xolo Sinagani cda aris garedan
miRebul ideebze refleqsia. adamianis gonebaSi garedan Se
modis martivi ideebi, xolo refleqsiiT miiReba rTuli ide
ebi. martivi da rTuli ideebis dayofis safuZvels loki obi
eqtur sinamdvileSi eZebs. misi azriT, sagnebs aqvT pirveladi
da meoradi Tvisebebi. sagnis pirveladi Tvisebebi dakavSire
bulia TviTon saganTan, maTi CamoSoreba sagnidan SeuZlebe
lia. aseTi Tvisebebia: ganfeniloba, moZraoba, simZime da sxva.
102

xolo meoradi Tvisebebi, marTalia saganTan ar aris dakavSi


rebuli, magram is ar arsebobs Semmecnebeli subieqtis gare
Se, is ar Sees
abameba mis gamomwvev mizezebs da uSualod su
bieqtTan aris dakavSirebuli. aseTebia: feri, gemo, suni, xma
da sxva. magram loks ar aqvs pasuxi kiTxvaze: ra aris meoradi
Tvisebebis gamomwvevi mizezi.
lokis mier sagnebis pirvelad da meorad Tvisebebad dayo
fam xeli Seuwyo sensualizmisa da agnosticizmis warmoSobas.
sensualizms mTeli sinamdvile SegrZnebebze dahyavs, xolo
agnosticizms Semecnebis sagnad mxolod movlenebis samyaro
miaCnia; rac Seexeba movlenebis mizezobriv kavSirs, is Seu
mecnebad samyarod cxaddeba.
sensualizmi aris idealisturi empirizmi. misi tipiuri
warmomadgenelia ingliseli filosofosi jorj berkli (1684
1753 ww.). Cven zemoT vnaxeT, rogor uaryo berklma materi
is arseboba SegrZnebebis safuZvelze. aqedan cxadia, rom ber
kli Semecnebis erTaderT wyarod SegrZnebebs miiCnevs. is ar
eTanxmeba lokis azrs sagnis pirvelad da meorad Tvisebebad
dayofis Sesaxeb. misi azriT, saganSi araferi ar rCeba iseTi,
rac TavisTavad arsebobdes, aramed sagnebi unaSTod iSle
bian SegrZnebebze. amitom codna, romelic Cven gvaqvs, aris
subieqtis SegrZnebaTa Tviseba, kompleqsi. am TvisebaTa iqeT
araferi ar arsebobs. maS, ra unda daisaxos miznad adamianma
Semecnebis TvalsazrisiT? am kiTxvaze berkli pasuxobs: ada
mianma unda Seimecnos TviTon SegrZnebebis da grZnobebis ka
nonzomiereba. magram kiTxvas saidan Cndeba CvenSi aseTi Seg
rZnebebi? berkli RmerTis arsebobiT xsnis: RmerTma Cven
aseTi SegrZnebebi mogvaniWa da ase vxedavT samyaros, RmerTs
rom CvenTvis sxvanairi SegrZnebebi moeniWebina, maSin sxvagva
rad davinaxavdiT samyaros.
empiristuli filosofia berklis Semdeg sxvadasxva for
miT gagrZelda pozitivizmSi, neopozitivizmSi da postpozi
tivizmSi. marTalia, am filosofiur mimdinareobebSi azrov
nebis rolis uaryofa ar xdeba (piriqiT azrovneba awarmoebs
103

mniSvnelovan SemecnebiT logikur operaciebs), magram Semec


nebis erTaderT wyarod cda da eqsperimenti cxaddeba. maTi
azriT, logikurad Camoyalibebuli debulebis WeSmariteba
damokidebulia cdaze; Tu cdaSi ar xerxdeba romelime debu
lebis Semowmeba anu verifikacia, maSin es debuleba WeSmari
tebis mniSvnelobas kargavs. e. i. neopozitivizmSi Semecnebis
erTaderT dasayrdens cda warmoadgens da cda gansazRvravs
Semecnebis mizansac. amitom, mecnierebam unda wamoayenos ise
Ti debulebebi, romelic cdaSi Semowmebadia. Tu debulebebi
am moTxovnas ver asruleben, maSin maTi uaryofa xdeba. aq Se
mecnebis mizans da mis praqtikul daniSnulebas sargebliano
bis principi gansazRvravs. is, rac ar emsaxureba am princips,
mecnierebisaTvis miuRebelia. swored amis gamoa miuRebeli
neopozitivizmSi imgvari msoflmxedvelobrivi sakiTxebis
kvleva, romelic cdis gareT gadis; aseTebia samyaros sasru
loba usasrulobis, mizezobriobis, substanciis da sxva sa
kiTxebi. maTi azriT, es ar aris filosofiis kvlevis sagani. es
metafizikuri problemaa, romelzec mxolod religiam unda
imsjelos. amis gamo miiCneven, rom empirizmi aris calmxrivi
gnoseologiuri Teoria. empirizmma ver SeZlo imanenturisa
da transcendenturis dakavSireba, ver SeZlo xidis gadeba
imanentursa da transcendentur samyaros Soris. amis gareSe
ki araviTari srulyofili gnoseologiuri Teoria ar yalib
deba. is dResac gnoseologiis gadauwyvetel problemas war
moadgens.
transcendenturisa da imanenturis cnebebi kargad gamo
ikveTa agnosticizmis TeoriaSi.

104

agnosticizmi
agnosticizmi codnis anu Semecnebis uaryofas niSnavs.
misTvis damaxasiaTebelia adamianis Semmecnebeli unare
bis SezRud
ulobis aRiareba, ris gamoc Semecneba mTavrdeba
iq, sadac es unarebi Zalas kargaven. amitom ontologiur
i ka
nonzomierebis kvleva Semecnebis kompetencias ar Seadgens.
ra kavSiria mizezsa da Sedegs Soris, movlenasa da arsebas
Soris, erTeulsa da zogads Soris, SemTxveviTobasa da auci
leblobas Soris da sxva ontologiur problemebze msjelo
ba SeuZlebelia. filosofia Tu mainc imsjelebs am sakiTxeb
ze, mxolod albaTur codnasTan gveqneba saqme.
agnosticizmi subieqtur idealistur filosofias war
moadgens. berklis subieqturi idealizmi agnosticizmis mi
marTulebiT devid iumma (1711 1776 ww.). ganaviTara. iumis
azriT, adamianis cnobierebaSi araferia, garda STabeWdile
bebisa da ideebisa. STabeWdilebebi miiReba SegrZnebebis sa
fuZvelze, xolo ideebi aris am STabeWdilebaTa warmosaxva.
iumi amtkicebs, rom STabeWdilebebi ufro mkafio xasiaTisaa,
xolo ideebi am STabeWdilebaTa sust aslebs warmoadgenen.
ideebs yovelTvis win uswrebs STabeWdilebebi, amitom ar ar
sebobs ideeb
i STabeWdilebebis gareSe. yvela STabeWdile
bas imeorebs martivi idea. magram arsebobs rTuli ideebic.
rTul ideebs warmoadgens martiv ideaTa SeerTeba da warmo
saxva. iumisaTvis miuRebelia mTeli sinamdvilis SegrZnebeb
ze dayvana, radgan arsebobs subieqtisagan damoukidebeli
transcendentaluri samyaroc, magram mis Sesaxeb WeSmari
tebis TvalsazrisiT verafers davamtkicebT. iumi ase msje
lobs: Cveni Semecnebis obieqti ar SeiZleba Cvens gareT iyos,
Cvens gareSe araferi ar warmoidgineba, ar SeiZleba msjeloba
imaze, rac ar viciT. STabeWdilebebze dayrdnobiT da ideaTa
kavSiriT, Cven garemos mxolod warmovsaxavT, magram ra aris
TavisTavad es garemo, amis Sesaxeb verafers gavigebT.
devid iumis dasmuli kiTxva, Tu rogor SeiZleba miRebuli
105

iqnas axali codna, romelic obieqturic iqneba da sayovelTa


obis matarebelic, germanelma filosofosma imanuel kantma
gansxvavebulad gadawyvita.
kanti aris germanuli klasikuri filosofiis fuZemde
beli. is Tavdapirvelad bunebaTmecnieri iyo. man Seqmna mzis
sistemis agebulebisa da misi warmoSoba ganviTarebis meqa
nikuri Teoria, romelsac im droisaTvis garkveuli mecnieru
li Rirebuleba hqonda, magram kants msoflio aRiareba misma
filosofiam moutana. vinaidan iumma ver monaxa codnis obieq
turobisa da sayovelTaobis safuZvlebi, kantma filosofiis
gadaudebel da umniSvnelovanes problemad maTi Zieba daisaxa.
kanti ase msjelobs: arsebobs fizika da maTematika da arsebobs
mecnieruli codna, es udavoa, magram saWiroa gairkves, rogor
aris SesaZlebeli mecnieruli codna, rogoria is logikuri
pirobebi, riTac unda gavamarTloT mecnieruli codnis sayo
velTaoba da aucilebloba. kanti kargad xedavs empirizmisa
da racionalizmis calmxrivobas da cdilobs am calmxrivobis
gadalaxvas. misi azriT, radgan mecnieruli codna ver aSende
ba verc mxolod cdis safuZvelze da verc mxolod gonebis sa
SualebiT, amitom unda moxerxdes maTi SeerTeba anu sinTezi.
kantis mixedviT mecnieruli codna Rirebulia maSin, Tu is si
axles iZleva. misi azriT, bunebismecniereba sinTezuri da axa
li codnis matarebelia, magram aseTi codna SemTxveviTobazea
damyarebuli. xolo maTematika aprioruli da analizuri mec
nierebaa, romelic ar saWiroebs araviTar cdiseul Semowmebas,
masSi mocemulia aucilebloba da sayovelTaoba, magram aseTi
codna araviTar siaxles ar Seicavs. kantis am msjelobidan Cans
empirizmisa da racionalizmis naklis Sevsebis aucilebloba.
es ormxrivi nakli rom daiZlios, kantis azriT, SesaZlebeli
unda gaxdes iseTi msjelobebis miReba, romelic erTdroulad
apriorulic iqneba da sinTezuric, e.i. unda mivaRwioT sinTe
zur aprioruli msjelobebis miRebis da gamarTlebis SesaZ
leblobas.
kanti eTanxmeba iumisa da saerTod empirizmis daskvnas, rom
106

cda TavisTavad araviTar aucileblobas da sayovelTaobas ar


iZleva. magram aucileblobis arseboba mecnieruli faqtia da
saWiroa misi axsna. kantis azriT, radgan cda aucileblobas ar
iZleva, is unda moiZebnos TviT adamianis cnobierebaSi. swored
aseT Ziebas man miuZRvna Tavisi fundamenturi naSromi, romel
sac `wminda gonebis kritika~ uwoda. kanti, kvleva Ziebisa da
kritikuli analizis safuZvelze, mivida im daskvnamde, rom mec
nieruli codnis obieqturobis, aucileblobisa da sayovelTa
obis safuZveli adamianis cnobierebaSia mocemuli. misi azriT,
cnobierebas aqvs sami unari: grZnobadoba, gansja da goneba.
grZnobadoba warmoiSoba maSin, rodesac adamianis cnobiereba
ukavSirdeba mis gareT arsebul sagnebs, rasac kanti movlenebs
uwodebs. movlenebis moqmedeba adamianis grZnobadobaze iZ
leva saazrovno masalas, romelic TavisTavad gauformebelia.
mas aformebs, awesrigebs grZnobadobis aprioruli unari, ro
melsac kanti wminda drosa da wminda sivrces uwodebs. e.i. cdis
sagnebSi wesrigi Seaqvs subieqtSi arsebul apriorul drosa da
sivrces, xolo sivrcisa da drois aprioruli formebiT mowes
rigebul fenomenebs gansjis unari akavSirebs da am kavSirs wmin
da kategoriebSi gamoxatavs. es kategoriebia: aucilebloba, mi
zezobrioba, sayovelTaoba, substanciuroba da sxva. amrigad,
iumis mier wamoWrili problema, rom cda ar iZleva aucileblo
basa da sayovelTaobis kanons, kantma ase gadawyvita: aucileb
loba da sayovelTaoba arsebobs ara transcendenturis sfero
Si, aramed is subieqtis imanentur kanonzomierebaSia mocemuli.
aqedan gamomdinare, kanti askvnis: kanonebi, romlebzec mecnie
reba msjelobs, bunebis kanonebs ki ar warmoadgenen, aramed bu
nebaSi kanonebi TviTon cnobierebas Seaqvs, e. i. cnobierebis ap
rioruli formebi gansazRvraven bunebis kanonebs da saerTod
bunebas. amitom Semecneba niSnavs ara bunebis Semecnebas, aramed
subieqtSi arsebuli kanonzomierebis Semecnebas. kants cnobie
rebis aprioruli unarebidan gamoyavs ara mxolod aucileblo
ba da sayovelTaoba, aramed is amtkicebs, rom es aucilebloba
da sayovelTaoba obieqturic aris. ras niSnavs obieqturoba?
107

kantis azriT, is rac yvela adamianisTvis sayovelTaoa, obieq


turic aris. Tu moiZebneba sxvagvarad moazrovne adamiani, ro
melsac ar eqneba sayovelTao struqturis aprioruli cnobi
ereba, maSin obieqturoba misTvis sruliad sxva iqneba, magram
adamianTa modgmas erTnairi `struqturis~ cnobiereba aqvs da
amitom sayovelTao codna obieqturia; adamiani ase rom msje
lobs da ara sxvanairad, es codnis obieqturobis maCvenebelia.
kantis filosofiaSi cnobierebis sam unars grZnobadobas,
gansjas da gonebas sami done Seesabameba: empiriuli cnobiere
ba, transcendentaluri cnobiereba da ideebi. Semecnebis miza
nia empiriuli donidan transcendentalur doneze amaRleba. am
process adamiani grZnobadobaSi miRebuli codnis gaazrebisa
da kategoriebSi dakavSirebis safuZvelze axorcielebs.
maS, raSi mdgomareobs kantis agnosticizmis arsi? kantis
mixedviT, Semmecnebeli subieqti WeSmaritebas adgens mxolod
movlenaTa sferos mimarT. cnobierebaSi gaformebul movle
nebs kanti fenomenebs uwodebs. misi azriT, swored fenome
nebze SeiZleba WeSmariteba mcdarobis mtkiceba. xolo, rac
Seexeba movlenebis miRma arsebul `nivTs TavisTavads~, ro
melic subieqts grZnobadobaSi ar eZleva, mis Sesaxeb gonebis
msjeloba iZleva ara fenomenebs, aramed noumenebs. noumeneb
ze gamoTqmuli msjelobebi arc WeSmaritia da arc mcdari, is
ar ekuTvnis mecnieruli Semecnebis sferos, aramed metafizi
kis sagania. metafizika kantis azriT, ar aris mecniereba, mag
ram es imas ar niSnavs, rom filosofiam is uaryo. piriqiT, meta
fizikuri problemebi filosofiisaTvis moucilebadia. iseTi
problemebi, rogoric aris RmerTis arseboba ararsebobis,
sasruloba usasrulobis, aucilebloba Tavisuflebis da
sxva, adamianisaTvis regulatur funqcias asruleben. kantis
azriT, SeuZlebelia yovlad sruli ideis arsebobiT RmerTis
arseboba vamtkicoT, magram es ar gamoricxavs RmerTis Sesaxeb
msjelobas. is amtkicebs, rom RmerTis arsebobis ontologiu
ri dasabuTeba SeuZlebelia, magram misi daSveba an ardaSveba
SesaZlebelia. es Tavisuflebisa da nebelobis sferos gane
108

kuTvneba, romelic adamians praqtikuli moqmedebisTvis sWir


deba da aranakleb mniSvnelovania. kanti nebelobasa da adamia
nis praqtikul moqmedebas zneobis sferos akuTvnebs.
bolos unda iTqvas, rom kantma Tavisi gnoseologiuri Te
oriiT ver SeZlo imanenturi da transcendenturi samyaros
dakavSireba, radgan man Semecneba SemosazRvra mxolod movle
nebis sferoTi, xolo `nivTi TavisTavadi~ Seumecnebad tran
scendentur sinamdviled gamoacxada. swored amis gamo ewoda
kantis Semecnebis Teorias agnosticizmi da imanentizmi.
kantma Tavisi imanenturi filosofia, romlis mixedviTac,
adamiani Semecnebis procesSi TviTon qmnis bunebas, koperniki
seul gadatrialebas Seadara. rogorc cnobilia, kopernikamde
Cveni galaqtikis centrad dedamiwa miaCndaT, xolo kopernikma
daamtkica, rom galaqtikis centrSi mze imyofeba. am gadatri
alebis mniSvnelobas kanti SemdegSi xedavs: misi azriT, aqam
de mecnierebasa da filosofias gulubryvilod miaCnda, rom
codna Seesabameba realobas, amitom codnis asaxsnelad sinam
dviles mimarTavdnen. kantis azriT es piriqiTaa. Tu gvinda ga
vigoT mecnieruli codna ra kanonzomierebisaa, amisaTvis un
da mivmarToT sakuTar imanentur cnobierebas da ara bunebas.
kantis azriT, imanenturi da transcendenturi cnobiereba
TviTon gansazRvravs bunebis kanonzomierebas.
kantis filosofiuri moZRvreba mravali problemis mom
cvelia, mis safuZvelze ganviTarda ara mxolod germanuli
klasikuri filosofia, aramed misi gavlena bevrma filosofi
urma mimdinareobam ganicada. yvelam sxvadasxvagvarad gaigo
kantis filosofia da yvela kants Tvlida Tavis winamorbedad.
kantis kritikuli filosofia, ZiriTadad, racionalistur
moZRvrebas warmoadgens. misi racionalizmi vrceldeba mxo
lod movlenaTa sferoze. xolo roca goneba movlenebis sfe
rodan `nivTi TavisTavadis~ samyaroSi gasvlas cdilobs, maSin
goneba, marTalia WeSmaritebas ver adgens, magram is dialeqti
kur azrovnebas emyareba da ara emociur an mistikur intuici
as, rogorc es intuitivizmSia.
109

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ras Seiswavlis gnoseologia?
ra moiazreba cnebebSi `Semecnebis obieqti~ da `Semecnebis
subieqti~?
romeli SemecnebiTi unarebi axasiaTebs adamians? ra mimar
Tebaa maT Soris Semecnebis procesSi?
ra msgavseba-gansxvavebaa empirizms, sensualizmsa da raci
onalizms Soris ?
ra aris WeSmariteba?
ra aris intuicia?
ra saerTo damaxasiaTebeli niSani axasiaTebs agnosti
cizms?
gaaanalizeT sokrates gamonaTqvamebi: `Seican Tavi Seni~ da
`me vici, rom araferi ar vici~.

110

Tavi V
socialuri da aqsiologiuri problemebi
filosofiaSi.
kultura da civilizacia
kulturis filosofia kulturis, rogorc universalur
da yovlismomcvel fenomenze orientirebuli filosofiu
ri disciplinaa. igi Camoyalibda ori saukunis mijnaze XVIII
saukunis bolosa da XIX saukunis dasawyisSi. termini `kul
turfilosofia pirvelad ixmara germanelma romantikosma
a. miulerma. Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom kulturis Sesaxeb
calkeuli mosazrebebi bevrad ufro adre, evropuli cno
bierebis ganviTarebis TiTqmis yvela etapze aRiniSneboda.
kulturis filosofia ikvlevs Semdeg problemebs: ra aris
kultura? rogoria misi damokidebuleba bunebasTan? ra ga
napirobebs sxvadasxva kulturebis arsebobas? ra kavSiria
kulturasa da civilizacias Soris? ra udevs safuZvlad
kulturisa da civilizaciis ganviTarebas? da sxva.
sazogadoeba mravali qvesistemis Semcveli mTliani war
monaqmnia. sainteresoa: aris ki maT Soris romelime gan
msazRvreli da ganmapirobebeli? yoveli sazogadoeba, yo
veli qveyana ganumeoreblad Taviseburi da TviTmyofadia
Tavisi unikaluri istoriiT, kulturiT, tradiciebiT. es
TavisTavad gulisxmobs garkveuli faqtorebis arsebobas,
romlebic gancalkevebul socialur qvesistemebs aerTiane
ben raRac xarisxobrivad gansazRvrul mTlianobaSi. Tana
medrove filosofiaSi sazogadoebis mTlianobis dasaxasia
Teblad iyeneben kulturisa da civilizaciis cnebebs.
arsebobs mosazreba, rom kultura `meore bunebaa~. ase
Tvlidnen Zvel saberZneTSi (magaliTad, demokrite miiCnev
da, rom adamiani yovelTvis baZavda bunebas da swavlobda
misgan. cxovelebisagan igi bevriT aris davalebuli obobam
qsova da kerva aswavla, mercxalma sabudaris aSeneba, momRe
111

ralma Citebma simRera da sxva). ramdenad swori da misaRebia


es gansazRvreba? zogadi TvalsazrisiT, albaT, SeiZleba da
veTanxmoT. magram, imavdroulad, aucileblad unda gaver
kvioT upirispirdeba kultura bunebas, Tu ara?
sazogadod miCneulia, rom yovelive, rac adamianis xeli
Taa Seqmnili, kulturis sferos ganekuTneba: buneba adamia
nisTvisaa Seqmnili. igi ki, Tavdauzogavad Sromobs da qmnis
`meore bunebas~ kulturis sivrces. Tu davukvirdebiT,
kultura, upirveles yovlisa, bunebiTi fenomenia, Tundac
imitom, rom misi Semoqmedi adamiania, anu biologiuri arse
ba. garda amisa, bunebis gareSe arc kultura iqneboda, radgan
adamiani, qmnis ra xelovnur samyaros, bunebis resursebs iye
nebs. qmnadobis am procesSi igi sakuTar bunebriv potencials
amJRavnebs da warmoaCens. kultura, uwinaresad, instinqte
bis gadalaxva da bunebis daZlevis aqtia. cnobilia, rom cxo
velsac SeuZlia Seqmnas kulturis msgavsi raRac: futkrebi,
magaliTad, umSvenieres arqiteqturul nagebobas, fiWebs
akeTeben; obobas qseli, nadirobis iaraRi, gvaocebs Tavisi
srulyofilebiT; Taxvebi kaSxals ageben. gamodis, rom cxo
velebic qmnian raRac iseTs, rac bunebaSi ar iyo. nuTu, esec
kulturaa?
Cven ukve viciT, rom yvela cocxali arsebis (ra Tqma un
da, adamianis garda) moRvaweob
a daprogramirebulia instin
qtebiT. Tumca, moRvaweobasac ver davarqmevT am saqmianobas,
radgan mxolod imis Seqmna SeuZliaT, rac maT bunebiT ganpi
robebul programaSia Cadebuli. Tavisufali SemoqmedebiTi
moRvaweoba maTTvis ucxo da miuwvdomelia. futkars Zala ar
Seswevs moqsovos qseli, oboba ki ver SesZlebs yvavilebisa
gan neqtaris aRebas. imisaTvis rom Seqmnas kultura, adamiani
dasaCuqrebuli unda iyos raRac gansakuTrebuli niWiT, mad
liT, unariT, romelic ar aris Cadebuli mis saxeobiT prog
ramaSi. aseT moulodnel monapovarzea saubari uZveles miTSi
cecxlze, rogorc kulturis pirvelsawyisze.
promeTe titan iapetisa da qalRmerT Temidas Svili iyo.
112

igi simamacisa da simtkicis, Tavisuflebisa da adamianebisadmi


siyvarulis, progresisa da kacobriobis keTildReobisaTvis
mebrZolis maradiul simbolod aris miCneuli. miTi mogviTx
robs, rom promoTe mtkiced daudga gverdSi zevs, roca man
axali, ufro samarTliani wesrigis damyareba daisaxa miznad
da d
D aufiqreblad ganudga, rodesac zevsi sastik tiranad Ca
moyalibda da umweo kacTa modgmis ganadgurebac ki ganizraxa.
promeTes uyvarda adamianebi, yovelTvis TanaugrZnobda mas
ze sustebsa da umweoebs. igi ar SeuSinda yovlisSemZle Rmer
Tis risxvas da adamianTa gadarCena gadawyvita. man adamianebs
imedi gauRviva da olimpos wminda keridan cecxlic aCuqa. misi
wyalobiT adamianebi mixvdnen, rom cecxli marto saSiSroeba
ki ar iyo, aramed xsna da daxmarebac imavdroulad. promeTem
aswavla maT liTonis gamodnoba da xelsawyoebis damzadeba;
wera, kiTxva, angariSi; miaCvia Sromas; man adamianebisaTvis mo
aSinaura gareuli xari da uReli daadga kiserze, raTa maT miwa
daemuSavebinaT; promeTem gaxedna cxeni da aiZula is adamians
damorCileboda; pirveli xomaldic man augo adamianebs; aswav
la mkurnalobis meTodebi da wamlebis moxmareba; da bolos,
keTilmezoblobasa da mSvidobian Tanacxovrebas miaCvia.
amrigad, promeTe adamians `WeSmarit Semoqmedad~ moev
lina: gamoiyvana bunebiTi, veluri mdgomareobidan da go
nier arsebad aRzarda da Camoayaliba. magram promeTem daS
vebulis zRvars gadaaWarba da zevsma samaradJamod dasaja
kidec igi. miuxedavad sastiki sasjelisa, amayi da mamaci
promeTe ar nanobda adamianebisaTvis gaweul daxmarebas.
filosofiur i kuTxi T rog or i daskvna SeiZleba gakeT
des Cveni TemisaTv is am miT id an? upirveles yovlisa, unda
aRiniSnos, rom miTS i warm oC en il ia CvenTvis ukve cnobili
faqti kultur a sxva rea l ob aa , vidre buneba. igi, SeiZle
ba iTqvas, saCuq ar ia , roml is meSv eobiTac adamia nebi, bu
nebis Svilebi, ezia r en srul ia d gansxvavebul cxovrebas.
es garkveuli amx edr eb ac aris bun eb is winaaRmdeg. tyui
lad xom ar aris miCn eu l i evr op ul kulturaSi kulturis
113

saTaveebTan mdgar i prom oT e gmir is, mebrZolisa da meam


boxis simbolod.
gasaTvaliswinebelia miTSi mocemuli kidev erTi Strixi.
adamianisaTvis kultura sulac ar aris ubralo da uvnebeli
monapovari. es `saCuqari~ saSiSroebasac Seicavs. miTi gvaf
rTxilebs kidec, rom misi ganviTareba garkveul dramatiz
mTan aris dakavSirebuli. kulturas adamianisaTvis marto
sikeTe ar moaqvs, aramed samagierosac azRvevinebs daufiq
rebeli moqmedebisaTvis.
promeTes miTidan CvenTvis mTavari Semdegia: kultura
buneba ar aris, igi xelovnuri Semoqmedebis nayofia; kultu
ra garkveuli radikaluri Semobrunebaa samyaros organul
ganviTarebaSi.
da mainc, ra aris kultura? kultura laTinurad damu
Savebas, movlas niSnavs. pirvelad es termini gamoiyena Zv. w.
III II saukunis romaelma moRvawem katonma. man dawera wig
ni soflis meurneobis Sesaxeb, sadac sityva `kultura~ ix
mara miwis, niadagis damuSavebis, movla patronobis aRsa
niSnavad. Semdgom am terminma Seicvala Tavisi mniSvneloba
da gamoyenebul iqna adamianis sulieri saqmianobis mimarT.
amis dasturia cnobili gamoTqma `filosofia aris sulis
kultura~, romelic ekuTvnis Zv. w. I saukunis mozrovnes ci
cerons (Zv. w. 106 143). e.i. mas mxedvelobaSi qonda ukve ara
miwis damuSaveba, aramed suliereba, sulis kultura anu fi
losofia. antikur cnobierebaSi cneba kultura gaigivebu
li iyo cneba `paideia~-sTan, e.i. ganaTlebulobasTan. pla
tonis azriT, paideia adamianis, mTeli misi arsebis Secvlis
saxelmZRvanelo principia.
Sua saukuneebSi ufro xSirad ixmareboda sityva `kulti~,
vidre `kultura~. igi gulisxmobda da asaxavda adamianis
unars, miswrafebas RmerTis siyvarulSi warmoeCina da gane
xorcielebina sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi potenciali.
renesansis epoqaSi xdeba kulturaze antikurobis Se
xedulebebis aRorZineba. es ki, upirveles yovlisa, niSnavs
114

adamianis aqtiuri SemoqmedebiTi sawyisis warmoCinebas, rac


amaRlebuli, harmoniuli ganviTarebisaken swrafvaSi gamoi
xateba. am periodSi safuZveli eyreba kulturis gaigivebis
tendencias sulieri moRvaweobis sxvadasxva sferoebTan:
moralTan, xelovnebasTan, filosofiasTan, religiasTan.
ganmanaTleblobis epoqis filosofosebi kulturas ga
nixilavdnen, rogorc adamianuri moRvaweobis avtonomiur
da RirebulebiT sferos. kulturis umniSvnelovanesi as
peqti, maTi azriT, gonebis taZris agebaa. maTve SeimuSaves
kulturuli moRvaweobis kriteriumebis sistema: kulturu
li moRvaweoba unda iyos inteleqtualuri, SemoqmedebiTi,
produqtiuli, novatoruli.
XIX saukuneSi kultura, upirveles yovlisa, gagebuli
iyo, rogorc RirebulebaTa da ideebis sistema.
kultura warmoudgenelia adamianis gareSe: man Seq
mna igi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es bunebaa, romelsac adamiani
`xelmeored qmnis~ da amiT imkvidrebs Tavs, rogorc adamia
ni. gardaqmnis ra mis garemomcvel bunebas, adamiani sakuTar
Tavsac, e.i. Tavis Sinagan adamianur bunebasac gardaqmnis. ma
Sasadame, adamianisaTvis YmTavari marto bunebis aTviseba da
misi gardaqmna ar aris, bevrad ufro mniSvnelovania Sinagani
bunebis wvdoma da srulyofisaken swrafva. am azriT uwodeb
dnen adamians yovelTvis `kulturul adamians~, e.i. `Semoq
medebiT adamians~. frangi kulturologis Jan mari benuas
azriT, kultura adamianuri moRvaweobis specifikaa, is, rac
axasiaTebs adamians, rogorc saxeobas. amaoa adamianis Zieba
kulturamdel periodSi. misi gamoCena istoriis arenaze uk
ve kulturis fenomenad unda ganvixiloT. igi siRrmiseula
daa dakavSirebuli adamianis arsTan da adamianis, rogorc
adamianad gansazRvris aucilebel niuans warmoadgens.
kultura adamianis mier Seqmnili obieqtebis namdvili
saganZuria. magram, sainteresoa, ram ganapiroba es araCveu
lebrivi gadasvla bunebrividan arabunebrivze? germaneli
filosofosi karl iaspersi, msjelobda ra kulturis wina
115

istoriul periodze, aRniSnavda: `Cven araferi viciT arc is


toriis SemoqmedebiT momentebze, arc sulieri srulyofis
formebze, CvenTvis mxolod Sedegebia cnobili da am Sede
gebis safuZvelze gvixdeba daskvnebis gakeTeba~. arsebiTi am
Tvisobriv naxtomSi, albaT, mainc Semdegi momentebia: cecx
lisa da xelsawyoebis gamoyeneba; metyvelebis warmoSoba;
adamianTa jgufebisa da erTobebis Camoyalibeba, romlebic
safuZvelSive gansxvavdebian sxva cocxali arsebebis jgufe
bisa da erTobebisagan, ramdenadac emyarebian gacnobiere
bul urTierTobebs.
adamiani bunebas mxolod im azriT gaemijna, rom sakuTa
ri adamianuri samyaro Seeqmna kulturis, rogorc msoflio
evoluciis Semdgomi safexuris, samyaro. magram, imavdrou
lad, igi akavSirebs kidec bunebasa da kulturas. kulturis,
rogorc adamianis Semoqmedebis nayofsa da bunebas Soris da
makavSirebeli rgolis rols asrulebs moRvaweoba, e.i. adami
anis mravalmxrivi, Tavisufali aqtivoba, romelsac garkveu
li Sedegi moaqvs. igi, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bevrad ufro
farTo movlenaa, vidre is, rac instinqtebSia `Cawerili~. aseT
aqtivobas adamianis goneba, nebisyofa da grZnobebi ganapiro
beben. adamianis moRvaweoba, upirveles yovlisa, misi cnobie
rebis aqtivobaa, cnobiereba ki kulturuli movlenac aris da
kulturuli Semoqmedebis saSualebac. am azriT kultura ga
nisazRvreba, rogorc mTeli kacobriobis moRvaweobis Sedegi,
sulieric da materialuric.
adamiani unikaluri Semoqmedia. igi miiswrafvis ara marto
naxevradgacnobierebuli operaciebis Sesrulebisaken, ara
med gaazrebuli saqmianobis, moRvaweobisaken. swored es aris
mTavari da swored amiT gansxvavdeba misi mM oRvaweoba, vTqvaT,
obobas instinqturi reaqciebisagan. gaazrebul saqmianobas
win uswrebs idealuri proeqti (borblis idea ufro adre da
ibada, vidre Seiqmna Tavad borbali). swored aq ibadeba Semoq
medebiTi moRvaweoba, romelic SeuZlebelia gonebis, winaswar
dasaxuli miznebis gaazrebisa da Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebis,
116

Semfasebluri poziciis gareSe. es aris adamianis Semoqmedebi


Ti, Tavisufali moRvaweoba.
erTi ram aris gasaTvaliswinebeli. adamianis moRvaweoba
mravalmxrivia. mravalferovania misi Sedegebic, adamianuri
aqtivobis produqtebi. yvela maTgani ganekuTvneba kultu
ris sferos? magaliTad, aris Tu ara guTnis Seqmna kulturis
aqti? Seqmnis mizani da idea, konkretuli moqmedebebis geg
ma da a.S., adamianis gonebisa da sulis muSaobis elementebia,
gamzadebuli guTani ki civilizaciis monapovaria. e.i. adami
anis xeliT Seqmnili yvela sagani ar ganekuTvneba kulturis
sferos. verc imas vityviT, rom yvela adamiani kulturulia.
ukulturoba, anu kulturis dabali done, erT rameze mig
vaniSnebs mosaxleobis garkveuli nawili CamoSorda Tavis
kulturas. uwignuroba, uzneoba, kulturis normebis Sesaba
misi qcevebis, urTierTobis Cvevebis arqona, bunebisadmi gul
grili, daufiqrebeli, gauazrebeli damokidebuleba da daba
li kulturuli donis sxva msgavsi gamovlinebebi, araswori,
cudi politikis, an sulac misi ararsebobis Sedegia. ukultu
roba Segnebuli politikis Sedegic SeiZleba iyos, romelsac,
albaT, antikulturas Tu vuwodebT da rasac, rogorc wesi,
saukunebis ganmavlobaSi Seqmnili da Camoyalibebuli kultu
ruli Rirebulebebis gaufasureba-ganadgureba mosdevs (Cve
ni axali istoriisaTvisac iyo damaxasiaTebeli kulturisad
mi msgavsi nihilisturi damokidebuleba, rac, magaliTad, e.w.
`proletaruli kulturis~ zeobis periodSi gamoixateboda
taZrebis ngreviT, xatebis SebilwviT, sxvagvarad moazrovne
cnobili kulturuli da sazogado moRvaweebis wignebis ak
rZalviT, mwerlebis, xelovani adamianebis, sasuliero pire
bis fizikuri ganadgurebiT).
garda amisa, arsebobs saqmianobis iseTi saxeebi, romlebic
Sors arian SemoqmedebiTi wvis procesisagan. am SemTxvevaSi Se
moqmedebaze saubari marTebuli ar iqneba. es, erTxel ukve aR
moCenilis, Seqmnilis aRdgenaa, rogorc Cvens magaliTSi: guTnis
ideac da misi gadamuSaveba-srulyofac kulturis sferoa, xo
117

lo Tavad guTani civilizaciis. raRa Tqma unda, aseTi gamijvna


pirobiTia, magram aucilebelia sakiTxis ukeT gaazrebisaTvis.
kulturis cnebaSi moiazreba materialur da sulier Ri
rebulebaTa sistema, maTi Seqmnis saSualebebi, adamianis
formireba, romelsac Zala Seswevs aiTvisos winamorbedi da
Tanamedrove Taobebis gamocdileba da gamoiyenos igi axali
RirebulebiTi sistemis Sesaqmnelad. TiToeuli kultura
Seicavs mdgrad, ucvlel elementebs, e.i. kulturul uni
versaliebs (sazogadoebrivi warmoeba, Sroma, Tavisufali
dro da urTierToba, sazogadoebrivi wesrigi da marTva, ga
naTleba da aRzrda, sulieri cxovreba religia, zneobri
vi cnobiereba, xelovneba, literatura da sxva) da warmaval
elementebs, romlebic warmoiSvebian da qrebian konkretul
istoriul pirobebSi.
kulturis mTlianoba, romelsac adamiani yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi awydeba, esaa adamianis materialuri da sulie
ri cxovrebis, saerTod materialuri da sulieri kulturis
mTlianoba. maT Soris zRvari pirobiTia.
materialuri kultura. materialur kulturaSi Sedis ma
terialuri warmoebis saSualebani, arqiteqturuli Zeglebi,
Senoba nagebobani, komunikaciisa da satransporto saSua
lebani, parkebi, adamianis mier saxecvlili landSafti da a.S.
garda amisa, materialuri kultura moicavs warsulis Zeg
lebs, arqeologiur obieqtebs da sxva.
sulieri kultura moicavs, erTi mxriv, sulieri moRva
weobis Sedegebs, meore mxriv, TviT am moRvaweobas. sulieri
kulturis artefaqtebi sxvadasxva formiT arsebobs. esenia:
zne-Cveulebani da adamianis qcevis formebi, Camoyalibebuli
konkretul-istoriul pirobebSi; zneobrivi, esTetikuri, re
ligiuri da politikuri idealebi, mecnieruli codna da sxva.
es aris inteleqtualuri, sulieri moRvaweobis Sedegebi.
kulturis subieqtia individi (pirovneba), socialuri
jgufi an mTlianad sazogadoeba. ganasxvaveben jgufur (erov
nuli, didi da patara qalaqis, megapolisis, soflis, klasis,
118

profesiuli jgufis da a.S.) da individualur kulturas. Ta


namedrove sazogadoebaSi jgufuri kulturis farglebSi
ansxvaveben masobriv da elitarul kulturas.
elitaruli kultura SeiZleba ganvmartoT, rogorc pi
rovnuli sawyisis Zieba da damkvidreba. igi rTuli, serio
zuli da daxvewilia da gamoirCeva novatoruli xasiaTiT.
misi produqcia gaTvlilia sazogadoebis daxvewil inte
leqtualur elitaze.
masobrivi kulturis warmoSobas xeli Seuwyo masobrivi
komunikaciebis saSualebaTa ganviTarebam gazeTebi, po
pularuli Jurnalebi, radio, televizia, kinematografi,
kompiuteri, interneti. am saSualebaTa wyalobiT samomxma
reblo bazari gadavsebulia mrvalricxovani `boevikebiT~,
`sapnis operebiT~, deteqtivebiT, bestselerebiT. arsebu
li mdgomareoba araerTgvarovnad SeiZleba Sefasdes. erTis
mxriv, kultura bevrad ufro demokratiuli xasiaTis gax
da, anu kulturas eziara sazogadoebis farTo auditoria;
meore mxriv, informaciis masobriv saSualebaTa komercia
lizaciam ganapiroba iseTi saSualebebis gamoyeneba, romle
bic aqveiTeben mis SemoqmedebiT potencials, amdableben da
uxams xdian maRal, daxvewil kulturas.
da bolos, individualuri kultura. igi adamianis socia
lurobis sazomia. rogoric adamiania, iseTivea misi kultu
rac. adamiani kulturulia imdenad, ra zomiTac iTavisebs
da axorcielebs sazogadoebis umaRles Rirebulebebs. ada
mianis zogadi Sexedulebebi kulturaze nakleb mniSvnelo
vania. masze, adamianze, rogorc pirovnebaze, bevrad ufro
metyvelebs is, Tu rogor da ra xarisxiT iTavisebs da axor
cielebs cxovrebaSi igi am Sexedulebebs (lion foixtvan
gers moTxrobaSi `saxli mwvane quCaze~ metad sayuradRebo
mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli: uamrav Tavisebur rituals So
ris Cven, ebraelebs, gvaqvs erTi, romelmac me, Cavwvdi ra mis
WeSmarit arss, amaRelva: paseqis pirvel saRamos, vdResaswa
ulobT ra egviptelebis monobisagan gaTavisuflebas, Rvi
119

nos vsvamT. magram, vidre SevsvavT, aT wveTs gadmovasxamT


sasmisidan, im aTi sasjelis mosagoneblad, RmerTma egvipte
lebs rom mouvlina. Cveni mtrebis tanjvis gaxseneba aTi wve
TiT amcirebs sixaruliT savse sasmiss. am Cveulebis safuZ
velze pataraobidanve mivxvdi, rom Cemi mtrebic adamianebi
arian da arasodes brmad aRar mixaroda arc maTi warumateb
loba da arc sikvdili). amrigad, kultura aris adamianuri
moRvaweobis Sedegad realizebuli, ganxorcielebuli indi
vidualuri da sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba, idealebi da ge
movneba, zneobrivi miTiTebebi da politikuri miswrafebebi.
`kultura maradiulobis dasawyisia~ (n. berdiaevi), am ma
radiulobas ki ganapirobebs adamianis mxolod iseTi moR
vaweoba, romelic gulisxmobs SemoqmedebiT naxtoms, sulis
SemoqmedebiT wvas, aRmafrenas, axal sulier sivrceSi gar
Rvevas, axlis qmnadobas. adamianis es unari unikaluri da
WeSmaritad RvTaebrivia. magram, rodesac kulturaSi cocx
ali SemoqmedebiTi suli qreba, igi civilizaciaSi gadadis.
kultura, rogorc aRvniSneT, adamianuri moRvaweo
bis yvela sferos moicavs, sazogadoebis yvela qvesistemas
(ekonomikuri, socialuri, politikuri da sulieri) akavSi
rebs da erT mTlianobaSi aerTianebs. magram kulturuli
procesis koordinatebs civilizacia da misi normebi gan
sazRvraven. erTi da igive civilizaciis farglebSi SeiZle
ba arsebobdes mravali kultura, magaliTad, evropuli ci
vilizacia aerTianebs frangul, germanul, inglisur da a.S.
kulturebs. swored kulturiT gansxvavdebian es xalxebi
erTmaneTisgan qcevis normebiT, CvevebiTa da CveulebebiT,
eniT, istoriiT, religiiT da a.S., anu imiT, rac maT eTno-so
cialur individualobas asaxavs.
kulturas siRrmiseulad aqvs gadgmuli fesvebi civili
zaciaSi, igi misi `sisxli da xorcia~. maTi kavSiri da urTi
erTdamokidebuleba imdenad Rrma da SesamCnevia, rom speci
alistebis garkveuli nawili am cnebebs aigivebs. es ar aris
SemTxveviTi: sazogadoebis ganviTarebis normalur mdgoma
120

reobaSi maTi erTmaneTisagan garCeva praqtikulad SeuZle


belia. civilizacia da kultura ganuyofelia: civilizacia
ar arsebobs kulturis gareSe, arc kultura arsebobs civi
lizaciis gareSe. gansxvaveba maT Soris imaSi mdgomareobs,
rom civilizacia qmnis kulturuli procesis wanamZRvrebs
da am procesis reglamentirebas axdens. kultura ki, ro
gorc axlis Semoqmedi, Tavis mxriv qmnis civilizaciis gan
viTarebis pirobebs. kultura Tavisufali moRvaweobaa,
romelic gulisxmobs civilizaciis mier wamoyenebuli, na
karnaxevi socialuri normebis realizacias. igi sazogadoe
bis sulier da materialur RirebulebaTa erTobliobaa, e.i.
sazogadoebis RirebulebiTi monapovaria.
kulturas, rogorc civilizaciis erT-erT elements,
damoukideblad ganviTarebis unari aqvs. mas SeuZlia dau
pirispirdes kidec civilizacias. swored es aris rogorc
kulturis, ise civilizaciis ganviTarebis safuZveli. kul
turasa da civilizacias Soris igiveobriobaze saubari Se
saZlebeli iqneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac civili
zacia mTlianad daTrgunavs da gadafaravs kulturas. es ki
sxva araferia, Tu ara cxovrebis teqnikur meqanikuri, ara
sulieri formebis batonoba da pirovnebis SemoqmedebiTi
iniciativis CaxSoba. adamianis qcevis (mniSvneloba ar aqvs,
romeli sfero iqneba) mkacri reglamentireba sazogadoebas
uZraobis mdgomareobaSi ayenebs da ganviTarebis saSualebas
ar aZlevs sazogadoeba kargavs axal, cvalebad moTxovneb
Tan, realobebTan Seguebis, adaptaciis unars. amitom kul
turis `sikvdili~ mTeli sociumis daRupvis tolfasia. amis
magaliTebi mravladaa civilizaciebis istoriaSi odesRac
mZlavri civilizaciebis daRupvis Semdeg ayvavebuli kul
turebis mxolod nangrevebiRa rCeboda.
civilizacia xasiaTdeba adamianis arsebobisaTvis Seqmni
li rogorc dadebiTi, ise negatiuri pirobebiT. misgan gan
sxvavebiT kultura RirebulebaTa sferoa. yovelive, rac
civilizaciis CarCoebSia Seqmnili, masac ekuTvnis. Tumca,
121

isic unda gavacnobieroT, rom, rac, magaliTad, sazogado


ebrivi warmoebis sferoSi iqmneba, ar SeiZleba yovelTvis
kulturas mivakuTvnoT, e.i. yvelaferi, rac civilizaciis
mieraa Seqmnili, ar aris kulturuli. vTqvaT, adamianebis
masobrivi ganadgurebis saSualebebi. Cven viciT, rom es sa
Sualebebi XX saukunis evropuli civilizaciis produqtia,
magram SeiZleba ki isini kulturis sferos mivakuTvnoT? igi
xom Tavisi arsiT ewinaaRmdegeba, upirispirdeba da realur
safrTxes uqmnis kulturas da mTel kacobriobas. XX sau
kunis civilizaciam memkvidreobiT dagvitova gaxrwnili,
mkvdari xelovnuri zRvebi, kalapotebi Seucvala mdinare
ebs yvelaferi es gakeTda adamianis mier, inJineruli gaT
vlebisa da mSeneblobis normebisa da wesebis safuZvelze.
Sedegad ki daitbora da kvlav itboreba kulturis obieqte
bi, icvleba klimati. samwuxarod, realobaa adamiansa da bu
nebas Soris konfliqti. adamiani aRar elodeba bunebisagan
wyalobas, Tavad iRebs misgan rac sWirdeba da rac ar sWir
deba da ar fiqrobs, rom aseTi daufiqrebeli moqmedebiT
zians ayenebs an sulac anadgurebs bunebas da mere sakuTar
Tavs. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom bunebisadmi gauazrebelma
damokidebulebam msoflio masStabis ekologiuri katas
trofa gamoiwvios.
Sejamebis mizniT, SevecadoT vupasuxoT Semdeg kiTxvas:
aris Tu ara sinamdvileSi kultura sulis zeoba? sxvadasxva
epoqis moazrovneebs araerTxel ucdiaT gaemijnaT erTmane
Tisagan adamianis sulis WeSmariti aRmafrena (kultura) da
adamianuri moRvaweobis gaqvavebuli formebis aRdgena-rep
roduqcia (civilizacia). Aai, ras werda rusi filosofosi
n. berdiaevi (1874 1968 ww.)wignSi `kultura da civilizacia~:
keTilSobileba yovelnairi WeSmariti kulturisa ganisazR
vreba imiT, rom kultura aris winaparTa kulti, Tayvanisce
ma saflavebisa da Zeglebisadmi, Svilebis mamebTan kavSiri.
kultura dafuZnebulia wminda Tqmulebebze da rac ufro
Zvelia kultura, igi miT ufro mniSvnelovani da mSvenieria.
122

kultura yovelTvis amayobs Tavisi Zveli warmoSobiT, diad


warsulTan uwyveti kavSiriT da kulturaze sufevs gansa
kuTrebuli saxis RvTiuri madli. kultura, msgavsad eklesi
isa, yvelaze metad afasebs Tavis memkvidreobiTobas. kultu
raSi ar aris sixepre, ar aris upativcemulo damokidebuleba
mamaTa saflavebisadmi. metismetad axal, gadmocemul kul
turas ar aqvs Tqmulebebi da euxerxuleba Tavisi aseTi yofa.
amas ver vityviT civilizaciaze. civilizacia afasebs Tavis
axal warmoSobas, igi ar eZebs Zvel da Rrma saTaveebs da ama
yobs dRevandeli gamogonebiT. mas ara hyavs winaprebi da ar
uyvars saflavebi. civilizacias yovelTvis iseTi saxe aqvs,
TiTqos igi dRes an guSin warmoiSva. masSi yvelaferi axalTa
xalia, yvelaferi dRevandeli dRis moxerxebul pirobebTa
naa Seguebuli. kulturaSi mimdinareobs maradiulobis didi
brZola drosTan, didi winaaRmdegoba drois damangrevel
ZalasTan. kultura sikvdils ebrZvis, Tumca uZluria masze
realuri gamarjvebisaTvis. misTvis Zvirfasia ukvdavyofa,
ganuwyvetloba, memkvidreobiToba, simtkice kulturuli
qmnilebebisa da Zeglebisa. kultura, romelSic aris reli
giuri siRrme, yovelTvis miiswrafvis mkvdreTiT aRdgomi
saken. am mxriv religiuri kulturis udides nimuSs warmo
adgens Zveli egviptis kultura. igi mTlianad efuZneboda
maradiulobis wyurvils, mTlianad sikvdilTan brZolaSi
iyo. da egviptis piramidebma gadaitanes aTaswleulebi da Se
morCnen Cvens dromde. Tanamedrove civilizacia swored rom
ar aSenebs piramidebs da ar zrunavs imisaTvis, raTa mis Zeg
lebs aTaswlovani simtkice hqondes. Tanamedrove civiliza
ciaSi yvelaferi swrafwarmavalia.
civilizacia, kulturisagan gansxvavebiT, ar ebrZvis sik
vdils, ar surs maradiuloba. igi ara mxolod urigdeba dro
is momakvdinebel Zalas, aramed am momakvdinebeli droiT
zRvarze afuZnebs Tavis yvela warmatebasa da monapovars.
civilizacia, iviwyebs ra micvalebulebs, Zalze saamurad da
mxiarulad moewyoba sasaflaoze. civilizacia futuristu
123

lia. civilizaciaSi aris sixepre, gayoyoCebuli parvenu. es si


xepre gadaecema kulturasac, romelsac surs iyos savsebiT
arareligiuri~.
sainteresoa, Tanamedrove pirobebSic Tu SeiZleba am gansxva
vebaze saubari, gvaqvs ki amisaTvis raime safuZveli? am kiTxvaze
pasuxis misaRebad Cven gverds ver avuvliT osuald Spengleris
(1880 1936 ww.) Tvalsazriss, romelic dResac saintereso, aqtu
aluri da garkveulwilad winaswarmetyveluricaa.
Spengleris kvlevis sagans msoflio kulturebis (anu `su
lieri epoqebis~) Tavisebureba Seadgens. misTvis miuRebelia
istoriis sazogadod aRiarebuli pirobiTi periodizacia
Zveli samyaro, Sua saukuneebi, axali dro. SpenglerisaTvis
istoria erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli kulturebis Tan
mimdevrobaa. yoveli kultura sakuTari sulis matarebelia
da Tavisi gziT xorcieldeba. msoflio istoria, romelic
moicavs eqvsi aTas wels, warmoadgens rva erTimeorisagan
izolirebul da TanabarmniSnelovan kulturaTa istorias.
es kulturebia: egvipturi, induri, babilonuri, Cinuri, ber
Znul-romauli (`apolonuri~), bizantiur-arabuli (`magiu
ri~), maias kultura, dasavleTevropuli (`faustiseuli~).
maT garda Spengleri uSvebs Canasaxovan kulturaTa arsebo
bas, romlebic ar ganviTardnen da momwifebas ver miaRwies.
aseTebad is Tvlis sparsul, xeTur da kitSuas kulturebs.
Spengleri exeba agreTve, `aRmocenebad~ kulturas rusuli
kulturis saxiT. TiToeuli maTgani, cocxali organizmis
msgavsad, gadis dabadebis, bavSvobis, axalgazrdobis, simwi
fis, moxucebulobis periodebs da Sedis Casvenebis, sikvdi
lis fazaSi, romelsac Spengleri civilizacias uwodebs.
SpenglerTan msoflio istoriis rva izolorebuli da
mniSvnelobiT eqvivalenturi kulturebi mxolod droSi
arseboben erTimeoris Semdeg da maT Soris araviTari mem
kvidreoba ar aris. yoveli kultura Tavis mier gaSlil Se
saZleblobebs da sakuTari sulis gamovlinebebs absolutu
rad Tavis TavSi inaxavs. yovelive es kvdeba mis kvdomasTan
124

erTad, mkvdari kulturidan araferi rCeba da arc gadadis


axlad Seqmnil kulturaSi, im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac maT
Soris msgavsebaa. yoveli kultura TavisTavSia Caketili.
Spengleris mixedviT, kulturisa da civilizaciis dapi
rispireba vlindeba maT ZiriTad niSnebSi: kulturis safexu
ri warmoadgens sulis SesaZleblobaTa gamovlinebas da gaS
las. es aris sicocxlis etapi. civilizacia ki iwyeba sulis
SesaZleblobaTa amowurviT. is sikvdilis etapia. kultura
sulis batonobaa. civilizacia inteleqtis. amdenad, kul
turaSi RmerTisadmi siyvarulia, civilizaciaSi ki uRmer
Toba batonobs. kulturaSi gabatonebul sulier Zalebsa
da interesebs civilizaciaSi cvlis materialuri Zalebi da
interesebi. kultura ayvavebis safexuria, civilizacia bar
barosobis. Tu kulturaSi sofeli siyvaruls imsaxurebs da
mniSvnelobis mqonea, civilizaciaSi igi mniSvnelobas kar
gavs. civilizacia xasiaTdeba qalaqisadmi ltolviT. garda
amisa, civilizaciis niSania pirovnebis gaufasureba da masa
Si gaTqvefa. saerTod adamiani kargavs Rirebulebas. Ziri
Tadi Rirebuleba fuli xdeba. fuli yvelaferia, sxva yove
live araferi. fuli xdeba yovlisSemZle Zala. amas moyveba
adamianis damoneba manqanis mier. manqana adamians ara marto
cvlis, aramed imorCilebs kidec da adamianis yovelgvar Ta
visuflebas bolo eReba. fulis da manqanis roli imdenad
didia, rom civilizacia SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc
fulis diqtatura. krizisis faza, civilizacia, Spengleris
azriT, warmoSobs axal adamians. krizisuli epoqis adamiani
TviTonac krizisSia, misi cnobiereba Sepyrobilia dasasru
lis da sikvdilis problemebiT. Spengleris azriT, cxovel
ma ar icis sikvdili, Tumca xedavs mas. adamianma icis sikvdi
li da mis winaSe SiSi aiZulebs mas Seqmnas msoflmxedveloba,
romelic sikvdilis problematikis gaazrebaa. axali epoqis
ZiriTad niSnad Spengleri teqnikas miiCnevs (teqnika masTan
ar aris iaraRis tolfasi, teqnika Spenglers esmis rogorc
moqmedebis taqtika, rogorc mTeli cxovrebis taqtika).
125

teqnikam gaTiSa adamianebi mmarTvelebad da morCilebad, ba


tonebad da monebad, daukarga maT erTmaneTis gagebis una
ri. es adamianis tragediis wanamZRvaria. Spengleri ver xe
davs gamosavals teqnikisagan Seqmnili tragediidan. misi
azriT, teqnika viTardeba miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra moaqvs mas
adamianisaTvis. teqnika, adamianis qmnilebis saxiT, aRsdga
adamianis, misi Semqmnelis winaaRmdeg, rogorc Tavis dro
ze adamiani bunebis winaaRmdeg. teqnika imonebs bunebis dam
morCilebel adamians. es niSnavs, rom tragedia bolomde un
da mivides, kultura tragikulad unda dasruldes.
Spengleris azriT, samyaros meqanizeba saSiS fazaSi Se
vida. Seicvala samyaros organuli saxe (tyeebis gadaqceva
qaRaldad, klimatis Secvla da sxva), civilizacia TviTon
gaxda manqana. SemoqmedTa adgili daikava manqanam. gadam
wyveti gaxda raodenoba, am raodenobas ki manqana awarmoebs.
Spengleri amtkicebs, rom faustiseuli teqnikis istoria
dasasruls uaxlovdeba. misi damsxvreva garduvalia. Tum
ca aravin icis, rodis da rogor moxdeba es. aseTi msxvreva
bedis garduvalobaa da aseT SemTxvevaSi optimizmi sulmok
leobaa. igi moiTxovs dasasrulis gzaze simamacis gamoCenas
da Tanamedrove adamianis beds adarebs romaeli jariskacis
xvedrs, romelmac icoda, rom mas garduvali daRupva elo
da, magram mainc idga Tavis postze. adamians SeuZlia xedav
des kulturis mzis Casvenebas, magram ar SeuZlia xeli Se
uSalos mas. am viTarebaSi, Spengleris azriT, SeuZlebelia
istorias mivaweroT raime sazrisi, istoria usazrisoa, rad
gan is gardamavalia.
Aai, rogor esmis osuald Spenglers kulturisa da civi
lizaciis gansxvaveba: `kulturaSi suli batonobs, civili
zaciaSi inteleqti; kulturaSi RmerTis Tayvaniscemaa,
civilizaciaSi ki uRmerTobaa gabatonebuli; kulturaSi
adamianebi cdiloben sulier unarTa ganviTarebas, xolo
civilizaciaSi materialuri Zalebis. kulturis safexur
ze adamianebi patriotebi arian, civilizaciis safexurze ki
126

kosmopolitebi. kulturaSi morali aqvT, civilizaciaSi


ki mas eZeben~.
Spengleris mier gasuli saukunis pirvel naxevarSi Camo
yalibebuli Tvalsazrisi, garkveulwilad, winaswarmetyve
lurad JRers. bevrad ufro adre, vidre kompiuteri `gamoT
vlida~ teqnikuri civilizaciis ganwirulobas, Spenglerma
mistikur JanrSi warmogviCina `evropuli kulturis Casve
neba~. `faustiseuli~ suliT gamsWvalul civilizacias mo
mavali ar aqvs. igi adamianze `gaTvlilma~ civilizaciam, an
Tropogenurma civilizaciam unda Caanacvlos. magram rodis
moxdeba es, arc es icis aravin. mTavaria, arsebobdes, Tundac
Teoriuli moTxovnileba, SevimecnoT da aRmovaCinoT kul
turuli procesis garkveuli erTianoba, arqetipuri situ
aciebi, kulturis ucvleli komponentebis ganmeorebado
bis kanonzomierebebi da filosofiuri Wvretis safuZvelze
aviTvisoT kacobriobis gansxvavebuli gamocdileba.

127

adamian
is RirebulebiT SefasebiTi
mimarTeba samyarosadmi
Semecneba da Sefaseba. es adamianis samyarosTan damoki
debulebis ori erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli saxea. arsebobs
adamianis samyarosTan mimarTebis ramdenime aspeqti: 1) praq
tikuli, rac samyarosTan momxmareblur utilitarul da
mokidebulebas niSnavs. es aris adamianis angarebiTi damo
kidebuleba samyarosTan da sargeblianobis miRebas isaxavs
miznad; 2) emociuri, romelic gulisxmobs samyaros gancdas
adamianis mier. magaliTad, adamiani tkbeba bunebis simSveni
eriT, an SeZrwunebulia mosalodneli miwisZvris gamo; 3) aq
siologiuri anu SefasebiTi, RirebulebiTi damokidebule
ba samyarosTan. adamians raRac moswons an ar moswons, ris
gamoc, dadebiT an uaryofiT Sefasebas aZlevs movlenebs. 4)
Teoriul
i, romelic gulisxmobs raRac sagnobrivi viTare
bis garkvevas, misi Tvisebebis dadgenas. adamians ainteresebs
TviTon sagani, cdilobs gaarkvios misi arsi, raTa upasuxos
kiTxvas, Tu ra aris igi. amis Sedegad yalibdeba codna sagnis
Sesaxeb. swored esaa Semecnebis mizani.
maSasadame, Semecneba aris subieqtis obieqtTan anu ada
mian
is sinamdvilesTan Teoriuli damokidebuleba, romlis
Sedegad yalibdeba codna mis Sesaxeb. adamianis SemecnebiTi
mimarTeba samyarosadmi seriozul rols TamaSobs mis saqmi
anobaSi, magram aranakleb mniSvnelovania adamianis mier sam
yaros movlenaTa Sefaseba, romelic arsebiTad gansxvavdeba
Semecnebisagan.
Semecnebis procesSi adamiani cdilobs gamoikvlios arse
buli, daadginos misi arsi da niSan-Tvisebebi. am dros yalib
deba codna yofierebis anu arsis Sesaxeb, romelic aris is,
rac aris an is, rac ar aris.
Sefasebis procesSi adamiani gamoxatavs Tavis damokide
bulebas sagnisadmi. am dros igi mas ki ar axasiaTebs, aramed
128

afasebs. Sefaseba subieqturia, radgan igi ar aris sagnobrivi


viTarebis dadgena. adamianis mier samyaros movlenaTa Sefa
seba xorcieldeba or, emociur da Teoriul doneze. igi maT
uSualod ganicdis, amitom Tavis damokidebulebas gamoxa
tavs siyvaruliT da siZulviliT, sixaruliT da mwuxarebiT,
uSfoTvelobiT da SeSfoTebiT, imediT an SiSiT da a. S. maT
safuZvelze adamians uyalibdeba Sesabamisi guneba-ganwyobi
leba, romelic samyarosadmi misi emociuri damokidebulebis
Sedegia. igi subieqtur-individualuria, radgan ganpirobe
bulia individis bio-fsiqikuri organizaciis Tavisebure
biT. yovel individs samyaros piradi, sakuTari gancda aqvs.
samyaros emociuri gancdis analizi fsiqologiis da ara
filosofiis amocanaa. filosofias ainteresebs adamianis
samyarosTan mimarTebis racionalur-Teoriuli aspeqti. ma
Sasadame, emociur da Teor
iul Sefasebas saerTo aqvs is, rom
orive gamoxatavs movlenaTa mimarT adamianiseul, subieqtur
damokidebulebas, magram maT Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebaa.
pirveli emociuria, amitom gancdiseuli, xolo meore ra
cionaluri, amitom azriseuli. ra ganapirobebs subieqturi
Sefasebis obieqturobas? mas safuZvlad udevs Rirebuleba,
Sefaseba, romelic gamoxatavs adamianis subieqtur damoki
debulebas sagnisadmi. Sefaseba obieqturi iqneba mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi daefuZeba Rirebulebas.
adamian
is saqmianobis yovel sferos Tavisi Rirebuleba
aqvs. mecnierebas WeSmariteba da mcdaroba, xelovnebas
mSveniereba da simaxinje, zneob
as sikeTe da boroteba, po
litikas samarTlianoba da usamarTloba, samarTals kano
niereba da ukanonoba da a. S. maT bazaze yalibdeba Sesatyvis
RirebulebaTa mTeli speqtri.
filosofia sxva problemebTan erTad Seiswavlis kul
turul Rirebulebebs da amdenad is Tavadac sulieri kul
turis fenomenia. kulturasa da filosofias Soris kavSiri
Rirebulebebis gaazrebis safuZvelze myardeba. aqsiologiu
ri kvlevis problemebi swored iqeTkenaa mimarTuli, rom ax
129

snas kulturisa da Rirebulebebis sakiTxi, raTa aCvenos, ra


faqtorebi, ra stimulebi da motivebi ganapirobs adamianTa
cxovrebis wess. am axsnam unda aCvenos is tendenciebi, saiT
kenac adamiani da sazogadoebis istoria unda miiswrafvodes,
raTa gaucxoebas Tavi daaRwios da namdvil Tavisuflebas
eziaros. gaucxoeba swored imas niSnavs, rom adamiani da sa
zogadoeba, Segnebulad Tu Seugneblad, akeTebs imas, rac mas
Tavisuflebas arTmevs. amitom, adamiani cdilobs daemyaros
im Rirebulebebs, romelic mas momavalSi sikeTes da warmate
bas moutans. aq saqme exeba imas, rac jer ar aris, magram un
da dadges, unda ganxorcieldes. amas filosofiaSi jerarsis
problema hqvia. imas, rac unda moxdes da jer ar aris, aregu
lirebs Rirebulebis matarebeli idea an ideali. am gagebiT
Rirebulebebi gvevlinebian ideebis da idealebis rolSi. ne
bisyofis Tavisufleba swored imas niSnavs, rom mas arCevnis
SesaZlebloba aqvs. magram rom airCios, amisaTvis saWiroa
goneba, romelmac unda Seafasos misi arCevani da ifiqros im
jerarsze da im Sedegebze, rasac am arCevnisagan elodeba. ami
tom adamian
i, rogorc Semfasebeli, aregulirebs grZnobebis,
emociebis, nebisyofis da gonebis urTierTobebs.
aseTi gagebiT, adamianis sicocxlis azrs da cxovrebis
mizans, mis SemoqmedebiT aqtivobas da Tavisuflebas, Rire
bulebiTi xedva da swori arCevani gansazRvravs. germaneli
filosofosi, filosofiuri anTropologiis da aqsiologi
is problemebis yvelaze TvalsaCino mkvlevari, maqs Seleri
(1874 1928 ww.) sibrmaved Tvlis, Tu Rirebulebebs ver aRiq
vam da swor arCevans ver akeTeb. misi azriT, RirebulebaTa
wvdoma anu xedva emociur intuiciazea damyarebuli, xolo
swori arCevnis safuZvels intuic
iuri sicxade warmoadgens.
Selers Rirebulebebis wvdomis da gagebis erTaderT saSua
lebad fenomenologiuri reduqciis meTodi miaCnia. am meTo
diT adamian
i uRrmavdeba Tavis sulier samyaros, gancdebs da
emociebs, interesebs da miswrafebebs. am meTodis Tavisebu
reba imaSia, rom is gancdis faqtebidan anu Sedegebidan mize
130

zebis Ziebas awarmoebs. fenomenologia mecnierebaTa meTodi


ki ar aris, aramed imgvari intuiciuri xedvaa, romelic suli
er fenomenebSi, RirebulebebSi dagvanaxvebs iseT raimes, rac
mis gareSe sruliad dafaruli darCeboda. aseT xedvas Sele
ri fenomenologiur ganwyobas uwodebs.
Seleris mixedviT, intuiciuri xedva aRmoaCens Rirebule
baTa rangobriv wesrigs, dabal da maRal Rirebulebebs. erT
Rirebulebas meoresTan mimarTebaSi upiratesoba aqvs siyva
rulis siZlieris gamo. Rirebulebani siZulvilisa da siyva
rulis xarisxis mixedviT gansxvavdebian, xolo am gansxvavebi
sa da upiratesobis xedva intuiciuri sicxadiT miiwvdomeba.
Seleris mixedviT, siyvarulis umaRles mwvervals warmoad
gens umaRlesi sikeTe anu RmerTi, xolo yvela danarCeni Ri
rebuleba gasxivosnebulia RmerTis ideiT. amitom, adamianis
sicocxles azrs aZlevs umaRlesi Rirebulebebisken swrafva.
filosofiaSi mniSvnelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens imis gar
kveva, Tu rogor, ra formiT arseboben Rirebulebani. sxvadas
xva filosofiur sistemaSi es sakiTxi gansxvavebulad wyde
ba. erTni amtkiceben, rom Rirebulebani arseboben mxolod
subieqturad, xolo meoreni amtkiceben, rom Rirebulebebi
obieqturia da ar aris damokidebuli subieqtze, subieqtur
emociebze da sxva. magram yvela aRiarebs, rom Rirebulebebs
aqvT mniSvneloba da sazriss aZleven adamianis cxovrebas.
es udavoa, radgan Tu kacobriobis kultura RirebulebaTa
xorcSesxmaa da mTeli adamianuri Semoqmedeba maszea agebu
li, maSin filosofiisaTvis imaze mniSvnelovani ra unda iyos,
vidre RirebulebaTa gaazreba da amis safuZvelze jerarsis
gansazRvra. es aris filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis upir
velesi amocana da daniSnuleba. yvela filosofiuri proble
ma ontologiuri, gnoseologiuri da aqsiologiuri swo
red am amocanis gadawyvetas emsaxureba.
Tanamedrove filosofiaSi RirebulebebTan dakavSire
bul problemebze dava arc axlaa ganelebuli da is albaT
usasrulod gagrZeldeba, radgan aq saqme exeba iseT msof
131

lmxedvelobriv sakiTxebs, romelTa erTmniSvnelovnad ga


dawyveta rom SeiZlebodes, filosofia saWiro ar iqneboda.
filosofia, upirveles yovlisa, Ziebas niSnavs da ara damTav
rebul doqtrinas. filosofiuri Ziebis erT-erT mniSvnelo
van sakiTxs warmoadgens adamianis problema.

nihilizmi da RirebulebaTa
gadafasebis problema
yvela epoqas Tavisi Sesatyvisi Rirebulebebi aqvs, rac
ganpirobebulia epoqis xasiaTiT. antikur periodSi mas mi
Tologia da filosofia gansazRvravda. Sua saukuneebSi gaba
tonebuli mdgomareoba moipova religiam, ramac ganapiroba
Sesabamis RirebulebaTa warmoqmna; aRorZinebis epoqaSi upi
ratesoba humanisturma da saero idealebma moipoves; axal
droSi kapitalizmis Camoyalibebas da damkvidrebas Tan moh
yva sabazro ekonomikis da demokratiis Sesabamisi Rirebule
bebi. mecnierul teqnikuri progresis epoqaSi wamyvani fase
uloba gaxda mecnier
eba da teqnika.
rogorc vnaxeT, epoqaTa cvalebadobis kvaldakval xdeba
RirebulebaTa Secvla. imsxvreva Zveli da mis adgils TandaTa
nobiT ikavebs axali. es aris RirebulebaTa gadafasebis proce
si, romlis Sedegad mimdinareobs Zveli epoqis gamomxatveli
Rirebulebebis Secvla axali epoqis Sesatyvisi idealebiT. es
normaluri procesia, radgan mas aucileblobiT moiTxovs sa
zogadoebrivi progresi.
sul sxva viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac bWoba exeba ni
hilizms. igi warmodgeba laTinuri sityvidan `nihil~, rac niS
navs araras. nihilizmi aris Teoria, romelic moiTxovs ara Ri
rebulebaTa gadafasebas, aramed saerTod uaryofs yovelgvari
Rirebulebis mniSvnelobas. igi ar atarebs principul gansxva
vebas dadebiT da uaryofiT Rirebulebebs Soris. romels daam
132

kvidrebs adamiani WeSmaritebas Tu sicrues, samarTlianobas


Tu usamarTlobas, kanonierebas Tu ukanonobas, amas araviTari
mniSvneloba ar aqvs. nihilizmisaTvis dadebiT da uaryofiT
Rirebulebebs erTnairi fasi aqvs. amitom sulerTia maTgan ro
mels ganaxorcielebs adamiani. es aris RirebulebaTa gaufasu
rebis, devalvaciis procesi, radgan Tu WeSmaritebasa da mcda
robas, zneobasa da uzneobas erTnairi mniSvneloba aqvs, maSin
ra fasi aqvs maT Soris gansxvavebas? yvelaferi damokidebulia
pirovnebis nebaze. yovel individs SeuZlia airCios is, rac mas
moesurveba. visac unda sikeTe, SeuZlia ganaxorcielos igi,
magram visac unda boroteba, imave uflebiT SeuZlia misi gan
xorcieleba. yvelaferi SesaZlebelia, amitom nebadarTulia.
nihilizmis praqtikuli Sedegia voluntarizmi TviTnebo
ba da ganukiTxaoba. aravis araferi ekisreba, visac ra unda, is
akeTos. ar arsebobs obieqturi kriteriumebi, romlis mixed
viT SesaZlebeli iqneboda vinmes qmedebis Sefaseba da gansja,
radgan ar arsebobs savaldebulo da sayovelTao mniSvnelobis
Rirebulebani. yvela Rirebuleba subieqturia, ase vTqvaT, er
Tnairad fasobs. amitom visac ra unda, imas airCevs da gaakeTebs.
am mxriv adamians aqvs absoluturi, SeuzRudavi Tavisufleba.
nihilizmi igive skepticizmia, oRond RirebulebaTa sfe
ros mimarT. arcerT morals upiratesoba ar gaaCnia. yovel in
divids Tavisi morali aqvs, amitom veravin sxvas ver gansjis.
ar arsebobs sayovelTao da savaldebulo morali, romlis mi
xedviT SesaZlebeli iqneboda obieqturi gansja da Sefaseba.
am mxriv metad sayuradReboa fridrix nicSes Tvalsazrisi.
nicSes filosofia aRsavsea ngrevis paTosiT. mas surs daamxos
evropuli civilizaciis yvela kerpi, moarRvios fuZe im Ri
rebulebebisa, romlebic mravali saukunis manZilze iTvle
bodnen adamianTa moqmedebis umaRles da myar sazomad. tra
diciul moralsa da qristianul religiaSi is xedavs dacemis
simptomebs, Tanamedrove adamianSi gadagvarebas. sfero, ro
melic xdeba nicSes ukompromiso kritikis obieqti, aris evro
puli kultura, misi yvela ZiriTadi aspeqti.
133

sakuTriv nicSes filosofia iwyeba cnobili Tezidan


`RmerTi mokvda~. amis safuZvelia tradiciuli umaRlesi Ri
rebulebebis uazrobad, gamogonilad gamocxadeba da maTi ga
ufasureba. magram maleve `RmerTis sikvdili~ da tradiciul
RirebulebaTa gaufasureba nicSeSi warmoSobs ambivalentur
grZnobas. tradiciul RirebulebaTa damxobis Sedegad mo
povebuli TavisuflebiT aRfrTovanebas Tan erTvis sulie
ri sicarielis, raRac aunazRaurebeli danakargis SegrZneba,
rac gamowveuli iyo swored `RmerTis sikvdiliT~. arsebobs
mosazreba, rom nicSes mTeli darCenili cxovreba iyo amao
swrafva raRaciT amoevso is sicariele, is vakuumi, romelic
`RmerTis sikvdilis~ Semdeg gaCnda. nicSe moklebuli iyo ro
gorc religiur, aseve sxva sulier orientirebs da Tvlida,
rom Tavad is da mTeli misi epoqa sulieri krizisis, nihiliz
mis tyveobaSi imyofeba. amisi mizezi, misi azriT, mxolod qris
tianuli religiaa. gadaWarbebis gareSe SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
SurisZiebis grZnobiT aRsavse nicSe mTeli mrisxanebiT Tavs
daatyda qristianobas. nicSe Tvlis, rom swored qristianul
ma religiam daamxo aTaswlovani perspeqtivis mqone romis im
peria, daasamara jansaRi antikuroba da gadaiqca kacobrio
bis sulieri daavadebis nihilizmis wyarod. qristianobis
saxiT gaim
arjves sustebma da dacemulebma, avadmyofebma da
sicocxlis moZuleebma da imisaTvis, rom Tavi daeRwiaT, gaq
ceodnen sakuTar araraob
as, maTma avadmyofurma warmosaxvam
moigona `imqveyniuri cxovreba~, `sulis ukvdaveba~... qristi
anuli religia mouwodebs morwmuneebs Tavi msxverplad ga
iRon, monebad gadaiqcnen; qristianoba emsaxureba evropuli
rasis Seryvnas. swored qristianul religias adanaSaulebs
nicSe RirebulebaTa pirvel, radikalur da sabediswero ga
dafasebaSi Zlieri, jansaRi kastis moralis, aristokratiu
li moralis damxobaSi da sustebisa da avadmyofebis moralis
anu yalbi Rirebulebebis dakanonebaSi. magram unda aRiniS
nos, rom miuxedavad qristianobis aseTi mZafri kritikisa,
nicSes damokidebuleba am religiisadmi ar iyo martooden
134

uaryofiTi. amis dasturia misi aSkara gulwrfeli simpaTi


ebi ieso qristes pirovnebisadmi. nicSes azriT, ieso qriste
`ukeTilSobilesi, siyvaruliT aRsavse~ adamiania, igi `Tavi
sufali gonia~, misi swavleba `Sinagani sxiviTaa~ ganaTebuli
da rasac ambobda, rasac mouwodebda, rasac qadagebda, yvela
fers sakuTar cxovrebaSi Seasxa xorci - Tavisi sicocxliT
da sikvdiliT.
ukeT rom gaverkveT nicSes poziciaSi, erT rames unda ga
esvas xazi imisaTvis, rom sicxade Seitanos qristianobisad
mi gaor
ebul damokidebulebaSi, rom SeaTavsos ieso qriste
sadmi udidesi simpaTiebi qristianobis aSkara siZulvilTan,
nicSe Tavis `antiqristeSi~ dgams saocar nabijs: igi erTma
neTs upirispirebs ieso qristesa da qristianobas, qristes
swavlebasa da qristianul religias.
nicSes mixedviT, Tavad sityva qristianoba gaugebrobaa.
sinamdvileSi arsebobda mxolod erTi qristiani da man Ta
visi sicocxle jvarze daasrula. `saxareba~ jvarze aResru
la. nicSes mixedviT, ieso qristes swavleba sxva araferia, Tu
ara misi piradi mowameobrivi sicocxle da aRsasruli. da am
`praqtikul saxarebaSi~ sityvac ar aris naTqvami `meored mos
vlaze~, `gankiTxvis dReze~, `imqveyniur cxovrebasa da sulis
ukvdavebaze~. ufro metic, nicSes Tanaxmad, ieso qristem Ta
visi sikvdiliTac ki miwieri cxovrebis magaliTi uCvena adami
anebs da ara raRac gadarCenis, xsnis gza, rogorc amas eklesia
varaudobs. `is, rac ieso qristem kacobriobas dautova, mxo
lod praqtikaa~. esaa misi qceva msajulebis, jalaTebis, bral
mdeblebis winaSe, qceva jvarze. igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba, Tavs ar
icavs, arafers akeTebs saSiSroebis Tavidan asacileblad. uf
ro metic, igi iwvevs mas... da rac mTavaria, qriste loculobs
maTze, ewameba maTTvis da uyvars isini, vinc mas mtrobs. nicSe
Tvlis, rom qristes sikvdilis Semdeg misi swavleba daviwye
bas eZleva. `saxareba~ qristesTan erTad kvdeba jvarze.
Zveli RmerTi kvdeba, batonobas iwyebs nihilizmi. nihi
lizmi, Zveli Rirebulebebis gadafasebis procesi, Sinaganad
135

dakavSirebulia skepsisTan, uimedobasTan, pesimizmTan, pasi


urobasTan. pasiuri nihilizmi, nicSes mixedviT, damRupvelia
kacobriobisaTvis. is mxolod ngrevaa. amitom mis safexurze
gaCereba istoriisaTvis sabediswero iqneboda. nihilizmiT
wertili unda daesvas Zvels, magram nihilizmive unda gaxdes
axlis Senebis safuZveli. nihilizmi unda iyos ara dasasru
li, aramed gardamavali faza. RirebulebaTa gaufasurebis
procesi unda gadaizardos Zveli Rirebulebebis gadafase
bis, e.i. axali Rirebulebebis dadgenis procesSi. amiT nihi
lizmi bolomde miiyvans Tavis saqmes, gadalaxavs Tavis Tavs
da kacobriobas gamoiyvans krizisuli situaciidan. amdenad,
RmerTis sikvdilis tragikul gancdas Tan unda axldes sixa
ruliT da imediT aRsavse grZnoba axali Rirebulebebis moZi
eba-damkvidrebisa.
Zalauflebis neba. RmerTi mkvdaria. es niSnavs imas, rom
unda gadafasdes samyaros Zveli gageba, unda Seicvalos ada
mianis xedvis mimarTuleba: adamiani unda erTgulebdes miwas
da ara zecas. miwa nicSesTan gagebulia, rogorc amqveyniuri
samyaros Sinagani Zala, antipodi tradiciuli RmerTis Semoq
medebiTi Zalisa. miwa dinamiuri miwieri energiaa, sicocxlea.
raSia sicocxlis arsi? sicocxle yovelTvis nebaa. si
cocxlis arseboba ar aris arc TviTSenaxva, sakuTari Tavis
SenarCuneba da arc garemosTan Segueba. yoveli arsebuli is
wrafvis gaaf
arToos Tavisi batonobis are, mbrZaneblobdes,
daim
orCilos rac SeiZleba meti, daZlios sxvisi neba; sicocx
le aris sakuTari Tavis damkvidreba, ganmtkiceba, gafarToe
ba, zrda ... mokled, sicocxle aris swrafva Zalauflebisaken,
neba Zalauflebisa.
sicocxle SeiZleba iyos aRmavali, Zlieri, omis wyurvi
liT savse da SeiZleba iyos daRmavali, susti, avadmyofuri.
sicocxlis orTave saxecvlilebas safuZvlad udevs Zalauf
lebis neba. susti sicocxlec eswrafvis batonobas. amitom is
adgens iseT Rirebulebebs, romlebic SesaZlebels gaxdian
mis ganmtkicebas.
136

ra aris Rirebuleba? Rirebuleba nicSes esmis, rogorc


sicocxlis ganmtkicebisa da zrdis piroba. Rirebuleba si
cocxleSia fesvgadgmuli. Rirebulia is, rac afarToebs Cemi
batonobis sazRvrebs, rac saSualebas maZlevs mtkice gaxados
Cemi arseboba. aseTi sicocxlisaTvis miwieri samyaro autane
li tanjvaa, umZimesi uRlis zidvaa. Zlieri, aRmavlobis gzaze
damdgari sicocxle ar gaurbis qmnadoba-moZraobas, piriqiT,
qmnadoba, maradiuli Seneba da ngreva, maradiuli omi misi sti
qiaa. simyare, uSfoTveloba, umoZraoba, netareba mxolod im
sicocxlis idealia, romelic sustia, daRmavalia. swored ase
Ti sicocxlisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli tradiciuli moralu
ri da religiuri Rirebulebebi da swored am RirebulebebSi
vlindeba uZlurTa Zalauflebis neba. uZlur sicocxles ar
sebiTad surs `arara~. `RmerTi~, `idealuri samyaro~, `umaRle
si Rirebulebebi~, morali mxolod niRabia, romlis ukan `ara
ra~ imaleba.
nicSes azriT, morali, ZiriTadad, ori saxisaa: moraluri Se
fasebebi yalibdeba an im adamianTa mier, romlebic mowodebul
ni arian ibatonon, an im adamianTa mier, romelTa xvedri morCi
lebaa. amdenad, moralur Sefasebebs sayovelTao mniSvneloba
ar aqvT. isini damokidebulni arian imaze, Tu vin adgens Rirebu
lebebs. arseboben maRali rasis adamianebi, romelTa mimarT Se
iZleba gvqondes garkveuli valdebulebebi da arsebobs `jogi~,
brbo, romlis mimarT batons SeiZleba hqondes mxolod zizRis
grZnoba.
batonTa moralSi batoni, upirveles yovlisa, Tavis kastas
asxams qeba-didebas jansaRi, sasicocxlo energiiT aRsavse,
Ronieri `gareuli cxoveli~, `mtacebeli frinveli~, meomari,
`qera bestia~. aseTi raindi didebiT mosavs Tavis Tavs, didebiT
mosavs oms, simtkices, daundoblobas, simkacres.
sul sxva bunebisaa monaTa morali. wodebrivad maRali adami
ani da misi Sefasebebi aq kvalificirebulia rogorc `boroteba~;
`keTilia~ uZluri, tanjuli, Rataki, avadmyofi. monaTa morali
qebas asxams TanagrZnobas, Tvinierebas, siyvaruls, mSvidobas.
137

Tanamedrove morali, nicSes azriT, swored monaTa jo


guri moralia. jogisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia pirovnulis ni
velireba. adamiani valdebulia izrunos sazogadoebriv in
teresebze, sayovelTao bednierebaze, daumorCilos Tavisi
interesebi masis interesebs anu Caklas Tavisi sakuTari pi
rovneba, icxovros sxvisi cxovrebiT, gaauqmos `me~ da iyos
iseTi, rogoricaa yvela sxva. adamianSi pirovnulis gaqrobis
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezi, nicSes azriT, qristianobis
ZiriTadi mcnebebia. Uupirveles yovlisa, es TanagrZnobas exe
ba. TanagrZnobis aqtSi adamiani auqmebs sakuTar Tavs da sxvi
si tanjvis morCili xdeba. TanagrZnoba unarCunebs arsebo
bas susts, uZlurs, vinc iRupeba da unda daiRupos. uZluris
TanamgrZnobi TviTonve iqceva uZlurad. amiT ki sicocxle
xdeba dune da saeWvo. es dekadansis idealebia. Tanamedrove
adamiani aseT sulier atmosferoSi knindeba. mas aSinebs Zli
eri vnebebi, Zlieri gancdebi, Widili, tanjva, romelTa gare
Se sicocxle Waobad iqceva. Tanamedrove evropeli cxovrobs
yoveldRiur
i patara saqmeebiT, is `keTilia~, `samarTlia
nia~, `damjeria~, `Tvinier
ia~. misi mTavari sazrunavia piradi
keTildReoba, pawia bedniereba. is mSiSaraa da sikeTes Cadis
mxolod imitom, rom sxvam vneba, tanjva, boroteba ar miaye
nos. Tanamedrove adamiani gaurbis Tavis Tavs. is azrovnebs
da moqmedebs sayovelTaod miRebuli SablonebiT, dakanone
buli standartebiT. misi cxovreba siyalbea.
nicSes azriT, aristokratiul `kargsa~ da `cuds~ upiris
pirdeba demokratiuli, gaTanasworebis nebiT aRbeWdili `ke
Tili~ da `boroti~. misi idealia ara Tanasworuflebiani sa
zogadoeba, aramed sazogadoeba, romelsac marTavs rCeuli,
zekacTa Zlieri elita.
zekaci. nicSes mzera momavliskenaa mipyrobili. adamiani
unda daZleul iqnas. adamianis sidiade imaSia, rom igi xidia da
ara mizani. mas Semdeg rac RmerTi mokvda, adamianis cxovrebis
wesic unda Seicvalos. Zveli Rirebulebebi unda gadafasdes
axali principis safuZvelze. es principia sicocxle, Zalauf
138

lebis neba. qmnadi, moZravi, mSfoTvare, WeSmariti sicocxlis


erTguleba gzas gauxsnis adamians zekacisaken, im erTaderTi
diadi miznisaken, romelsac SeuZlia misces sazrisi cxovre
bas RmerTis sikvdilis Semdeg. zekaci aris antipodi Tana
medrove adamianisa, is asaxierebs sicocxlis savseobas, cxov
rebis umaRles, srulyofil wess da adamianis umaRles tips,
romelic dgas tradiciuli `borotisa~ da `keTilis~ miRma,
TviTon qmnis Rirebulebebs da TviTonve adgens Tavisi moqme
debis normebs.
zekacis gzaze adamianma saxecvlileba unda ganicados. ada
mians, romelic mindobilia RmerTs, nicSe adarebs aqlems. is
mZime tvirTi, romelsac adamiani am mdgomareobaSi atarebs,
aris transcendenturi idealuri samyaro, is erTxel da samu
damod dadgenili Rirebulebebi da imperativebi, romlebic
boWaven adamianis Tavisufal Semoqmedebas. adamiani udrtvin
velad, uRrmesi mowiwebiT da sixaruliT emorCileba urCxuls,
romelsac ewodeba `Sen unda~. Semdegi etapia lomi lomi niS
navs meamboxe suls, romelic `aras~ eubneba Zvel Rirebulebebs
da ikafavs gzas WeSmariti Tavisuflebisaken. lomis `me msurs~
upirispirdeba safuZvelgamoclil moTxovnas `Sen unda~. mag
ram lomi mgrevelia da ara aRmSenebeli. adamianis sulma kidev
erTi nabiji unda gadadgas, rom miaRwios WeSmarit Tavisufle
bas. is unda iqces bavSvad. bavSvi nicSesaTvis simboloa axali
dasawyisisa, moZraobisa, Semoqmedebis, aRSenebis. bavSvi aris
`TamaSi~. TamaSi niSnavs Semoqmedebas. Tu adre Rirebulebebis
safuZvlad RmerTi moiazreboda, axla TviTon Zlieri pirov
neba qmnis Rirebulebebs. adamiani unda gaxdes Semoqmedi es
aris erT-erTi ZiriTadi piroba WeSmariti arsebobis wesisa.
Semoqmedeba gulisxmobs yoveli miRweulis siZulvils, daZ
levas, axali miznebis dasaxvas, TavisTavis maradiul ngrevasa
da aRSenebas. samyarosa da Tavis Tavs TviTon pirovnebam unda
misces saxe. Semoqmedeba maradiuli brZolaa, omi sxvasTan da
Tavis TavTan. zekacis sicocxle savsea f
F aTerakebiT, magram is
iRebs am sicocxles, mas surs aseTi sicocxle, igi eTanxmeba mas.
139

nicSes mosazrebebma, kerZod, nebismieri avtoritetis, mo


ralis, Rirebulebebis gaufasureba-ugulvelyofam, mniSvne
lovani zegavlena moaxdina Tanamedrove adamianis sulier
cxovrebaze.
Tanamedrove civilizaciis erT-erTi amocanaa saSualo
adamianis garSemo Seqmnas iseTi samyaro, realoba, romelSic
igi Tavs TviTdajerebulad da TviTkmayofilad igrZnobs. es
rom ganxorcieldes, saWiroa yvela sulieri mwvervali gau
fasurdes, yovelive sakraluri profanaciad warmoCindes,
yovelive araCveulebrivi banaluri gaxdes, yovelive rea
luri parodirebul iqnas, e.i. adamianisaTvis aRar iarsebobs
araviTari tabu, rameTu `yvelaferi nebadarTulia~. prob
lemis ukeT gaazrebisaTvis, erTi ram unda gavixsenoT: Tana
medrove civilizaciis saTaveebTan, e.w. ganaTlebul sazoga
doebaSi (XIX s. me-2 nax.) damkvidrebuli iyo adamianis Semdegi
gageba: 1) adamiani mzakvari, grZnobadi da egoisturi maimu
nia; 2) adamian
i keTilia, siyvaruliT aRsavsea, SeuZlia Tavi
msxverplad gaiRos. yvela cudi Tviseba, romelsac adamianSi
vamCnevT, misi bunebidan ar gamomdinareobs. es civilizaciis
ganviTarebis Sedegia, romelmac adamianSi disharmonia Seita
na da bunebas, namdvil cxovrebas daaSora; 3)adamiani bunebiT
arc keTilia da arc boroti, igi carieli dafaa, romelzedac
Sesabamis kvals da anabeWds mxolod socialuri garemo to
vebs. am damkvidrebul da gavrcelebul azrs safuZvelSive
uaryofs rusi mwerali f. dostoevski. igi ar eTanxmeba pirvel
mosazrebas, Tumca man, ise rogorc aravin, SeZlo adamianis
sulis Zirebis warmoCena. igi ar iziarebs meore mosazrebasac,
miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavad sikeTis idea, rogorc maradiuli
da ukvdavi, misi Txzulebebis wamyvani idea iyo. ar iRebs igi
mesame mosazrebasac. dostoevski Rrmad aris darwmunebuli,
rom sazogadoebis normalurad mowyobis SemTxvevaSic ki, da
naSaul
i erTbaSad ar gaqreba da yvela adamiani uceb wminda
ni ar gaxdeba. misTvis adamiani arc maimunia da arc angelozi.
igi RvTis xati da saxea, romelic, marTalia RvTis mier bo
140

Zebuli Tavisi bunebiT keTili, sufTa da mSvenieria, magram


codvaTdacemis Sedegad damaxinjda. maSasadame, dacemul
adamianSi erTdroulad Tanaarseboben sikeTis marcvlebi da
borotebis sarevela. magram rogor unda gadarCes adamiani,
romel gzas mivyevarT taZramde? mxolod qristes rwmenas
cocxal, sicocxlis mimniWebel rwmenas, romelic miiRweva
sakuTari codvili bunebis TviTSemecnebiT, borotebis saku
Tari ZalebiT aRmofxvris SeuZleblobis gacnobierebiT da
qristes, rogorc erTaderTi mxsnelis, aRiarebiT - ase fiq
robs f. dostoevski. mwerlis es msoflmxedvelobrivi pozi
cia leitmotivad gasdevs mis erT-erT yvelaze cnobil nawar
moebs - `Zmebi karamazovebi~.
am romanSi mTeli sisavsiT aris warmoCenili mwerlis re
ligiur-eTikuri da filosofiur-samarTlebrivi Sexedule
bebi. roman-tragediis centraluri sakiTxia mamis mkvlelo
bis istoria. mkvlelobis adgilia qalaqi skotoprigonievski.
`SemTxveviTi ojaxi~ darRveuli naTesaobrivi da zneobrivi
kavSirebi, erTmaneTis mimarT gaucxoebuli ojaxis wevrebi.
mama Tedore pavles Ze absoluturi imoralisti, cinikosi;
igi gvaris ufrosia. misi Svilebi krizisul-katastrofuli
cnobierebis matareblebi arian da SeuZliaT erTdroulad
eTayvanebodnen `madonas ideals~ da `sodomis idealsac~. di
mitri, ufrosi vaJi, mankier
ebaSi Cafluli, Tavisi vnebebis,
grZnobebisa da afeqtebis tyvea. man sakuTar TavSi TiTqmis
Cakla keTili sawyisi da Sinaganad ukve mzad aris mamis mkvle
lobisaTvis. saSualo Svili, ivane inteleqtuali, filo
sofosi, skeptikosi, romelmac yvelafris nebadarTulobis
sakuTari imoralistur-kriminaluri Teoria Camoayaliba.
mas siamovnebas gvris sxva, masze `inteleqtualurad~ dabla
mdgar adamianebze sakuTari gonebis Zalis gamocda, Tavisi
nebisaTvis sxvebis damorCileba, Tavisi msoflmxedvelobis
sisworis Semowmeba, adamianebiT manipulireba. umcrosi Zma
alioSa jer Zalian axalgazrdaa, eklesiaSi morCilia, Sinaga
nad ver iRebs da ewinaaRmdegeba karamazovebiseuli xasiaTis
141

Semotevebs. meoTxe Zma, Tedore karamazovis arakanonieri


Svili, smerdiakovi laqia, saSualo, erTganzomilebiani ada
mian
ia (lampe), magram imavdroulad sxvaTa nebis Tvinierad
damyoli, Semsrulebeli. oTxive Zma, TiToeuli Taviseburad,
monawile aRmoCnda mamis mkvlelobis. magram mTavar damnaSa
ved dimitri miiCnies. Semdeg TiTqos irkveva, rom mkvleloba
smerdiakovs Caudenia. magram raRac mainc rCeba gaurkveveli.
smerdiakovi uaryofs, rom is aris mkvleli, rom marto is aris
mTavari damnaSave. igi eubneba ivanes `Tqven mokaliT, swo
red Tqven xarT mTavari mkvleli. me ki mxolod Tqveni damqaSi
viyavi~. `mTavari mkvleli aq Tqven xarT, Tumca ki me movkali~.
ivanec bolos da bolos eTanxmeba da sasamarTlos winaSe aRi
arebs danaSauls. rogor unda gavigoT es? raSia ivanes danaSa
uli? smerdiak
ovi eubneba ivanes `Tqveni sityvebis mixedviT
Cavidine me es, swored Tqveni sityvebis wyalobiT~. magram iva
nes smerdiakovisaTvis ar uTqvams pirdapir, rom mama moekla;
maS, ras niSnavs, rom man aswavla moekla mama? ra uTxra aseTi?
`MmaSin erTob gabeduli iyaviT, `yvelaferi daSvebuliao~ am
bobdiT~ eubneba smerdiakovi. swored es sityvebi `yvela
feri daSvebulia~, e.i. `yvelaferi nebadarTulia~ gamxdara
mkvlelobis mizezi. es SemTxveviTi azri ar aris. igi garkveu
li msoflmxedvelobis organuli momentia. rogoria es msof
lmxedveloba?
ukeT rom gaverkveT saqmis viTarebaSi, dimitris Sexedule
bebsac unda gavecnoT, romelic man alioSas, umcros Zmas sa
tusaRoSi gaando: misTvis mniSvneloba ar aqvs, Tu ra ganaCens
gamout
ans mas sasamarTlo. es `wvrilmania~. mTavari ki sxvaa
da axsena raRac mecnier
eba, axsena viRac rakitini da ucxoeli
mecnieri klod bernari, romelTa mimdevaric Tavad yofila.
ai, maTi Tvalsazrisi: adamianis azrebi, warmodgenebi, miswra
febebi da a.S. sxva araferi yofila, Tu ara tvinSi mimdinare
fizikuri da qimiuri procesebi; ar arsebobs amisagan gansxva
vebuli raRac suli, rac mTavaria, ar arsebobs araviTari ab
soluti, RmerTi; RmerTi `xelovnuri idea~ yofila. `qimia,
142

Zmao, qimia! verafers gaawyobT, Tqveno udidebulesobav, co


ta CaiwieT, qimia modis~. dimitri fiqrobs, rom Tuki `qimiam~,
anu zogadad mecnierebam, adamianis cnobierebidan gandevna
RmerTi, Tuki RmerTi aRar arsebobs, maSin yvelaferi neba
darTulia, `yvelaferi daSvebulia~. e.i. am Tvalsazrisis mi
xedviT, samyaros fizikur-qimiuri, sabunebismetyvelo axsna
erTaderTi da saboloo axsnaa, anu es yofila msoflmxedve
loba, romlis mixedviTac yovelive daiyvaneba fizikur-qimi
ur procesebze. RmerTi gandevnilia da aRar arsebobs ara
viTari safuZveli moraluri normebisaTvis, e.i. `yvelaferi
daSvebulia~. ase fiqrobs damitri karamazovi.
ganaCeni, romelic dimitris gamoutanes, sasamarTlo (iu
ridiuli) Secdoma aRmoCnda, vinaidan damnaSaved scnes is, vi
sac mkvleloba realurad ar Caudenia, Tumca zneobrivi Tval
sazrisiT, swori ganaCeni iyo: dimitri dasjas imsaxurebs ukve
imis gamo, rom mravaljer emuqreboda mamas mokvliT da, rac
mTavaria, surda mamis sikvdili. swored aman ganapiroba Tavad
dimitris gaorebuli damokidebuleba ganaCenisadmi: ar eTan
xmeba ra mis iuridiul formulirebas, dimitris esmis wayene
buli bralis zneobrivi simarTle, igi aRiarebs Tavis mora
lur braleulobas da Tavsdatexil ubedurebaSi, gadarCenis
erTaderT saSualebas xedavs: itvirTos es jvari, itanjos da
moinanios is codviani gza, romelsac misi uzneo, qarafSuta,
garyvnili cxovreba erqva.
ivane karamazovi ganaTlebuli da moazrovne adamiania. man
RmerTis Sesaxeb tradiciul warmodgenaSi Seusabamoba aR
moaCina. meores mxriv, sabunebismetyvelo azrovnebis ZaliT
uaryo RmerTis arsebobis `sabuTi~ da veRar daij
era RmerTis
arseboba. magram RmerTis ararsebobidan nihilistur-eTiku
ri daskvnebi gamoitana da amis safuZvelze danaSaulic Caidi
na. bolos, TviTonve ver gauZlo yovelive amas da gagiJda.
moxuci karamazovis sikvdili ar aris erTaderTi ube
dureba, romelic romanSi xdeba: smerdiakovma Tavi moikla,
ivane gagiJda, dimitri katorRaSi gagzavnes. yovelive amaSi
143

ki damnaSavea uRmerToba, uRmerTo cnobiereba, rac, erTis


mxriv, RmerTze tradaciuli warmodgenis ukmarisobis da, me
ore mxriv, sabunebismetyvelo azrovnebis universalurobis
pretenziis Sedegia. Tavisuflebamopovebul adamians misi
moxmarebis, ganxorcielebis ufleba aqvs SeuZlia sakuTari
mosazrebiT gankargos suli anu emsaxuros nebismier RmerTs,
kerps, demons, Tavis Tavs anda saerTod aravis; sulis gayid
vis, dagiravebis uflebac aqvs; adamians ufleba aqvs sakuTa
ri sxeulic gayidos, ferad-feradi tatuebiT moxatos; Sec
valos seqsual
uri orientacia, sqesic ki; xelyos sakuTari
da sxvisi sicocxle. yovelive es misi, `Tavisufali adamia
nis~, kerZo saqmea. aseT `kulturul sivrceSi~ araviTari ver
tikali aRar arsebobs: sakraluri marTlac profanirebuli
xdeba, banaluri esTetikuris saxes imkvidrebs, mdare ki nor
maluris statuss iZens. es sxva araferia, Tu ara yvela Rire
bulebiTi ierarqiis kulturulis, eTikuris, esTetikuris,
religiuris Secvla da yalbi, Tavisufali sazogadoebis `Ta
visufali adamianisaTvis~ misaRebi axali, `moduri, elitaru
li~ msoflmxedvelobisa da misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rirebu
lebebis damkvidrebis cda.
Ees nihilistur-imoralisturi msoflmxedveloba civili
zaciisaTvis damRupveli destruqciuli sawyisebis saxe-sim
boloa, romelic aiZulebs adamians moraluri da bunebiTsamarTlebrivi moTxovnebis sawinaaRmdegod icxovros da
imoqmedos, arRvevs mis Sinagan samyaros da arTmevs mas ada
mian
ur saxes.

144

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ra moiazreba kulturis cnebaSi?
axseniT, ratom Tvlian `kulturas bunebiT fenomenad~ ?
filosofiuri kuTxiT ra daskvna SeiZleba gakeTdes kul
turis warmoSobis Taobaze promeTes miTidan?
ra rols TamaSobs miznis dasaxva da gaazrebuli saqmiano
ba kulturaSi?
adamian
is mravalmxrivi moRvaweobis yvela Sedegi gane
kuTneba kulturis sferos?
ra urTierTmimarTebaa kulturasa da civilizacias So
ris?
Spengleris mixedviT, ra gansxvavebaa kulturasa da civi
lizacias Soris?
daasaxeleT samyarosTan adamianis mimarTebis aspeqtebi.
rogor gesmiT `obieqturi Sefaseba~ ?
ra formiT arseboben Rirebulebebi?
ra aris nihilizmi? voluntarizmi? imoralizmi?
nicSes mixedviT ram ganapiroba Tanamedrove epoqis suli
eri krizisi?
gaaanalizeT nicSes ambivalenturi damokidebuleba qris
tianuli religiis mimarTY.
nicSes azriT, ra aris nihilizmi Zveli Rirebulebebis
gadafaseba Tu axali Rirebulebebis damkvidrebis procesi?
rogor esmis nicSes sicocxlis arsi? Rirebulebebi? Tana
medrove morali?
ra moiazreba nicSes ~zekacis~ cnebaSi?

145

Tavi VI
filosofosebi adamianis Sesaxeb msjeloben...
`adamian
is sicocxle wamia mxolod; misi arseba marad me
dini, SegrZneba bundovani; aRnagoba sxeulisa xrwnadi; su
li cdomiliviT moxetiale; bedi idumali; dideba fuWi;
erTi sityviT, yvelaferi sxeuliseuli nakads waagavs, suli
seuli sizmars, kvamlsa da nisls; sicocxle brZolaa da xe
tiali ucxo mxareSi, sikvdilis Semdgomi saxeli daviwyeba.
maS, raRas mivyveT, ra gviwinamZRvrebs? sibrZnis siyvaruli
(filosofia) mxolod da mxolod~.
markus avreliusi
`axla ki dae, adamiani kvlav miubrundes sakuTar Tavs da
Sead
aros Tavisi arseba yovelive arsebuls. dae, Seicnos,
rarig dakargulia samyaros am miviwyebulsa da miyruebul
kuTxeSi. adamiani moqceulia or araraobisa da usasrulo
bis ufskruls Soris.
da mainc ra aris adamiani? araraoba usasrulobasTan Se
darebiT da yvelaferi araraob
asTan SedarebiT, anu raRac
saSual
o yvelafersa da arafers Soris. mas ar SeuZlia arc
erTi ukiduresobis Secnoba, saganTa dasabami da dasasru
li misTvis samudamod dafarulia idumalebis ganuWvreteli
ukuniT. is erTnairad umweoa Seicnos rogorc araraoba, rom
lisganac iSva, ise usasruloba, romelSic aris danTqmuli.
adamiani eZebs myar sayrdens, romelsac igi miendoba, magram
ver poulobs, rameTu, irgvliv araferia uryevi. aseTia Cveni
bunebrivi mdgomareoba da mainc, sruliad arabunebrivad eC
veneba Cvens grZnobebs. Cven xarbad miveltviT mkvidr samyo
fels, gvsurs fexqveS vgrZnobdeT myar niadags, raTa caTazi
duli godoli avRmarTod zed, magram saZirkveli irRveva.
me ar vici raa samyaro, ar vici ra aris Cemi sxeul
i, Cemi
grZnoba, Cemi suli da Cemi arsebis is nawili, romelic fiq
146

robs imas, rasac vambob, romelic cdilobs azriT miwvdes da


Seicnos yvelaferi, Seicnos Tavisi Tavic, magram ukeT rodi
icnobs sakuTar Tavs, vidre sxva danarCens. me vxedav samyaros
saSinel sivrces, romelSic var Caketili. me vgrZnob, rom mi
jaWvuli var am uvrcesi samyaros mxolod erT kunWuls, mag
ram ar vici rad mxvda wilad swored es kuTxe da ara romelime
sxva adgili, an rad meboZa sasicocxlod erTi mswraflwar
mavali wami maradisobis swored am da ara romelime sxva wer
tilSi. maradisobisa, romelic win uswrebs Cems dasabams da,
romelic mosdevs Cems dasasruls.
me verafers vxedav Cems irgvliv usasrulobis garda, ro
melSic atomiviT var Cakarguli. Cemi sicocxle mxolod
Crdilia, romelic mxolod wamiT evlineba usasrulobas, ra
Ta am wamis waxdomisTanave ukvalod gaqres.
me mxolod is vici, rom male movkvdebi, magram yvelaze nak
leb vicnob swored am sikvdils, romelsac ver gaveqcevi, ver
avicileb~.
blez paskali
`rogorc lagami ver moTokavs awyvetil cxens, aseve ver
moTokavs inteleqti da cnobiereba adamianis nebas~.
artur Sopenhauer
i

`adamian
ad yofna niSnavs iyo imaze meti vidre adamiania, da
Tu adamiani imaze meti araa, vidre adamiani, maSin igi nakle
bia, vidre adamiani~.
abraham heSeli
`RmerTi da me, Cven, erTsa da imave saqmes vakeTebT da Rmer
Ti ver ganxorcieldeba sulis gareSe~.
maister ekharti
`is, radac vici Cemi Tavi ara var sinamdvileSi TviT me~.
karl iaspersi
147

`adamian
i Tavad qmnis Tavis RmerTs da Tan moraluri gage
biT. amgvari ram TviT unda Seqmnas kidec, raTa masSi eTayvane
bodes mas, romelmac Tavad is Seqmna~.
`moiqeci ise, rom kacobrioba, rogorc sakuTari ise nebis
mieri pirovnebis saxiT, arasdros gamoiy
eno rogorc mxolod
saSual
eba, aramed rogorc mizani~.
`yoveli adamiani individualuri, unikaluri da Seucvle
lia Tavisi bunebiT~.
`adamian
is gareSe yvela qmnileba udabno iqneboda, rome
lic moklebulia saboloo mizans da usargebloa~.
imanuel kanti
`saocrad mousvenari, WeSmaritad meryevi da maradcva
lebadi arsebaa adamiani, ioli araa masze mtkice da erTgvari
warmodgenis Seqmna~.
monteni
`gamocanaa Rimili yoveli adamianisa aravis ar SeuZlia
zustad aRweros interesis gamoxatuleba, enTuziazmi, cxov
rebis siyvaruli, siZulvili Tu narcisizmi, romelic SeiZle
ba sxva adamianis TvalebSi, siarulSi, pozasa da intonaciaSi
davinaxoT~.
`adamian
i ukmayofiloa, ubeduria, dezorientirebulia,
SecdomaSia Seyvanili, saTamaSoa bedis xelSi, sanam Tavis ad
gils ipovides am samyaroSi~.
erix fromi
`SeiZuleT adamianis saqmeebi da ara TviTon adamiani, cod
vebi da ara codvili. es ori ram sxvadasxva ramea. Tu Tavad
adamians SeviZulebT, siZulvilisa da zizRis Sxami daaxrCobs
kacTa modgmas~.
mahatma gandi
148

`rodesac CauRrmavdebi da Seicnob qcevebis motivebsa da


principebs, sikeTesa da borotebaze Sexedulebebi (zneobri
vi Semecneba) srulyofis umaRles safexurs miaRwevs. xolo,
rodesac sikeTesa da borotebaze Sexedulebebi (zneobrivi
Semecneba) srulyofis umaRles safexurs miaRwevs, survile
bi xalasi da wrfeli iqneba. xolo, rodesac survilebi xala
si da wrfelia, guli alalmarTali da patiosania. xolo, ro
desac guli alalmarTali da patiosania, adamianic ukeTesi
xdeba. xolo, rodesac adamiani ukeTesia, ojaxSic wesrigi da
simSvide sufevs. xolo, rodesac ojaxSi wesrigi da simSvidea,
xalxis marTva iolia. xolo, rodesac xalxi advilad imarTe
ba, mTeli samyaro mSvidobaSi da TanxmobaSi icxovrebs~.
konfuci

`vinc sxva Seicno Wkviania, vinc sakuTari Tavi brZeni~.


lao Zi
`adamian
is cxovrebis mexuTedi Tu mesamedi, an iqneb naxe
varic ki, aracnobier mdgomareobaSi mimdinareobs. Cveni bav
Svobis pirveli xana aracnobierad gadis, yovel RamiT arac
nobierSi viZirebiT da mxolod gansazRvrul SualedebSi
vflobT met-naklebad naTel cnobierebas da kacma rom Tqvas,
isic sakiTxav
ia, Tu ramdenad naTelia es cnobiereba~.
`Cven yvelas mogvsvlia gvsurvebia erTi, Segvsrulebia
meor
e, gamogvsvlia mesame. aq azrovnebaze metad grZnoba pri
oritetobs, Cven grZnobaTa mimarT ise avtomaturni ara varT,
rogorc azrovnebis, aRqmisa da warmodgenis mimarT. grZnoba
gvevlineba rogorc ucxo Zala... me SemiZlia nebismier Temaze
vifiqro, magram me ar SemiZlia Cemi nebis da miuxedavad raime
grZnoba vigrZno!...
P.S. es rom ase yofiliyo, cxovreba bevrad ufro ioli iq
neboda. Cven ZalgviZs axali cnebebis Camoyalibeba, magram
axali grZnobebis Seqmna ki, ara. es imis naTeli dadasturebaa,
rom adamians amoZravebs raRac `ara me~, rasac fsiqologiaSi
149

`aracnobiers~ uwodeben da romlis winaSec adamiani uZlu


ria. Tumca es ar aTavisuflebs adamians pasuxismgeblobisa
da movaleobebisagan~
iungi
`sindisis xma, romelic mxolod Cemgan modis (da ara raime
sxva Zalisagan, vTqvaT RmerTisagan) im ucnaurobiT xasiaT
deba, rom me ar memorCileba da piriqiT, Cemze batonobs. igi
CemSi, Cemze maRalia~.
haidegeri

`Tu me ar vdgevar Cems TavTan, vin dadgeba CemTan? Tu me


mxolod CemTvis var, vin var me? Tu ara axla, aba, rodis?~
Talmudi
`Tavisuflebisa da demokratiisaTvis brZola xom ar gvaq
cevs Tavisuflebis monebad? iqneb sjobda yovel kacs mTeli
mecadineoba miemarTa sakuTari Tavis povnisaken? iqneb sjob
da mTel ersac efiqra amaze . es xom ufro metia, vidre ubra
lod is Tavisufleba, romelic dRes yvela qarTvels pirze
akeria, vinaid
an TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli mudam gareT
icqireba da viRacisagan garedan moelis mas. sakuTari Tavis
maZiebeli ki, Tavissave sulSi imzireba mTeli CaRrmavebiT.
martooden gareT macqerali verc Tavis Tavs ipovnis da verc
Tavisufali gaxdeba. Tavisuflebis gareT maZiebeli viRacas
missave msgavss ejaxeba da yoveli aseTi dajaxeba konfliq
tiT da Tavisuflebis dakargviT mTavrdeba, vidre povniT!~
karlo gogsaZe

150

adamianis problema filosofiaSi


rogorc araerTxel agviRniSnavs, filosofia mecniere
bis specifikuri dargia. e.w. `maradiuli problemebis~ wvdo
misa da kvlevis procesSi, igi, raRa Tqma unda, miiswrafvis
daadginos ucvleli, maradiuli Rirebulebebi, magram, imav
droulad, miznad ar isaxavs moiZios sayovelTaod miRebuli,
erTmniSvnelovani pasuxebi. Semowmebuli, mecnierulad dasa
buTebuli faqtebis ararseboba sulac ar aris filosofiis
nakli. misTvis ufro damaxasiaTebelia intuiciaze, zeSTago
nebaze, logikur analizze dafuZnebuli varaudebi, mixved
rebi, rac saSualebas aZlevs filosofias gaarRvios arsebu
li codnis sazRvrebi, gascdes mas da mogvces gansxvavebuli
axsna yovelive imisa, rac jer-jerobiT mecnierulad dasabu
Tebuli ar aris. amgvarad, WeSmariti filosofiisaTvis da
maxasiaTebeli ar aris erTgvarovneba, Tanmxvedri pozicia
nebismier sakiTxze. aRniSnuli exeba iseT rTul sakiTxsac,
rogoricaa adamianis problema.
`saxe da xati RvTisa~, `gonieri arseba~, `bunebis gvirgvi
ni~, `moazrovne cxoveli~, `politikuri cxoveli~, `cxovre
bis Cixi~, `cxovrebis Secdoma~, `moraluri da Tavisufali
arseba~ ai, arasruli CamonaTvali im epiTetebisa, riTac
Seamkes adamiani filosofiis arsebobis 2500 wlis ganmavlo
baSi. da mainc, ra aris adamiani? unda aRiniSnos, rom filo
sofiaSi, albaT, ar arsebobs am kiTxvaze rTuli kiTxva. ada
miani is saidumloa, romelic `maradiul problemaTa~ ricxvs
ganekuTvneba. niSandoblivia, rom yovelTvis, roca ki adamia
ni yuradReb
is centrSi eqceod
a, Tavidan iwyeboda misi arsis
garkveva, wvdoma, Sefaseba, TiTqosda aqamde araferi icodnen
masze. es, Tavis mxriv, miuTiTebs mxolod erT garemoebaze
filosofiaSi adamianze rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi `sagani~
ar arsebobs, romlis wvdomisa da Sefasebis dros ikveTeba
mravali pozicia gulubryvilo, optimizmiT gamsWvaluli
da pesimizmiT aRsavsec.
151

adamianma Tavisi Tavis gacnobiereba mas Semdeg daiwyo,


rac gauCnda TviTcnobiereba. amis naTeli dasturia pir
velyofili miTebi da religiebi. adamianis TviTSemecnebis
filosofiur
i gaazreba gacilebiT gvian moxda, radgan fi
losofia, rogorc kulturis damoukidebeli forma, civili
zaciis ganviTarebis gviandel xanas miekuTvneba. TviT filo
sofiis wiaRSi adamianis problema gvian dadga. dasawyisSi igi
mimarTuli iyo samyaros saiduloebebis amoxsnaze. sofisteb
ma pirvelad, daaxloebiT Zv. w. V saukuneSi, daiwyes mobrune
ba adamian
isaken. protagoram wamoayena Tezisi imis Taobaze,
rom adamian
i aris yvelafris sazomi. magram adamianis sakiTxi,
rogorc filosofiis ZiriTadi problema, sokratem dasva. man
delfos taZris Sesasvlelis warwera `Seic
an Tavi Seni~ aq
cia filosofiuri gansjis RerZad. es iyo gardatexis momen
ti. amiT damTavrda ZvelberZnuli filosofiis evoluciis
kosmologiur
i periodi da daiwyo axali anTropologiuri
period
i. adamianis arsis garkveva da dadgena filosofiis er
T-erTi ZiriTadi wamyvani Tema gaxda. Znelia adamianuri go
nis fsiqikaze, misi cxovrebis sazrissa da mimarTulebaze da
bejiTebiT, kategoriulad raimes Tqma. am problemis moxsna
ar SeuZlia arc mecnierebas, arc kacobriobis mier dagrovil
mravalsaukunovan codnas da zust dakvirvebebs; arc zedmi
wevniT gaangariSebul Tanamedrove Teoriebs ZaluZT naTeli
mohfinon, adamianTan dakavSirebul problemebs, radgan, Tu
imanuel kants davesesxebiT, `yoveli adamiani individualu
ri da Seucvlelia Tavisi bunebiT~.
am problemis Sesaxeb antikur filosofiaSi polarulad
gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs vxvdebiT. Cineli filosofosi
men-Zi ambobda, rom adamiani dasabamidan aris keTili. vaiZu
loT mas Caidinos boroteba es niSnavs ganvaxorcielebi
noT Tavisi bunebis sawinaaRmdego qmedeba. `adamianuroba es
aris adamianis guli~. sun-Zi ki sawinaaRmdegos amtkicebs. mi
si TqmiT, `adamians aqvs boroti buneba~. aristotelesaTvis
dasaSvebia arsebobdes adamiani mona, metyveli iaraRi, rom
152

lis gaTavisufleba man Semcvleli iaraRis SeqmnasTan daakav


Sira. maister ekharti antikurobisaTvis mkrexeluri formu
liT gamoxatavs adamianis adgils samyaroSi `RmerTi da me,
Cven erTsa da imave saqmes vakeTebT da RmerTi ver ganxorci
eldeba sulis gareSe~. xmamaRla naTqvami sityvebia, eWvi rom
ar ereodes. Tumca, aranaklebia imanuel kantis gancxadeba:
`adamian
i Tavad qmnis Tavis RmerTs da Tan moraluri gagebiT,
amgvari ram TviT unda Seqmnas kidec, raTa masSi eTayvanebo
des mas, romelmac Tavad is Seqmna~. aq sakiTxi ufro rTulad
dgas. Tuki amodena ndobaa, maS ra saWiroa `kategoriuli impe
rativi~? ras niSnavs kategoriuli imperativi da Tavisufle
ba erTdroulad? am kiTxvaze pasuxs scems kacobriobis ganvi
Tarebis gza, sadac adamianma imdenjer moip
ova ndoba Tavisi
adamian
obiT, ramdenic undobloba Tavisi araadamianurobiT.
Cveni sicocxle xom meryeobs cxovelur da RvTaebriv sawyiss
Soris, maT Soris, rac ufro didia, vidre adamianuri da rac
ufro kninia, vidre adamianuri. Cvens qveviT warmavloba da
amaoebaa, Cvens zeviT sulier
eba da keTilmsaxureba. adami
ani xom muyaiT
icaa, romelic saswaulebs axdens da uzarmace
sic, romelic gawvdili xeliT elodeba mowyalebas.
adamian
is orgvar bunebas kargad gamoxatavs karl iasper
sis cnobili sityvebi `is, radac vici Cemi Tavi, ara var si
namdvileSi TviT me~. marTlac da, ra aris `cxoveluri~ da
ra `wminda~ specifikur-pirovnuli adamianSi. rogoria Cemi
damokidebuleba samyarosadmi, ra adgili uWiravs am samya
roSi erTi SexedviT uZlursa da pataras, magram sinamdvile
Si grandiozuli Zalebisa da unarebis mqone arsebas, Zneli
amosacnobia, ufro metic amoucnobia. cocxali adamiani ar
aris raRac gayinuli saxe da amitom ar SeiZleba iyos aRweri
li rogorc nivTi, sagani. faqtobrivad SeiZleba bevri iTqvas
Cemze, Cems xasiaTze, Cems saerTo cxovrebiseul orientacia
ze; gamWriaxma gonebam SeiZleba miaRwios did siRrmeebs Cemi
fsiqologiuri struqturis aRweraSi, magram me mTlianobaSi,
mTeli Cemi individualoba, Cemi TviTgamoxatuleba, romelic
153

imdenad unikaluria, rogorc Cemi TiTebis anabeWdi, aras


dros SeiZleba iyos srulad Secnobili. ori identuri adami
ani ar arsebobs. arcerTi qcevis aqti ar SeiZleba iyos aRwe
rili amomwuravi saxiT. `gamocanaa Rimili yoveli adamianisa
aravis SeuZlia zustad aRweros interesis gamoxatuleba,
enTuziazmi, cxovrebis siyvaruli, siZulvili Tu narcisizmi,
romelic SeiZleba sxva adamianis TvalebSi, siarulSi, pozasa
da intonaciaS
i davinaxoT~ (e. fromi).
sokratedan moyolebuli, mTeli filosofiis istoriis
manZilze ar Senelebula adamianis raobis kvleva, magram yve
laze didi mniSvneloba am problemas kantis filosofiaSi mi
eca. kantma mTeli siRrmiT gaaanaliza adamianis Teoriuli da
praqtikuli unarebis SesaZleblobani da mivida im daskvnam
de, rom adamianis arsebas mxolod aucilebloba da Teoriu
li moRvaweoba ar gansazRvravs; adamiani, upirveles yovli
sa, aris Tavisufali avtonomiuri arseba. Tavisufleba aris
is, riTac adamiani axorcielebs namdvil yofierebas. amdenad
adamianad yofnis upirvelesi niSania Tavisufleba. kantis
mixedviT, Tavisufleba niSnavs kategoriuli imperativiT
cxovrebas. kategoriuli imperativi, warmoadgens nebisyofi
sa da gonebis iseT urTierTobas, sadac neba gonebis moTxov
nebs emorCileba. gavixsenoT es moTxovnebi adamiani yovel
Tvis mizania da ara saSualeba, e. i. sxva adamians nu gaixdi Seni
miznis miRwevis saSualebad; moiqeci ise, rom Seni nebisyofis
maqsimas SeeZlos gaxdes amave dros sayovelTao kanonmdeb
lobis principi. amrigad, nebisyofis movaleobaa daicvas go
nebis is moTxovnebi, romelic sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebia.
am SemTxvevaSi Tavisufleba ase ganisazRvreba: Tavisufleba
aris gacnobierebuli moraluri kanoni da mis safuZvelze
moqmedeba.
kantis mier aRiarebuli nebisyofis Tavisuflebis kanoni,
romelic gonebis upiratesobaze iyo damyarebuli, hegelma
kidev ufro gaafarTova. Tu kants gonebis cnebaSi transcen
dentaluri da imanenturi goneba hqonda gaazrebuli, hegel
154

ma is absoluturi goniT Secvala. hegelTan Tavisuflebis


cnebis ganmarteba igive darCa, rac kantTan iyo, mxolod im
gansxvavebiT, rom kantTan kanonmdebelia transcendentalu
ri goni, xolo hegelTan absoluturi goni. hegelTan Tavi
sufleba niSnavs absoluturi gonis gacnobierebas da amis sa
fuZvelze moqmedebas. aq umaRlesi mizania absoluturi goni,
ramac yvelaferi gamoavlina samyaroSi da riTac yvelaferi
isev misken miiswrafvis. aseTma gagebam warmoSva moTxovna
mizani amarTlebs saSualebas, sadac adamiani miznis nacvlad,
saSualebad gadaiqca.
iracionalisturi filosofia, kantisagan gansxvavebiT,
amtkicebs, rom gonebisa da nebisyofis urTierTobis garkve
vis dros upiratesoba unda mieniWos nebas, nebisyofis Tavi
suflebas da ara gonebas. maTi azriT, adamianis namdvil Ta
visuflebasTan mxolod am SemTxvevaSi gveqneba saqme, radgan
goneba da cnobiereba Tavisuflebas ki ar aniWebs adamians,
piriqiT, is borkavs adamianis Tavisuflebas. iracionalizmis
warmomadgeneli, germaneli filosofosis artur Sopenhau
eris (1788 1860 ww.) mixedviT, nebisyofis aracnobieri Zala
gansazRvravs cnobierebas da gonebas, is imorCilebs inte
leqts, radgan aracnobier stiqiur ZalasTan WidilSi cno
biereba uZluria. amis naTelsayofad Sopenhaueri ambobs:
`rogorc lagami ver moTokavs awyvetil cxens, aseve ver mo
Tokavs inteleqti da cnobiereba adamianis nebas~. misi azriT,
samyaroSi yvelafers msoflio neba marTavs da ara goneba.
amitom adamiani Tavisufalia maSin, rodesac moqmedebs da
cxovrobs nebis karnaxiT da ara gonebis amkrZalavi princi
pebiT. igive pozicias icavs fridrix nicSe. misi azriT, ada
mians warmarTavs aracnobieri Zala, romelic mas Zalaufle
bis mopovebisaken mouwodebs. nicSe sicocxlis filosofiis
warmomadgenelia da rogorc ukve viciT, misTvis miuRebelia
kategoriuli imperativiT cxovreba. misi azriT, kategoriu
li imperativi monad da morCilad xdis adamianebs. moTxovna
`Sen unda!~ adamians arTmevs Tavisuflebas. is klavs namdvil
155

sicocxles. amis sapirispirod nicSe ayenebs Tavis imperativs


`me msurs~, romelic arafrad agdebs arsebul Rirebulebebs
da ibrZvis absoluturi TavisuflebisaTvis. `me msurs~ aris
zekacis imperativi da umaRlesi Rirebuleba. nicSem sazoga
doebas mouw
oda ibrZolos sakuTari Tavisuflebis damkvid
rebisTvis. magram misi zekaci gaurkvevel viTarebaSi vardeba,
radgan RmerTs uaryofs da RmerTis funqciebs kisrulobs.
raki es asea, maSin zekacma yvelaferze TviTon unda agos pa
suxi. aseT viTarebaSi adamianis Tavisufleba CixSi Sedis da
gamosavals ver poulobs. es aris nihilisturi msoflmxedve
loba, romelic sazogadoebaSi anarqias uSvebs.
germaneli filosofosis vilhelm dilTais (1833 1911
ww.) mixedviT, RmerTi aZlevs adamians Tavisuflebas, ar bo
Wavs mis Semoqmedebas da ar adgens saboloo ucvlel mizans.
misi azriT, adamianis sicocxlis mizani TviTon adamianSia, is
ar aris garedan Tavsmoxveuli iZuleba. sicocxlis swrafva
adamianis Sinagani impulsia. vinaidan cxovreba usasrulod
mravalmxrivia Tavis SesaZleblobebiT, adamiani am SesaZleb
lobebs misi Sinagani Tavisuflebis, misi intuiciuri alRos
mixedviT irCevs. dilTais azriT, adamianis sulier samyaros
mecnieruli axsnis meTodebiT ver SevicnobT. adamianis su
lier miswrafebebs, ltolvebs da Tavisuflebas mxolod ga
gebis unari wvdeba. dilTai filosofiis amocanad miiCnevs
sicocxlis saidumloebis amoxsnas. sulma Tavis TavSi unda
hpovos ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba da ara saboloo mizan
Si. aq TviTon moZraob
aa Rirebuleba da ara saboloo mizani,
radgan sicocxle ver egueba gaCerebas da sazRvars. amitom,
adamianis SemoqmedebiTi Tavisufleba ganusazRvrelia, man
Tavisi Tavi unda ipovos isev Tavis TavSi da amiT gaxdes Tavi
sufali arseba.
eqsistencializmi sicocxlis filosofiis gagrZelebaa.
mas safuZveli Cauyara XIX saukunis danielma filosofosma
soren kirkegorma (1813 1855 ww.), romelic daupirispirda he
gelis filosofias. misi azriT, hegelTan laparakia mxolod
156

kacobriobaze, saxelmwifoze da sxva zogad problemebze,


magram araferia mocemuli pirovnebis ontologiur sawyiseb
ze. kirkegoris mixedviT, SeuZlebelia logikuri azrovnebiT
am sawyis
ebis Zieb
a, radgan aseT msjelobas paradoqsamde miv
yavarT da auxsneli rCeba adamianis arseba. misi azriT, adami
ani unda daemyaros RmerTis rwmenas, mxolod rwmenas SeuZlia
ixsnas adamiani auxsneli problemebisagan, romlebic adamian
Si SiSsa da sasowarkveTas iwvevs. SiSi aris adamianuri yofi
erebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani eqsistencia, mis gareSe aravi
Tari gadawyvetilebis miReba ar arsebobs, is mudam Tan sdevs
adamian
ur cxovrebas. SiSis gancdas mravali viTareba iwvevs,
magram yvelaze mTavaria sikvdilis SiSi. amitom adamianma ga
mosavali religiur rwmenaSi unda hpovos. kirkegorma amiT
religiur eqsistencializms Cauyara safuZveli.
religiur eqsistencializms aviTarebs XX saukunis fi
losofosi karl iaspersi (1883 1969 ww.). misi azriT, adami
ani Tavis sulier yofierebaSi Rrmad maSin iyureba, rodesac
igi SiSsa da sasowarkveTaSi vardeba. swored am dros xdeba
gamoucnobi eqsistenciebis xedva da adamiani Tavisuflde
ba yovelgvari sazrunavisagan, romelic tvirTad awevs mas.
am gancdaSi xdeba eqsistencialuri gaciskrovneba, adamiani
Tavidan icilebs sxva warmodgenebs da gadadis RmerTis gan
cdaze. adamians mxolod RmerTis rwmena aZlevs saSualebas
gavides Tavisi imanenturi samyarodan transcendentur sam
yaroSi da eziaros WeSmaritebas. rwmena aris adamianis Sina
gani Tavisuflebis gamomxatveli. RmerTi da Tavisufleba
ganuyofelia. adamiani Tavisuflebas avlens arCevnis SesaZ
leblobaSi, rac ganpirobebulia Sinagani eqsistenciis kar
naxiT. magram adamiani Tavisi yofierebiT kavSirs amyarebs
sazogadoebriv yofierebasTan anu munyofierebasTan. Tu
moqmedeba munyofierebiT iqneba ganpirobebuli, maSin aravi
Tar TavisuflebasTan ar gveqneba saqme. iaspersis mixedviT,
munyofierebaSi miznis misaRwevad yvelaferi (mtroba, vera
goba, sicrue...) dasaSvebia, magram eqsistencia gamoricxavs
157

aseT miswrafebebs. eqsistencia niSnavs siyvarulisken, RvTa


ebrivisaken swrafvas. swored aseTi swrafva aqcevs adamians
Tavisufal arsebad. RvTaebrivisaken swrafva aris SiSis daZ
levisa da simSvidis damkvidrebis erTaderTi gamosavali.
arareligiuri eqsistencializmi Camoayaliba germanelma
filosofosma martin haidegerma (1889 1976 ww.). arareli
giur
i ara nicSes gagebiT, aramed im gagebiT, rom filosofia
unda emyarebodes Tavis Tavs, is Tavisi Tavidan unda gamovi
des da ara sxvisgan, radgan adamiani Tavisuflebas mxolod
sakuTar yofierebaze mimarTuli refleqsiis gziT aRwevs.
misi azriT, refleqsiisa da sakuTari yofierebis Rrma gan
cdis saSual
ebaa dro. dro aris yofierebisa da munyofiere
bis SemakavSirebeli. sakuTari yofierebidan munyofierebaSi
gasvla da iqedan dabruneba sakuTar TavSi drois gancdiT
SeiZleba. amitom dro aris istoriis horizonti. haidegeris
azriT, pirovnuli yofierebis ZiriTadi eqsistenciebia SiSi,
SeSfoTeba, zrunva da sxva. es eqsistenciebi yovelTvis Tan
axlavs adamian
is ganwyobas. ganwyoba aris pirovnuli yofie
rebis fundamenturi eqsistenciali. yofierebaze moZRvrebas
haidegerma fundamenturi ontologia uwoda. sakuTari Tavi
rom ipovos, saWiroa pirovneba ganeridos praqtikul da prag
matul mecnierul ganwyobas, ganiwmindos misgan da gadavides
misi arsebobis ZiriTad eqsistenciebze. adamiani amas mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi miaRwevs, Tu gaacnobierebs Tavis mokvdaobas
da warmavlobas. mxolod sikvdilis Secnoba iZleva namdvili
sicocxlis gaazrebis saSualebas. sicocxlis gaazreba mxo
lod gagebiT SeiZleba, misi mecnieruli axsna SeuZlebelia.
amitom gageba adamianuri yofierebis ZiriTadi maxasiaTebe
lia. pirovnuli Tavisuflebis sazrisi imas niSnavs, rom ada
mianma unda airCios gza momavlisaken, anu airCios sakuTari
momavali.
haidegeris mixedviT, gageba arc fsiqologiuria da arc
logikuri, is arc garedan modis da arc Signidan, aramed is
aris samyaroSi yofnis wesi. adamiani maSin xdeba pirovneba,
158

roca is gadawyvetilebas iRebs. gadawyvetileba ki niSnavs


naxtoms momaval yofnaSi.
arareligiuri da aTeisturi eqsistencializmis pozici
aze dgas frangi filosofosi da mwerali Jan pol sartric
(1905 1980 ww.). sartris filosofiis umTavres problemas
warmoadgens adamianis Tavisuflebis sakiTxi. misi azriT,
adamian
i ver gaeqceva pasuxismgeblobas, radgan Tavisufa
lia. swored Tavisuflebaa adamianisTvis iseTi ram, romelic
misgan moiTxovs yvelaferze, yvela moqmedebaze pasuxismgeb
lobas. amitom misTvis miuRebelia religiuri eqsistencia
lizmis amosavali debuleba, romlis mixedviTac RmerTi aris
adamian
is Tavisuflebis garanti, rom RmerTisken swrafva
aris adamianis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba. Tavisuflebis
aseTi gageba, adamians uxsnis pasuxismgeblobas sakuTar moq
medebaze da es pasuxismgebloba RmerTze gadadis.
sartris azriT, RmerTi rom arsebobdes, maSin SesaZlebe
li iqneboda momavlis gansazRvra, magram, radganac is ar ar
sebobs, momavlis gansazRvra SeuZlebelia. amitom adamiani
yovel konkretul situaciaSi TviTon iRebs gadawyvetilebas
da Tavadve unda agos pasuxi masze. pasuxismgeblobis gadata
na arc sazogadoebaze da arc RmerTze ar SeiZleba. ar arse
bobs raime sxva Rirebuleba, romelic adamianze maRla dgas.
amdenad Tavisufleba adamianisTvis aris mZime tvirTi, rad
gan yvelaferze TviTon unda agos pasuxi. sartris azriT, Za
lian Znelia iyo adamiani, radgan `adamiani dawyevlilia Ta
visuflebiT~. sartris mixedviT, ar arsebobs obieqturi da
sayovelTao Rirebulebebi, aramed yvela Rirebulebas adami
ani TviTon qmnis.

159

adamianuri eqsistencialebi: sicocxlis sazrisi,


sikvdil-sicocxle, siyvarulis filosofia

sicocxlis sazrisi. cxovrebis miznisa da adamianuri arse


bobis daniSnulebis problemebi TiToeuli Cvenganis yvelaze
rTuli da mtkivneuli safiqralia, miuxedavad imisa, rom ada
mian
ebs yvela drosa da epoqaSi aRelvebdaT es sakiTxebi, ma
inc XX sauk
unem misca maT gansakuTrebuli, dramatuli dat
virTva da aqtualoba. wina planze wamoweulma globalurma
problemebma ukve ara marto calkeuli adamianis, aramed mTe
li kacobriobis winaSe dasva sabediswero kiTxva `yofna-ar
yofna~.
sicocxle yvelasaTvis universaluri Rirebulebaa. e.
fromi aRniSnavda, rom adamianSi biologiurad aris Cadebuli
sicocxlis survili. mniSvneloba ar aqvs, bednierebi varT Tu
ubedurebi, maradiuloba, ukvdaveba mainc gvsurs, miuxedavad
imisa, rom viciT adamiani sasruli arsebaa. swored sakuTari
arsebobis sasrulobas ganicdis igi yvelaze mtkivneulad da
aramarto sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTebSi, maradiulobasTan
Seyris Jams, aramed mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi. adamia
ni ibrZvis sicocxlisa da ukvdavebisaTvis. tanjva, tkivili,
gancdebi mxolod ubiZgebs mas fiqrisaken sicocxlesa da uk
vdavebaze. sakuTar TavSi CaRrmavebis drosac igive kiTxvebi
awuxebs ra aris sikvdili maradiuli cxovreba, Tu ukva
lod gaqroba? ra aris sicocxle? raSia sicocxlis azri da
mizani? da saerTod, risTvis vcxovrob? es urTulesi kiTxve
bia. erTmniSvnelovani pasuxi ar arsebobs da arc SeiZleba ar
sebobdes, rameTu ar arsebobs yvelasaTvis misaRebi absolu
turi mniSvnelobis ideali, sazomi, romelTan mimarTebaSic
ganisazRvreboda adamianis saqcielis simaRle Tu simdable.
erTisaTvis erT sazoms aqvs mniSvneloba, meorisaTvis meo
res. maSin ra gamodis? Tuki ar arsebobs erTaderTi WeSmariti
da uryevi kriteriumi, romelze dayrdnobiTac SesaZlebeli
160

iqneba erTxel da samudamod gavarCioT erTmaneTisagan kargi


da cudi, sikeTe da boroteba, ra vqnaT? Tuki es SeuZlebelia,
egeb ukeTesia vicxovroT ise, rogorc vcxovrobT dRevan
deli dRiT, mxolod CvenTvis da mivyveT mdinarebas?M
maqs friSis romanis `HHomo faber~ (`mwarmoebeli adamiani~)
mTavari gmiris, inJinris, cxovrebis wesi samyarosadmi teqni
cistur, saocrad praqtikul da momxmareblur damokidebu
lebaSi gamoix
ateboda. igi yovelives ganixilavda, rogorc
mxolod da mxolod raodenobriv erTeuls, rogorc gamosaT
vlelsa da gamosaangariSebel viTarebas; yuradRebis gareSe
rCeboda sicocxle, rogorc gancda; siyvarulisa da megob
robis Rirsi qali yavda, romelsac gulrwrfelad uyvarda
igi, magram advilad Seel
ia, radgan `angariSisaTvis~ suler
Ti iyo, am qalTan imegobrebda, Tu sxvasTan; qaliSviliT arc
dainteresebula, arc Seutyvia, rom is arsebobs, radgan `an
gariSSi~ amiT araferi Seicvleboda. am principebiT icxovra
mTavarma gmirma manam, sanam ganukurnebeli seniT daavadebu
li ar warsdga sikvdilis winaSe. amas win uswrebda sisxlis aR
reva sakuTar qaliSvilTan, am ukanasknelis gardacvaleba da
inJinris mier imis gageba, rom es qali misi Svili yofila. ai,
mxolod maSin mixvda is, rom misi cxovrebis gza yalbi yofila.
samwuxarod, yvelaze xSirad mxolod maradiulobasTan
pirispir Seyris dros iwyeba ganvlili cxovrebis kritikuli
gaazreba, rac, rogorc wesi, daJinebul TavismarTlebas uf
ro hgavs, anu monaniebas ganvlili cxovrebis gamamarTlebe
li mtkicebulebebi axlavs Tan. maSasadame, am daJinebul Ta
vismarTlebaSi sakuTari Tavis gamtyunebis gancda imaleba.
magram xom SesaZlebelia, rom arsebobdes sul sxva Rire
bulebis sicocxle, ufro maRali daniSnuleba adamianuri
arsebobisa, romlisTvisac Rirs samsxverploze mivitanoT
yovelive is, rac Rirebuli da Zvirfasia CvenTvis, TviT si
cocxlec ki? rogori cxovreba mimaCnia kargad da misabaZad?
raSia Cemi arsebobis arsi da daniSnuleba? vekiTxebiT saku
Tar Tavs da droTa ganmavlobaSi vxvdebiT, rom Tavad me Tu
161

ar gaveci pasuxi am kiTxvebs, Tavad me Tu ar Sevmate azri sa


kuTar cxovrebas, aravin gaakeTebs amas Cems magier. unda gvax
sovdes, rom sikvdilis pirispir, maradiulobis winaSe yvela
marto rCeba sakuTar TavTan.
am eqsistencialuri situaciis ukeT gaazrebisaTvis, ame
rikeli filosofosi v. erxardi adamianebs okeanis ukacriel
napirTan RamiT marto misvlas sTavazobs. SexedeT kaSkaSa, mo
cimcime varskvlavebs mowmendil caze, gauziareT maT Tqveni
wuxili da sixaruli, SiSi da gancdebi, survilebi da eWvebi,
gaandeT yvelaze piraduli da idumali, rac gaRelvebT da ga
wuxebT sulis siRrmemde da dainaxavT, rogori gulgrilebi
arian okeane da varskvlavebi Tqveni gancdebis, survilebis,
eWvebis mimarT, Tqven rom ase giRrRniT guls da gtanjavT.
`gana Cven xSirad vsaubrobT maTze, vinc mokvda?~ kiTx
ulobs eqsistencializmis warmomadgeneli Jan pol sartri
Cven dro ar gvyofnida. ara. me arsad melodebian. me ar davto
veb sicarieles. metro savsea. restornebi gadatenili. Tavi
giskdeba uamravi wvril-wvrili sazrunavisagan. me gamovus
xlti cxovrebas. igi ki darCa ucvleli, savse, rogorc kver
cxi. me unda maxsovdes, rom Seucvleli ar var. me ki mindoda,
rom Seucvleli vyofiliyavi, raRacisTvis da viRacisTvis~.
ra Tqma unda, sazogadoebaSi adamiani Tavs esoden marto
sulad ar aRiqvams, magram mxolod garkveul dromde, vidre
ar mixvdeba, rom sxvebsac, mis msgavsad, sakuTari cxovreba
aqvT da aseve damoukideblad unda gadawyviton uaRresad
piraduli, sakuTari cxovrebis sazrisisa da daniSnulebis
problemebi. adamiani gulgrili da ganurCeveli ar aris saku
Tari arsebobis sxvadasxva SesaZleblobebisadmi, yovelTvis
irCevs romelime maTgans. misi cxovreba yovelTvis am miznis
ganxorciel
ebis process warmoadgens da amitomac garemo
sadmi individualuri da gansxvavebuli damokidebulebiT xa
siaTdeba. da kidev erTi, Tavis gansakuTrebul mizans rom isa
xavs da axorcielebs, adamiani imavdroulad iziarebs xolme
mocemul sazogadoebasa da epoqaSi moqmed sayovelTao ide
162

als; an, SesaZloa, kritikulad ekideba am ukanasknels da mis


gadalaxvas cdilobs. sulerTia, aseT SemTxvevaSic adamiani
Tavis cxovrebis mizans sayovelTao idealis mixedviT saxavs.
Tumca yoveli axali odesme moZveldeba da adgils sxva axal
ideals uTmobs.
cdilobs ra gaiazros Tavisi daniSnuleba, adamiani auci
leblobiT midis ukvdavebis ideamde, sulis, STamomavlobis
datovebis, Tavisi saqmeebis ukvdavebis ideamde. marTalia,
adamian
i mokvdavia, magram mas ar unda, ufro metic, ar SeuZ
lia Seeguos im azrs, rom yvelaferi, rac masTan aris dakav
Sirebuli, Semofarglulia drois patara monakveTiT misi
dabadebisa da gardacvalebis TariRebiT. swored aqedan ga
momdinareobs adamianis mcdeloba daukavSiros Tavisi be
di socialurad mniSvnelovan miznebs, sulier aRorZinebas.
`sulisa da misi ukvdavebis rwmenis gareSe adamianis arseboba
arabunebrivi, warmoudgeneli da rac yvelaze mTavaria, auta
nelia~, aRniSnavda f. dostoevski. swored amaSi xedavda igi
TviTmkvlelobis umTavres problemas. amisi mizezi ki, misi
azriT, erTaderTia ukvdavebis rwmenis dakargva.
yvelaze misaReb gzas religia gvTavazobs: ufalTan cocx
ali, uSualo urTierToba, RmerTis msaxureba. brma, monuri
daqvemdebareba ki ara, aramed Segnebuli, gacnobierebuli
morCileba, anu piradi, Tavisufali arCevani, eklesiuri cxov
rebis wesi da maradiuli cxovreba, romelsac TiToeuli Cven
gani sakuTari miwieri cxovrebis wesis mixedviT daimsaxurebs.
meore SesaZlebloba, romelic pirvels ar gamoricxavs,
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom realur samyaroSi Tavi miuZRvna ada
mianebs, sikeTisa da samarTlianobis samsaxurs. rodesac ada
miani Rrmad Caufiqrdeba sakuTari cxovrebis saidumlos,
gaiazrebs Tavis WeSmarit daniSnulebas, gaacnobierebs sa
kuTar pasuxismgeblobas, Tundac mxolod uaxloesi adamia
nebis winaSe, misi damokidebuleba cxovrebisadmi aucileb
lad Seicvleba. es nabijia moraluri TviTdamkvidrebisaken,
zneobrivi cxovrebisaken. am dros, sruliad SesaZlebelia,
163

cxovreba ufro garTuldes, vidre maSin, rodesac mxolod


sakuTari TavisTvis vcxovrobT, piradi interesebiT varT Se
mofargluli. magram es gza cxovrebas ufro azrians, savses,
bedniers, mSveniers xdis. am dros ki ar varsebobT, sisxlsav
se cxovrebiT vcxovrobT, ganvicdiT, SevigrZnobT sicocx
les da vacnobierebT, rom marto me ki ar mWirdeba siyvaruli,
mxarSi dadgoma, daxmareba, mec vWirdebi sxvas da Tavs bednie
rad vgrZnob, rodesac SemiZlia Tanadgoma da daxmarebis xels
vuwvdi sxva adamians. romel gzas airCevs adamiani, am oridan
erTs, Tu romelime sxvas, mxolod misi gadasawyvetia da mxo
lod maszea damokidebuli. pasuxsac Tavadve agebs sakuTar
arCevanze. markus avreliusi aRniSnavda: `Cveni cxovreba is
aris, rasac Cven masze vfiqrobT~.

sikvdil sicocxlis problema. `aravin icis, ra aris sik


vdili, da aris Tu ara igi udidesi sikeTe adamianisaTvis, miu
xedavad amisa, misi eSiniaT, TiTqosda ician, rom igi udidesi
borotebaa~
platoni
`yvelam icis, rom sikvdili gardauvalia, magram raki is
moaxloebuli ar aris, aravin mis Sesaxeb ar fiqrobs~
aristotele
`borotebaTagan usaSinlesi sikvdili Cven sruliad ar
gvexeba, radgan roca Cven varT, sikvdili ar aris, xolo rode
sac sikvdili aris, Cven aRar varT. ase rom, igi srulebiT ar
exeba arc cocxlebs , arc mkvdrebs, radgan pirvelTaTvis igi
ar arsebobs, meoreni ki ukve aRar arseboben~.
epikure
164

`sicocxle sevdaa, adamianad yofnis sevda... sikvdilic


sevdaa, adamianad aryofnis sevda~.
goderZi Coxeli
`sicocxle cvlaa... yvelaferi cvlaa... am cvlaSi ara rCeba
ra... rCeba?! magram misi xelSexeba Znelia... sicocxlis sitkbo
ki es xelSexebaa~.
grigol robaqiZe
`yvelaferi SeiZleba wavarTvaT adamians, simdidre, niWi,
samSoblo, sicocxle da a.S., magram vervin ver waarTmevs sxvas
mis sikvdils~.
haidegeri
`umaRlesi da diadi sibrZne, romelsac adamis Zem SeiZleba
miaRwios, isaa, rom yofnas araviTari upiratesoba ar gaaCnia
aryofnasTan, sicocxles sikvdilTan~.
`eWvi da gakvirveba filosofiis dasabamia, sikvdili ki
misi maradiuli muza~.
napo kvaracxelia

guram rCeul
iSvilis filosofiur-eqsistencialuri esses
`sikvdili mTebSi~, mTavari gmiri Aalfred kurela col-Svil
Tan erTad xevsureTSi mogzaurobs. tragikuli SemTxvevis Se
degad misi meuRle iRupeba. Aalfred kurela `TxemiT-terfam
de~ WeSmariti germanelia, TavdaWerili, gawonasworebuli.
mas sikvdili ar aSinebs da civi gonebiT aRiqvams momxdars: `ho,
samwuxarod, ar iyo avad, ar iyo moxuci, ijda cxenze bednieri,
mxiar
uli, Tavis sayvarel qmar-SvilTan axlos, saubrobda da
uceb moxda yvelaferi. es ukve moxda. amas vTvli me erT-erT
bednier sikvdilad, Tu SeiZleba ase daerqvas sikvdils~. sul
165

ramdenime wuTis win misi sicocxliT savse meuRle masTan er


Tad tkbeboda cadaziduli, bumberazi mTebis mkacri silama
ziT, masTan erTad saxavda momavali mogzaurobis gegmebs da
aseTi simSvide? `ra yoCaRi xalxia, kaco, qarTveli albaT Tavs
moiklavda mis adgilas~, ukvirT qarTvelebs, `vinc dardi ar
icis, man arc mxiaruleba icis, arc raime Zlieri grZnoba; man
mxolod gonebiT icis, rom aris Zlieri da susti gancdebi~.
ufro sakvirveli is iyo, rom maTi patara Svilic ar ganicdi
da dedis sikvdils: `Cven ase gavzardeT Svilebi; mokvda, ese
igi mokvda... mkvdars ras uSveli magiTi? verafers. sikvdili
xom sicocxlesTan erTad ibadeba. me ase mwams, Svilebi ufro
mkacrad aRzardeT, mag principiT~. avtors garkveulwilad
moswons momxdarisadmi germaneli mwerlis damokidebuleba,
romelic yvelanairad ikavebs Tavs, rom Tavisi dardiT sxva
ar Seaw
uxos. Sesamowmebelia mxolod erTi ram: rodesac ku
rela marto darCeba sakuTar TavTan, sayvareli meuRlis mo
gonebasTan, mis sulTan, rodesac moixsnis nicSeseul niRabs,
ras izams maSin, gaumklavdeba ki sikvdilis Zalas? qalaqSi
dabrunebuli Aalfred kurela sastumros nomerSi `idga gaSe
Sebuli, martoka, da im sawols uyurebda, romelzedac qalis
kaba da yviTelyvavilebiani xalaTi iyo gadakidebuli. guram
ma raRac igrZno tkiviliviT: iqiT oTaxidan xmamaRla qviTini
moisma. sarkeSi Canda: alfredi daeca sawolze, aRrialda. is
tiroda, xmamaRla qviTinebda da zorba mxrebi uZagZagebda~.
sikvdils veraferi daamarcxebs! mis winaSe yvela Tanasworia.
sikvdilis problema filosofiaSi erTerTi umTavre
si, SeiZleba iTqvas, klasikuri Temaa. Aantikur filosofiaSi
ukvalod gaqrobis saSiSroebis, sikvdilis gonivruli gaaz
rebis cda sokratesTanaa mocemuli. igi radikalurad udge
ba sikvdils da Tvlis, rom sikvdili sicocxlis uaryofa ar
aris. sikvdili sulis gayraa sxeulTan, misi gaTavisuflebaa
sapyrobiledan, sadac igi miwieri cxovrebis manZilze imyo
feboda. es marTlac rom sikeTea, an tkbili maradiuli Zili.
Pplatonis koncefciaSi sikvdili Zili ar aris; Zili si
166

cocxlea. Tavisufldeba ra sxeulisagan, suli WeSmaritebas


swvdeba, bevrad ukeT azrovnebs, esmis da grZnobs, vidre sxe
ulis tyveobaSi yofnis dros. Aadamians SeuZlia `bednierad
daasrulos Tavisi dReni~, anu moipovos ukvdaveba, Tuki Ca
uRrmavdeba, mimarTavs Tavis suls da Tavad Seqmnis iseT wa
namZRvrebs, suls rom miscems SesaZleblobas daubrundes
RvTaebriv bunebas.
sikvdilis gansxvavebul versias gvTavazobs stoiciz
mi. stoelebis azriT, yovel dRes sikvdilisaken mivyavarT.
magram es tragikuli wami miznad ar unda davisaxoT, ar un
da miviswrafvodeT misken. adamians gacnobierebuli unda
hqondes, rom Tavad sicocxle Seicavs sikvdils. Aam
itom sabe
diswero JamTan miaxloeba mxolod procesia, romlis drosac
sikvdilma Tavi aucileblad unda iCinos. igi iseve aRmocen
deba sicocxlisagan, rogorc kokoridan yvavili.
`sikvdili WeSmaritad geniosi sulis Camdgmelia, an
filosofiis muzagetia~, aRniSnavda artur Sopenhaueri. Mmi
si azriT, maradiuli gansveneba rom ar iyos, filosofiac ar
iarsebebda sakuTari arsebobis sasrulobas rom ganicdis
adamian
i, igi TavisTavs uRrmavdeba da yofierebis saidumlo
ebebzec fiqrdeba.
netari avgustine ase axasiaTebs adamianis arsebobas sik
vdilis winaSe: dawyeb
uli im wamidan, rodesac Cven mokvdav
sxeulSi aRvmoCndebiT, adamiani midis im gziT, romelsac sik
vdilTan mivyevarT. sikvdili misTvis erTi wlis Semdeg ufro
axlos iqneba, vidre erTi wlis win, xval ufro axlos iqneba,
vidre guSin an dRes, ramodenime xnis Semdeg ufro axlos, vid
re axla da axla ufro axlos, vidre erTi wuTis win. yoveldRe
mcirdeba manZili adamiansa da sikvdils Soris.
ratom eSinia adamians sikvdilis? sikvdilis SiSis axsnisas
miSel monteni wignSi `cdebi~ iSveliebs miTologiuri perso
naJis tantalosis magaliTs. tantalosi RmerTebma imiT dasa
jes, rom igi Tokze mobmuli moaTavses didi kldis qveS. tan
talosi yovel wams ganicdida SiSs, rom Toki gawydeboda da
167

igi gaiWyliteboda. aseTive mdgomareobaSia, montenis azriT,


adamiani igi mTeli cxovreba sikvdilis SiSis qveS imyofe
ba da ar icis rodis gaiWyliteba misi simZimiT. ra unda gaa
keTos adamianma, rom Tavi daaRwios am SiSs, gaTavisufldes
am SiSze fiqrisagan? monteni Semdeg gamosavals gvTavazobs:
`Cvens dabadebasTan erTad daibada CvenTvis mTeli samyaro
da, zustad aseve, mTeli samyaro Cvens sikvdilTan erTad mok
vdeba. amitom CvenTvis tirili imis gamo, rom asi wlis Semdeg
aRar viqnebiT, iseTive sibriyvea, rogorc moTqma-godeba imis
gamo, ratom asi wlis win ar vcxovrobdiTo. sikvdili axali
sicocxlis dasabamia~. e.i. sikvdili sicocxlis ganuyofeli
nawilia da swored masSi unda gamJRavndes cxovrebis sazri
si? `dauC oqa samgzis sanatrelma, sTxova didostats suli.
cremlma iwvima konstantines TvalTagan, magram verc sayva
rels misca man suli, radgan sveticxovelisTvis Seewira igi~
(konstantine gamsaxurdia, `didostatis marjvena~).
konstantine gamsaxurdiam novelaSi `zarebi grigalSi~
idealuri sikvdilis~ genialuri suraTi daxata: mnaTe oqro
piras mTeli cxovreba imedSi cxovreba iyo, radgan arasodes
qonia igi. mnaTe nebayoflobiTi mgloviarec iyo, radgan ar
ekuTvnoda igi am qveyanas, am sinamdviles. im did xuTSabaTs,
rodesac yofili mnaTe samrekloze avida, raTa zarebi Camo
ereka, movarda qari, eZgera samreklos, Searyia, Seatortmana
da mnaTesTan erTad miwaze daanarcxa. `es iyo: movidnen meza
ris saflavze aTasi wlebis micvalebulni. itires, igloves,
vinc glovad ar Rirda da visi sicocxle mTlad iyo glova...
ar vici, sad waiyvanes mnaTe oqropiras sabralo suli. Cem
Tvis ekiTxaT. me vityodi: aswieT adamiani maRla, sul maRla
da dasviT mnaTe oqropir Semoqmedis marjvena mxares, radgan
sibneleSi dabrmavebulma erTxel mainc igrZno aRtaceba da
eqstazSi daiR
upa~. `ideisaTvis sicocxle-sikvdili adamians
bedniers xdis~, aRniSnavda goeTe.
lev tolstois azriT, `Tu sicocxle sikeTea, sikvdilic
sikeTea, radgan igi aucilebeli pirobaa sicocxlisa~; an `Tu
168

sikvdili saSinelia, amis mizezi CvenSia da ara sikvdilSi, ram


denadac ukeTesia adamiani, miT ufro naklebad eSinia mas sik
vdilisa~. eSinoda Tu ara Tavad tolstois sikvdilis? Tomas
mans amis Taobaze metad saintereso mosazreba aqvs gamoT
qmuli: tolstoi iasnaia polianadan sikvdils gaeqca, radgan
igrZno, rom miqel gabrielma moakiTxao. gaeqca, magram mas
sikvdili gzaSi, rkinigzis erT patara sadgurSi mainc daewia.
sikvdilis fenomeni metad Taviseburad da sainteresod
aris gaazrebuli eqsistencializmSi, Tanamedroveobis erTerT yvelaze popularul filosofiur mimdinareobaSi. eqsis
tencial
izmis yvela warmomadgenlisaTvis filosofiis mTa
var problemas arsebobis problema warmoadgens. gamoyofen
problemaTa rigs, romlebic eqsistenciasTan anu WeSmarit
arsebobasTan aris dakavSirebuli: martooba, uimedoba, ada
mianuri arsebobis `kraxi~, misi yofiereba sikvdilisaTvis da
sxva. am mimdinareobisaTvis amosaval wertils warmoadgens
is, Tu rogor aRviqvam sakuTar Tavs `me~ da aqedan samyaros,
romelic yovelTvis Cemia da uCemod uazrobaa. arseboba aris
yofiereba samyaroSi, samyaro ki arsebobis CarCoebia.
adamian
is struqtura, rogorc `samyaroSi yofna~ aris Si
Si. SiSi Cveulebrivi mdgomareobaa, gansakuTrebiT SiSi sik
vdilis winaSe. adamiani arasodes ganicdis sxvis sikvdils.
sikvdili, iseve rogorc arseboba, yovelTvis Cemia. adamianis
arseboba aris sikvdilis wina yofna. adamiani ganicdis SiSs
imitom, rom is ar aris Tavis `saxlSi~, igi aris `samyaros yof
naSi~, sadac Zrwolvas ganicdis. magram am SemTxvevaSi, haide
geris gagebiT, adamiani ki ar ganicdis SiSs, aramed misi (adami
anis) arseboba TviT aris SiSi. e.i. adamianisaTvis SiSi garegani
ram ki ar aris, aramed Sinagani. analogiuria sikvdilic. igi
yofierebis Taviseburi formaa da arsebobas Tavidanve axasi
aTebs `daibada Tu ara adamiani, is ukve sakmaod mozrdilia
sikvdilisaTvis~. amitom adamiani ver gaeqceva sikvdils, igi
Tavidanve gadasrolilia sikvdilSi. sikvdili ar emarTeba
adamians, igi misi arsebiTi momentia.
169

rogor cdilobs adamiani sikvdilis SiSisagan Tavis daR


wevas? igi garbis Tavis Tavidan da TavSesafars sazogadoe
baSi eZebs. aq igi xdeba iseTive, rogorc yvela, arafriT ga
moirCeva sxvebisagan; iseve rogorc yvela sxva, isic dadis
samsaxurSi, kiTxulobs gazeTebs, eswreba kinoseansebs, speq
taklebs da sxvebis darad isic msjelobs maTze; stumrobs me
gobrebs, uyurebs televizors; rogorc yvela sxva, ganicdis
siamovnebas, kmayofilebas an ukmayofilebas, anu adamiani iT
qvifeba sxva adamianebSi, kargavs individualobas da gadaiq
ceva Cveul
ebriv saSualo, upirovno adamianad. aseTi arsebo
ba adamian
isaTvis damamSvidebelia, magram sikvdilis winaSe
SiSs mainc ver Zlevs da ubralod Tavs iqcevs, vidre sikvdi
li ewveva. said
umloeba kargavs mniSvnelobas. adamiani ukve
aRar grZnobs pasuxismgeblobas sakuTari arsebobis winaSe.
igi Tavisufldeba Tavisi arsebobisagan. yvela aris `sxvebi~
da aravin aris `is Tavad~. layboba, cnobismoyvareoba, Tval
Tvali, dasmena... swored es aris adamianis yoveldRiuri ar
seboba sazodadoebaSi. es amSvidebs adamians. yoveldRiu
ri adamian
uri arsebobisaTvis sikvdili mxolod da mxolod
`SemTxvevaa~. samyaroSi yovel wuTs, yovel wams viRac kvdeba.
sikvdili yvelaze xSiri faqtia am qveyanaze. eqsistencialis
tebi Tvlian, rom swored sikvdilis momentSi vlindeba adami
anis WeSmariti `me~, swored maSin Seicnobs igi siRrmiseulad
sakuTar Tavs da samyaros mTlianad. upirovno adamiani sxvis
sikvdils ar ganicdis, es mas ar exeba. man icis, rom `sxvebi~
kvdebian, magram `viRaca, me xom jer ara, me mere, odesme~. es
`me jer ara~, garkveulwilad, aris Tavis damSvideba sikvdi
lis winaSe. eqsistencializmis warmomadgenlebi miuTiTeben
lev tolstois moTxrobaze `ivan ilias Zis sikvdili~, sadac
siRrmiseulad aris ganxiluli adamianis Zrwolva sikvdilis
winaSe. loginad Cavardnilma, ganukurnebeli seniT daavade
bulma ivan ilias Zem icis, rom male unda mokvdes, magram ma
inc ar unda. is ver ijerebs am realobas. mas axsendeba gimna
ziaSi naswavli silogizmi `yvela adamiani mokvdavia; kaiusi
170

adamian
ia, e.i. kaiusi mokvdavia~. igi am silogizms yovelTvis
WeSmaritebad Tvlida, magram mxolod viRac kaiusisaTvis da
ara misTvis, ivan ilias ZisaTvis. ase gaurboda sikvdilTan
Sexvedras ivan ilias Ze, magram sikvdilma masac miakiTxa da
daiwyo fiqri imaze, rom igi `kaiusi~ xdeboda. es ki tanjavda
masac da mis axloblebsac. igi ver xvdeboda, ver acnobiereb
da, rogor iarsebebs samyaro mis gareSe, visTvis amova mze,
visTvis gaiSleba yvavili, ise, rogorc mas vis eyvareba deda,
coli, Svilebi... es SeuZlebelia! anu `samyaro yovelTvis Ce
mia da Cems gareSe uazrobaa!~ magram realoba imarjvebs si
cocxle Sobs sikvdils. adamiani sikvdils ver gaeqceva, es
misi cxovrebis logikuri dasasrulia. esaa mxolod, rom igi
ver egueba am azrs, mis gareSe cxovrebas igonebs da amiT Tavs
imSvidebs, radgan sikvdili iseTi Rirebulebaa, romelze da
fiqrebac ki agonias, dards, SeSfoTebas iwvevs. Znelia sZlio
mas. magram, albaT, aucilebelia, gaviTavisoT da gavacnobie
roT, rom `yovelives Tavis dro aqvs da yvelafers Tavisi Jami
am cisqveSeTSi~ (eklesiaste, 3.1).

goderZi Coxeli `sikvdilTan Rreoba~


Coxis wminda giorgis salocavSi dResaswaulze `saucxoo
garegnobis ymawvili kacis saxiT~, `tanze gazafxulis pepela
is feris samoseliT~ mosuli sikvdili adamianebs mis sikeTesa
da aucileblobaSi arwmunebs: `ici ra, dedi, me ki ar gklavT,
TviTon vkvdebi TqvenSi, TviTon vitanjebi sulis gayrisas. me
vasruleb imas, rac unda moxdes, anda yovelTvis xdeba is, rac
mosaxdenia ... aucilebloba ki sruliad ar gamoricxavs Sem
TxveviTobas... modi, manam cocxali var, daiviwyeT sikvdili;
iciT, Tu gindaT, erT saidumlos getyviT: dRes marto Cemi
171

mokvla SegiZliaT, Tu momklavT, aRarasodes mokvdebiT, mag


ram amas nu izamT, uCemod gagiWirdebaT sicocxle. aRarc siy
varuli geqnebaT, aRarc sixaruli...~
Temis erT-erTi wevris jRunas mier cekvis dros sikvdi
lis mokvlam adamianebSi didi wuxili da sinanuli gamoiwvia.
beri tiriliT daekona sikvdils da gulidan frTxilad amo
aZro xanjali... Savosanma dedaberma ki xmiT daitira... saswra
fod gaTxares miwa da ficrebis magier mindvris yvavilebSi
Caasvenes sikvdili, mere zemodanac yvavilebi daayares da
didxans veravin bedavda miwis miyras.
`meore dRiT ki amovida mze, oRond iqidan ki ara, saidanac
amodioda xolme, guSindeli saflavidan amovida, aiwia, aiwia
da saSuadReod dajda caze~.
goderZi Coxeli kiTxvebze ra aris sicocxle? ra aris sik
vdili? pasuxobs: sicocxle sevda aris, adamianad yofnis sev
da, sikvdilic sevda aris, adamianad aryofnis sevda.
aseTi sikvdili aRdgomis tolfasia, aseTia mwerlis das
kvna.

`Tu siyvaruli ubralo cxovelobaa, maSin igi ar aris


lamazi, mSvenieri. Tu igi usxeulo vnebaa, maSin igi araa
cocxali, xorcSesxmuli. igi erTsa da imave dros mSve
nieri sulis survilicaa da lamazi sxeulis wyurvilic...
mSvenieri suli lamazi sxeulisaTvis ltolvili da la
mazi sxeuli mSvenieri sulisaTvis vnebuli~.
grigol robaqiZe
siyvarulis filosofia. `me adamiani var da araferi ada
mian
uri ucxo ar aris CemTvis!~ es gamonaTqvami iseTive Zve
lia, rogorc Tavad adamiani. rogor ggoniaT, ra hqondaT
mxedvelobaSi Zvel moazrovneebs? albaT, emociebi da aR
172

tkineba, qvena grZnobebi da vnebebi. es unikaluri Tvisebebia,


maT cxovelur samyaroSi ver moiZiebT. adamianuri arsebobis
dramatuloba swored rom `vnebebiT TrobaSi~ vlindeba da
umTavresi maT Soris siyvarulia... kacobrioba erT dResac
ver icxovrebs mis gareSe...
siyvarulis sazogadod miRebuli ganmarteba, iseve ro
gorc mravali filosofiur-eTikuri kategoriis
a, ar ar
sebobs. siyvaruli sikeTisa da bednierebisaken swrafvaSi
gamovlenili uzogadesi principia Tvlida platoni da swo
red man aamaRla siyvarulis cneba filosofiuri gansjis do
nemde. platonma siyvarulis saxeebis ierarqia SemogvTavaza:
umdablesi done fizikuri siamovnebis miRebaa (es done, misi
azriT, Seuferebelia adamianisaTvis, gancxroma da sitkboe
ba, romliskenac ase miiltvis adamiani, daTrgunvas saWiro
ebs); Semdegi safexuri fizikuri silamazis konkretuli ni
muSisadmi siyvarulia, amas wminda silamazisadmi siyvaruli
mosdevs da, bolos, aRape (Zmuri siyvaruli); agreTve, arse
bobs sibrZnisadmi siyvaruli, romelic, iseve rogorc reli
giuri gancdebi, SesaZleblobas iZleva CavwvdeT da SevicnoT
absoluturi WeSmriteba. aristotele miiCnevda, rom sxeulis
gancxroma, xorcieli sitkboeba mainc sikeTea. marTalia, siy
varulis safuZveli seqsualuri grZnobaa, Tumca misi dayva
na martooden seqsualur ltolvaze ar SeiZleba. siyvaruli,
upirveles yovlisa, sulTa kavSiri, pirovnebis TviTgamom
JRavnebisa da TviTdamkvidrebis saSualeba unda iyos.
Zveli berZnebi erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebdnen siyvaru
lis sxvadasxva saxes: erosi, gaRmerTebuli erosi eroti,
siyvaruli vneba, siyvaruli, rogorc Tavisufali ltolva.
erosi Tavdapirvelad, adamianuri vneba, adamianis siR
rmiseul
i, Zlier
i seqsualuri ltolva; ZvelberZnul mi
TologiaS
i siyvarulis RmerTi. ukve homerosTan gvxvdeba
sityva `erosi~, magram ixmareba ara rogorc RmerTis saxeli,
aramed rogorc `survilis~ aRmniSvneli arsebiTi saxeli. so
fokles `antigoneSi~ erosi gvevlineba damangreveli Zalis
173

mqone, daumarcxebel RmerTad. miTologiaSi eross STamo


mavloba ar hyavs, RmerTebis gamravlebaSi ar monawileobs,
magram mis nebas win mainc veravin aRudgeba verc RmerTebi
da verc adamianebi. eross SeuZlia RmerTebisa da adamianebis
goneba sakuTar nebas daumorCilos, mas Zala Seswevs gaagiJos
Tavisi msxverpli, sikeTe borotebad moaCvenos.
platoni dialogSi `nadimi~ mogviTxrobs, rom uZveles
droSi adamian
ebi cxovrobdnen rogorc ukvdavi hermofrodi
tebi, anu maT sqesi ar qondaT. zevsma dasaja isini da or sawyi
sad gayo. amdenad, erosi masTan gagebulia, rogorc autaneli
molodini im mTlianobis aRdgenisa, romelic adamianebs adre
hqondaT; rogorc sasikvdilod ganwiruli adamianebis dauo
kebeli swrafva STamomavlobaSi moipovon ukvdaveba; rogorc
dabadeba silamazeSi.
sqesis warmoSoba Tavdapirveli erTiani da Zlieri bunebis
darRvevaa adamianSi. ras emsaxureba sqesobrivi cxovrebis
centraluri fenomeni, sqesobrivi ltolva da ra moiazreba
masSi? platoni gvTavazobs Semdeg miTologemas: erT dros
adamianebi iyofodnen ara ori sqesis, aramed sami sqesis mi
xedviT mamrobiTi, mdedrobiTi da e.w. mesame sqesi, romelic
erT arsebaSi aerTianebda orive sqesisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
niSan-Tvisebebs. es ukanasknelni warmoadgendnen WeSmarit
androginebs (berZ. orsqesa arseba). adamianebma RmerTebis
damxoba ganizraxes. ganrisxebulma RmerTebma dasajes isi
ni TiToeuli individi Suaze gayves, ris Sedegadac yoveli
maTgani sqesobrivad nakluli aRmoCnda. swored amiT aris
ganpirobebuli adamianis dauok
ebeli swrafva ipovos Tavi
si naxevari da aRadginos odesRac dakarguli mTlianoba. es
swrafva warmoadgens erosis, sqesobrivi siyvarulis gamoxa
tulebas. am miTis safuZvelze platoni gvixsnis ara mxolod
qalisa da mamakacis erTmaneTisadmi seqsualur ltolvas,
aramed sqesobrivi cxovrebis homoseqsualur da lesbosur
gamovlinebebsac. is qaluri da mamakacuri bunebis individe
bi, romlebic androginis gayofis Sedegad warmoiSvnen, er
174

TmaneTs eZeben da erTmaneTisken miiltvian, rac, Tavis mxriv,


gamoxatulebas povebs mamakacisa da qalis siyvarulSi. is in
dividebi, romlebic mdedrobiTi sqesis arsebebis gayofiT
warmoiSvnen, pirvelsawyisi mdgomareobis aRsadgenad erTma
neTisaken miiswrfvian da lesbosuri siyvarulis mimdevrebi
xdebian. xolo mamkacuri sqesis arsebebis gaxleCili nawile
bis ltolva pirvelqmnili sawyisis aRsadgenad, homoseqsua
lur swrafvas aZlevs saTaves.
platonis azriT, sqesobrivi mimarTebis (erosis) sazrisi,
ar amoiw
ureba mxolod adamianis androginuli pirvelsaxis
aRdgeniT. erosi, sqesobrivi siyvaruli, ar daiyvaneba mxo
lod erTianobisaken ltolvaze. eross sxva misiac aqvs mi
niWebuli. adamiani, platonis azriT, or sawyiss aerTianebs:
maradiuli, zegrZnobadi ideebis mWvreteli goneba da grZno
bad-sxeulebrivi sawyisi. erosic am ori sawyisis zegavlenas
ganicdis da amdenad masSi mJRavndeba ormxrivi swrafva ada
mianis ukvdavebisaken. rogorc sxeulebriv, mokvdav arsebas,
adamians ukvdavebasTan ziareba mxolod sxeulebrivi gar
dasaxvis gziT SeuZlia. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia STamomav
lobis Seqmnis mizniT dedakacuri da mamakacuri arsebebis
SeerTeba. STamomavlobaSi adamiani sxeulebriv ukvdavebas
moipovebs. am ukvdavebas gzas ukafavs erosis erTi, mdabali
aspeqti. magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, platonisaTvis adamiani,
upirveles yovlisa, goniTi arsebaa da swored gonis ukvdave
baa misTvis mTavari da gadamwyveti. goniTi sawyisis ukvdav
sayofad ki adamianma Tavisi erosis Zala gonisaken unda mo
abrunos, goniTi Semoqmedebis saSualebiT Tayvani sces Tavis
Seyvarebuls. lamazi sxeulisaken erotiuli ltolva man Tan
daTan unda aamaRlos da mimarTos silamazis sul ufro goni
Ti formebisaken. man unda iaros silamazis gziT manam, sanam ar
miadgeba silamazis umaRles safexurs TviTon wminda sila
mazes. Tu vinmes, dasZens platoni, mouxdeba ixilos es umaR
lesi silamaze adamianis sxeulisa, yovelgvari adamianuri
ferebisagan Tavisufali, anu wminda, yovelgvari Senarevebis
175

gareSe arsebuli silamaze, is SeZlebs Seqmnas, goniT dabados


silamazis iseTi srulyofili Sedevrebi, romlebic adamia
nis gonis ukvdavebis WeSmariti sawindaria. maSasadame, erosi,
sqesobrivi siyvaruli, platonis mixedviT, adamianSi moqmedi
iseTi ltolvaa, romelic akavSirebs, aerTianebs sxvadasxva
sqesis adamianebs da amiT xels uwyobs mTliani adamianis aR
dgenis process. erosi, amave dros, aris TaobaTa damakavSi
rebeli xidi, rogorc sxeulebrivi, aseve goniTi ukvdavebis
mopovebis saSualeba da samyaroSi silamazis ganxorcielebis
aucilebeli piroba.
miTebi adamianuri grZnobebis siZliereze mogviTxroben.
am dromde vsaubrobdiT adamianebs Soris siyvarulze, magram,
rogorc irkveva, erosi bevrad ufro farTo cnebaa. miTolo
gia mogviTxrobs RmerTebisa da adamianebis siyvarulzec. uZ
veles Sumerul miTologiaSi gilgameSi erTdroulad miwier
da zeciur arsebad aris warmodgenili. RmerTebis yuradReba
sasiamovno unda yofiliyo naxevarRmerTisaTvis, igi xom qal
RmerT iStars Seuyvarda usazRvrod. magram gilgameSma uar
yo misi siyvaruli da saswaulebriv gadaurCa Seuracxyofili
qalRmerTis SurisZiebas.
Zveli berZnebis umaRles RvTaebas zevss uamravi Svili hyavs, maT Soris dedamiwis mkvidri qalbatonebisganac. mexis
mtyorcnelis oqros taxtis qveS mexi grgvinavs. kldis ori
napralidan zevsamde mokvdavTa locva, aRsareba da erTgu
lebis ficis RaRadi aRwevs. RmerTi yurs ugdebs da gadawyve
tilebebs iRebs. magram Tavadac sakmaod xSirad amJRavnebs da
emorCileba adamianur grZnobebsa da vnebebs. moewoneba mok
vdavi qali? uCveulod Semosili zevsi myisve tovebs olimpos
mTas da Tavisi vnebis obieqts eufleba...
gardacvlil sulTa samefos RmerTma hadesma zevsisa da
nayofierebis qalRmerTis demetras qaliSvili moitaca per
sefone. erTxel igi mindorSi yvavilebs agrovebda da Tan cdi
lobda narcisebisaTvis arc ki Seexeda, radgan dedam mkacrad
aukrZala maTi mowyveta. gogonas Tvali mainc gaeqca da si
176

qaTqaTiTa da sididiT gamorCeuli narcisi dainaxa, cdunebam


sZlia, xeli gaswia yvavilisaken da... uceb, miwa gaixsna, hadesis
Savi cxenebiT Sebmuli oTxTvala etli gamoCnda da persefone
miwisqveSa samefoSi aRmoCnda. misi RvTaebrivi silamaziT ha
desi datyvevebula, eross maszec gamoucdia Tavisi Zala.
Zveli egvipturi misteria: seTma, borotma Zalam, Tavi
si Zmis, RvTaebrivi osirisis daRupva gadawyvita. Nnadimze
man didostaturad naWedi kidobani gamoitana da motyuebiT
aiZula osirisi Sig Cawoliliyo. seTma kidobani daxura, da
Weda, gamdnari tyvia ACaasxa da nilosSi Seacura. kidobanma
icura da finikiaSi, biblosTan gairiya. iq igi Tavisi qerqiT
dafara miwidan amozrdilma uzarmazarma xem, romelic bib
losis mefem moWra da Tavisi sasaxlis svetad gamoiyena. isi
da yvelgan eZebda Zmasa da meuRles. Bbolos ipova da mefesagan
misi sxeuli gamoiTxova. qalRmerTma dabrunebuli kidobani
qalaqis kedelSi damala, magram seTma mainc moaxerxa misi ma
lulad motaceba. Mman Zmis sxeuli 14 nawilad daWra da mTel
egvipteSi mimoabnia. erTgulma meuRlem, didi siZneleebis ga
dalaxvis Semdeg, moZebna da SeakavSira sayvareli qmris sxeu
lis yvela nawili.
Zvel egvipteSi orgiebi isidas msaxurebis kultis Semad
geneli nawili iyo. Ees misteria gasagebs xdida yovelives:
TeTr samoselSi gamowyobili aTi qurumi sakurTxevlis cen
trSi iyrida Tavs. oric, qalis tansacmliT Semosili, nefTis
sa da isidas ganasaxierebdnen, romlebic guldaTuTqulni
dastirodnen osiriss... misteria gulisxmobda dasaWurisebis
rituals isidas erTguli Tayvanismcemlebi nebayoflobiT
ikodebodnen, rameTu es sisxliani msxverpli RmerTis dana
wevrebul sxeulze mianiSnebdaT.
Kkidev erTi misteria, romelic Zagrevsis (berZ. `didi mo
nadire~) mkvlelobis istorias aRadgens. Tqmulebis gadmo
cema, Zagrevsis mkvlelobasa da sikvdilis Semdgom aRdgoma
ze (wminda vacis saxiT), ritualuri moqmedebebis TanxlebiT
sruldeboda. aq sisxliani orgia TamaSdeboda. gamZvinvare
177

buli, cxoveluri, avxorculi JiniT Sepyrobili adamianebi


avkacobas Cadiodnen erosi aSiSvlebda Tavis bunebriv sti
qias. yovelives simboluri datvirTva hqonda. amis safuZvel
ze kaTarsisi miiRweoda. Ddrama gulwrfeli da siRrmiseuli
monaniebiT sruldeboda msxverpls dastirodnen, tansac
mels iglejdnen, Tavze nacars iyridnen, sakuTar sxeuls da
niT iseravdnen. Dda, bolos, mesame aqtis droc dgeboda ga
naxlebuli RmerTis samyaroSi dabrunebis dro. Eer
osi marto
damangreveli stiqia ar aris. mas Zala Seswevs ganwmindos, ga
anaTlos suli, gaaRviZos sindisi adamianSi; mouwodos ada
mians, ar misces Tavs ufleba Cveuli gaxados es saSineleba.
gamofxizldes, dawyevlos da daTrgunos damangreveli, Sem
musvreli vnebebi. aseTia Zveli misteriebis azri.
amrigad, erosi, upirveles yovlisa, erT-erTi adamianuri
vnebaTagania, romelic adamianis bunebis filosofiur wvdo
maSi gvexmareba. siyvarulis fenomenSi garkveva adamianis ar
sSi garkvevis tolfasia.
Zveli drois moazrovneebi Tvlidnen, rom sulieri siyva
ruli pirveladi da umTavresia xorciel siyvarulTan Seda
rebiT. siyvarulis arsi misteriebSi povebda axsnas. es Rmer
Tisaken mimavali erTaderTi gza iyo. siyvaruls zeciuri
sawyisi aqvs. xorcieli siyvaruli mxolod maSin aris wminda da
amaRlebuli, roca igi sulieri siyvarulis Sedegi da nayofia.
antikuri epoqis berZeni, eZleoda ra Tavdaviwyebasa da
gancxromas, Tavadve adgenda sakuTari askezis, TavSekavebis,
daSvebulobis sazRvrebs. sul sxva viTarebaSia Tanamedrove
adamiani. man icis, ra aris sazogadoebis mier dadgenili nor
ma da ra normidan gadaxveva. amdenad, igi ukve saTanadod ve
Rar uwevs angariSs sakuTar gamocdilebasa da spontanurad
aRZrul grZnobebs. misTvis bevrad mniSvnelovania mecnieru
li Tvalsazrisi da sazogadoebaSi Camoyalibebuli, miRebu
li SezRudvaTa sistema.

178

aRape (berZ. Zmuri siyvaruli) siyvarulis ZiriTadi Si


naarsia qristianobaSi, aRniSnavs moyvasisadmi siyvaruls.
erosis, anu vnebiani siyvarulis, sapirispirod aRape altru
istuli siyvarulis sinonimia. qristianobam radikalurad
Secvala siyvarulis Sinaarsi. amieridan igi martooden ada
mianur vnebebs aRar niSnavda. man bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani
datvirTva miiR
o adamianuri arsebobis safuZveli da say
rdeni. Zmuri siyvaruli yvela adamianisadmi siyvaruls gu
lisxmobs. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom Zvel aRTqmaSi adamianuri
siyvarulis mTavari obieqtia Rataki, ucxoeli, qvrivi, obo
li, TviT ebraelebis dauZinebeli mteri egviptelic ki.
pirovneba qristianobaSi Semoqmedis mfarvelobis qveSaa
misi madlisa da mowyalebis safuZvelze. igi garkveuli Ri
rebulebis mqonea amieridan miwieri adamiani, mTeli misi ga
numeoreblobiT, mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli fizikuri
da fsiqikuri niSan-TvisebebiT, aRiarebulia rogorc waru
vali da udavo Rirebuleba. sxeuli, romelsac eTayvanebod
nen Zveli elinelebi, qristianobaSi miCneulia sulierebis
WurWlad. siyvaruli siwmindea. vnebebSi Caflul adamians ma
Ti daTrgunva moeTxoveba, raTa SeZlos da warmoaCinos Tavi
si pirovnuli simdidre saTnoebani. sasiyvarulo gancdebi
unikaluri da yovlismomcveli xasiaTisaa, radgan am grZno
bis obieqtebia RmerTi, moyvasi, ucxotomeli...
qristianobis safuZveli siyvarulia. siyvaruli RmerTis
arsia. RmerTisadmi siyvaruli ganpirobebulia sakuTari Ta
visa da sxvaTa siyvaruliT. `giyvardes moyvasi Seni, viTarca
Tavi Seni~ (gal. 5.14). umTavresia Seiyvaro is, vinc ar mogwons.
swored aseTi siyvarulis safuZvelze vacnobierebT, rom su
lierad axlobeli adamianis siyvaruli did Zalisxmevas ar sa
Wiroebs. ufro mniSvnelovania `giyvardeT Tqveni mterni; da
loceT Tqveni mawyevarni; keTili uyaviT Tqvens moZuleT da
iloceT Tvensav mdevnelTa da SeuracxmyofelTaTvis~ (maT.
5.44), rameTu `srulyofili WeSmariti siyvaruli maTdami siy
varulia, visac vneba moaqvs CvenTvis~ (soren kirkegori). `siy
179

varuli sulgrZelia, siyvaruli qvelmoqmedia, ar Surs, ar


yoyoCobs, ar ampartavnobs, ar sCadis uwesobas, Tavisas ar eZi
ebs, ar risxdeba da ar ganizraxavs borots, ar xarobs sicru
iT, aramed WeSmariteba axarebs; yovelives itans, yvelaferi
swams, yvelafris imedi aqvs da yovelives iTmens~ (1 kor., 14,
4-7). WeSmariti qristiania, vinc borotebas sikeTiT pasuxobs.
aucilebelia SurisZiebis mankieri wris garRveva; saWiroa siy
varuli SevaTavsoT tanjvasa da mimteveblobasTan. `acxovne,
ufalo, da Seiwyalen moZuleni da maWirvebelni Cemni... nu dasji codvaTa da usjulebaTa Sina maTTa CemTvis~... es miuwvdo
meli idea, romelmac ganxorcieleba qristes vnebebSi pova,
RmerTis adamianebisadmi siyvarulis simboloa `giyvardeT
erTmaneTi, rogorc me SegiyvareT Tqven~(ioan. 15.12).
savaraudo iyo, rom qristianuli Rirebulebebi, romle
bic siyvarulis, gulmowyalebis, daTmenis, morCilebisa da
ubiwoebis principebs eyrdnoba, unda damkvidrebuliyo da
Seecvala adamianebis cxovreba. esoden mgznebare siyvaru
li, romelsac axali religia qadagebda, mkveTrad gaimijna
seqsisgan. man akrZala siyvarulisa da seqsisgan siamovnebis
miReba. dagmo prostitucia, meuRleebis Ralati, gaukuRmar
Tebuli sqesobrivi urTierTobebi. qalwulobis aRTqma da
umankoeba cxovrebis wesis idealad gamocxadda.
unda aRiniSnos, rom qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis
farglebSi sqesis problemis gaazrebis gansxvavebuli Tval
sazrisebi gvxvdeba. erT-erTi Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, RmerTma
adamiani usqeso arsebad Seqmna. igi Tavisi pirvelqmnili for
miT angelozismagvari da, maSasadame, sqesisagan Tavisufali
arsebaa. sqesis aRmoceneba adamianSi pirvelyofil codvas
ukavSirdeba. am Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, samoTxeSi eva ar iyo
adamisadmi dapirispirebuli sqesobrivi sawyisi, amitom ada
mic moklebuli iyo sqess da sqesobriv ltolvas (origeni, ia
kob biome da sxvebi). adamiani ar iyo gaxleCili mamakacur da
qalur sawyis
ebad, ar arsebobda avxorculi vneba da am vnebis
dakmayofilebisaTvis aucilebeli sasqeso organoebi. evas
180

gamoyofa adamisagan da amis safuZvelze adamis mier sakuTa


ri mamrobiTi sqesis gacnobiereba, aRmocenda pirvelyofili
codvis safuZvelze swored im momentSi, rodesac adamiani
sqesobrivi ltolvis mona gaxda. amas Sedegad moyva adamisa da
evas gaZeveba samoTxidan. radgan sqesi negatiur kvalifikaci
as imsaxurebs, amitom am moazrovneTa mier uaryofiTad aris
daxasiaT
ebuli yvelaferi is, rac sqesobriv sawyiss ukavSir
deba: ojaxi, gvaris gagrZeleba da sazogadod, yovelive am
qveyiur, seqsual
ur grZnobasTan dakavSirebuli aqtivoba.
am Tvalsazrisis momxreebis azriT, adamianis xsnisaTvis
aucilebelia sqesis ara ganwmenda-gansuliereba, misi gaTavi
sufleba wminda cxoveluri an gamrudebul-adamianuri for
mebis gamovlinebisagan, aramed adamianis gaTavisufleba sqe
sisagan, am ukanasknelis daTrgunvis, saboloo jamSi ki, misi
sruli ganadgurebis gziT.
sqesis miuReblobam qristianobaSi, zogierTi mecnieris
mosazrebiT, sapirispiro Sedegi gamoiRo siyvarulma da
seqsma jer arnaxuli xibli SeiZina. z. froid
is azriT, sakma
risia, erotikuli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis gzebi
gamartivdes, maTi fsiqikuri mniSvnelobac klebulobs. li
bidos gaZlierebisaTvis winaaRmdegobebis daZlevaa saWiro...
amdenad, asketurma mimarTulebam qristianobaSi siyvaruls
iseTi fsiqikuri datvirTva da mniSvneloba SesZina, rogoric
mas arasdros, TviT warmarTobis periodSic ki, ar qonia...
qristian
uli msoflmxedvelobis poziciebidan adamia
nis cxovrebaSi sqesisa da sqesobrivi siyvarulis pozitiuri
mniSvnelobis ideas aviTarebda netari avgustine. misi azriT,
vidre adamiani Sescodebda, sqesi da sqesobrivi cxovreba
(qorwineba, ojaxi), gamravleba sqesobrivi gziT, marTalia,
gansxvavebuli formiT, magram ukve arsebobda samoTxeSi. pir
velyofil codvamde adamianis nebeloba, misi goniTi buneba
gabatonebuli iyo mis grZnobad-sxeulebriv sawyisze. gamrav
lebis mizniT sasqeso organoebis asamoqmedeblad saWiro ar
iyo avxorculi vnebis aRZvra, radgan es organoebi mTlianad
181

adamianis nebelobas emorCilebodnen da misi mosazrebis mi


xedviT moqmedebdnen. rogorc ki codvis Sedegad adamianis
mTlianoba dairRva, adamianis gonma dakarga sxeulze abso
luturi kontroli. sasqeso organoebi ukve aRar emorCile
bian nebelobas da moqmedebaSi modian nebisaTvis ucxo, av
xorculi vnebis aRZvris safuZvelze. adamianis goni, rogorc
umaRlesi sawyisi, sircxvils ganicdis, radgan mas Zala aRar
Seswevs misdami mtrulad mimarTuli sxeulidan momdinare
vnebebi da sxeulis Sesabamisi aqtivoba marTos.
romis imperiis dacemisa da pirveli qristianuli saxel
mwifoebis warmoSobis Semdeg nawilobriv icvleba Rirebu
lebebi. garkveuli upiratesoba qorwinebas eniWeba, rome
lic, antikuri epoqis qorwinebisagan gansxvavebiT, urRvevad
cxaddeba. megobruli urTierTobebi, urTierTpativiscema,
Tanasworoba da erTguleba ai, is saTnoebebi, romlebiske
nac unda miiswrafvodes ojaxi. es idea gadmocemulia pavle
mociqulis sityvebSi: `qmrebo, giyvardeT Tqveni colebi, ro
gorc qristem Seiyvara eklesia~ (efes. 5. 25).
aRape TanasworTa siyvarulia. Tumca, raoden Tanaswore
bic ar unda viyoT, gansxvaveba mainc arsebobs. Cven adamianebi
varT. Tu yovelTvis ara, zogjer mainc gvWirdeba daxmareba
dRes me, xval Tqven. magram daxmareba da mxarSi dgoma rom
gvWirdeba, sulac ar niSnavs, rom zogi umweoa, zogi ki Zlie
ri. umweoba warmavali mdgomareobaa. swored sustis, umweos,
Ratakisa da ucxo tomis adamianis siyvaruli udevs safuZ
vlad Zmur siyvaruls aRapes. giyvardes sakuTari sisxli da
xorci, didi miRweva ar aris. es bunebrivia. cxovelsac uyvars
Tavisi naSieri da zrunavs masze. umweosac uyvars Tavisi pat
roni masze xom misi sicocxle da keTildReobaa damokide
buli. bavSvsac uyvars Tavisi mSoblebi isini mas sWirdeba.
siyvaruli mxolod maSin aris WeSmariti, roca araviTar mi
zans ar emsaxureba da angareba ar udevs safuZvlad. Tanaug
rZnobs ra umweos, Rataks, ucxos, adamiani Tavis sulSi Zmi
sadmi, moyvasisadmi siyvaruls uyris safuZvels. `mdgmurebs
182

nu Seav
iwroeb; Tavad iciT mdgmurebis yofa, radgan mdgmure
bi iyaviT egviptelTa qveyanaSi~ (gam. 23. 9).
amore (kurtuazuli siyvaruli) XI da XIV saukuneebs So
ris, dasavleT evropaSi siyvarulis principulad axali gage
ba damkvidrda kurtuazuli siyvaruli anu amore. mamakaci
qalisadmi unazess grZnobas ganicdida, aRmerTebda Tavis
rCeuls, mzad iyo misi saxeliT sagmiro saqmeebi Caedina, am
dros piradad, SeiZleba, arc ki icnobda satrfos. msoflio
istoria ar icnobs msgavs fenomens. arc manamade, arc Semdeg
arcerT qveyanaSi msgavs siyvaruls ar cnobdnen SoriT wva
da dagva, siyvarulis obieqtis usazRvro gaidealeba, miuw
vdomeli, ganuxorcielebeli grZnobis mRelvare gancda da
molodini. amore imdenad konkretuli qalis siyvaruli ar
iyo, ramdenadac gamogonili, srulqmnili xatebis, idealu
ri arqetipis siyvaruli, romlis gareSe miwieri bedniereba
warmoudgeneli da miuRweveli iyo, magaliTad, don kixotis
siyvaruli dulcinea toboselis mimarT. msgavss romanebSi
qebas asxamdnen sasiyvarulo tanjvas, gancdebs. umaRles bed
nierebad daukmayofilebeli vneba iyo miCneuli. Seiqmna siy
varulis Taviseburi kulti. siyvarulis obieqts guldasmiT
irCevdnen, samaradJamod. Tayvaniscemis Rirsi rom gamxdari
yo, qali saTnoebiT Semkuli, aucileblad gaTxovili da miuw
vdomeli unda yofiliyo. ratom ar iTvleboda es Ralatad?
siyvaruli Tavisufal arCevans gulisxmobs. Sua saukuneebSi
ojaxi sul sxva Rirebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT iqmneboda
gvaris gagrZeleba, simdidris dagroveba-gamravleba, po
litikuri ambiciebi. ojaxis SeqmnisaTvis siyvaruli aucile
beli piroba ar iyo. Rrma da wminda grZnoba mxolod ojaxis
miRma SeiZleba gaRvivebuliyo.
amores wesebi gulisxmobda, rom raindi Tavisi Seyvarebu
lis samsaxurSi unda Camdgariyo qalis nebismieri survili,
moTxovna, yoveli kaprizi, saxifaTo davalebebi yovelgvari
gansjisa da Sepasuxebis gareSe sruldeboda. tanjva-wameba,
183

romelsac raindi ganicdida, yoveli safrTxe, romelsac igi


Segnebulad ar erideboda, ufro metic, iwvevda kidec mas, ra
Ta satrfos guli moego, misi keTilganwyoba daemsaxurebina,
monanie codvilis TviTgvemas ufro gavda. iTvleboda, rom
yoveli warmatebiT gavlili gamocda Seyvarebulebs erTma
neTTan aaxloebda.
qalsa da mamakacs Soris amaRlebuli siyvarulis ukeT ga
azrebisaTvis, mizanSewonili iqneba erTi paralelis gavle
ba. imave periodSi, rodesac dasavleT evropaSi siyvarulis
erTob Taviseburi forma amore damkvidrda, saqarTveloSi
Taobebi izrdebodnen rusTavelis humanisturi ideebis sa
fuZvelze. `vefxistyaosani~ apologiaa adamianisa. es mSvenie
ri amqveyniur
i samyaro adamianTa sakeTildReod aris Seqmni
li. adamian
ebma swored am qveyanaze unda daamyaron saamuri,
bednieri cxovreba, aq unda uyvardeT erTmaneTi, aq unda Seq
mnan ojaxi, romlis safuZvelic siyvaruli da erTgulebaa.
sicocxle xom didi sikeTea, siyvaruli ki misi gvirgvini. `siy
varuli agvamaRlebs~ da MmTeli poemac amqveyniuri znemaRali
siyvarulis sagalobelia. `mZuls ugulo siyvaruli, xvevna-
kocna, mtlaSa-mtluSi~. poemis gmirebis mraval gansacdel
gamovlili siyvaruli usazRvro da amaRlebuli, uangaro
da wmindaa. maRalzneobrivi raindebi, erTguli satrfoebi
da Tavdadebuli mijnurebi aseTia mamakacis rusTavelise
uli ideali. evropuli amores fenomenisagan gansxvavebiT,
arc TinaTini da arc nestan-darejani daojaxebulni ar ari
an. sulierad da sxeulebrivad srulqmnili qalbatonebisaT
vis satrfos Ralati warmoudgeneli da dauSvebelia. maTTvis
siyvarulis erTaderTi logikuri daboloveba erTgulebasa
da urTierTsiyvarulze dafuZnebuli ojaxis Seqmnaa.
evropul renesansamde didi xniT adre, rusTavelma kacob
riobas axali humanisturi morali SesTavaza da gamoamJRavna
is sulieri ganwyobilebani da Rirebulebebi, rac, Cveuleb
riv, evropuli renesansis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebad iTvleba.

184

dedaSviluri siyvaruli siyvarulis yvela formisagan


gamorCeuli, Seucnobeli, damafiqrebeli. es fenomeni araer
Txel gamxdara msjelobis sagani. bunebrivia, arc qarTuli
sinamdvile darCenila gulgrili am sakiTxisadmi. aq, upirve
les yovlisa, albaT, oTaraanT qvrivisa da Tavsafriani deda
kacis gaxseneba gvmarTebs.
sayuradReboa, rom ilia WavWavaZe Tavisi gmiris saxels
ar gvimxels. aseve iqceva niko lorTqifaniZec. savaraudoa,
rom isini Zerwaven ara konkretul personaJTa tipebs, aramed
qmnian dedis saxe-simboloebs.
`ocdaoTxi wlisa Zlivs iqneboda, roca daqvrivda da er
Ti wlis Svili darCa. is dRea da is dRe, Caicva lurji Silis
perangi, Savi kaba, Tavzed Savi mandili moixvia da ai, es oci
weliwadia, mxiaruli feri ar miukarebia tanzed. Tumca bev
ri mTxovnelica hyavda, bevri exarbeboda oTaraanT qvrivis
ojaxSi Sesvlas, magram Tqvenc ar momikvdeT, ar gaTxovda da
ara. ai, uwinamc dRe daubneldes oTaraanT qvrivsa, minam ma
minacvals saxlSi dausvamdes Tavis patara giorgisa~.
axla yuri niko lorTqifaniZes davugdoT: `qarTveli
qvrivi dedakaci Tavsafridan wuRebamdis... windac ki Savi...
bevri earSiyeboda... Soridan maWanklebic gaugzavnes. ro
gor vumtyuvno oblebs?!~
orive nawyvetSi qarTveli qvrivi qalis `zneobrivi ko
deqsia~ Camoyalibebuli. `Tavsafrianis~ kredo erTi frazi
Taa gadmocemuli~ `rogor vumtyuvno oblebs?!~ oTaraanT
qvrivis mrwamss ilia gmiris monologiT warmoaCens, Tumca,
erTi da igivea naTqvami.
oTaraanT qvrivis, rogorc dedisa da aRmzrdelis, Tavise
burebad unda CaiTvalos, rom igi Tavis usazRvro siyvaruls
Svilisadmi garegnulad arasodes amJRavnebs. arc sxvam da arc
TviT giorgim ar icis, rom qvrivi mzad aris mtlad daedos
Tavis pirmSos. `Seni var, SenTvis movkvdebi, SenTvis davicem
danasao~, ityoda xolme Tavis gulSi deda, roca Svils sa
muSaodan momavals dainaxavda. Svilisadmi usazRvro Tavda
185

deba igrZnoba oTaraanT qvrivis mTel cxovrebaSi. magram gan


sakuTrebuli sidiadiT mainc Txzulebis ukanasknel nawilSi,
rodesac zamTris Tovlian RameSi avadmyofi oTaraanT qvrivi
loginidan wamodgeba, momvlel dedabers gaepareba, sofels
tanjviTa da vai-vaglaxiT gaivlis, raTa ganTiadisas Tavisi
sicocxle Svilis saflavze daamTavros. swored giorgis da
badebis dRes, ocdaxuT dekembers, sasaflaoze ipoves oTara
anT qvrivi, romelic Svilis saflavze `gardi-gardmo gadaq
ceuliyo, fexebi aqeT piras miwazed ebjina TiTis wverebiTa
da orive xeli iqiT piras gadaekidna, TiTqos sdomebia mTeli
saflavi qviTa da mkvdriT erTis xvevniT gulSi Caekrao~.
`Tavsafrian
i dedakaci~ ufro saTuTi bunebisaa. umaduri
Svilisagan naTqvamma erTma sityvam erTi xelis mosmiT daun
gria mTeli samyaro. miuxedavad amisa, mainc Svilebis saxelze
izruna da sicocxleSi pirvelad icrua, roca viRacas werili
miaw
erina SvilebTan, TiTqos salocavSi wavida da `Cemze ar
idardoT, arc meZeboTo...~
niko lorTqifaniZes amayi sulis Tavsafriani dedakaci
didebul adamianad miaCnia da iqve dasZens, rom `didebuli
adamianebi uZeglod ikargebian~. Tumca, vfiqrobT, orive mwe
ralma Tavad daudga Zegli qarTvel dedas.
siyvaruli SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvari iyos. Cveulebrivad,
ratomRac gvgonia, rom siyvaruli, rogorc grZnoba, ro
gorc vneba, yovelTvis da yvelasaTvis erTnairad vlinde
ba. garkveuli azriT, SeiZleba asec iyos. magram isic faqtia,
rom gansxvavebul kulturebSi is sxvadasxvagvarad ganicde
ba. seqszec ki axdens kultura gavlenas. siyvaruli SeiZleba
warmoCenili iyos seqsualur-cxovelur variantebSi da piri
qiT, romantiuli grZnobis saxiT. erT kulturaSi dominirebs
umankoeba, platonuri grZnoba, meoreSi ki erosi, rogorc
sawyisi, stiqiuri, Zlieri adamianuri vneba... arc Tu didi xnis
win Cvens qveyanaSi siyvaruli cenzuris mkacri zedamxedve
lobis qveS imyofeboda. asea yvela totalitarul saxelmwi
foSi. cnobilia, rom erotikul miswrafebebSi adamiani indi
186

vidual
uri da Tavisufalia. swored amitom zRudavdnen da
akontrolebdnen, albaT, adamianis intimur cxovrebas `Zli
erni ama qveynisa~. dRes sul sxva mdgomareobaa... Tavisuflad
iyideba `kamasutra~, Cinuri traqtatebi seqsze, horoskopebi,
rekomendaciebi. puritanobis daZlevis mcdelobisas, gamo
ricxuli ar aris meor
e ukiduresobaSi aRvmoCndeT. siyvaru
li maradiuli da ucvleli grZnobaa. magram kultura, gaba
tonebuli standartebi udavod axdenen gavlenas erotikul
normebze. da mainc, am grZnobaSi, yvela dros, yvela epoqaSi,
ufro meti saerToa, vidre gansxvaveba. swored amitom gvesmis
da ganvicdiT Cven dResac dafnasa da qloas, tristanisa da
izoldas, romeosa da julietas, Tamarisa da TaraSis, onisesa
da ZiZias dramas.

187

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ra aris `kategoriuli imperativi~ ?
SesaZlebelia kategoriuli imperativisa da Tavisufle
bis SeTavseba?
iracionalizmis mixedviT, SeuZlia Tu ara gonebasa da
cnobierebas mianiWos adamians Tavisufleba?
gaaanalizeT nicSeseuli imperativebi `me msurs~ da `Sen
unda~.
platonis mixedviT, ra aris sikvdili? rodis wvdeba suli
WeSmaritebas?
rogor gesmiT gamoTqma: filosofosoba sikvdilisaTvis
mzadebas niSnavs?
ra moiazreba sikvdilis moralur RirebulebaSi?
risi eSinia adamians sikvdilis rogorc sicocxlis Sewy
vetis faqtis Tu masze dafiqrebisa da misi eqsistencialuri
gancdis?
eqsistencializmis mixedviT, rogor cdilobs adamiani
sikvdilis SiSisagan Tavis daRwevas?
platoniseul miTologemaSi sqesis warmoSobis Taobaze,
ras emsaxureba sqesobrivi cxovrebis centraluri fenomeni
sqesobrivi ltolva da ra moiazreba masSi?
ra udevs safuZvlad aRapes Zmur siyvaruls?
gaaanalizeT aRapes ZiriTadi moTxovna: `giyvardeT Tqve
ni mterni; daloceT Tqveni mawyevarni; keTili uyaviT Tqvens
moZuleT da iloceT Tqvensav mdevnelTa da Seuracxmyofel
TaTvis~.
ra TaviseburebebiT gamoirCeva amore kurtuazuli siy
varuli?

188

adamiani da Tanamedrove sazogadoebis


Taviseburebani
(gaucxoebis problema)
sazogadoebis ganviTarebis istoriaS
i yoveli didi Semob
runeba tradiciul RirebulebaTa gadafasebiT xasiaTdeba,
anu yoveli axali epoqa Zveli Rirebulebebis gadafasebiTa
da sakuTari faseulobebis damkvidrebis mcdelobiT iwyeba.
gavixsenoT, nicSes filosofiaSi uari iTqva yvela tradici
ul Rirebulebaze. adamiani aRar cnobda Tavs valdebulad
arc RmerTis, arc moyvasis, arc sazogadoebis winaSe. yove
live es uaryofil iqna pirovnebis Tavisuflebis saxeliT.
nicSes mixedviT pirovnebad mxolod didi pirovneba, zekaci
iTvleba, romelic gansazRvravs rogorc idealTa samyaros,
aseve upirovno masas. adamianis amgvari sruli `gaTavisufle
ba~ dasrulebuli saxiT gamoixata TezaSi `RmerTi mokvda~.
amas ki Sedegad mohyva is, rom tradiciuli Rirebulebebis
uaryofiT adamiani marTlac gaTavisuflda yovelgvari ma
iZulebeli idealebisagan, Tumca man orientirebic dakarga
samyaroSi. axla mas Tavad unda etvirTa is samuSao, rasac ad
re RmerTis an ideis saxeliT da maTi daxmarebis imediT ake
Tebda. `garedan~ daxmarebis imedi mas xom Zalas aZlevda. axla
ki, sakuTari survilebisa da qmedebebisaTvis mTeli pasuxis
mgebloba Tavad ekisreboda. e.i. adamiani sruli qaosis winaSe
aRmoCnda. mas Tavad unda moewesrigebina es samyaro. swored
amgvari Tavisuflebis gacnobierebis sirTulem aTqmevina Jan
pol sartrs: `adamiani dawyevlilia TavisuflebiT~. Seveca
doT sworad gavigoT, risi Tqma surda mas. marTalia, adamiani
RmerTis mfarvelobisagan gaTavisuflda, magram samagierod
dakarga mizani, aRar icis ra uyos am `Tavisuflebas~ da myisve
misgan gaqcevas cdilobs.
XX saukunis TiTqmis vercerTi moazrovne gverds ver uv
lis im faqts, rom Tanamedrove adamiani cdilobs sazogado
ebaSi gaTqvefas. Tu antikuroba bedisweris winaSe SiSs dio
niseebSi icilebda, dRevandeli adamiani sensaciebSi iviwyebs
189

sikvdilisa da martoobis SiSs. igi cdilobs upirovnos, saer


Tos, saSualos amoefaros, Tumca aris mcdelobebi, rom zogi
erTma sikeTisa Tu ara, borotebis safuZvelze mainc Seinar
Cunos sakuTari individualoba, raTa `sxvaSi~ ar gaiTqvifos,
ar gaxdes `rogorc yvela sxva~. `sxvebSi~ gaTqvefa, sakuTari
individualobis dakargva Zalian mtkivneuli da autanelia
TiToeuli CvenganisaTvis. swored am problemas asaxavs sar
tris sityvebi `jojoxeTi es aris sxvebi~ viazrovno, vifiq
ro, rogorc `sxvebma~; vimoqmedo, rogorc `sxvebma~; Cavicva,
rogorc `sxvebma~; sikeTed CavTvalo is, rasac `sxvebi~, Cemgan
gansxvavebiT sikeTed Tvlian, radgan `sxvebi~, sazogadoeba
fiqrobs ase. es xom sakuTar Tavze uaris Tqmas niSnavs. Tumca
meore gzac arsebobs. gaveqce realobas, Tavi Sevafaro gamo
gonils, iluzoruls, virtualurs da bolos da bolos davi
jereb, rom Cemi namdvili cxovreba iq mimdinareobs da ara aq.
gaucxoeba, adamianis mier sakuTari arsebis dakargva, aras
dros yofila ase aSkara. XX saukunes zogierTma mkvlevarma
gacnobierebuli krizisis epoqa uwoda, xolo mis filosofi
as gacnobierebuli krizisis epoqis filosofia. krizisidan
Tavis daRwevis sxvadasxva gza arsebobs, magram yvelasaTvis
ZiriTadi da saerTo mainc maT mierve zarzeimiT uaryofili
tradiciuli Rirebulebebisaken Semobrunebaa.
ukeT rom CavwvdeT sakiTxis arss, Cven realobasac SevexoT.
sazogadod miCneulia, rom Tanamedrove adamiani `mowyenilia.
mowyeniloba is Taviseburi mdgomareobaa, roca adamiani wuxs
da ver isvenebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom fiziologiur-materi
aluri moTxovnilebebis mxriv sakmaod dakmayofilebuli da
mosvenebulia. ufro metic, `mowyeniloba~ swored maSin euf
leba adamians, roca sakuTar biologiur arsebobaze zrun
visagan Tavisufalia. ras vakeTebT, roca mowyenilebi varT?
zogi nards TamaSobs, zogi banqos an dominos, iSviaTad W
Q ad
raks, zogi krosvords xsnis, zogi kompiuterTan aTenebs da
aRamebs, zogic svams da a.S. magram, Tuki didxans gagrZelda
garToba saqmesTan SeTavsebis gareSe, maSin, rogorc cnobi
lia, garTobac mosawyeni xdeba da zogierTi Cvengani isev saq
190

mes ubrundeba, zogic ki am `mosawyeni garTobidan~ Tavis daR


wevas cdilobs, raRac axlisken miiswafis, raTa Tavi iq mainc
daimkvidros, iq, sadRac, Tundac iluzorul samyaroSi, anu
`sxva arsebobaSi~. amisi tipiuri magaliTebia alkoholizmi
da narkomania. mogexsenebaT, rom alkoholisa da narkotikis
efeqti, upirveles yovlisa, imaSi gamoixateba, rom individi
kontrolisa da realobis grZnobas kargavs da ufro `maRal
doneze arsebobis~ iluzias eqvemdebareba. cnobilia loTi
kacis Taviseburi Tavmomwoneoba, kompleqsebidan gaTavisuf
leba, misi pretenzia gansakuTrebulobaze. isic cnobilia,
rom loTobasa da narkomanias gansakuTrebiT didi gasaqani
swored maSin eZleva, rodesac epoqaluri ideali sayovel
Taod kargavs damajereblobas da imsxvreva, axali ki jer ar
Cans. udaoa, rom es gza `sxva arsebobaSi~ gadasvlis, amaRle
bisa da damkvidrebis surogatuli, iluzoruli gzaa. e.i. ada
miani gaurbis realobas da iluzoruls afarebs Tavs (sxvaTa
Soris, `iluzorulobis~ uamravi faruli saxe arsebobs. Tun
dac CvenTvis yvelaze nacnobi da Cveuli: nacnob-megobrebi
xSirad ikribebian xolme. yavas xarSaven, miirTmeven, Tambaqos
aboleben da saubroben, maT Soris politikaze da umeteswi
lad, opoziciur Tvalsazriss uWeren mxars... Tumca ki cxov
rebaSi mSvenivrad eguebian da Tavisi piradi keTildReobis
sasargeblod iyeneben `poziciasa~ da `pozicionerebsac~. yo
velive es raRac `msubuq garTobas~ gavs, raRac `rituals~, mo
das, `karg tons~, romlis saboloo mizani Cveulebriv banalur
yofaze amaRlebis pretenzia da ufro maRal realobasTan Se
xebaa), anu arsebuli realobidan gaqceva da raRac sxva, sulac
gamogonili realobisaTvis Tavis Sefarebis mcdeloba, Tavis
motyuebac aris da xsnac imavdroulad.
araerTxel aRgviniSnavs, rom filosofia cxovrebas mowy
vetili fenomeni ar aris. yvelaferi, rac Cven gvawuxebs, ra
zec vfiqrobT da ganvicdiT, ra kiTxvebic gviCndeba da pasuxs
veZebT, yvelafris moZieba filosofiaSi SeiZleba. raRa Tqma
unda, ara erTmniSvnelovani, utyuari pasuxis saxiT, aramed
Cvenze bevrad Wkviani da gamocdili adamianebis mosazreba
191

Ta gaTvaliswinebiT, Cveni da maTi Sexedulebebis SejerebiT,


aqedan ki SesaZlebeli xdeba WeSmaritebisaken svla. am rTul
gzaze filosofias literatura udgas gverdiT da misTvis
damaxasiaTebeli xerxebiTa da formiT cdilobs, ufro gasa
gebi eniT esaubros adamians mis satkivarze, mianiSnos, rogori
cxovrebis wesia misTvis Rirseuli da rogori Seuferebeli,
daafiqros cxovrebis warmavlobasa da amaoebaze da sanimuSo
idealic SesTavazos. amjerad literaturul simbolizms mo
viSveliebT.
literaturuli simbolozmisaTvis imTaviTve saintereso
da mniSvnelovania umTavresi msoflmxedvelobrivi proble
mebi: arsebobs Tu ara samyaro, Tu igi Cveni fantaziis nayo
fia? ra aris Cveni sinamdvile, moCvenebiTi, Tu namdvili? sad
gadis zRvari maT Soris? rogoria igi TavisTavad da rogoria
igi, rogorc Cveni fantaziis nayofi?
leo qiaCelis moTxrobaSi `EEcalade~ moqmedeba Sveicaria
Si xdeba, dResaswaulze. karnavalSi axalgazrda qarTveli
kacic monawileobs. irgvliv uamravi niRbiani qali da kacia.
erT-erTi maTgani, qali Savi niRbiTa da wiTel-yviTeli mosas
xamiT, sxvebisagan gamoarCevs qarTvels da eubneba: `yoveli
sanamdvile warmodgenaa da yoveli warmodgena sinamdvile~.
uecrad es niRbiani qali elvis siswrafiT Sexteba xeze, ken
weroze moeqceva da gamomwvevad uxmobs yvelas: amodiT, da
miWireT, vinc vaJkaci xarTo. qarTveli pirveli Seecdeba as
vlas, magram mixvdeba, rom kenweromde ver miaRwevs, toti ver
gauZlebs. uceb qali nirwamxdari qarTvelis gverdiT aRmoC
ndeba. wiTel-yviTeli mosasxami ki isev xis kenweroze kidia.
qali seirs uyurebs, Tu rogor miiCnevs motyuebuli brbo xis
kenweroze Camokidebul niRabsa da mosasxams realur qalad.
daufaravad eubneba kidec mamakacs: `xa-xa-xa! megobaro, ar ge
cineba? rogor mogwons Cemi idea? ar gagonebs gana es suraTi
TviT kacobriobas, mis brZolas, mis cxovrebas? ra kargia! ga
na ase tyuilad ar ibrZvis kacobrioba? gana ase Tavdaviwye
biT ar epotineba raRac ideals, romelic bolos da bolos
iseTive sisulelea, rogorc xeze Camokidebuli Cemi niRabi
192

da wiTel-yviTeli mosasxami!... ` `EEcalade~ erTxel kidev gvidas


turebs Cveni cnobierebis umweobas warmosaxuls realobad
rom miiCnevs.
rogoria sinamdvile TavisTavad da rogoria igi, rogorc
Cveni fantaziis nayofi?
konstantine gamsaxurdias novela `lil~ Tavidan pikantu
ri Tavgadasavalis Txrobas waagavs. axalgazrda kaci hyveba, Tu
rogor aenTo eqim Saruxias ulamazesi colis trfobiT. ucnau
ri is iyo, rom am trfobas qmaric grZnobda da xels ar uSlida.
oRond, mkiTxveli xvdeba, raRac mzakvroba aqvs Cafiqrebuli
Saruxias... qalis siyvaruliT Tavdaviwyebamde misuli axal
gazrda kaci erTbaSad aRmoCndeba Semzaravi realobis winaSe.
Saruxia TviTon waiyvans zRvis sanapiroze jamleTs SiSveli
colis sanaxavad. umSvenieresi qalis nacvlad simaxinje war
mosdgeba trfobiT aRvsili vaJis winaSe: `lil mTlad SiSveli
idga da mRelvare zRvas gahyurebda. elvis siswrafiT Semoev
lo mis sxeuls Cemi xarbi Tvali. da vnaxe orive ferdebidan
moxrili, saSualo TiTis sisxod amoburculi Zvlebi uCanda~.
gamaognebel suraTs eqim Saruxias mefistofeluri xiTxiTi
abolovebs: `axla xom xedavT, ra Znelia raxitiani colis qmro
ba da rogor gvatyuebs Cven Tvali?~ `me rom is kaci, buneba, Tu
RmerTi Segirdad momabaron, romelmac egzom zadiani organo
mianiWa adamians, rogoricaa Tvali, uTood ors davuwerdio
mas, radgan araferi ise umgvanod mowyobili ar ariso Cvens age
bulebaSi, rogorc Tvali. araferi ise ar gvatyuebso, rogorc
Tvali~. Tvalxiluli sinamdvile miraJi da moCvenebaa, aseTi
daskvna gamoaqvs konstantine gamsaxurdias.
ra ganapirobebs adamianis moTxovnilebas icxovros ilu
zorul, gamogonil sinamdvileSi? SemogTavazebT qarTveli
filosofosis zurab kakabaZis haidegeriseuli Tvalsazrisis
analizs. `... patara bavSvs mSoblebi xelmZRvaneloben, gezsa
da mimarTulebas aZleven mis saqciels da amgvarad, uzrun
velyofen misi bavSvuri cxovrebis problemebis warmatebiT
gadawyvetas. xolo, roca gaizrdeba da mozrdili Seiqneba,
erTbaSad `mozrdili cxovrebis~ rTuli problemebis winaSe
193

aRmoCndeba yovelgvari xelmZRvanelisa da saxelmZRvanelos


gareSe, saimedo orientirsa da gzis maCvenebels moklebul
samyaroSi, rogorc `ucxo qveyanasa~ da sxvis saxlSi~ Tavis
anabara mitovebuli... mitovebulobisa da `usaxlkarobis~ es
`peizaJi~ rom aSinebs, adamiani zurgs aqcevs da axSobs mas
TavdaviwyebiT eZleva `sajaro cxovrebas~ da Tavs ikatunebs,
viTomcda aseTi cxovrebis samyaroSi hpova man `mamuli~ da
`mSobliuri kera~. am samyaros gamgebelad anu `mSobel mamad~
ki evlineba masobrivad gavrcelebul tendenciebSi gamovle
nili raRac anonimuri instancia, romelic mas saimedo xel
mZRvanelobas uwevs... yoveldRiuri cxovrebis wesi, garemom
cvel samyaroSi CaZirviTa da masaSi gaTqvefiT rom xasiaTdeba,
sxva araferia, Tu ara `usaxlkarobidan~ sajaro cxovrebis
iluzorul `saxlSi~ gaqceva. magram sajaro cxovrebis orom
trialSi TavdaviwyebiT CarTul adamians zogjer erTbaSad
daeufleba xolme amgvari cxovrebis uazrobis grZnoba da Se
satyvisi `Zrwola~, TiTqosda erTbaSad gairRva safarveli da
iqidan saSinelma WeSmaritebam gamoixeda: sajaro cxovrebis
oromtrialSi CarTuloba, am cxovrebis gamgebeli `anonimuri
sxvis~ xelmZRvanelobiT cxovreba, realizaciis gareSe to
vebs mis arsebiT miswrafebebs da, maSasadame, gzidan acdenas
moaswavebs; es anonimuri subieqti srulebiTac ar aris misi sa
imedo xelmZRvaneli da `patroni~, igi saerTod `upatronoa~
im azriT, rom misi cxovreba mas da mxolod mas abaria, masze da
mxolod maszea mindobili, mas da mxolod mas SeuZlia, damo
ukidebeli fiqrisa da meditaciis meSveobiT, sakuTari arse
biTi miswrafebebisa da tendenciebis marealizebeli gza da
saxos da ganvlos. msgavsi Zrwola, Tavs rom esxmis da Tvals
rom uxels adamians, SesaZleblobas aZlevs mas garesamyaroSi
gafantulobidan Tavis Tavs daubrundes da sakuTari yofie
rebis realizeba, namdvili cxovrebis `mSenebloba~ scados...
magram ufro xSirad ise xdeba, rom adamiani amgvari Zrwoli
dan isev Semamsubuqebel iluziaSi garbis~.
dasavleTis azrovneba yofierebisa da sazrisis TeoriaTa
simravliT xasiaTdeba. es imis maCvenebelia, rom adamians gauZ
194

nelda Tavisi mdgomareobis gageba. man dakarga simSvide. ias


persis TqmiT, `totaluri mospobis SiSi ukan, munyofierebis
sazrisis gaazrebisaken gvibiZgebs~.
marqsizmis Tanaxmad, awmyosa da warsulis gaazreba ori
TvalsazrisiT xdeba. erTi imediani ganwyobiT arian aRvsil
ni, meoreni ki uimedobas moucavT. Sesabamisad, orive maTgans
vladimer lenini (1870 1924 ww.) axasiaTebs, rogorc `istori
ul optimizmsa~ da `istoriul pesimizms~. filosofiis ganvi
Tarebis istoria naTlad aCvenebs, rom yoveli moazrovne sa
boloo jamSi an erT banaks miekuTvneba an meores. dasavleTis
moazrovneebi xazs usvamen adamianis martoobas da sicarie
les teqnikis arnaxuli aRmavlobis epoqaSi. mTels qveyanaSi
sulieri martooba da uSinaarsoba batonobs.
`teqnikuri gaucxoebis~ problemis siRrmeSi qristianobis
krizisis, ufro farTod, idealebisa da aqedan cxovrebis saz
risis da Rirebulebebis dakargvis pirmSoa Tanamedrove ada
miani. roca ikargeba mizani, ufasurdeba umaRlesi Rirebule
bani, angariSi ar eweva aravis da arafers; aRar eZeben pasuxs
kiTxvaze ratom? da risTvis? fridrix nicSes azriT, es e. w.
`nihilizmia yvelaze saSineli stumari yvela stumarTagan~.
idealisagan daclilobisa da amgvarad, sicarielis gancdiT
Sepyrobili kaci mudam xalxmraval sakrebuloTa msmeneli da
brma monawilea. maTi jer kidev Camouyalibebuli, gaucnobie
rebeli, dausabuTebeli Sexedulebebis gamziarebelia. es uk
ve gzaa sazareli sicarielisaken, araraobisaken mimavali. am
SemTxvevaSi maTTan yofna ar niSnavs raime miznis mignebas da
am mizniT gaerTianebas, aramed es aris stiqiuri kavSiri da am
dros xdeba am saSualo, dabali masis garkveuli jgufis, ker
Zod, brbos gamoyeneba damangrevel Zalad, romelsac mxolod
zianis motana SeuZlia kacobriobisaTvis. adamiani marioneti
xdeba brma emociisa. aq maradiuli mniSvnelobis ideali uar
yofilia. adamianebi usaxoni xdebian, yvela erTmaneTs hgavs
da yvela `erT xmaze momRerali~ quxiliT miiwevs win, gaurkve
veli mimarTulebiT.
Sinagani da garegani samyaros Seryeva niSnavs mTeli samya
195

ros tragikulobas. samyaro ara marto SegrZnebiT aris tra


gikuli, aramed Tavisi yofierebiTac. Tanamedrove dehuma
nizacias adamiani mihyavs dacemamde. Cven ganvicdiT mTeli
kulturis Rrma kriziss. aq laparakia adamianisa da kultu
ris krizisze. ganvixiloT zogierTi moazrovnis Sexeduleba
aRniSnul sakiTxebze, rogor afasebs is adamianis mdgomareo
bas dRevandel samyaroSi.
ZiriTadi cneba, romliTac espaneli filosofosi xose
ortega i gaseti (1883 1955 ww.) axasiaTebs adamianis da
istoriis Tanamedrove mdgomareobas, aris krizisis cneba.
krizisis fenomeni mravali moazrovnis kvlevis obieqti iyo
gasetamde, magram man mouZebna specifikuri aspeqti da gan
sazRvra is, rogorc `istoriuli krizisi~. ganvmartoT ro
gor esmis x. gasets krizisi. krizisi aris gansakuTrebuli
istoriuli cvlileba. istoria, moazrovnis gagebiT, aris
qmnadoba. iseTi qmnadoba, romelic mxolod adamianisTvisaa
damaxasiaT
ebeli. aqedan gamomdinare, adamiani rogorc isto
riis centri, SeiZleba icvlebodes. es aris adamianis msof
lmxedvelobis cvlilebiT gamowveuli cvlileba. adamianis
msoflmxedveloba gansazRvravs, gamoxatavs mis adamianobas,
amoZravebs da aZlevs mas mizans. Tu icvleba adamiani, icvle
ba misi msoflxedvac. amitom istoriuli krizisi maSin dgeba,
roca adamiani msoflmxedvelobis gareSea. adamiani dezori
entirebuli xdeba. is kargavs samyaros, romelSic cxovrobda
ise, rom ar aqvs Seqmnili axali. es cvlileba gadadis krizisSi
da iRebs katastrofis saxes. cvlilebaTa meore saxe mdgoma
reobs social
uri struqturis cvlilebebSi. xolo cvlile
baTa mesame saxe exeba adamianis `me~- obas. e. i. roca adamianis
`me~- Si xdeba cvlileba ise, rom ar ikargeba misi `me~. magram
aris cvlileba, rodesac `me~ kargavs `me~- obas. is gaucxov
deba. swored krizisis es mesame saxea Cveni kvlevis obieqti.
espanel moazrovnes am krizisis safuZvlad miaCnia `masebis
amboxi~.
sityva `amboxi~ ar niSnavs brZolas iaraRiT xelSi. masSi
politikurTan erTad mocemulia goniTi, moralur eko
196

nomikuri da religiuri cxovrebac. es aris yvelaze drama


tuli period
i, romelic odesme sazogadeobas gadautania.
mTeli Zalaufleba sazogadoebaSi xelT igdes masebma. gase
tis TqmiT, `masebi ar unda marTavdnen da arc SeuZliaT mar
Ton sakuTari bedic ki, rom araferi vTqvaT sazogadoebaze
mTlianad. aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom evropa amJamad ganic
dis yvelaze mZime kriziss, romelic SeiZleba Tavs daatydes
xalxs, ers, kulturas~.
sxvadasxva principiT xdeba umciresobisa da uravle
sobis gaerTian
eba. umravlesobad warmoqmnis wanamZRvaria
misi wevrebis gemovnebis, ideebis, cxovrebis wesisa da sti
lis erTianoba. umciresobis wevrebi individebia, romlebic
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian swored aRniSnuli niSnebiT.
maT aerTian
ebT umravlesobisagan gansxvavebuloba.
adamian
is masisadmi mikuTvneba ganisazRvreba fsiqologi
uri niSnis mixedviT. `masis adamiani es isaa, vinc ar grZnobs
Tavis TavSi araviTar gansakuTrebul unars an gansxvavebu
lobas sxvebisagan kargs an cuds. vinc grZnobs, rom igi zus
tad iseTivea, rogorc danarCenebi da amasTan amiT sul ar
aris Sewuxebuli, piriqiT, bednieria igrZnos Tavisi Tavi ise
Tived, rogorc yvela~.
Tu arsebiTad ganvixilavT masebis amboxs, maSin mas axa
siaTebs Semdegi ori garemoeba: 1) masebi amJamad asruleben
im sazogadoebriv funqciebs, rac adre martooden gamorCe
ul umciresobaTa prerogativa iyo; 2) amave dros masebi ukve
aRar arian am uciresobaTa morCilni. isini ara Tu emorCile
bian, misdeven da pativs scemen, aramed Tavidan iSoreben da
aviwroveben maT. araferi ar axasiaTebs Cven epoqas ise, ro
gorc is, rom TiTqmis yvelgan, erTgvarovani masebi axdenen
zemoqmedebas xelisuflebaze da Seuracxyofen yvela opo
ziciur jgufs. winaT demokratia ar iyo gayofili. dRes ki
Cven moveswariT hiperdemokratiis triumfs, rodesac masebi
Tvlian, rom maT ufleba aqvT msvleloba miscen da saxelmwi
fo kanonad aqcion TavianTi saubrebi kafeSi. gasetis azriT,
`problema is aris, rom evropa darCa moralis gareSe. masis
197

adamianma ukuagdo moZvelebuli mcnebebi ara imisTvis, rom


isini axliT, ukeTesiT Seecvala, ara! misi sasicocxlo we
sebis arsia icxovros mcnebebisadmi damorCilebis gareSe~. is
iWreba yvelaferSi miuxedavad Tavisi ugvano azrebisa, rom
lebic angariSs ar uweven aravis da arafers. masis adamians
ar unda darCena mtkice bedis myar niadagze, is upiratesobas
aniWebs haerSi dakidebul fiqtiur arsebobas, rac radikalu
rad gansxvavdeba elitaruli adamianis cxovrebisa da miswra
febebisagan. gasetis azriT, es axali tipis adamiani Seqmnilia
Tanamedrove evropuli kulturis Zireuli Secdomebisagan,
romelsac aswavles teqnikis trfiali da sargebloba, xolo
cxovrebisa ki ara aswavles ra.
`masebis~ cnebaSi gaseti ar gulisxmobs sazogadoebis
romelime klass. `masa es aris xalxis umravlesoba gansa
kuTrebuli, gamorCeuli Tvisebebis gareSe. es srulebiT ar
aris vTqvaT, muSebi, proleteriati. masa es aris saSualo,
uferuli adamiani~. gaseti ar ganasxvavebs da erTi da ima
ve cnebiT aRniSnavs masasa da brbos, romelsac pirovnebebis
mcirericxovan elitas upirispirebs. es ukanasknelic ar war
moadgens klass, ar warmoadgens wodebas, aramed adamianTa
tips, romlis saxelia araerTferovneba, pirovneba.
sazogadoebis dayofa ara socialur klasad, aramed xal
xis tipebad masebad da rCeulebad srulebiT ar aris ubra
lod dayofa `umaRlesobad~ da `umciresobad~. gvinda Tu ara
es, avtoris azriT, sazogadoeba unda iyos aristokratuli.
aRsaniSnavia, rom avtori elitaSi ara aristokratul warmo
mavlobasa da keTilSobili gvaris upiratesobas gulisxmobs,
rac Cveulebriv esmiT am cnebis qveS, aramed wminda gonebriv
gamorCeulobas; elita swored wminda inteleqtualuri um
ciresobaa. esaa adamiani, romelic qmnis kulturas, aCqarebs
progress da amaRlebs civilizaciis dones. mas axasiaTebs
pasuxismgeblobis gaZlierebuli grZnoba, gansakuTrebuli
momTxovneloba sakuTari personisadmi. es ucxoa saSualo
masis adamianisaTvis. misi principi sruliad gansxvavebulia
`swrafad gaakeTe yvelaferi, rac gsurs! ar arsebobs arc
198

SeuZlebeli da arc saSiSi, arc umaRlesoba da arc umcire


soba~. is yovelTvis kmayofilia da aRfrTovanebuli Tavisi
TaviT. cxovreba TviTkmayofilebaSi es aris xvedri plebe
isa. masis adamiani ar cnobs dialogs, rogorc urTierTobis
umaRles formas. wavides dialogze, misTvis es pirvel marcxs
niSnavs. aqedan Cndeba moTxovna: `kmara diskusiebi~! amas Sede
gad ki mosdevs uaryofa yovelgvari sulieri urTierTobisa,
rac efuZneba obieqturi normebis cnobas, dawyebuli ubralo
saubridan, damTavrebuli parlamentiT da samecniero sazo
gadoebiT. is moiTxovs `pirdapiri moqmedebis~ erTaderT me
Tods. es normaa, romelic xsnis yvela danarCen normas, xsnis
yvela Sua etaps mizansa da monapovars Soris. evropis istori
aSi plebei arasdros warmoidgenda Tavs raime ideebis mqoned.
mas hqonda Tavisi rwmena, tradiciebi, cxovrebiseuli gamoc
dileba, gacveTili azri, magram is ar ereoda Teoriul gamok
vlevebSi da ganzogadebebSi, romlebsac moiTxovs politika,
literatura da a. S. axla ki daaneba Tavi sxvis mosmenas. axla
man unda gansajos, dagegmos, gadawyvitos. amitom am dros ada
mianebi cxovroben cxovrebiseuli programebis gareSe, ugeg
mod. mTavroba arafers laparakobs momavalze. man ar icis sa
iT miiswrafvis, midis miznis gacnobierebis gareSe, amitom mis
saqmianobaSi ar ixsneba problemebi, piriqiT farTovdeba da
rTuldeba konfliqturi situaciebi. yovelTvis aseTi iyo sa
zogadoeba, romelsac marTavdnen saSualo masebi is iyo yov
lisSemZle da efemeruli. es imitom, rom saSualo adamianis
ideebi ar aris namdvili ideebi. isini kulturulobiT ar das
turdebian. masebis amboxebam SeiZleba migviyvanos katastro
famde, radgan mmarTveloba xelSi CauvardaT gansazRvruli
tipis xalxs, romelTaTvisac ar aris Zvirfasi civilizaciis
fuZe. paradoqsia, rom msoflios exlandeli gamgebeli pri
mitiulia, SemTxveviT movlinebulia civilizebul samyaro
Si. maSin, roca pirovnebis cxovreba, misi yoveldRiuroba es
aris mudmivi daZabuloba, Seusvenebeli varjiSi, varjiSi aske
tisa. RirSesaniSnavi damaxasiaTebeli keTilSobilebisa es
aris ara Zalaufleba, ara privilegiebi, aramed movaleobebi,
199

momTxovneloba sakuTari Tavisadmi. elitis adamianma icis ra


advilia sisulelis Cadena; ra axlosaa saSiSroeba yovel wams.
Tu elitas axasiaTebs azris Tavisufleba da warsulTan ur
TierToba, rac aucilebeli pirobaa ganviTarebisaTvis, ma
sis adamianisaTvis es sferoebi ugulvebelyofilia. is iRebs
mmarTvelobas warsulis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe ise, TiTqos
is arc arsebuliyo. gasetis filosofiis dasaxasiaTeblad sa
Wiroa mravali kategoria: cxovreba, subieqti, yofiereba, si
namdvile, WeSmariteba, mimarTeba `mesa~ da `Sens~ Soris, eli
ta, masa, xalxi, `mani~, gaucxoeba, istoriuli krizisi da sxva.
magram yvela es kategoria erTi centraluri figuris, erTi
ZiriTadi kategoriis garSemo moZraobs. es aris adamianuri
yofierebis krizisi da misi gaucxoeba. misTvis erTaderTi si
namdvile, romelic Cven gvainteresebs, aris Cveni sinamdvile,
Cveni samyaro, Cveni cxovreba. adamiani ar unda dakmayofil
des nivTTa yofierebiT, Tuki es yofiereba nivTebs adamiani
sagan damoukideblad aqvT.
adamian
is fenomeni gasetis filosofiaSi Seicavs ormxri
vobas adamian
i megobari da adamiani mteri. amis safuZvelic
socialurobaa. sityva `sazogadoebrivi~ Tavis TavSi aerTi
anebs pozitiur da negatiur sawyiss. rom SeviqmnaT naTeli
warmodgena saxelmwifoze, unda gavigoT is msoflmxedve
lobrivi sistema Cveulebebisa, romelsac `sazogadoebriv
azrs~ vuwodebT. xose ortega i gasets SesaniSnavad aqvs
mignebuli masebis xasiaTSi yvelaze umniSvnelo Tvisebac ki,
TvalnaTliv da zustad aRwers adamianis mier yoveldRiu
robaSi, sxvadasxva situaciaSi am niSan-TvisebaTa gamovlenas,
magram nakleb yuradReb
as uTmobs im socialuri mizezebis
kvlevas, romelic saSualebas miscems adamians gaeqces saSu
aloobas. amave dros, ar aris gamoyofili, gamijnuli brbosa
da masis cnebebi. Cveni azriT ki, zogierTi Tviseba, romelsac
gaseti masas miawers, brbos maxasiaTebeli ufroa, vidre saSu
alo adamianisa.
frangma eqimma da publicistma gustav lebonma (1841 1931 ww.)
Tavis erT-erT naSromSi `xalxebisa da masebis fsiqologia~,
200

Tavis saukunes `brbos saukune~ uwoda. brbos problemis wina


planze wamoweva am epoqis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi niSania.
brbos fenomenis Cveulebrivi gageba, romelSic igulisxmeba
adamianTa Cveulebrivi Tavmoyra, erTiani miswrafebebiT, miz
nebiT, lebonma ganasxvava brbos fsiqologiuri cnebisagan.
aq adamianTa iseTi Tavmoyra igulisxmeba, rodesac adamianTa
TavSeyra ar xdeba fizikurad. e. i. isini faqtobrivad daSo
rebulni arian erTmaneTs, magram mainc erTnairad grZnoben,
erTnairad fiqroben da moqmedeben. maT axasiaTebT indivi
dualurisagan gansxvavebuli koleqtiuri, masobrivi suli.
Cveni azriT, aq leboni gulisxmobs swored imas, rasac gase
ti saSualo adamianTa masebs uwodebs. ubralod leboni mase
bisa da brbos aRsaniSnavad erTsa da imave termins `brbos~
iyenebs. fsiqologiaSi met naklebad Seswavlilia adamianis
Tavdapirveli moTxovnilebebidan momdinare impulsebi da
midrekilebebi, misi moqmedebis motivebi da sxva adamianebTan
urTierTobebi. amrigad, SesaZlebelia miaxloebiTi sizustiT
mainc ganvsazRvroT adamianTa mosalodneli reaqcia ama Tu
im movlenaze, magram utyuaria is faqtic, rom garkveul piro
bebSi adamiani fiqrobs da iqceva mosalodnelisagan sruli
ad gansxvavebulad da xSirad sapirispirodac. ase xdeba maSin,
roca adamiani CarTulia brbos SemadgenlobaSi, iqceva masis
organul nawilad. leboni wers: `fsiqologiur masaSi yvela
ze ucnauria Semdegi. rogoric ar unda iyos maTi cxovrebis
wesi, saqmianoba, maTi xasiaTi da inteligenturobis xarisxi,
masad qcevisas isini iZenen koleqtiur suls, romlis ZaliT
sruliad sxvagvarad grZnoben, fiqroben da iqcevian, vidre
TiToeuli maTgani calke igrZnobda, ifiqrebda, moiqceoda.
arseboben ideebi da grZnobebi, romlebic gamovlindebian an
moqmedebad iqcevian mxolod masad gaerTianebul individeb
Si~. masas leboni adarebs organizms, romelic Sedgeba mrava
li ujredisagan da romelsac aqvs sruliad axali Tvisebebi,
vidre calkeul ujredebs. aq leboni saubrobs ama Tu im adami
anis inteligenturobis xarisxze, rac, Cveni azriT, zusti ar
aris. adamianis inteligenturobas ar SeiZleba hqondes sxva
201

dasxva xarisxi. igi an aris, an ar aris inteligenti. pirovneba,


Tuki is marTla inteligentia, ar SeiZleba gaiTqvifos upi
rovno masaSi ise, rom man absoluturad dakargos saRi gone
biT gansjis, kritikuli analizis unari. lebons mohyavs misi
Tanamedrove fsiqologiis mier dadgenili faqti, rom adamia
nis cxovrebaSi udides rols qvecnobieri miswrafebebi asru
lebs. misi yoveldRiuri moqmedebis ukan, romelsac pirovneba
aRiarebs, ueWvelad arsebobs kidev raRac dafaruli mizeze
bi, romelsac igi ar aRiarebs, xolo yovelive amis ukan ki Zevs
kidev ufro faruli mizezebi, romelTa arsebobis Sesaxebac
ki adamianma araferi icis. misi yoveldRiuri moqmedebebi swo
red am faruli, aracnobieri motivebis gavlenis Sedegia. aqe
dan gamomdinare g. leboni cdilobs axsnas brboSi adamianis
cvalebadobis mizezebi da maT sam gamovlinebaSi eZebs.
adamians, garSemortymuls mravali adamianiT da maTTan
miznebis saerToobiT dakavSirebuls, eufleba ganusazRvre
li Zlevamosilebis grZnoba. es grZnoba aZlevs mas saSuale
bas Tavisuflad gamoavlinos Tavdapirveli survilebi, rom
lebic izolirebulad arsebobis periodSi iZulebuli iyo
daeTrguna. brboSi aRar arseboben individebi, igi upirovno
da anonimuria, amdenad masSi myof adamians sruliad uqreba
pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba. grZnoba, romelic Ceulebriv yo
velTvis Tan axlavs pirovnebas da aiZulebs imoqmedos gaaz
rebulad. es aris brboSi cvalebadobis pirveli mizezi. zig
mund froidi (1859 1939 ww.), romelic, Tavisi moZRvrebidan
gamomdinare, komentars ukeTebs gustav lebonis naazrevs, aR
niSnavs, rom `es TiTqos axali Tvisebebi, romlebsac is aRmo
aCens axla, sinamdvileSi warmoadgens im aracnobieris gamov
lenas, romelSic CanasaxSive Cadebulia adamianis sulis yvela
siborote~.
meore mizezi cvalebadobisa metad ucnauri da amoucno
bi fenomeni gadamdeblobaa. g. leboni mas hipnozur feno
menTa ricxvs miakuTvnebs. brboSi adamianis yoveli moqmedeba
Tu grZnoba gadamdebia. igi umalve gadaecema masis danarCen
wevrebs. aseTi gadamdebloba SeiZleba mivides im zomamde,
202

rodesac adamians piradi interesi saerTos, masis intersebis


samsxverploze miaqvs. es ki misi bunebisaTvis sruliad sawi
naaRmdego Tvisebaa.
cvalebadobis mesame mizezs STagonebadoba warmoadgens.
es yvelaze mniSvnelovani mizezia. swored igi ganapirobebs
masaSi gaerTian
ebuli adamianebis TvisebaTa gansxvavebas
calkeul individTa Tvisebebisagan. amasTan, gadamdebloba
gustav lebons STagonebadobis moqmedebis Sedegad gaCenil
fenomenad miaCnia. adamiani, roca masaSi imyofeba, vardeba
`monusxvis~ msgavs mdgomareob
aSi, kargavs kontrols Tavis
Tavze, veRar acnobierebs sakuTar qmedebebs. aseT viTarebaSi
misi moqmedeba STagonebis Sedegad SeiZleba nebismieri mimar
TulebiT warimarTos. igi Zlieri aRtkinebiT iwyebs STagone
buli moqmedebis Sesrulebas. es aRtkineba Zlieri da gadau
laxavia.
gustav leboni ajamebs brboSi pirovnebis sruli niveli
rebisa da cvalebadobis kvlevis Sedegebs da miiCnevs, rom
masis adamianisaTvis tipiur damaxasiaTebel Tvisebebs war
moadgens cnobieri pirovnebis gaqroba, aracnobieris mo
Warbeba, STagonebisa da gadamdeblobis Sedegad azrebisa da
grZnobebis orientacia erTi da imave mimarTulebiT, STago
nebuli ideebis uswrafesad Sesrulebis tendencia. individi
ukve aRar ekuTvnis sakuTar Tavs, igi unebisyofo avtomatad
iqca. mecnier
i mimarTavs masobrivi, koleqtiuri sulisaTvis
damaxasiaT
ebel tipiur TvisebaTa ganxilvas. masa impulsu
ri da advilad aRgznebadia. igi TiTqmis mTlianad Tavdapir
vel impulsebs eqvemdebareba. es impulsebi imdenad Zlieria,
rom individs ar eZleva Tavisi interesebis gamovlenis ara
viTari saSual
eba. kerZo interess brbos saerTo interesi
nTqavs. brbo cvalebadia, aramyaria. Tu mas raime surs, mxo
lod mokle droiT, Tumca es survili maSinve unda iyos dak
mayofilebuli. masa aucileblobiT moiTxovs aRiarebul li
der belads. brbo Tavisi bunebiT kerpTayvanismcemelia. igi
mTlianad endoba Tavis avtoritets, absoluturad ukriti
koa beladis mimarT. brbos ar gaaCnia sakuTari azri, misi azri
203

igive beladis azria. sxvagvar Sexedulebebs igi ar iRebs, maT


mimarT ara Tu Semwynarebeli, aramed agresiulia. masTan paeq
roba SeuZlebelia, radgan igi araviTar arguments angariSs
ar uwevs. masas uyvars Tavisi kerpi, xolo vinc mas upirispir
deba, siZulviliT da mtrobiT pasuxobs.
masa metad damyolia da advilad ijerebs yvelaze dau
jerebel ambavsac ki. igi moklebulia kritikis unars. masas
yvelaferSi ukiduresobis grZnoba axasiaTebs. antipaTiis
patara marcvalic ki uceb gadaiqceva velur, dauokebel si
Zulvilad. mas, visac surs gavlena moipovos masaze, sruliad
ar moeTxoveba iyos Tanmimdevruli da logikuri YTavis argu
mentaciaS
i. sakmarisia SeeZlos maRalfardovani da emociuri
saub
ari da masac dapyrobilia. brbos, Tavisi mravalricxov
nobis gamo, uZlevelobis grZnoba eufleba. Tumca masebi dau
fiqreblad mihyvebian Tavis liders, magram mas unda hqondes
garkveul
i Tvisebebi, romliTac moxiblavs brbos da gaiyo
lebs mas.
unda aRiniSnos, rom gustav lebonis mTeli es msjeloba
exeba ara xangrZlivi xasiaTis masebs, aramed brbos, romelic
warmoiqmneba mxolod garkveuli droiT erTmaneTisagan gan
sxvavebuli individebis TavSeyris Sedegad da romelTac am
momentisaTvis erTi saerTo, magram warmavali interesi aer
TianebT. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es interesi kargavs Tavis
aqtual
obas, dakmayofilebulia an moxsnilia raime mizezis
gamo, brbo iSleba.
masebis fsiqologiis, adamianTa sxvadasxvagvari socia
luri jgufebisa Tu warmonaqmnebis kvlevaSi, gustav lebon
Tan erTad, didi damsaxureba miuZRvis frang iurists da so
ciologs gabriel tards (1843 1904 ww.). am Temas miuZRvna
man Tavisi erT-erTi mTavari Sroma `azri da brbo~. tardi
erTmaneTisagan mijnavs `brbosa~ da `publikis cnebebs~. avto
ri xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom brbos CamoyalibebaSi gadamwyve
ti mniSvneloba eniWeba misi Semadgeneli individebis fizikur
siaxloves. is erT teritoriaze TavSeyraa. amisgan gansxva
vebiT, publika ar saWiroebs Tavisi wevrebis aucilebel fi
204

zikur kavSirs. tardis azriT, publikis Camoyalibeba iwyeba


XVI saukunidan, rac dakavSirebulia wignebis beWdvis farTo
gavrcelebasTan. am udidesi siaxliT gazeTebisa da wignebis
yoveldRiuri da erToblivi kiTxviT gaerTianebulma mkiTx
velTa masam Tavi sruliad axal socialur Zalad, sxeulad
igrZno. yalibdeba sxvadasxva saxis literaturuli, politi
kuri da a. S. publika, romlebic yoveldRiurad sul ufro da
ufro met adamians moicavs. es procesi grZeldeba Semdgom
saukuneebSic. amitom gabriel tardi ar eTanxmeba gustav le
bonis mosazrebas, rom XX saukune aris brbos saukune.
g. tardi axdens brbos nairsaxeobaTa klasifikacias, ma
galiTad, asakis, sqesis da sxva niSnebiT. igi gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas amaxvilebs quCaSi Tavmoyril qalTa brboze, ro
melic ase nacnobia CvenTvisac da romelic Tavisi ukidure
si aRgznebadobiT, agresiulobiT da sisastikiT adamianis
gaocebas iwvevs. amgvar qalTa TavyrilobebSi xdeba yvelaze
aRviraxsnili da Tavxeduri instinqtebis gamovlena. avtori
yuradRebas brboSi rwmenisa da miznis xarisxze amaxvilebs.
amis Sesabamisad morwmune brbo darwmunebuli da fanatiku
ria, xolo brbo, romelsac raime miznis miRweva surs, Jiniani
da despoturia. religiuri brbo yvelaze mSvidi da wynaria,
Tumca zogjer isic sCadis danaSauls.
politikuri brbo ufro metad agresiuli da gaRiziane
bulia, vidre religiuri. igi aramyaria, cvalebadia, SeuZlia
advilad mieces ukiduresi siZulvilidan did aRtacebasa da
sixaruls. miuxedavad brboTa aseTi mravalferovnebisa, arse
bobs ramdenime yvelasaTvis saerTo niSani. es Tvisebebia: uki
duresi mouTmenloba, sasacilo ampartavnoba, avadmyofuri
mgrZnobiaroba, upasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, yovlisSemZleo
bis iluziuri gancda, taqtis, zomierebis grZnobis sruli da
kargva. is garbis, ifanteba, roca mteri masze Zlieria, xolo
Tu sakuTari upiratesoba igrZno, maSinve Setevaze gadadis.
brbo iolad eZleva koleqtiuri halucinaciebis grZnobas.
mas xSirad eCveneba, rom mosdevs warmosaxviTi mteri. aseTi
rwmena emyareba imave mosazrebebs, rogoric SeSlilebs aqvT.
205

aqtiur
obis da pasiurobis xarisxis Sesabamisad gabriel
tardi brbos oTx ZiriTad saxed yofs: 1) momlodine; 2) yu
radRebiani; 3) Tavis Sesaxeb ganmcxadebeli da 4) moqmedi. av
tori dawvrilebiT axasiaTebs TiToeul maTgans da mohyavs
Sesabamisi magaliTebi. maSinac ki, roca brbo veluri ovaci
ebiT gars ertymis romelime momaval gmirs, brbos ZaluZs
mxolod moamzados misi damarcxeba, aRagznebs ra ukidure
sobamde mis siamayes da mis genias sigiJed gadaaqcevs. gab
riel tards mohyavs mravali magaliTi brbos mier Cadenili
sxvadasxva danaSaulisa, Tumca imasac aRniSnavs, rom krebiT
erTeul
ebs, am SemTxvevaSi brbos, SeuZlia moimoqmedos ara
marto gaug
onari da saSineli danaSauli, aramed ZaluZs di
di gmirobis Cadenac. es exeba mxolod zneobriobis sferos.
gonebriv aspeqtSi ki brbos ar SeuZlia amaRldes erTi safe
xuriTac ki. zneobriobis sferoSi maT ZaluZT daecnen Zlier
dabla da aiwion Zlier maRla; gonebis sferoSi ki maT ZaluZT
idgnen mxolod Zalian dabal doneze.
Cvens mier ganxilul mecnierTa naSromebSi gamoTqmuli
Sexedulebebi ucxo ar aris Cveni sinamdvilisaTvis. swored,
brbos maxasiaT
ebelma am da sxva Tvisebebma Cvens mexsiereba
Si am ramdenime xnis win datova kvali. mravalwliani tota
litaruli reJimis arsebobis periodSi mTlianad warTmeu
li gvqonda sakuTari nebis da azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis
elementaruli saSualeba. adamianTa farTo fenebi represi
uli, damsjeli aparatis zegavleniT mudmivi fsiqologiuri
daTrgunvis qveS imyofebodnen. totalitaruli reJimis Tan
daTanobiT msxvrevas Tan mohyva xalxis farTo masebis aRtki
neba, farTo fenebis ukiduresi gaaqtiureba, ramac agresiu
li da damangreveli Sedegebi gamoiwvia.
Cvens Tvalwin, rusTavelis prospeqtze aboboqrebulma
brbom moawyo saSineli dekoraciebi. brbo `Rmuoda~, `grgvi
navda~, gaiZ
axoda `Zirs~, `maRla~, `movspoT~ da a. S. brbos amo
Zaxilebi, simRerebic ki SiSis momgvreli, avis momaswavebeli,
Tavzardamcemi iyo. brbos siCumeSic ki wyvdiadis xma ismoda,
romelmac msaxvrali xeli daatyo rusTavelis prospeqts, da
206

savleT saqarTvelos, samaCablos, afxazeTs, Seiwira adami


anebi. aseTi Sedegi mosdevs yovelTvis amorfuli jgufebis
TavaSvebul TareSs. ras mihyavs adamiani amgvar qmedebebamde?
gana ar icis adamianma, Senobebis ngreviT, SuSebis msxvreviT,
Zeglebis CamogdebiT mizani rom ar xorcieldeba?! nuTu ar
icis, rom es daundobeli ngreva Taobebis winaaRmdeg aris mi
marTuli da namdvili ideis SesrulebasTan ver gvaaxloebs?!
adamianTa tanjvis mizezi xom xeluxlebeli rCeba da portre
tebis dawviT miRebuli siamovneba Tavis motyuebaa da meti
araferi!
koni aRniSnavs, rom `individis gamocalkeveba da masSi sa
kuTari gansakuTrebulobis cnobierebis ganviTareba isto
riuli procesia`. amave istoriuli ganviTarebis Sedegia emo
ciur eqspresiuli (sulieri siaxlove, gageba, intimuroba),
instrumentuli (erToblivi movaleobebi, da daxmareba) una
rebi da amave dros suliereba, Tavisufali rwmena, idealebis
qona da a. S. saocaria, wlebis ganmavlobaSi dauokebeli meca
dineobiT mopovebul pirovnulobas da Rirebulebebs rogor
Tmobs adamiani erT wamSi, erTi xelis mosmiT rogor kargavs
mas, Tu is marTlac hqonda adamians?!
zemoxsenebuli rigi unaris nakleboba iwvevs pirovnebis
deficitsa da pirovnebis deformacias. yvelaferi xdeba ne
la, nabij-nabij, SeumCnevlad da adamiani erT dRes aRmoCnde
ba brbos wevrad. gamodis, rom es ar aris wuTieri datvirTvis
brali, aramed esec istoriuli gza yofila.
unda aRiniSnos, rom, roca adamiani raime moqmedebas axor
cielebs, vTqvaT, wvavs an arbevs mTavrobis saxls, am moqmede
baSi gadaxlarTulia ori Sinagani sferos grZnobisa da az
rovnebis aqtivoba. am sferoSi kidev ufro metad unda erios
xeli aracnobiers. aq xom zemoxsenebuli ori sferos aqti
vobas erTvis Tavad nebis, rogorc aseTis, kidev ufro metad
aracnobier
i xasiaTi. swored aq aris gamoricxuli ratom?
risTvis? am kiTxvebze pasuxs xom motivi sWirdeba. brbos qce
vas ki motivi arasdros aqvs. aseT situaciaSi adamianis moq
medebidan amorTulia sindisis kontroli da sruliad ar
207

aris gasakviri adamianis moqmedeba, romelsac is Cveulebriv


pirobebSi ar Caidenda. gana es qceva, rogorc e. w. impulsuri
qceva, Cveni aracnobieri nebis gamoxatuleba ar aris? miuxe
davad imisa, ras miviCnevT mis amxsnel meqanizmad masis fsi
qologias (g. leboni, z. froidi), koleqtiuri aracnobieris
arqetips (k. iungi), TuU ganwyobas (d. uznaZe). aqve moviSveli
ebT k. iungs: `adamianis cxovrebis mexuTedi Tu mesamedi, an
iqneb naxevaric ki, aracnobier mdgomareobaSi mimdinareobs.
Cveni bavSvobis pirveli xana aracnobierad gadis, yovel Ra
miT aracnobierSi viZirebiT da mxolod gansazRvrul Suale
debSi vflobT met-naklebad naTel cnobierebas da kacma rom
Tqvas, isic sakiTxavia, Tu ramdenad naTelia es cnobiereba~.
marTlacda, yvelas mogvsvlia gvsurs erTi, gagvikeTebia
meore da gamogvsvlia mesame. aq azrovnebaze metad grZnoba
prior
itetobs da marTlac, grZnobaTa mimarT Cven ise avto
maturni ara varT, rogorc azrovnebis, aRqmisa da warmod
genis mimarT. grZnoba gvevlineba, rogorc ucxo Zala. me Se
miZlia nebismier Temaze vifiqro, magram me ar SemiZlia Cemi
nebisdamiux
edavad raime grZnoba SevigrZno. es ase rom yofi
liyo, cxovreba bevrad ufro ioli iqneboda.
naTqvams Tu CavukvirdebiT, gasagebi gaxdeba, rom Cven,
rogorc iungi ambobs, ZalgviZs axali cnebebis Camoyalibeba,
magram axali grZnobebis Seqmna ki ara. es imis naTeli dadas
turebaa, rom adamians amoZravebs raRac `ara me~, rasac fsiqo
logiaS
i `aracnobiers~ uwodeben da romlis winaSec adamiani
uZluria. Tumca es adamians ar aTavisuflebs movaleobebisa
da pasuxismgeblobisagan, radgan es erT-erTi im niSanTagania,
romelic adamians gamohyofs cxovelTa samyarosagan. swored
amis gacnobierebas aqvs mniSvnelovani funqcia. e. i. sakuTari
Tavis danaxvas sarkeSi da gonebiTi qcevis primats adamianis
moqmedebis arsenalsa Tu arealSi. es niSnavs TviTcnobiere
bis donis amaRlebas, rac ase saWiroa dRes CvenTvis.
gaucxoe
bis daZlevis meqanizmebis dadgeniT fsiqologias
sazogadoebis humanizaciaSi Tavisi wvlilis Setana SeuZlia.
danaSaulis zrda, vandalizmi, narkomania, TviTmkvleloba,
208

zogadad dehumanizacia da misi calkeuli simptomebi, didi


xania Seiswavleba socialuri fsiqologiis mier, magram er
Tian
i Tvalsazrisi am movlenis mimarT jer ar SemuSavebula,
rac aferxebs daZlevis meqanizmebis kvlevasac.
deindividual
izaciis problemis kvleva aranakleb mniS
vnelovania brbos fsiqologiis kvlevisas. viTarebas arTu
lebs is, rom gvaqvs deindividualizaciis urTierTsapiris
piro Tvalsazrisi. erTi mxriv, adamiani eZebs gamokveTil da
unikalur identobas, meore mxriv, anonimuroba, masaSi gaT
qvefa (radgan TviTcnobiereba minimumamdea dasuli) da mis
wrafebebis uaryofa did zians ayenebs mis SemoqmedebiT una
rianobas, rac pirovnebis moSlas, deformacias iwvevs.
deindividual
izaciis Sesaxeb socialur-fsiqologiuri
xasiaTis gamokvlevaTa udidesi nawili imowmebs hipoTezas,
rom identobis dakargva ubiZgebs SeuzRudvel, impulsur,
ukontrolo qcevas. deindividualizacia xsnis zRudeebs
imiT, rom aqveiT
ebs pirovnebis yuradRebas sakuTari `me~ sadmi. mas aseve naklebad ainteresebs, Tu rogor gamoiyureba
is sxvebis TvalSi, radgan daqveiTebuli aqvs TviTcnobiere
ba, rac kontrolis saSualebaa. eqsperimentebma daadastu
ra agreTve `me~-s gaSiSvleba anonimurobis viTarebaSi, roca
adamians, rogorc konkretuls ver xedaven. amas emateba isic,
rom adamiani cdilobs arc man dainaxos sakuTari `me~, xdeba
stiqiur
i brbos warmomadgeneli da SeuZlia dadges `Tavda
yirac~ ki.
qarTuli sinamdvilis gaTvaliswinebiT dRes aucilebelia
gadavlaxoT brbos moZalebis es etapi, unda SeveCvioT Tavisu
fal, damouk
idebel da praqtikul azrovnebas, unda SevZloT
damouk
idebeli gadawyvetilebebis miReba, vikisroT pasuxis
mgebloba sakuTari moqmedebisaTvis, rameTu Tavisufleba da
pasuxismgebloba ganuyrelia erTmaneTisagan. mxolod pirov
nuli gaTavisuflebis am metad rTuli da ekliani gziT mivaR
wevT WeSmaritad sulierad amaRlebulsa da Tavisufal, mra
valsaukunovani tradiciebisa da evropuli Rirebulebebis
erTgul saqarTvelos, romelsac ase veswrafviT.
209

pirovneba, masa da brbo


masa arc eTnikuri da arc istoriuli erToba ar aris. igi
garkveul
i tipis adamianTa simravlea. am adamianebs aerTia
nebT ara erovnuloba, ara romelime socialuri jgufisad
mi kuTvnileba an profesiuli saqmianoba, aramed azrovnebis
garkveul
i done da xasiaTi. Tu masas raodenobrivad davaxa
siaTebT, maSin igi sazogadoeb
is umravlesobaa. Tvisebrivi
maxasiaTeblis mixedviT, igi gamoxatavs adamianis saSualo
dones. es aris adamiani mis yoveldRiurobaSi, romelsac ar
aqvs Tavisi `me~, dakarguli aqvs Tavisi individualoba da pi
rovnuloba. masis yoveli warmomadgeneli erTmaneTs hgavs,
isini arafriT ar ganirCevian erTmaneTisagan. masa ar aris
calkeul adamianTa jami, igi saSualooba, usaxoba da upirov
nobaa. es aris adamiani, romelic martin haidegerma aRniSna
terminiT `man~- i. es aris sxvebisagan ganurCeveli adamiani.
mokled, masa SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rogorc saSualo ada
mian
i `man~- i, romelsac dakarguli aqvs Tavisi individua
loba.
vin aris pirovneba? pirovneba adamianuri individia, mag
ram ara yoveli individi. igi iseTi individia, romelic sxve
bisagan gamoirCeva Tavisi cnobierebiT da TviTcnobierebiT,
niWiT da unarebiT. igi mkveTrad gamorCeuli individualo
baa, romelsac TviTmyofadi da damoukidebeli saxe aqvs.
mokled, pirovneba SeiZleba Semdegnairad davaxasiaToT:
pirovneba aris adamianuri individi, romelsac sxvebisagan
gamorCeul
i, TviTmyofadi saxe aqvs da aqtiurad ibrZvis sa
kuTari `me~-s dasamkvidreblad. rogorc vnaxeT, masisa da pi
rovnebis gamijvnis kriteriumi arc erovnuloba, arc soci
aluri warmomavloba da arc profesiuli saqmianobaa. yovel
fenas Tavisi masa da pirovneba hyavs. nebismieri misi warmo
madgeneli SeiZleba miekuTvnebodes an erTs, an meores.
brbo social
uri jgufia, romlis wevrebi gaerTianebulni
210

arian erTi ideiT da moqmedeben erTnairad. maTTvis damaxasi


aTebelia ukiduresi egzaltireba da aRtkineba. igi emociu
rad damuxtulia, aRgznebulia da mzadaa walekos yvelaferi,
rac win gadaeRobeba.
brbo ar aris myari socialuri erToba da misi wevrebi xan
grZlivad ver iqnebian erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulni. es ise
Ti jgufia, romlis warmoSoba SemTxveviT da moulodnelad
xdeba. profesor vaxtang erqomaiSvilis azriT,^amis mizezi
SeiZleba iyos SiSi, ukmayofileba, SimSili, protesti, sixar
be, moqrTamva, fanatizmi da sxva. brbos warmoSobas sWirdeba
Sesaferisi foni, romelic xelSemwyobi garemoa. es aris kri
zisuli situac
iis arseboba sazogadoebaSi. amitom brbo SeiZ
leba uecrad warmoiqmnas da aseve uecrad daiSalos.
masa brbo ar aris. maT Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebaa. igi Se
iZleba daxasiaTdes Semdegi ZiriTadi niSnebiT: 1) brbo so
cialuri jgufia; masa ara; brbo SemTxveviT da moulodne
lad warmoiqmneba da iSleba; masa ara; 2) brbo erTi azriT da
grZnobiT damuxtuli jgufia. mis wevrebs mTlianad ipyrobs
raRac grZnoba, romelic emociurad aRagznebs da erT muS
tad kravs maT, raTa energiulad imoqmedon; 3) brbo egzalti
rebulia, xolo masa neitraluri; 4) brbos cnobiereba fsi
qozuria.
amrigad, brbo ar aris myari socialuri erToba, romelic
xangrZlivad arsebobs. igi situaciebis mixedviT warmoiqmne
ba da iSleba.

211

destruqciuloba, rogorc avadmyofi


individisa da avadmyofi sazogadoebis niSani
ZvelberZnuli filosofiidan moyolebuli iTvleboda,
rom adamians aqvs iseTi ram, rac mis arsebas Seadgens. am `ra
Racas~ yovelTvis `adamianis bunebas~ uwodebdnen. gansxva
veba exeboda imas, Tu ra iyo is `raRac~, rac adamians warmo
adgenda. ase warmoiSva Sexedulebebi: adamiani aris gonieri
arseba, sazogadoebrivi cxoveli, iaraRis Semqmneli arseba
da a. S. mogvian
ebiT es Sexedulebebi eWvis qveS dadga. axali
midgoma adamianis bunebis, misi warmoSobis istoriis siRrmi
seulma kvlevam ganapiroba. man gviCvena, rom Tanamedrove
adamiani ise Zlier gansxvavdeba pirvelyofili adamianisagan,
rom hipoTeza `adamianis bunebis~ maradiulobis Sesaxeb, Sors
aris real
obisagan. adamianTa wes-Cveulebebis Seswavlam bev
ri anTropologi miiyvana daskvnamde, rom adamiani ibadeba,
rogorc sufTa furceli, romelzec kultura tovebs Tavis
xelweras. mosazreba adamianis bunebis ucvlelobis Sesaxeb
uaryofil iqna aseve imitomac, rom am pozicias borotad iye
nebdnen da mis safuZvelze adamianis arakeTilsindisier saq
ciels amarTlebdnen.
aristoteledan dawyebuli, vidre XVII saukunemde, bevri
moazrovne amarTlebda monobas (gamonaklisebi iyvnen sto
elebi, renesansis epoqis humanistebi, erazmi, Tomas mori da
vivesi da sxv.); im moZRvrebebma, romlebmac sixarbe, siZunwe,
metoqeobisaken swrafva da egoizmi adamianis TanSobil Tvi
sebebad miiCnies, scades daesabuTebinaT iseTi sazogadoeb
riv ekonomikuri formaciis aucilebloba, rogoric kapita
lizmia. dResdReobiTac mavani cdilobs `adamianis bunebiT~
axsnas da gaam
arTlos saSineli qmedebebi sixarbe, TaRli
Toba, sicrue, Zaladoba, mkvlelobac ki.
Carlz darvinma (1899 1882 ww.) aCvena, rom adamiani sxva
cocxali arsebebisagan gansxvavdeba ara mxolod sxeulis spe
cifikuri agebulebiT, aramed fsiqikis gansakuTrebulobiT.
212

man Tavisi ZiriTadi Sexedulebebi Camoayaliba wignSi `ada


mianis warmoSoba da sqesobrivi gadarCeva~. masSi naTqvamia:
`adamianis qmedeba ganpirobebulia misi maRalganviTarebuli
inteleqtiT, is mcired aris dakavSirebuli refleqsebze da
instinqtebze da gamoirCeva didi moqnilobiT; adamians, ro
gorc maRalganviTarebul arsebas, aqvs iseTi rTuli emociebi,
rogoricaa cnobismoyvareoba, mibaZvis instinqti, yuradReba,
mexsiereba, fantazia, adamians axasiaTebs situaciis gaazreba
da logikuri azrovnebis daxmarebiT mas SeuZlia ukeT gamoiye
nos garemomcveli pirobebi. adamiani gamudmebiT gamoiyenebs
uricxv Sromis iaraRs da awarmoebs mas. adamians aqvs TviTcno
biereba. is acnobierebs Tavis warsuls, momavals, sicocxles,
sikvdils da a. S. adamiani abstraqtulad azrovnebs da aviTa
rebs simbolur azrovnebas. mTavari da rTuli rezultati am
moRvaweobisa gaxda enisa da metyvelebis formireba. nawili
adamianebisa flobs mSvenierebis grZnobas. adamianebis gar
kveul nawils ki ganviTarebuli aqvs religiuri grZnoba, ro
melic gulisxmobs RmerTTan cocxali urTierTobis gancdasa
da moTxovnilebas, zneobrivi srulyofis moRwevis mcdelo
bas, moyvasisadmi siyvaruls da a. S. normalur adamians aqvs yo
velTvis zneobrivi grZnoba an Tanamedrove eniT rom vTqvaT,
masSi `sindisi laparakobs~. adamiani kulturuli da sazoga
doebrivi arsebaa. man ganavrco kulturuli da sazogadoeb
rivi sistemebi, romlebic Tavisi mravalferovnebiT unikalu
ria. bevr am Tvisebas, romelic adamians axasiaTebs, Cven wminda
adamianur Tvisebad vTvliT. adamians aqvs goneba, magram amave
dros susti da arasaimedo instinqti. is uTvistomo da gadag
debulia am samyaroSi. adamiani iZulebulia icxovros SemTxve
vis wyalobiT da misi survilis sawinaaRmdegod datovos es
samyaro. is cxovrobs mudmiv gaorebaSi.~
erix fromis (1900 1980 ww.) mravalricxovan TxzulebaTa
Soris, metad sainteresoa `adamianis destruqciulobis ana
tomia~ da `adamianis suli~. aRniSnul gamokvlevebSi, igi ik
vlevs problemis biologiur, fsiqologiur, anTropologiur
213

aspeqtebs. erix froms adamianSi arsebuli gamanadgurebeli


instinqti boroteba individSi, sociumSi, istoriaSi fi
losofiurad aqvs gaazrebuli. Tumca unda iTqvas, rom bevrad
ufro adre, borotebis ganmarteba uZveles qristianul, fi
losofiur tradiciebSia mocemuli.
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom yvela adamians, ZiriTadad,
msgavsi anTropologiuri da fiziologiuri Tvisebebi axasia
Tebs. nebismierma eqimma icis, rom yvela individi, miuxedavad
rasisa da kanis ferisa, SeiZleba ganikurnos erTi da imave me
TodiT. magram aqvT ki adamianebs erTi da igive adamianuri bu
neba? arsebobs ki aseTi cneba `adamianuri buneba~? es is kiTx
vebia, romlebzec e. fromi pasuxobs Tavis naSromSi `adamianis
suli~. Tuki adamianebi gansxvavdebian TavianTi fsiqikuri da
sulieri safuZvliT, rogor SevZlebdiT saerTod gvesaubra
kacobriobaze, miT ufro, adamianis fiziologiasa da anato
miaze; rogor gavugebdiT `ucxos~, Tu is Cvengan principulad
gansxvavebuli iqneboda; ver CavwvdebodiT sxvadasxva xalxis
xelovnebas, miTebs, literaturas, maT kulturas saerTod. es
imas adasturebs, rom adamianebs gvaqvs erTi da igive `adamia
nuri buneba~. adamianurobisa da humanizmis yvela koncefcia
efuZneba adamianuri bunebis ideas, romelic arsebiTia adami
anebisaTvis. es aris amosavali debuleba, rogorc budizmis,
aseve iudaizmisa da qristianuli tradiciebisaTvis. pirvelad
am moZRvrebebSi ganisazRvra adamiani eqsistencialuri da an
Tropologiuri cnebebiT. yvela adamianSi erTi da igive fsi
qikuri kanoni moqmedebs, ramdenadac `adamianuri situacia~
erTi da igivea yvela CvenganisaTvis. Cven yvelani vcdilobT
vipovoT pasuxi kiTxvaze, romelic arsebobas exeba, magram vi
tanjebiT, ramdenadac aseT kiTxvebze pasuxi mcdaria. Cven Sev
ZlebT gaveqceT am tanjvas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gavcemT
swor pasuxs aRniSnul kiTxvebs, Tu gadavlaxavT martoobis
iluzias, davZlevT sixarbes da viswrafviT fundamenturi WeS
maritebis Sesaxvedrad, rac marTavs Cvens cxovrebas amtki
ceben budistebi.
214

iudaur qristianuli tradicia adamians sxvagvarad gan


sazRvravda, ramdenadac efuZneboda RmerTis, rogorc umaR
lesi Semoqmedisa da mmarTvelis aRiarebas. mamakaci da de
dakaci winaparia mTeli adamianTa modgmisa da es winaprebi,
rogorc yvela momavali Taoba, Seqmnilia `msgavsad da xatad
RvTisad~. yoveli maTganisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia erTi da
igive ZiriTadi Tviseba, rac adamianebad aqcevs maT da aZlevT
SesaZleblobas Seicnon da uyvardeT erTmaneTi. adamiani T
Y avi
sufalia Tavis arCevanSi da, amdenad, Tavadve agebs pasuxs sa
kuTar qmedebebze.
Tavisi moRvaweobis meore periodSi zigmund froidma Seq
mna axali Teoria, romelSic destruqciulobis arsebis gage
baSi mniSvnelovani nabijia gadadgmuli. man gamoavlina, rom
`cxovrebas marTavs ara ori egoisturi instinqti SimSili da
seqsualoba, aramed ori ltolva siyvaruli da destruqciu
loba da rom orive maTgani fiziologiur arsebobas emsaxure
ba~. am or kategorias, z. froidma, Sesabamisad, `sicocxlis in
stinqti~ da `sikvdilis instinqti~ uwoda. destruqciulobisa
da siyvarulisaTvis aseTi seriozuli mniSvnelobis miniWebiT,
orive maTgani aRiarebuli iyo, rogorc adamianis ori funda
menturi ltolva. isini adamianis sicocxliT dainteresebis
safuZvels, sixarulisa da aRtacebis saSualebebs warmoad
genen. es ori ltolva mxolod fiqrisa da sizmrebis sagani ar
aris. maTgan warmoiSoba xelovneba, religia, miTebi, litera
tura da Teatri mokled rom vTqvaT, yvelaferi, risTvisac
Rirs am qveynad cxovreba, rac Rirseuls xdis Cvens cxovrebas.
adamians ar SeuZlia arseboba, rogorc ubralo sagans.
es ltolvebi da vnebebi mniSvnelovani da seriozulia ada
mianisaTvis. adamianebi sicocxles TviTmkvlelobiT amTavre
ben imitom, rom ver SeZles daekmayofilebinaT Tavisi sasiyva
rulo vnebebi, Zalauflebis Jini da SurisZiebis mania. vnebebi
aRelveben adamians, aRanTeben da mis cxovrebas srulfasovans
xdian. rogorc erTma frangma filosofosma da ganmanaTleb
lma aRniSna: `waarTvi adamians survilebi da ltolvebi ada
215

miani wyvets adamianad yofnas~. ltolvebsa da miswrafebebs


adamiani SeumCneveli arsebobidan gmirobamde ahyavs. mas surs
Tavisi Tavis Semoqmedi iyos, surs Tavisi arasrulyofili
cxovreba srulyofili, azriani da mizanswrafuli gaxados,
rac saSualebas aZlevs miaRwios Tavisi pirovnebis srulyofa
sa da mTlianobas. adamianis pirovnebis Secvla mxolod maSin
aris SesaZlebeli, Tu igi cxovrebis gaazrebis axal saSuale
bebs mimarTavs.
agresia, ise rogorc qcevis sxva formebi, SeZenilia da gani
sazRvreba adamianis swrafviT, miaRwios maqsimalur upirate
sobas. agresia, es aris moqmedeba, romelic iwvevs sxva organiz
mebis gaRizianebas da dazaralebas. adamianis, aseve cxovelis,
TavdacviTi agresiis meqanizmi, ganpirobebulia cxovrebiseu
li situaciebiT. man unda daifaros, gadaarCinos cocxali ar
sebis mTavari sasicocxli interesebi im saSiSroebisagan, rac
mas yovel wuTs emuqreba. adamianuri agresia im doneze rom
poulobdes gamoxatulebas, rogorc cxovelTa agresia, maSin
adamianTa sazogadoeba ufro mSvidobismoyvare iqneboda. sam
wuxarod, es ase ar aris. kacobriobis istoria savsea gaugonari
sisastikisa da destruqciulobis magaliTebiT.
rogor avxsnaT es hiperagresiuloba? rogori warmoSobisaa
igi, iseTivea rogoric cxovelTa agresia, Tu adamianSi aris spe
cifikuri destruqciuli potenciali?
cxovelebi gansakuTrebulad gamoxatul destruqciulobas
avlenen maSin, roca irRveva wonasworoba garemomcvel samyaros
Tan, magram es iSviaTad xdeba. adamianis fsiqologia gacilebiT
destruqciuli aRmoCnda. igi Tavad qmnis cxovrebis pirobebs, ro
melic agresiulobiT aris ganpirobebuli. es gamonaklisis saxiT
ar xdeba da TiTqmis cxovrebis normaa. ufro metic, arsebobs faq
tebi, rodesac sisastike adamians siamovnebas aniWebs, zogjer xal
xis gaafrTebul, aRtkinebul masas sisxlis daRvris survili euf
leba xolme. individebi an jgufebi mouTmenlad elian situacias,
roca SesaZlebloba miecemaT `daicalon~ Tavisi destruqciuli
energiisagan da Tu aseTi dro ar dadga, isini Tavad xelovnurad
216

qmnian amis pirobebs. cxovelebi arasdros klaven `ise ubralod~.


survili daangrio mxolod ngrevisaTvis, sruliad sxva ramaa.
mxolod adamiani iRebs siamovnebas cocxali arsebebis uazro da
umizezo ganadgurebiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom adamiani, TviTSenax
viT ganpirobebuli saSiSroebidan damoukideblad, destruqciu
lia da misi qmedeba ar aris dakavSirebuli aucilebeli moTxovni
lebebis dakmayofilebasTan, rogorc es cxovelebSi xdeba.
rogorc mgeli uyurebs cxvars, ise miyurebs me sxva adami
ani. gansxvaveba imaSia, rom mgels, garkveuli azriT, `uyvars~
cxvari, amitom uyurebs mas ase da amdenad gamarTlebac SeiZle
ba moeZebnos; magram me es adamiani mgelze ufro uaresad miyu
rebs, radgan mas me ar vuyvarvar da umizezod, tyuilubralod
surs momiswrafos sicocxle, gamanadguros da qars gaatanos
Cemi ferfli. ratom surs es adamians? amiT is ikmayofilebs im
sawyiss, romelsac mtaceblobis instinqti hqvia.
yoveli individi iZulebulia gadalaxos samyaroSi sakuT
ari SemosazRvruli arsebobis SiSi, dasZlios Tavisi ususu
roba da moZebnos samyarosTan kavSiris axali formebi, sadac
usafrTxod da mSvidad SesZlebs cxovrebas. am fsiqikur moTx
ovnilebebs e. fromi `eqsistencialur moTxovnilebebs~ uwo
debs. isini yvela adamians axasiaTebs da maTi dakmayofileba
sulieri janmrTelobis SenarCunebisaTvisaa aucilebeli. am
moTxovnilebebis masStabebi damokidebulia adamianis mdgo
mareobaze sazogadoebaSi. eqsistencialuri moTxovnilebebis
dasakmayofileblad gamoyenebuli sxvadasxva saSualebebi ai
saxebian iseT miswrafebebSi, rogoricaa siyvaruli, sinaze, sa
marTlianoba, damoukidebloba, siZulvili, sadizmi, mazoxizmi,
destruqciuloba da narcisizmi. avtori maT adamianis xasiaTis
saZirkvelmdebare miswrafebebs uwodebs, ramdenadac isini er
Toblivad gansazRvraven da warmoaCenen adamianis xasiaTs (pi
rovnebas).
adamianma rom icxovros, siamovneba unda miiRos Tavisi fi
zikuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebiT, xolo instinqti mas
iZulebuls xdis am mimarTulebiT imoqmedos. magram misi moq
217

medeba mxolod instinqtebiT rom ganisazRvrebodes, maSin mas


ar eqneboda gansakuTrebuli cxovrebiseuli problemebi. sak
marisi sakvebis miRebis an mopovebis SemTxvevaSi, is yovelTvis
`kmayofili~ iqneboda.
sxvadasxva fiziologiuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofile
bac ar abednierebs adamians da ar aZlevs mas Rirseuli arse
bobis garantias. Tu Cven yuradRebiT gadavxedavT masobriv da
individualur moqmedebebs, naTeli gaxdeba, rom seqsualuri
grZnobebi da SimSili maT Soris mxolod mcire nawils Seadgens.
adamianis motivaciis RerZs racionalur da iracionalur do
neze warmoSobili miswrafebebi warmoadgens, rac siyvarulis,
sinazis, solidarobis, Tavisuflebis, sindisis, patiosnebis
S
E enarCunebis moTxovnilebebs moicavs. adamiani mmarTvelobis
wyurvils, ngrevis, vinmeze batonobis survilebsac flobs. mas
axasiaTebs iseTi sisusteebi, rogoricaa: narcisizmi, sixarbe,
siZunwe, siZulvili, pativmoyvareoba da sxva; es miswrafebebi
xdeba misi mRelvarebisa da Sinagani gangaSis mizezi.
SemTxveviTi araa, rom enaSi arsebobs gamoTqma: `SurisZiebis
wyurvili~. gana saWiroa avxsnaT, ramdenad farTodaa gavrce
lebuli is, rogorc calkeul pirovnebebSi, ise jgufebs So
ris? cnobilia, rom sisxlismieri Surisgeba arsebobs TiTqmis
mTel dedamiwaze. igi gamonaklisis saxiT, Zalian mSvidobismoy
vare xalxebs Sorisac gvxvdeba, magaliTad, grenlandielebSi,
romlebmac ar ician, ra aris omi, magram sisxlismieri Surisge
bis tradicia aqvT.
dasjis yvela saxe, dawyebuli yvelaze primitiuliT da dam
Tavrebuli yvelaze srulyofiliT, SurisZiebis gamoxatule
baa. klasikuri formiT igi misageblis kanons esadageba: `kbili
kbilis wil, Tvali Tvalis wil~. garkveulwilad, SeuZlebe
lia, ar gaiziaro Sexeduleba, rom sisxlismieri SurisZieba da
sadamsjelo kanonebi sazogadoebis stabilurobaSi gansazR
vrul rols asruleben.
civilizebul sazogadoebaSi borotebas adamianma borote
biT ar unda upasuxos, radgan boroteba borotebis wil kvla
218

vac axal borotebas Sobs da ase usasrulod. sikeTis Tesli


veRar ixarebs. kaenma ver aitana, rom Zmisgan gansxvavebiT is
uaryves. am, misi azriT, usamarTlobam iseTi Suri aRuZra, rom
abelis mkvlelobis garda, samagieros gadaxdis sxva saSualeba
ver ipova. is Tavad iyo `umaRlesi mosamarTle~ da `ganaCenis
gamotanisas~ sxva avtoritetebi mas ar dasWirvebia. SurisZie
bis aqtis ganxorcielebiT man RmerTad igrZno Tavi. SurisZi
ebis wyurvili, rogorc pirovnebis siRrmiseuli grZnoba, da
maxasiaTebelia yvela adamianisaTvis. SurisZiebis gamovlenis
formebi sxvadasxva kulturebSi xasiaTiTa da intensivobiT
arsebiTad gansxvavdeba. es ganpirobebulia mravali faqtoriT
da mizeziT. erT-erTia damokidebuleba sakuTrebisadmi, sim
didrisa da siRaribisadmi. pirobiTad, erT mxareze SeiZleba
davajgufoT is adamianebi, romelTac sruliad ar axasiaTebT
SurisZiebis grZnoba, vinc Tavis sulieri ganviTarebiT adamia
nobis ideals miuaxlovda. meore mxares daikaveben momxveWeli
bunebis adamianebi, maRali rangis narcisebi, romlebSic saku
Tari personis interesebis mcireodeni Seviwroeba-SezRudvac
ki qariSxlismagvar SurisZiebis grZnobas iwvevs.
destruqciulobis gamovlenis spontanur, warmaval xasiaTs
bevri aspeqti aqvs. magaliTad, CvenTvis cnobilia sadizmis ra
obis ori gavrcelebuli gageba. pirvelma gamoxatuleba hpova
algolagniaSi (tkivilis survili). am Tvalsazrisis avtoria
Srenk-notcingi. igi algolagnias yofs or: aqtiur (sadizmi) da
pasiur (mazoxizmi) tipad. am klasifikaciis mixedviT, sadizmis
arseba mdgomareobs tkivilis miyenebis survilSi, miuxedavad
imisa, arsebobs Tu ara seqsualuri motivebi.
zemoqmulidan gansxvavebiT, z. froidi sadizmSi, upirveles
yovlisa, seqsualur fenomens xedavs. am Sexedulebis Tanaxmad,
im sadistur survilebsac ki, romlebic garegnulad seqsTan
dakavSirebuli ar arian, mainc aqvT seqsualuri motivacia,
Tumca aracnobier doneze. xandaxan sadists survili aqvs par
tniors Zlieri tkivili miayenos, xolo xandaxan mciredi tki
vilis miyenebac ki kmayofilebas aniWebs.
219

seqsualuri ltolva, z. froidis Tanaxmad, maSinac ki, roca


is mimdinareobs siyvarulis TanxlebiT, nebismier SemTxvevaSi
sicocxlis ormxrivi sixarulisa da TviTkmayofilebis das
turia. amisagan gansxvavebiT, seqsualur moqmedebas, romel
sac axasiaTebs adamianis swrafva tkivili miayenos meore ada
mians, aiZulos itanjos da daamciros partniori gadagvareba
da gaukuRmarTebaa. da ara imitom, rom is sicocxlis impulsis
nacvlad sicocxlis ganadgurebis, mospobis impulss atarebs.
adamiani, romelic Sepyrobilia mbrZaneblobis, Zalauflebis
nebiT, tanjavs da amcirebs sxvebs sadistia.
sadisturi impulsebis Zala gamoxatulebas poulobs ara
mxolod seqsualurobaSi, aramed sxva araseqsualur ltol
vebSic. Zlauflebis wyurvili, sixarbe da narcisizmi, yvela es
miswrafeba garkveuli formiT gamovlindeba seqsualur qme
debebSi. ar arsebobs sfero, romelSic imaze ukeT gamoCndes
adamianis xasiaTi, rogorc sqesobriv aqtSi. adamianis siyvaru
li, misi sinaze, sadizmi an mazoxizmi, siZunwe, narcisizmi, erTi
sityviT, misi xasiaTis nebismieri Tviseba, gamoxatulebas pou
lobs seqsualur qmedebebSi. araseqsualuri sadisturi qmede
bebi vlindeba daucveli, ususuri arsebebis iZulebiT damor
Cilebasa da fizikuri tanjvis miyenebaSi. magaliTad, samxedro
tyveebi, monebi, bavSvebi, avadmyofebi (gansakuTrebiT goneba
sustebi), patimrebi, yvavilebi, ZaRlebi yovelive es SeiZle
ba sadisturi mopyrobis sagani gaxdes. erT-erTi farTod gav
rcelebuli araseqsualuri sadizmis gamovlenaa bavSvebisadmi
sastiki damokidebuleba.
zogierTi intensiuri formiT sadizmi gamovlenas iwyebs
bavSvobis asakSi, roca bavSvi jer kidev susti da daucvelia,
magram is ukve avlens Tavis nebas, ewinaaRmdegeba ufrosebs da
surs yvela iqceodes misi survilis Sesabamisad, moiTxovs ab
solutur morCilebas.
sulieri sisastike, fsiqikuri sadizmi, meore adamianis dam
cirebis survili da wyenineba ufro farTodaa gavrcelebuli,
vidre fizikuri sadizmi. sadizmis aRniSnuli saxe, garkveul
220

wilad, riskis faqtoris Semcvelia, radgan es srulebiT ar


aris is, rac fizikuri Zaladoba. es `mxolod~ sityvebia. meo
res mxriv, aseTi gziT gamowveuli sulieri tkivili SeiZleba
fizikur tanjvaze Zlieri iyos, radgan gauazrebeli laparaki
igivea, rac daufiqreblad gasrola. amis magaliTebi mravlad
icis Cvenma cxovrebam da maT CamoTvlas ar SevudgebiT. erTs
davamatebT mxolod, TalmudSi weria `damcireba mowmis Tan
xlebiT mkvlelobis tolfasia~. sadizmis gulisguls Sead
gens swrafva gamoavlinos absoluturi batonoba daucvel
arsebebze, aRiWurvos absoluturi ZalauflebiT, miayenos ma
vans tkivili, daamciros sxvebi. is, vinc raRac formiT flobs
cocxal arsebas, mas Tavis sakuTrebad, qonebad Tvlis, xolo
TviTon misi batoni xdeba. zogjer sustze Zaladoba SeiZleba
mimarTuli iyos susti arsebis sasargeblod. am SemTxvevaSi sa
ubari SeiZleba `keTil~ sadizmze, magram, Cveulebriv, sadiz
mi borotTvisebiania. cocxali arsebis absoluturi floba
anadgurebs mis pirovnebas, ar aZlevs mas normaluri ganviTa
rebis saSualebas. albert kamius `kaligula~ ukiduresi sa
dizmis magaliTebs gviCvenebs, romelic yovlisSemZleobisa da
yvelafrisnebadarTulobis miswrafebis gamoxatulebaa. ka
ligula, romelmac, raRac garemoebebis wyalobiT, ganusazR
vreli Zalaufleba moipova, sul ufro da ufro ivseba xeli
suflebis wyurviliT. is cxovrobs senatorebis colebTan da
siamovnebas ganicdis maTi qmrebis damcirebiT, romlebic iZu
lebuli arian kmayofili gamometyveleba SeinarCunon... ramde
nime maTgans kaligula klavs kidec, magram mas es Zalauflebac
ar hyofnis. is ukmayofiloa, mas absoluturi batonoba surs.
kamiu kaligulas cxovrebiseul kredos misive sityvebiT war
mogviCens `me msurs mTvare~!
martivad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kaligula sulelia, magram
misi uWkuoba es aris cxovrebis forma. igi emsaxureba yovlis
flobis iluzias, romelic adamianuri arsebobis sazRvrebs
scildeba. Zalauflebis gareSe is araraobaa, sacodavi, Zabuni
martosulia. ra Tqma, unda kaligula gamonaklisi SemTxvevaa.
221

mxolod cotas Tu xvdeba wilad Sansi moipovos Zalaufleba,


roca misi yvelas sjera garSemo, rom es Zalaufleba usazR
vroa. istoriam icis aseTi SemTxvevebi. warmatebuli bedis
SemTxvevaSi aseTi adamianebi samxedro meTaurebi da msxvili
saxelmwifo moRvaweni xdebian, xolo isini, visac bedi ar wya
lobT, Cveulebriv damnaSaveebad an SeSlilebad iwodebian.
`sadizmi es aris erT-erTi SesaZlebeli pasuxi kiTxvaze,
rogor gavxdeT adamiani, roca realizaciis sxva saSualebebs
moklebulni varT~ aRniSnavs e. fromi. meore arsebis winaSe
absoluturi Zalauflebis SegrZneba, sakuTari yovlisSem
Zleobis grZnoba am arsebebTan urTierTobisas, badebs nebis
mieri eqsistencialuri dabrkolebis gadalaxvis iluzias. gan
sakuTrebiT es xdeba maSin, Tu adamians realur cxovrebaSi ar
gaaCnia aRmafrena. sadizmi es aris uZlurebis gadaqceva yov
lisSemZleobis iluziad.
sadists surs cxovrebis gamgebeli gaxdes da amitomac mis
Tvis mTavaria msxverpli `cocxali~ darCes. swored es ganas
xvavebs mas nekrofil-destruqciuli adamianisagan. sadiste
bisagan gansxvavebiT, nekrofilebi iswrafvian gaanadguron
Tavisi msxverpli, moaSTon Tavad sicocxle. sadisti arasdros
Rebulobs siamovnebas ZlierTan Cxubis dros, erTaderTi, Tu
daWris mas, vinaidan mocemuli situacia mas mterze batonobis
iluzias ar aRuZravs. `sadisturi xasiaTisaTvis damaxasiaTe
belia mxolod erTi `aRgznebuli vneba~ da Rirseuli aRta
ceba Zalaufleba. is aRmerTebs Zlevamosilebas da emorCi
leba mas. amave dros ezizReba susti, romelsac ar SeuZlia
Tavdacva~.
sadistur xasiaTs eSinia yvelaferi imisa, rac arasaimedoa da
rac ar SeiZleba winaswar ganiWvritos, e. i. rac moulodnelia.
aseTi movlenebi misgan arastandartul moqmedebebs da gadawy
vetilebebs moiTxovs. siyvarulSi yovelTvis riski moiazreba,
amitom is damfrTxali da SeSinebuli gaurbis mas. Tumca, es ar
gamoricxavs, rom sadists `uyvardes~, oRond `uyvardes~ Tavisi
batonobis qveS. sadisturi xasiaTi yovelTvis dakavSirebulia
222

qsenofobiasa da neofobiasTan. qsenofobia es aris paTologi


uri SiSi yvela ucnobis winaSe, xolo neofobia SiSi yvelaferi
axlis mimarT. sadists yvelaferi axali aRuZravs interess, mag
ram amave dros iwvevs SiSs, eWvs da uaryofas, vinaidan es misgan
moiTxovs araordinalur gadawyvetilebas, cocxal adamianur
reaqcias, rasac moklebulia sadisti. kidev erTi seriozuli
elementi sadizmis sindromSi aris simxdale. adamianis sadistad
qcevis erT-erTi mizezia Tavis SegrZneba ususur, xelmocarul
adamianad. am naklis kompensirebas is sxva adamianebze Zalauf
lebis mopovebiT aRwevs, gaSmagebiT exarbeba sxvebze batonobas,
roca ki amis saSualeba eZleva. amdenad, rogorc sadists, aseve
mazoxists sxva adamiani esaWiroeba, romelic, Tu SeiZleba iT
qvas, `Seavsebs~ mas. sadisti TviTonve `Seimatebs~ sxva adamians,
mazoxisti ki Tavad Seerwymeba sxvas. sadisturi da mazoxistu
ri midrekilebebi, yvelaze TvalnaTlad biurokratiul siste
maSi warmoCindeba. aq yoveli adamiani kontrols axorcielebs
sakuTar qveSemrdomebze, xolo Tavad imarTeba Tavisi ufrosis
mier. biurokrats sZuls, ezizReba Tanamdebobrivad Tavisze
qvemoT mdgomni. amave dros igi aRfrTovanebulia, eTayvaneba
da monuri SiSiT Sehyurebs Tavisze maRla mdgomT, radgan maT
Si sakuTar ideals xedavs ganxorcielebuli saxiT. sakmarisia,
daakvirde aseTi biurokratis saxis gamometyvelebas, moismino
misi xma, rodesac is, vTqvaT, sul raRac oriode wuTis dagvia
nebisaTvis mkacrad kicxavs da amcirebs Tavis qveSemrdoms, rom
mivxvde, rogor tkebeba igi Tavisi ZalauflebiT, sxvebze ba
tonobiT. sxvaTa uRelqveS Tvinierad Tavgayofili, sxvaTagan
Zalmomreobisa da damcirebis Tvinierad amtani kaci, erTbaSad
ulmobeli mtarvalisa da sadistis rolSi warmosdgeba xolme,
roca vinmes masze uZalosa da dabla mdgoms moixelTebs.
adamianis am fsiqologiur Taviseburebas exeba Tomas manis
moTxroba `tobias mindernikeli~. moTxrobis mTavari perso
naJi, vinme tobias mindernikeli im zomamde Seguebuli iyo sa
kuTar ususurobasa da uZlurobas, rom yvelasagan, maT Soris
bavSvebisaganac, yovelgvari winaaRmdegobis gauwevlad itanda
223

Seuracxyofasa da damcirebas. erTxel quCaSi misi yuradReba


patara ZaRlma miipyro, kudis gamalebuli qneviT rom elaqu
ceboda patrons, romelsac igi gasayidad gamoeyvana. tobiasma
ZaRli SeiZina, saxlSi waiyvana da Seudga... ZaRlze batonobiT
tkbobas; imiT, rom brZanebas gascemda da ZaRlic asrulebda mis
brZanebas, Tanac kuds aqicinebda da Ceqmebsac ulokavda; saSin
lad ganrisxda da umowyalod scema ZaRli, roca es ukanaskne
li mis nebas ar daemorCila; verafriT Seurigda im azrs, ZaRli
drodadro rom Tavnebobda, laRobda, TamaSobda. bolos, es rom
ver moaSlevina, gamxecda da daniT mokla patara `qveSevrdomi~.
zemoTqmulidan ar gamomdinareobs, rom yvela biurokra
ti sadistia. amas mxolod Rrma fsiqologiuri analizi gviCve
nebs. amavdroulad saWiroa davZinoT, rom Zalaufleba, romlis
daxmarebiT erTi jgufi aviwroebs da eqspluatacias uwevs me
ore jgufs, xSirad xels uwyobs sadisturi midrekilebebis Ca
moyalibebas. sadizmi SeiZleba aRikveTos im SemTxvevaSi, roca
Tavidan iqneba acilebuli sazogadoebis erTi nawilis meoreze
batonobis SesaZlebloba, iqneba es rasobrivi, religiuri Tu
sqesobrivi umciresobis saxiT.
Cven sinamdvileSi xSiria faqtebi, roca sazogadoebriv tran
sportSi, sagamofeno darbazebSi, reklamebsa da abrebze gamo
saxul adamians moxeuli aqvs yuri, gaxvretili aqvs Subli, amo
CiCqnili aqvs Tvali da a. S. es erTi SexedviT uwyinari garToba,
seriozuli fsiqikuri mankierebis, adamianis gaukuRmarTebuli
bunebisa da xasiaTis gamoxatulebaa.
sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra faqtorebi ganapirobeben sadizmis
warmoSobas, metad rTulia. saWiroa Tavdapirvelad gavarkvioT
damokidebuleba pirovnebasa da gare samyaros Soris, magram es
ioli ar aris. individis xasiaTi ganisazRvreba individualuri
faqtorebiT: genetikuri monacemebiT, niWiT, SesaZleblobebiT,
ojaxuri situaciiT da sxva mTeli rigi sagangebo viTarebiT, ro
melsac adgili aqvs pirovnebis cxovrebaSi. gacilebiT rTulia
davadginoT garemomcveli samyaros faqtori, romelic udides
rols TamaSobs pirovnebis formirebis saqmeSi.
224

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ras niSnavs `Tavisuflebidan gaqceva~ ? gaaanalizeT sar
tris mosazreba `adamiani dawyevlilia TavisuflebiT~.
ra ganapirobebs adamianis moTxovnilebas icxovros ilu
zorul, gamogonil sinamdvileSi?
ra udevs safuZvlad `teqnikur gaucxoebas~ ?
rogor esmis gasets `istoriuli krizisisa~ da `masebis~
cnebebi?
gasetis mixedviT, ra saerTo niSan-Tvisebebi axasiaTebT
`masis adamianebs~ ?
rogor esmis lebons cneba `fsiqologiuri masa~?
lebonis mixedviT, ra ganapirobebs adamianis cvalebado
bas brboSi?
ra tipiuri TvisebebiT axasiaTebs leboni `masis adamians~ ?
brbos tardiseuli klasifikacia : tipebi da saxeebi.
ra aris `pirovneba~ ? `masa~ ? `brbo~ ?
froidis mixedviT, romeli instinqtebi marTaven cxovre
bas?
ra aris agresia? sadizmi? Mmazoxizmi?

225

XX saukune da axali teqnologieb


i
bioe
Tika
XX saukunis dasawyisSi gamoTqmulma mosazrebam fi
losofiam dakarga yvela Tavisi samflobelo da mefe liris
mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndao me-2 aTaswleulis dasasruls
gansxvavebuli datvirTva SeiZina. arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, rom
fundamenturma filosofiam Tavisi SesaZleblobebi amowu
ra. es garkveuli azriT sworia: mravalma filosofiurma ide
am, mimarTulebam ar gaamarTla, zogi moZvelda, zogic Rrma
kriziss ganicdis, magram filosofia Tavisi Tavdapirveli
mniSvnelobiT, rogorc `sibrZnis siyvaruli~, rogorc WeSma
ritebis Ziebis saSualeba, rogorc adamianis sulis moTxov
nileba da bolos, rogorc msoflmxedvelobis gansakuTrebu
li tipi iarsebebs, vidre arsebobs adamiani. amaze metyvelebs
filosofiur
i codnis is axali mimarTulebebi, romlebic
warmoiSvnen sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis calkeuli sferoe
bis, konkretuli mecnierebebisadmi filosofiuri meTodebis
gamoyenebis Sedegad bunebis filosofia, samarTlis, mecni
erebis, istoriis, politikis, religiis, xelovnebis filoso
fia, globalur problemaTa filosofia da sxva. maTi umrav
lesoba, ZiriTadad, XX saukunis monapovaria da filosofiis
uaxles istoriasTan aris dakavSirebuli. erT-erT aseT dargs
bioeTika (`sicocxlis eTika~) warmoadgens. igi gasuli sauku
nis dasasrulis dasavluri civilizaciis nayofia da, Tavisi
arsiT, disciplinaTaSoris codnas ganekuTvneba. mas aqvs bi
osamedicino, filosofiuri, aqsiologiuri, anTropologiu
ri, samarTlebrivi da saRvTismetyvelo aspeqtebi. bioeTikis
Sesaswavli problemebi sakmaod saWirboroto sakiTxTa rigs
ganekuTvneba, arc Tu ise Sors aris adamianis yoveldRiuri
cxovrebidan da maTi ganxilva umwvaves diskusiebs iwvevs. mi
si ZiriTadi amocanaa gadaWras sikvdil-sicocxlesTan, da
ara marto am problemasTan, dakavSirebuli mravalferovani,
226

xSirad dramatuli situaciebi. gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba, Tu


vityviT, rom bioe
Tikis sferoSi minimaluri codna nebismie
ri adamianisaTvis aucilebelia.
bioeTikis problemebi Zalian xSirad iurisprudencias
ukavSirdeba. adamianTa Soris urTierTobis samarTlebrivi
regulireba mWidrodaa gadajaWvuli moralur-eTikur regu
lirebasTan. erTi mxriv, umniSvnelovanesi moraluri norme
bi Cveulebriv iuridiul Zalas iZens da samarTlebrivi nor
mis saxiT yalibdeba, maTi darRveva ki ara Tu garSemomyofTa
gakicxvas, aramed kanonis winaSe pasuxismgeblobasac iwvevs.
meor
e mxriv, sakanonmdeblo aqtebi realurad moqmedia mxo
lod im SemTxvevaSi, roca isini mowonebulia sazogadoebis
mxridan da mis moralur Segnebas Seesabameba (anu kanoni imde
nad aris progresuli, ramdenadac moraluria).
arsebobs kidev erTi sfero, RvTismetyveleba, romlis war
momadgenlebi yvelaze did interess iCenen bioeTikis prob
lemebisadmi. axalma bios
amedicino teqnologiebma adamianze
zemoqmedebis principulad axal dones miaRwies aRmoaCines
ra adamian
is sicocxlis marTvis sazRvrebis, miznebis da sa
Sual
ebebis problemebi. biomedicinis swrafi ganviTarebis
pirobebSi sxvadasxva religiur sistemebs rig sakiTxebTan mi
marTebaSi sakuTari poziciebis SemuSaveba uxdebaT, magali
Tad, ra sazRvrebSi SeiZleba CavataroT sicocxlis Semanar
Cunebeli mkurnaloba da rodis SevwyvitoT is; SesaZloa Tu
ara organoTa da qsovilebis saxiT gardacvlili adamianis ga
moyeneba sxva adamianebis janmrTelobis gaumjobesebis an si
cocxlis gadarCenisaTvis; dasaSvebia Tu ara individisaTvis
sakuTari sicocxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis mi
Reba da sxva. civilizebuli kacobriobis mTeli istoriisaT
vis yovelTvis udavo WeSmaritebas moralur RirebulebaTa
da religiuri Sexedulebebis uSualo kavSiri warmoadgenda.
amdenad, metad aqtualuria kiTxva: gvaZlevs Tu ara marlTma
didebloba pasuxebs Tanamedrove bioeTikur problemati
kaze? samwuxarod, erTmniSvnelovani pasuxi am kiTxvaze ar
227

moipoveba. marTalia, arsebobs marTlmadidebeli RvTismety


velebisa da eqimebis mier dawerili wignebi da statiebi (xe
lovnur ganayofierebaze, abortze, transplantaciaze, ge
nur inJineriaze da sxv.), magram ver vityviT, rom am kuTxiT
arsebobs marTlmadidebluri swavlebis damuSavebuli doq
trina. marTlmadidebeli eklesia, gansxvavebiT kaTolikuri
eklesiis
agan, ar miiswrafvis `qristianuli bioeTikis~ speci
aluri koncefciis Seqmnisaken. igi gansazRvravs ZiriTad on
tologiur orientacias, romelic yovelTvis orientirebu
lia mxolod saidumloeb
asa da Sesaqmeze da amis safuZvelze
ayalibebs zedmiwevniT misaReb da Rirseul zneobriv gadawy
vetilebebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom bioeTikuri problemebis reli
giur
i gadawyveta yovelTvis ar emTxveva am problemebisadmi
bioeTikis mier SemuSavebul pozicias.
da bolos, filosofiuri codnis sfero, romelsac bioe
Tikis problemebis moraluri regulirebis garda, biosame
dicino mecnierebis miRwevebis gaTvaliswinebiT uwevs iseTi
universaluri problemebis xelaxali gaazreba, rogoricaa
ra aris adamiani?, rogor ganvsazRvroT adamianuri pirovne
ba da adamianuri arseba? ra iTvleba am dros ganmsazRvrelad
adamianis sxeulebrivi buneba, Tu misi cnobiereba? sad ga
dis zRvari cocxal da aracocxal adamianur arsebas Soris?:
sad iwyeb
a da sad mTavrdeba sicocxle? ra aris sikvdili?
rogor moviqceT, roca adamiani socialurad mkvdaria (tvi
nis qerqi Seuqcevadad aris dazianebuli), biologiurad ki
misi sicocxle SenarCunebulia? saqme rTuldeba im garemo
ebiT, rom dRes am kiTxvebze pasuxi aRar rCeba abstraqtuli
azrovnebis sferoSi. yovel konkretul situaciaSi, yovel
konkretul adamianTan mimarTebaSi, saWiro xdeba konkretu
li pasuxis, realuri gadawyvetilebis miReba da konkretuli
moqmedebebis gansazRvra.
cnobilia, rom ukanasknel wlebSi kacobriobis cnobiere
bis umTavres Rirebulebad pirovnebis moqalaqeobrivi uf
lebebis dacva, adamianis TviTidentifikaciis problema iqca.
228

bioeTika swored am uflebebis realizaciis saSualebaa medi


cinaSi da misi Seswavlis obieqts adamianisa (pacientis) da me
dikosis urTierTobis moraluri mxare Seadgens. bioeTikis,
rogorc mecnierebis or umTavres faseulobas pacientis si
cocxle da misi avtonomia warmoadgens, rac medicinaSi Tavi
sufal arCevanSi gamoixateba TiToeul adamians aqvs ufleba
Tavad miiRos gadawyvetileba yvela sakiTxze, romelic mis si
cocxlesa da janmrTelobas exeba da Tavadve agos pasuxi saku
Tari cxovrebis yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo gadawyvetilebebze.
evTanazia. adamianis yofierebis sasrulobis sakiTxi Ta
namedroveobis erT-erTi yvelaze aqtualuri problemaa. igi
Tavisi arsiT filosofiur, moralur-religiur da samar
Tlebriv problemaTa rigs ganekuTvneba. cnobilia, rom me
dicinaSi XX saukunis me-2 naxevridan mimdinare cvlilebebi
da axali SesaZleblobebi, romlebic uaxlesi teqnologiebis
danergvasTanaa dakavSirebuli, saSualebas aZlevs medicinas,
erTi mxriv, umkurnalos adamians, meore mxriv ki marTos misi
sicocxle. Tanamedrove medicina flobs realur SesaZleb
lobebs, rom `misces~, `aCuqos~ adamians sicocxle (xelovnu
ri ganayofiereba), gansazRvros da Secvalos misi Tvisebrivi
parametrebi (genuri inJineria, transseqsualuri qirurgia),
`gadados~ sikvdilis dro (reanimacia, transplantologia,
gerontologia), `Seamsubuqos~ da daaCqaros sikvdili (evTa
nazia) da sxva. swored aq Cndeba uamravi filosofiuri, mo
raluri da samarTlebrivi xasiaTis problema, romelTa ga
dawyveta ama Tu im sazogadoebis tradiciebis, kulturuli
da sulieri Rirebulebebis safuZvelze unda xdebodes. ukeT
rom gaverkvioT sakiTxis arsSi, erTi detalic unda gaviTva
liswinoT Tanamedrove medicinis arss (transplantologia,
reanimatologia) esadageba adamianis, upirveles yovlisa,
rogorc moazrovne arsebis saxe, rasac, Tavis mxriv, sikvdi
lis axali kriteriumi `tvinis sikvdili~ Seesabameba Ta
vis tvinis mier azrovnebis, gansjis, adamianebTan kontaqtSi
Sesvlis funqciebisa da unaris Seusrulebloba, e.i. `tvinis
229

sikvdilis~ konstantacia gansazRvravs adamianis, rogorc pi


rovnebis sikvdils, romlis farglebSic dasaSvebia sicocx
le ujredul doneze.
2000 weli. avtokatastrofis Sedegad safrangeTis patara
provinciuli qalaqis saavadmyofos reanimatologiur gan
yofilebaSi miiyvanes mZimed daSavebuli 23 wlis axalgazrda.
misi sasicocxlo funqciebi SezRudulia. avadmyofs dakar
guli aqvs metyvelebis unari, mxedveloba, dazianebulia xer
xemali, ar SeuZlia moZraoba; SenarCunebuli aqvs azrovneba
da nawilobriv smena, e.i. Tavis tvini Seuqcevadad ar aris da
zianebuli da eqimebs ufleba ara aqvT dasvan `tvinis sikvdi
lis~ diagnozi da gamoutanon mas sasikvdilo ganaCeni. magram
erTi ram cxadia es axalgazrda Cveul, normalur cxovrebas
verasodes daubrundeba, Tanamedrove medicinas misi Svela
ar SeuZlia, eqimebma ar ician ramden xans icocxlebs ase lo
gins mijaWvuli. erTi wlis uimedobis ESemdeg dedam gadawy
vita TxovniT miem
arTa safrangeTis prezidentisaTvis, ra
Ta misgan mieRo nebarTva Svilis evTanaziaze. uaris miRebis
Semdeg (safrangeTSi, iseve rogorc msoflios TiTqmis yvela
qveyanaSi, evTanazia legalizebuli ar aris) dedam da Svilma,
sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis moxdenis mizniT, evTanaziasa da
sakuTar gancdebze wignis dawera ganizraxes (Svilis TiTebis
moZraobiT deda xvdeboda ama Tu im asos siswores da amgvarad
adgenda sityvebs), romlis gamosvlis Semdeg safrangeTis sa
zogadoeba or dapirispirebul banakad gaiyo: erTi mxare,
iTvaliswinebda ra arsebul viTarebas, TanaugrZnobda deda-
Svilis Tvalsazriss, meore ki, kacTmoyvareobis, humanizmisa
da moraluri principebidan gamomdinare, ewinaaRmdegeboda
maT gadawyvetilebas. sazogadoebrivi azris aseTma amxedre
bam arc amJamad moaxdina zegavlena prezidentis gadawyveti
lebaze. amis Semdeg dedam mimarTa ukidures saSualebas man
sTxova eqims misi SvilisaTvis sistemaSi Seeyvana letaluri
agenti. didi winaaRmdegobis Semdeg eqimi daTanxmda dedis
Txovnas, magram sistemaSi Seyvanili sasikvdilo preparatis
230

doza ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi. maSin dedam miiRo,Emisi azriT,


erTaderTi swori gadawyvetileba Tavad gazarda prepara
tis doza da sakuTari xeliT Seiyvana igi Svilis organizmSi.
mizezi erTia mas ar SeeZlo mTeli sicocxle eyurebina Svi
lis tanjvisa da umweob
isaTvis.
es problema cnobilia evTanaziis saxelwodebiT. termini
`evTanazia~ berZnuli warmoSobisaa da sityva-sityviT `sasi
amovno sikvdils~ niSnavs. sadReisod, evTanaziaSi moiazreba
Segnebuli qmedeba an umoqmedeba, romelic iwvevs ganukur
nebeli seniT daavadebuli pacientis sikvdils, SedarebiT
swrafi da umtkivneulo gziT. misi mizania Sveba moutanos da
ixsnas adamian
i autaneli da xangrZlivi tkivilebisagan ganu
kurnebeli daavadebebis dros. amitom mas zogjer `sasiamov
no sikvdils~ uwodeben.
evTanaziis problema axali ar aris. kacobriobis istori
is nebismier etapze es problema, metnaklebad gansxvavebuli
saxiTa da simwvaviT, yovelTvis idga adamianebis winaSe. gar
kveul
i azriT, evTanaziazea saubari platonis `saxelmwifo
Si~, rodesac igi `arasrulfasovan~ adamianebTan damokide
bulebaze msjelobs idealuri saxelmwifos aSenebis dros:
` sasamarTloc da eqimebic unda zrunavdnen adamianebze,
romlebic srulyofilni arian suliTac da xorciTac, xolo
vinc... suliTac mankier
ia da xorciTac ukurnebeli, is un
da mokvdes~. gansxvavebul konteqstSi, magram mainc `zedmeti
adamian
ebis~ ganadgurebaze saubrobs nicSec. igi adamianebs
sulieri siZlieris niSniT yofs erTis mxriv, keTilSobili,
Semoqmedi, Tavisufali sulis, Zlieri `maRali adamianebi~,
romelTa ricxvi sakmaod mcirea da meore mxriv, adamianTa
umravlesoba `patara xalxi~, `zedmeti adamianebi~, romel
Ta arsebobac ki, nicSes azriT, udides safrTxes warmoadgens
zekacisaTvis da swored amitomac unda ganadgurdnen isini
da dedamiwa gaTavisufldes maTgan. am `zedmeti adamianebis~
ricxvs igi akuTvnebs ubralo, rigiT adamianebs, anu maT, vinc
ar aris dajildovebuli SemoqmedebiTi niWiT, visac Zala ar
231

Seswevs amaRldes sakuTar Tavze, visTvisac zeca, RmerTi uf


ro Rirebulia, radgan swored iq aris maTTvis imedi, xsna,
gamosavali, miwieri tanjvis daTmenisaTvis Rirseuli sazR
auri. misi mtkicebiT, aseTi, TiTqosda aSkara antihumanizmi,
Seuf
aravi mowodeba sustebisa da avadmyofebis mospobisaken,
isev da isev adamianis siyvaruliTaa nakarnaxebi.
yvelasaTvis cnobilia faSisturi germaniis gamocdile
ba ariul
i rasis siwmindisaTvis gatarebul RonisZiebebTan
dakavSirebiT, romlis drosac mxolod 1938-39 wlebSi Semu
Savebuli da ganxorcielebuli iyo `arasrulfasovan~ pirTa
mimarT `evTanaziis programa~.
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi XX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi
arsebobda sazogadoeba `evTanazia~, romlis mizanic kanone
bis Secvlasa da `defeqturebis~ ganadgurebis legalizaci
aSi mdgomareobda. da, Tu gasuli saukunis pirveli naxevris
bolos msoflio sazogadoebriobam dagmo es ideebi, dRei
saTvis isini kvlav Zalas ikrefen.
cnobilia, rom samyaro yovelTvis ori ZiriTadi sawyisis
sikeTisa da borotebis brZolis sarbielad moiazreboda. XX
sauk
unem Tavisi gadasaxedidan Secvala RirebulebaTa siste
ma da sikeTisa da borotebis, sikvdil-sicocxlisa da sxva uZi
riTadesi aqsiologiuri problemebis sakuTari midgoma daam
kvidra. Cveni drois erT-erTi maxasiaTebelia cxovrebisadmi
pragmatistuli damokidebuleba. garkveuli azriT, es civi
lizaciis monapovari da Sedegia, romelsac uamravi sikeTe
moaqvs adamianisaTvis, magram sulierebis TvalsazrisiT gar
kveulwilad cvlis mas adamiani bevrad ufro praqtikuli,
miwieri, momxmarebluri fsiqologiis xdeba. Cveni istoriis
arareligiurma periodma igi RmerTs daaSora (m. haidegerma
Tanamedrove kulturis ZiriTad niSnad swored rom `arare
ligiuroba~ gamoacxada), sakuTari interesebiT Semofargla
da Tavis TavSi Caketa. samyaroSi dakargulobas, cxovrebis
sazrisis Ziebas ki, rogorc viciT, adamiani axal Rirebulebe
bamde miyavs, romelSi garkvevac yovelTvis saocrad rTuli
232

da mtkivneuli procesia da Zvelis uaryofasa da axlis dam


kvidrebas gulisxmobs.
Tanamedrove samyaroSi iseTi movlenebisaTvis, rogori
caa evTanazia, damkvidrda termini `sikvdilis kultura~,
rac gulisxmobs individisagan sakuTari sikvdilisadmi maq
simalurad obieqtur da racion
alur damokidebulebas. ada
mianma pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvebs: rogor surs mas sikvdili;
Sesabamis situac
iaSi vin unda miiRos gadawyvetileba; ramde
nad zedmiwevniT da vin unda Seasrulos misi neba; surs Tu ara
mas sikvdilis Semdgomi donoroba da a.S. swored am da msgav
si problemebis gadawyvetis dros xdeba Zveli da axali Rire
bulebiTi sistemebis urTierTdapirispireba. ufro gasagebi
rom iyos razea saubari, dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT Seqmnili
viTareba. Tanamedrove medicinis axali dargebi (reanimato
logia, transplantologia, samedicino genetika, xelovnuri
ganayofiereba), aRweven ra adamianis sicocxlis marTvis axal
simaRleebs, upirispirdebian tradiciul zneobriv-msof
lmxedvelobriv principebs. magaliTad, aqvs Tu ara reanima
tologs moraluri ufleba gaaxangrZlivos kvdomis proce
si an ganaxorcielos uimedo mdgomareobaSi myofi pacientis
evTanazia? ramdenad aris aucilebeli trnsplantologiis
praqtikisaTvis `samedicino mkvlelobis organizeba~? cxa
dia, am viTarebaSi eqimi Tavisufldeba ara marto uZiriTa
desi samedicino akrZalvisagan `ar avno~!, aramed zogadsaka
cobrio moraluri mcnebisagan `ara kac hkla!~ axali midgomis
gamamarTlebeli principi `mizani amarTlebs saSualebas~,
saboloo jamSi, negatiur zegavlenas axdens eqimis zneobriv
TviTSegnebaze da did safrTxes uqmnis mis emociur-fsiqi
kur mTlianobas. adamianis sicocxlis xelyofa, ra motiviTa
da mizniTac ar unda iyos es gadawyvetileba ganpirobebu
li (Tundac nicSeseuli `adamianisadmi siyvaruliT, an `eris
gajansaRebis mizniT, an Tanamedrove `gulmowyale~ eqimis
surviliT, gaaTavisuflos ukurnebeli seniT daavadebuli
avadmyofi tanjvisagan da saSualeba misces mas uwvaleblad
233

Seue
rTdes maradisobas), yovlad dauSvebeli da miuRebelia.
eqimis damokidebulebaSi pacientisadmi, mTlianad medicinis
eTikisa da filosofiis safuZvelSi, adamianis sicocxlisad
mi pativiscemisa da mowiwebis grZnoba Zevs, anu eqimisaTvis
TiToeul
i pacienti unda iyos is erTaderTi, romlisTvisac
saWiroa, ufro metic, Rirs mTeli Tavisi sulieri Zalebis ga
Reba (mitropoliti anton suroJeli), winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
samedicino moRvaweoba SeiZleba iyos zedmiwevniT mecnieru
li, magram igi dakargavs sakuTriv Tavis arss humanurobasa
da zneobriobas.
saqarTvelos jandacvis kanonmdeblobiT samedicino per
sonalis meSveobiT evTanaziis ganxorcieleba akrZalulia.
aqtiur
i evTanazia (winaswarganzraxuli Careva pacientis si
cocxlis Sewyvetis mizniT) isjeba sisxlis samarTlis kanon
mdeblobiT. pasiur evTanazias ki Cvens sinamdvileSi ama Tu im
formiT xSirad aqvs adgili (magaliTad, avadmyofi uars acxadebs mkurnalobaze; ara aqvs materialuri saSualeba Cait
a
ros saWiro gamokvlevebi, mkurnaloba; eqimi wyvets an zRu
davs uimedo avadmyofis mkurnalobas; stacionaridan xdeba
uimedo pacientis gamowera da a.S.).
evTanaziis legalizaciis momxreebi Tavis pozicias ada
mian
is uflebebis gaTvaliswinebiT ayalibeben. maTi mosaz
rebiT, nebayoflobiTi evTanazia eyrdnoba adamianis fun
damentur uflebas sikvdilis uflebas (Tu ki sikvdili
tanjvisagan Tavis daRwevis erTaderTi saSualebaa). aq erTi
ram aris gasaTvaliswinebeli da es Zalian mniSvnelovania
evTanaziis momxreebi cdiloben gaaTanabron da erTnair
i
Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva miscen cnebebs `mivceT sikvdi
lis ufleba~ (pasiuri evTanazia) da `davexmaroT sikvdilSi~
(aqtiuri evTanazia) da SecdomaSi SeyavT sazogadoeba, Tava
zoben ra mcdar dilemas: an Tqven humanurebi xarT, giyvarT
moyvasi da SegiZliaT gadaabijoT dauSvebelis zRvars (e.i.
moklaT), an abstraqtuli dogmebi bevrad Rirebulia Tqven
Tvis, vidre ubralo adamianuri TanagrZnoba da gulmowyale
234

ba, radgan daufiqreblad axangrZlivebT im uazro tanjva-wa


mebas, romelsac Tavad verc ki aitandiT. ai, maTi argumentebi:
*adamians unda hqondes TviTgamorkvevis ufleba anu mas
unda hqondes SesaZlebloba gaakeTos arCevani gaagrZelos
sicocxle, Tu Sewyvitos is.
*adamian
i daculi unda iyos mtkivneuli da arahumanuri
mkurnalobisagan.
*adamians aqvs ufleba iyos altruisti Tavidan aacilos
axloblebs da ojaxis wevrebs tanjva, uazro finansuri xar
jebi da uSedego Sroma.
arsebobs e.w. `ekonomikuri~ argumentic uimedo paci
entTa mkurnaloba da movla-patronoba sazogadoebas mZime
tvirTad awveba. evTanaziis dakanonebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZle
beli iqneba resursebis ufro racionalurad da miznobrivad
gamoyeneba.
evTanaziis legalizaciis winaaRmdegia saRad moazrovne
adamianTa didi umravlesoba (gamonakliss Seadgens holan
dia, belgia, miCiganis Stati, q.sidnei, q.darvini, sadac evTa
nazia kanoniT ar ikrZaleba). evTanaziis mowinaaRmdegeTa po
ziciis marTebuloba aSkaraa da eWvs ar unda iwvevdes:
*avadmyofTa umravlesobis mxridan nebayoflobiTi sik
vdilis moTxovna, ZiriTadad, motivirebulia Zlieri tkivi
lebiT, sakmarisia moixsnas es simptomebi da sikvdilis moTx
ovnac TavisTavad moixsneba.
*axali teqnologiebis danergva medicinaSi da misi ganvi
Tarebis tempebi mowmobs, rom bevri ganukurnebeli daavade
ba dRes eqvemdebareba mkurnalobas.
*evTanaziis legalizacia kategoriulad miuRebelia re
ligiuri TvalsazrisiT. yvela religiuri sistema evTana
zias ganixilavs, rogorc TviTmkvlelobis an mkvlelobis
formas.
*evTanazia miuRebelia zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT. nebismi
eri adamian
is sicocxle ganumeorebelia da eqimi valdebulia
yvela arsebuli saSualebis gamoyenebiT bolo wuTamde ib
235

rZolos misi gadarCenisaTvis. es eqimis zneobrivi da profe


siuli movaleobaa.
*ar aris gamoricxuli, rom saqme gvqondes saeqimo Secdo
masTan.
*savsebiT SesaZlebelia evTanazia gamoyenebul iqnas bo
roti miznebisaTvis (winaswar ganzraxuli mkvleloba an
mkvleloba organoTa gadanergvisaTvis nebarTvis miRebis
SemTxvevebSi).
*Tu ki odesme evTanazia iuridiulad dakanondeba, auci
leblad dadgeba mwvave eTikuri sakiTxi vin unda ganaxor
cielos igi? eqimma? aseTi mosazreba varaudis donezec ki
miuRebelia. eqimisaTvis pacientis mokvlis davaldebuleba
uzneobaa da sazogadoebrivi moralis dakninebas da medici
nisadmi ndobis dakargvas gamoiwvevs.
amitom TiToeulma CvenTaganma aucileblad unda gaac
nobieros, rom evTanazia anu `sikvdilis kultura~, ar aris
mkvlelobis gamamarTlebeli ideebis, Sexedulebebis gansa
kuTrebuli erToblioba. igi azrovnebis, mentalitetis spe
cifikuri tipia da efuZneba Tavisuflebis ideis mcdar ga
gebas. Tavisufleba, TavisTavad, sikeTea, magram igi mxolod
maSin ar gadaiqceva ganukiTxaobad, rodesac WeSmaritebisa
ken mivyavarT.
cxadia, evTanaziis yoveli SemTxveva eTikisa da samarTlis
poziciebidan unda Sefasdes. magram ar unda dagvaviwydes,
rom kanoni imdenadaa progresuli, ramdenadac moraluria.
amdenad, evTanaziis problemis gadaWris dros eTikuri regu
lirebis done ufro maRali unda iyos, vidre samarTlebrivi.

236

`yvelaze utyuari mtkicebuleba imisa, rom romelime


erma miaRwia Tavisi zneobrivi dacemis ukidures dones,
iqneba is dro, rodesac aborti gaxdeba Cveulebrivi da
absoluturad misaRebi saqme~.
rafael belestrini
(XIX saukunis italieli iuristi)
abortis eTikuri problemebi. bioeTikis im mravali prob
lemidan, romelic gansakuTrebul interessa da vnebaTaRel
vas iwvevs, erT-erTi yvelaze mwvave abortis sakiTxia. mTel
msoflioSi sazogadoebrivi azri mkveTrad polarizebulia.
ZiriTadi moraluri problemebi dakavSirebulia xelovnurad
gamowveul abortTan. am saxis samedicino Carevis moraluri
aspeqtebis swori gagebisaTvis aucilebelia gavacnobieroT,
rom orsuloba qalis organizmSi mimdinare normaluri fi
ziologiuri da, imavdroulad, axali adamianis biologiuri
Camoyalibebis procesia. amitom, rodesac `naklebi borote
bis~ principiT abortis praqtikas vuSvebT, gaazrebuli unda
gvqondes, rom, erTi mxriv, igi seriozul moralur da fizi
kur travmas ayenebs qals da, meore mxriv, warmoadgens udi
des borotebas, radgan wyvets axali adamianis ukve dawyebul
sicocxles. aborti (kontraceptivebTan erTad), ar SeiZleba
CaiTvalos ojaxis dagegmvis Cveulebriv saSualebad. samwuxa
rod, Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi abortebi gardauvalia.
sakmarisia pasuxi gavceT ramdenime kiTxvas da TiToeuli
Cvenganis poziciac Camoyalibdeba: 1) cocxali materiis gan
viTarebisa da gardaqmnis procesSi sad, rodis, romel momen
tSi SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom swored aq da axla iwyeba adamiani?
aqedan gamomdinare, cocxali arseba, romelic adre mxolod
dedis sxeulis nawili iyo, am momentidan xdeba erT-erTi
Cvengani, sazogadoebis wevri, romelsac garkveuli uflebebi
aqvs, upirveles yovlisa, sicocxlis ufleba? 2) mocemul Sem
TxvevaSi aqvs Tu ara SezRudva mcnebas `ara kac hkla?~ da Tu
aqvs, ra saxis SeiZleba iyos es SezRudva? 3) rogori moralu
237

ri da social
uri statusi aqvT im cocxal arsebebs, romle
bic jer adamianur arsebad ar arian aRiarebulni? magaliTad,
SeiZleba Tu ara maTi gamoyeneba samecniero eqsperimentebis
Casatareblad? an nedleulis saxiT farmakologiur da par
fiumerul mrewvelobaSi? dasaSvebia Tu ara transplantaci
isaTvis sicocxlisuunaro, magram cocxali nayofis gamoye
neba Taviseburi `fermis~ saxiT organoTa `dasamzadeblad~
da im avadmyofi axalSobilebis gadasarCenad, romelTac ga
darCenis Sansi jer kidev aqvT?
tradiciulad Camoyalibda sami ZiriTadi pozicia: li
beraluri, zomieri da konservatuli. liberaluri pozicia
daub
adebel nayofs `adamianur arsebad~ ar aRiarebs da Sesa
bamisad masze ar vrceldeba garkveuli uflebebi, maT Soris
sicocxlis ufleba. e.i. bunebrivi mSobiarobis momentande
qals sruli ufleba aqvs miiRos gadawyvetileba abortis Ca
tarebis Sesaxeb, eqimi ki valdebulia moaxdinos am uflebis
realizacia. amrigad, `liberalebisaTvis~ aborti ar warmoad
gens mkvlelobas, ufro metic, abortze uaris Tqmis SemTxve
vaSi, maTi azriT, irRveva dedis, rogorc nayofis mesakuTris
uflebebi. samwuxarod, Cveni kanonmdebloba abortTan dakav
SirebiT erT-erTi yvelaze liberaluria msoflioSi.
`zomieri~ Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, Canasaxis gadaqceva
adamianur arsebad xorcieldeba TandaTanobiT orsulobis
pirveli sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi nayofis uflebebi minimalu
ria. am periodSi, ZiriTadad, iTvaliswineben dedis socialur
da ekonomiur interesebs. bolo sami Tvis periodSi nayofis
uflebebi imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom dedis ufleba gaik
e
Tos aborti SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod da mxolod erT
SemTxvevaSi rodesac qalis sicocxles uSualod emuqreba
safrTxe. am SemTxvevaSi, aborti SesaZlebelia Sefasdes ro
gorc `udanaSaulo arsebis mkvleloba~ da mis gasamarTleb
lad sakmaod safuZvliani argumentebia saWiro.
`konservatorebi~ Canasaxs CasaxvisTanave sicocxlis uf
lebis mqone pirovnebad ganixilaven. amdenad, am Tvalsazri
238

sis mixedviT, abortis moraluri gamarTleba ar SeiZleba da


is, erTmniSvnelovnad, ganzrax mkvlelobad iTvleba. arse
bobs e.w. `zomieri konservatorebis~ Tvalsazrisic, romlis
Tanaxmad, qals miniWebuli aqvs abortis gakeTebis ufleba mi
si janmrTelobisa da sicocxlisaTvis uSualo safrTxis ar
sebobis, Zaladobis an incestis SemTxvevebSi.
religiuri Tvalsazrisi abortis problemebTan dakav
SirebiT ultrakonservatul pozicias ganekuTvneba. em
brionis, rogorc Rirebulebis gaazreba dakavSirebulia
qristianobis warmoSobasTan. marTalia, bibliaSi sityva
`aborti~ an misi Sesatyvisi sinonimi ar gvxvdeba, magram
wminda werili mainc gvaZlevs saSualebas sruliad naTeli
daskvnebi gavakeToT am momakvdinebeli codvis Sesaxeb. bav
Svebis ganadgurebis Taobaze saxarebaSi qcevis ori mode
lia warmodgenili herodes `eTika~, romelmac beTlemSi
ori wlisa da ufro patara asakis yvela yrma daxoca da is
norma, romelic gagvisazRvra ieso qristes sityvebma: `rac
ki gaukeTeT am Cems mcire ZmaTagans, me gamikeTeT~ (maT.
25.40). amitom Tvlis eklesia orsulobis xelovnurad Sewy
vetis yovel SemTxvevas RvTismkvlelobis momentis Semcve
lad. swored amaSia abortis yvelaze siRrmiseuli da dra
matuli azri.
moskoveli dekanozi dimitri smirnovi, aanalizebs ra
abortTan dakavSirebul mwvave sakiTxebs (ra saWiroa siRa
ribisa da simaxinjeebis gamravleba? rogor moviqceT, Tu
fexmZimedaa 13 wlis gogona? Tu dedisaTvis orsulobis
gagrZeleba sicocxlesTan SeuTavsebelia da sxva), ar eTan
xmeba xelovnuri abortis aranair gamarTlebas da arcerT
SemTxvevaSi ar uSvebs kompromiss: `xom SesaZlebelia deda
daiRupos mSobiarobisas? Tu gogona garyvnilia da ase iq
ceva, man, bunebrivia, unda ataros Tavisi jvari, rogorc
sakuTari qcevis Sedegi: xSirad gaupatiurebisas TviTon
dazaralebulia damnaSave gamomwvevi Cacmulobis, qce
vis, gaufrTxileblobis, ufrosebisaTvis angariSis gauwev
239

lobis gamo da a.S.~ aborti arRvevs Zveli aRTqmis ZiriTad


mcnebas `ara kac hkla!~ da saxarebiseul mcnebas siyvaru
lis Sesaxeb.
qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiis pozicias abortTan
dakavSirebiT kargad gamoxatavs dekanozi miqael botkove
li: `is, rac Cven Tvalwin danaSaulebrivi dumilis da auRel
veblobis gamo xdeba, iseTive saSinelebaa, rogorc beTlemSi
ucodvel yrmaTa mowyveda. uaresic: iq dedebi mkerdiT efa
rebodnen Cvilebs, dRes ki amazrzeni simSvidiT eTaTbirebian
da sazRau
rsac ki aZleven maTi Svilebis mkvlels. dedis wiaR
Si mokluli arsebis ganadgureba naTlobis madliT ganubane
li sulis mkvlelobaa: aseTi suli brmasaviT gadadis maradi
sobaSi da Tan winaparTa codvebis beWedi miaqvs~.
Tanamedrove biologiis, genetikisa da embriologiis uax
lesi monacemebis Tanaxmad, adamianis sicocxle iwyeba ara da
badebidan, aramed Casaxvis momentidanve. pirveli ujredi ukve
ganumeorebeli pirovnebaa da Seicavs mTel informacias ada
mianis Sesaxeb: mis sqess, simaRles, Tmis fers, saxis nakvTebis
Taviseburebebs, sisxlis jgufs, midrekilebebs, xasiaTs, niWs...
Casaxvidan ramdenime dReSi yalibdeba Sinagani (sasunTqi,
nervuli da saWmlis momnelebeli) organoebi.
18 dReSi guli iwyebs cemas.
21 dReSi iwyeba sakuTari sisxlis mimoqceva: bavSvis sisxli
dedisas aRar ereva da SeiZleba sxva jgufisac iyos.
42 dReSi (7kvira) yalibdeba xelebi, fexebi, Tvalebi, cxvi
ri, yurebi. SesaZlebelia tvinis encefalogramis gadaReba.
8 kviris nayofi ukve TiTs wovs; igi grZnobs tkivils.
10-11 kviris arsebisaTvis TiTis anabeWdebis aReba SeiZle
ba. bavSvi Tvalebsac amoZravebs, enasac. Tu sanayofe wylebs
davatkbobT, igi ufro xSirad iwyebs ylapvas, xolo Tu simware
Seeria, ylapvas wyvets.
11-12 kviris bavSvs yvela organo aqvs Camoyalibebuli. igi
reagirebs sinaTleze, siTboze, xmaurze.
14 kviris bavSvis guli dReSi 24 litr sisxls gadatumbavs.
240

is dedasTan erTad iZinebs da iRviZebs. Tu Zlier Suqs mivana


TebT, saxes xelebiT ifaravs...
abortis sawinaaRmdego propaganda da saganmanaTleblo
muSaoba saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis movaleobaa. saqar
Tvelos kanonmdeblobiT abortis reklama akrZalulia. gan
sazRvrul vadaze meti xangrZlivobis orsulobis SemTxveva
Si aborti nebadarTulia mxolod samedicino da socialuri
Cvenebebis mixedviT.
aiv infeqcia/Sidsis eTikuri problemebi. Sidsi (SeZenili
imunodeficitis sindromi) nela progresirebadi infeqciur
i
daavadebaa. mas iwvevs adamianis imunodeficitis virusi (aiv).
is, adamian
is organizmSi SeWris Semdeg azianebs organizmis
imunur (damcvel) sistemas da mwyobridan gamohyavs igi, ris
Sedegadac inficirebul pirs advilad uCndeba sxvadasxva in
feqciur
i an/da simsivnuri daavadeba, romelic, rogorc wesi,
sasikvdilo SedegiT sruldeba.
Tanamedrove klasifikaciiT, aiv infeqcia ewodeba daava
debas virusiT inficirebis momentidan sicocxlis bolomde,
xolo terminiT Sidsi aRiniSneba aiv infeqciis bolo stadia,
rodesac avadmyofs uviTardeba daavadebis garkveuli klini
kuri niSnebi da/an imunuri sistemis mZime dazianeba.
aiv-is warmoSobis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva versia arsebobs. zo
gierTi avtori miiCnevs, rom Sidsis gamomwvevi virusi didi
xania arsebobs centraluri da dasavleT afrikis zogierT
regionSi, magram globalurad gavrcelda mxolod bolo pe
riodSi, rasac, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, xeli Seuwyo afriki
dan iaffasian
i sisxlis eqsportma amerikisa da evropis sis
xlis bankebSi.
yvelaze gavrcelebuli versiis Tanaxmad, afrikis konti
nentze mcxovrebi maimunebis zogierT saxeobaSi (mwvane mai
munebi, makakebi) gavrcelebuli iyo Sidsis virusis winamor
bedi, romelic adamianisaTvis saSiSi ar iyo. gamoricxuli ar
aris, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi, mutaciis an sxva faqtorebis
241

Sedegad, viruss gadaelaxa saxeobrivi barieri da adamianeb


Sic gavrcelebuliyo. am versias amyarebs is garemoebac, rom
aRniSnul maimunebSi aRmoCenilia e.w. maimunis imunodefici
tis virusi (miv), romelic maTSi Sidsis msgavs daavadebas iw
vevs. garda amisa, adamianisa da maimunisagan gamoyofili vi
rusebi sakmaod gvanan erTmaneTs genetikuri da antigenuri
TvisebebiT.
kidev erTi hipoTezis mixedviT, Sidsis virusi, rogorc bi
ologiuri iaraRi, xelovnurad aris Seqmnili amerikis samxed
ro daniSnulebis laboratoriebSi. es azri Tavidanve mokle
buli iyo damajereblobas, amJamad ki savsebiT uaryofilia.
Sidsi registrirebulia dedamiwis xuTive kontinentis 213
qveyanaSi. inficirebulTa 90% ganviTarebad qveynebze modis.
gaeros Sidsis programis 2003 wlis monacemebiT msoflioSi:
epidemiis dawyebidan dRemde inficirebulia 37,8 milioni
adamiani;
maT Soris: mozrdili 35,7 milioni adamiani, qali 17 mili
oni, bavSvi 15 wlamde 2,1 milioni.
epidemiis dawyebidan dRemde gardaicvala 20 milioni ada
miani.
mxolod 2003 wels dainficirda 4,8 milioni adamiani.
maT Soris: mozrdili 4,1 milioni, bavSvi 15 wlamde 630000,
gardaicvala 2,9 milioni adamiani.
ramodenime wlis win ucxoeli eqspertebi, Cven qveyana
Si arsebuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gvafrTxileb
dnen, rom saqarTvelos Sidsis farTomasStabiani epidemia
emuqreboda. saqarTveloSi aiv infeqcia/Sidsis SemTxvevaTa
swrafi zrdis safrTxe ganpirobebulia Semdegi mizezebiT:
narkomaniis farTo gavrceleba;
saqarTvelos mezobel qveynebSi, Sidsis TvalsazrisiT
arsebuli arasaxarbielo epidsituacia;
mosaxleobis mzardi migracia;
242

samkurnalo preparatebis, sasterilizacio Tu sadezin


feqcio saSualebaTa nakleboba;
samedicino personalis arasakmarisi unar-Cvevebi in
feqciaTa gadacemis profilaqtikis sakiTxebTan dakav
SirebiT;
prezervativebze tradiciulad dabali moTxovnileba
an maTi arasistematuri moxmareba;
Sidsis Sesaxeb mosaxleobis codnis dabali done.
saqarTveloSi aiv infeqcia/Sidsis pirveli SemTxveva ga
movlinda 1989 w. 1997 wels inficirebulTa ricxvma Seadgina
21, 1998 w. 25, 1999 w. 35, 2000 w. 79, 2001 w. 93, 2002 w. 95,
2003 w. 100, 2004 138, 2005 w. gamovlenili iyo kidev 90 axali
SemTxveva. marTalia, saqarTvelo inarCunebs Sidsis gavrce
lebis dabal dones, magram eqspertTa azriT, radikaluri pre
venciuli zomebis gautareblobis SemTxvevaSi, ukve axlo mo
mavalSi mosalodnelia aiv/Sidsis SemTxvevaTa swrafi mateba.
marTalia, aiv infeqcias paTognomuri klinikuri niSnebi ar
gaaCnia, magram mainc SeiZleba gamoiyos simptomebisa da daava
debebis jgufi, romelTa dros, upirveles yovlisa, eWvi unda
iqnas mitanili aiv infeqcia/Sidsze da, albaT, es yvela adami
anma unda icodes: aramotivirebuli cxeleba; saerTo sisus
te; wonaSi kleba sxeulis masis 10%-iT da metiT; oflianoba;
limfuri kvanZebis gadideba; xSiri faRaraTi; sxvadasxva saxis
gamonayari kansa da lorwovan garsebze; TeTri feris nadebi
enaze; gaxangrZlivebuli filtvebis anTeba, romelic cudad
eqvemdebareba Cveulebriv antibiotikur Terapias; nervuli
sistemis sxvadasxva saxis dazianeba da sxva.
amasTan erTad, aucileblad gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas
epidemiologiuri monacemebi (maRali riskis jgufi, aiv infi
cirebulTan kontaqti da sxv.).

243

aiv infeqciis profilaqtikis wamyvani elementebia:


SemTxveviTi sqesobrivi kontaqtebisagan Tavis arideba
an ukidures SemTxvevaSi Tavdacvis saSualebebis gamo
yeneba;
aratradiciuli sqesobrivi urTerTobebisagan Tavis
Sekaveba;
narkotikebis moxmarebaze, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, saer
To Spricebis gamoyenebaze uaris Tqma;
sisxlisa da sisxlis produqtebis aucilebeli gamok
vleva. Seumowmebeli sisxlis sasicocxlo CvenebiT ga
dasxmis SemTxvevaSi donoris sisxlis aucilebeli tes
tireba proceduris damTavrebidan pirvelive saaTebSi;
erTjeradi samedicino instrumentebis gamoyeneba, xo
lo mravaljeradis xmarebis dros sterilizaciisa da
dezinfeqciis wesebis sruli dacva;
tatuir
ebisa da samkaulebis tarebis mizniT sxeulis na
wilebis dazianebisagan Tavis Sekaveba, vinaid
an es pro
cedurebi Cvens sinamdvileSi xSirad arasaTanadod gas
terilebuli iaraRebiT tardeba.
Sidsis mimarT sazogadoebis cnobierebaSi damkvidrebu
lia e.w. `Sidsofobia~. adamianTa umravlesobis pirveli reaq
cia sityvaze `Sidsi~, ra Tqma unda, aris SiSi. SiSi daavadebis,
tanjvis, uimedobis, sikvdilis, agreTve medicinisa da sazo
gadoebis uZlurebis winaSe.
TviT aiv-iT inficirebulTa cnobierebaSi, upirveles
yovlisa, dominirebs diskriminaciis, stigmatizaciis, so
cialuri devnis winaSe SiSi. rogorc cnobilia, Sidsi Tav
dapirvelad, ZiriTadad, vrceldeboda e.w. `marginalur so
cialur jgufebSi~ homoseqsualistebs, narkomanebsa da
meZavebs Soris. imdroindeli sazogadoebis reaqcia sakmaod
mkacri da Seuwynarebeli iyo. Sidsi Sefasebuli iyo, rogorc
`RvTis risxvis~, `homoseqsualizmis codvis~, `sportuli
244

seqsis~, `seqss turizmis~ Sedegi. dasaxelebuli marginaluri


jgufebis mimarT sazogadoebis negatiuri damokidebuleba
inerciiT gadaecema aiv-iT daavadebul pirs da sasikvdilod
ganwirulobis gancdas aRrmavebs emociuri izolacia da sa
zogadoebis mxridan maT mimarT arakeTilmosurne, mtruli
damokidebuleba.
mediaSi xSirad qveyndeba masalebi SidsiT daavadebulTa
mimarT gamoyenebuli Zaladobis faqtebis Sesaxeb: sacxovre
beli adgilebidan gandevna, maT garSemo `emociuri vakuumis~
Seqmna, samsaxuridan, saswavleblidan daTxovna. aRiniSneba
sazogadoebis mkveTri agresia daavadebulTa samkurnalod
gamoyofili materialuri saxsrebis gamo (Bbuenos-air
esSi
SidsiT daavadebulebs jaWviT abamdnen sawolze; amerikis
erT-erT qalaqSi mezoblebma gadawves saxli, sadac aiv-iT
inficirebulTa sambavSviani ojaxi cxovrobda; ruseTis qa
laq elistaSi, sadac saavadmyofos pirobebSi inficirebuli
sisxliTa da instrumentebiT daavadnen bavSvebi, xalxma qvebi
dauSina avtobuss, romliTac isini gadayavdaT).
vaSingtonSi cnobilma Jurnalistma, inficirebulTa mi
marT sazogadoebis damokidebulebis Seswavlis mizniT, mi
marTa qimwmendas, saparikmaxerosa da stomatologiur po
liklinikas. igi Tavs aiv-iT inficirebulad asaRebda. man
yvelgan kategoriuli uari miiRo momsaxurebaze. msgavsi da
mokidebuleba ar Seesabameba ara marto samedicino eTikis da
saerTod eTikis normebs, aramed kanonis moTxovnebsac. pro
fesiuli samedicino eTikis uxeS darRvevad iTvleba Sidsis
diagnozis gaxmaureba, ris safuZvelzec uxeSad ilaxeba paci
entis uflebebi.
SidsiT daav
adebulTa diskriminaciis yovelgvari gamov
lena akrZalulia saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebiT.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bioe
Tikuri problemebis regu
lirebis dros religiuri pozicia ar asrulebs gadamwyvet
rols, Tumca TiTqmis yvela SemTxvevaSi, met-naklebad, ma
inc gaTvaliswinebulia. es arc unda iyos gasakviri, radga
245

nac adamian
is yofierebaze Tanamedrove teqnologiuri ci
vilizaciis gavlena imdenad didi da SesamCnevia, rom saWiro
xdeba sicocxlis, sikvdilis, adamianuri Rirsebisa da Tavi
suflebis dacviTi meqanizmebis SemuSaveba. isic faqtia, rom
kacobriobis mTeli istoriisaTvis yovelTvis udavo WeSma
ritebas moralur RirebulebaTa da religiuri Sexedulebe
bis uSualo kavSiri warmoadgenda. kidev erTxel SegaxsenebT,
rom marTlmadideblobis damokidebuleba sicocxlesTan da
kavSirebuli yvela problemisadmi saerTo saeklesio swav
lebas efuZneba. e.i. marTlmadidebeli eklesia ar miiswrafis
`qristianuli bioeTikis~ specialuri koncefciis Seqmnisa
ken. igi bioeTikis uZiriTadesi problemebisaTvis gansazR
vravs mxolod ZiriTad ontologiur orientacias: sikvdilis
dadgomis kriteriumad adre iTvleboda sisxlis mimoqcevisa
da sunTqvis Seuqcevadi gaCereba, magram reanimaciuli teq
nologiebis srulyofis safuZvelze es sasicocxlo mniSvne
lobis funqciebi SeiZleba xelovnurad SenarCunebul iqnas
xangrZlivi drois manZilze. amgvarad, sikvdilis aqti garda
iqmneba kvdomis procesad. wminda werilSi sikvdili ganmarte
bulia, rogorc sulis ganSoreba sxeulTan (fsal. 145.4, luk.
12,20). ase rom, sicocxleze SeiZleba vilaparakoT manmade,
sanam grZeldeba organizmis, rogorc mTlianis cxovelmoq
medeba. xelovnuri saSualebebiT sicocxlis gaxangrZliveba
ar SeiZleba ganixilebodes medicinis savaldebulo da yve
la SemxvevaSi sasurvel amocanad. Rirseuli gardacvalebis
marTlmadidebluri gageba gulisxmobs mzadebas aRsasru
lisaTvis, romelic ganixileba, rogorc adamianis cxovrebis
mniSvnelovani etapi. mama mixeil obuxovi Tvlis, rom tanjva,
tkivili `saWiroa adamianis maradiuli cxovrebisaTvis mo
samzadeblad. tanjvas Zala Seswevs gamoasworos adamiani,
miiyvanos igi monaniebasTan maSin, roca yvelaferi sxva ukve
araqmediTia. tanjva, gansakuTrebiT sikvdilis wina tanjva,
ganwmends adamians codvebisagan, Tavmdabalsa da morCils
xdis mas. maSin ki ra xdeba, roca eqimi avadmyofs klavs? su
246

li maradisobaSi moumzadebeli midis, xolo Tuki avadmyofma


Tavad gamoTqva sikvdilis survili, maSin es TviTmkvlelobis
codviTac mZimdeba~. `ufali akvdinebs da acocxlebs~ (I mef.
2.6), amitom eklesias, icavs ra RvTis mcnebas `ara kac hkla~
(gam. 20.13), ar SeuZlia zneobrivad misaRebad CaTvalos amJa
mad saero sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuli e.w. evTanaziis lega
lizaciis, anu uimedo avadmyofTa ganzrax mkvlelobis mcde
lobebi (maT Soris sakuTari surviliT).
gmobs ra aborts, rogorc momakvdinebel codvas, ekle
sia ver amarTlebs mas verc im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Casaxuli
adamian
uri sicocxlis ganadgureba sxvisi janmrTelobisaT
vis sikeTis momtani SeiZleba gaxdes (e.w. fetaluri Terapiis
meTodebis gamoyeneba, romlis safuZvelSi devs ganviTare
bis sxvadasxva stadiaze abortirebuli adamian
uri Canasaxis
organoebisa da qsovilebis amoReba da gamoyeneba sxvadasxva
daavadebaTa mkurnalobis an organizmis gaaxalgazrdavebis
mizniT). aseTi praqtika, Tundac misi sadReisod hipoTeturi
efeqturoba mecnierulad dasabuTebuli iyos, garduvalad
uwyobs xels abortebis ufro farTod gavrcelebasa da ko
mercial
izacias, rac TavisTavad uzneobaa.
Tanamedrove bioeTikis problemebisadmi midgoma, ro
melsac marTlmadidebluri kulturis tradiciebi da Rire
bulebebi gansazRvravs, metad mniSvnelovani poziciaa. igi
Cveni genotipisadmi erTgulebaze migvaniSnebs, rac, Tavis
mxriv, xels uwyobs mis gadarCenasa da SenarCunebas, miTume
tes, rom saqarTveloSi qristianoba arasodes yofila marto
oden religia. igi cxovrebis da azrovnebis wesic iyo. medici
nis, eTikisa da religiis kavSiris Segnebulad Tu Seugneblad
ugulvebelyofa niSnavs TiToeu
li maTganis, adamianuri ar
sebobisaTvis esoden mniSvnelovani sferoebis arsisa da da
niSnulebis damaxinjebas. mizani erTi unda iyos mecnierebi
sa da zneobriobis organuli kavSiri, rameTu es kavSiri dRes
Tanamedrove civilizaciis gadarCenis erT-erT arsebiT pi
robas warmoadgens.
247

sakontrolo kiTxvebi
ra moiazreba evTanaziis cnebaSi?
SesaZleblad migaCniaT Tu ara evTanaziis legalizeba?
rodis iwyeba sicocoxle Casaxvis momentidan Tu dabade
bidan?
aqvs Tu ara abortis SemTxvevaSi SezRudva mcnebas `ara
kac hkla~ ?
dasaSvebia Tu ara nayofis gamoyeneba samedicino eqsperi
mentebis Catarebis mizniT?
ra faqtorebi ganapirobebs saqarTveloSi aiv infeqcia /
Sidsis SemTxvevaTa zrdas?
ra profilaqtikuri zomebia misaRebi aiv infeqcia / Sidsi
sagan Tavis dasacavad?

248

Tavi VII
qarTuli filosofiis istoria
(mokle eqskursi)
germanuli klasikuri filosofiis didi warmomadgenlis
hegelis azriT, ubeduria eri, romelsac sakuTari filoso
fiur
i azrovneba ar gaaCnia. sabednierod, es gamonaTqvami
Cvens erze ar vrceldeba. Cven gvaqvs Zveli, axali da uaxlesi
filosofia, romelic didad ar Camouvardeba evropuls.
qarTuli filosofiuri azris istoriis sistemuri kvle
va-Zieba, mecnieruli Seswavla Cveni saukunis pirvelive wle
bidan iwyeba da or etaps moicavs. pirveli etapi ivane java
xiSvilisa da niko maris saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli, xolo
meor
e etapi - Salva nucubiZis gamokvlevebTan. S. nucubiZis
mravalwliani da mravalmxrivi Zieba qarTuli filosofiis
istoriaSi Sejamda fundamenturi gamokvlevis ortomeul
Si `qarTuli filosofiis istoria` (tomi I 1956; tomi II 1958,
Tbilisi). is moicavs qarTuli filosofiur
i azris istorias
Zveli droidan dawyebuli solomon dodaSvilis (XIX s.) moR
vaweobiT damTavrebuli.
Zveli da Sua saukuneebis qarTuli filosofia. istoriul
saqarTveloSi filosofiuri azris Semswavleli centris ar
sebobis Sesaxeb werilobiTi wyaroebi IV saukunidan mogvepo
veba. amis Sesaxeb gvauwyeben berZnuli wyaroebi, kerZod cno
bili ritorida filosofosi Temistiosi. am cnobis Tanaxmad
IV saukuneSi kolxeTSi arsebula filosofiuri ganaTlebis
kera, romelsac iseTi avtoriteti da saxeli mouxveWia, rom
filosofiuri codnis SesaZenad aq sxvadasxva qveynebidanac
ki Camodiodnen. kolxeTis skolaSi gabatonebuli mdgomare
oba ekava berZnul (platoni, aristotele da sxvaTa) filoso
fiur ideebs.
kolxeTis ritorikul skolasTan dakavSirebulia IV sau
kunis gamoCenili moRvawis bakuris saxeli, romlis Sesaxebac
249

cnobil neoplatonikoss libanioss (daaxl. 314 393ww.) uT


qvams: `suliT brwyinavso~. berZnuli wyaroebi bakurs warmo
aCenen ara marto rogorc mxedarTmTavars, aramed rogorc
filosofoss.
Sua sauk
uneebis gamoCenili moazrovne petre iberi, eris
kacobaSi murvani (411 491ww.), qarTlis samefo sagvareulos
STamomavali iyo. 12 wlis murvani Tavis maswavlebel ioa
ne lazTan da 50-mde TanmxlebTan erTad mZevlad gaagzavnes
konstantinepols saimperatoro karze. miuxedavad imisa rom
man iq did warmatebebs miaRwia, sabolood beris cxovreba ar
Cia, mogvian
ebiT ki marumis episkoposis kaTedra daikava.
petre iberis saxeliT mecniereba kidev ufro metad mas
Semdeg dainteresda, rac nucubiZe honigmanis koncefciis
Tanaxmad, igi miCneuli iqna e. w. areopagituli wignebis nam
dvil avtorad. sukuneebis ganmavlobaSi aRniSnuli Txzu
lebebi SecdomiT miewereboda I saukunis cnobil saeklesio
moRvawes dionise areopagels. Sua saukuneebSi am avtorTan
dakavSirebiT eWvi gaCnda, ris gamoc dionise areopageli mo
ixsenieboda rogorc `fsevdo~ (yalbi). mecnierebaSi areopa
gituli wignebis araerTi savaraudo avtori iyo wamoyenebu
li, magram sabolood es Tvalsazrisebi ar marTldeboda.
1942 wels Salva nucubiZem gamoaqveyna naSromi, sadac sa
Tanado argumentebis moSveliebiT daasabuTa, rom areopa
gituli wignebis namdvili avtoria petre iberi. 1952 wels,
Salva nucubiZisagan damoukideblad, amave azramde mivida
cnobili belgieli orientalisti ernst honigmani. es Tval
sazrisi mecnierebaSi nucubiZe honigmanis koncefciis sa
xeliTaa cnobili. mas Tavis droze didi gamoxmaureba mohyva.
dReisaTvis am koncefcias hyavs rogorc momxreebi, ise mowi
naaRmdegeebi.
qristian
obis gavrcelebasa da ganmtkicebasTan erTad,
farTovdeboda qarTuli samyaros kavSirebi qristianul
qveynebTan. am dros, erTi mxriv, adgili aqvs qarTvelTa sazR
vargareTis qristianul centrebSi gamgzavrebas da iq saqmi
250

anobas, meore mxriv, CvenSi qristian moRvaweTa Semosvlas.


didi mniSvneloba hqonda cnobil `siriel mamaTa~ mosvlas
istoriul saqarTveloSi VI saukunis meore naxevarSi. maT
safuZveli Cauyares aqtiur samonastro cxovrebas da mra
valmxrivi moRvaweob
a gaaCaRes. `siriel mamaTagan~ qarTuli
filosofiuri azris ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli wvlili
miuZRviT daviT garejelsa da abibos nekresels.
daviT garejeli qristianuli RvTismetyvelebis Tvalsa
Cino warmomadgeneli iyo. masTan RmerTi gagebulia, rogorc
samyaros Semoqmedi, Semqmneli, romelic yvelafris mizezi da
gamgebelia. daviT garejelis SemoqmedebaSi SeiniSneba anti
kuri filosofiur
i Tvalsazrisis gavlena, kerZod platonis
moZRvreba amqveyniuri sinamdvilis warmavlobaze.
abibos nekreseli, rogorc irkveva, kargad icnobda Zveli
drois berZeni filosofosis empedokles (487 424ww.) oTxi
elementis (miwa, wyali, cecxli, haeri) Teorias da mas iyeneb
da qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis dasacavad. kerZod, spar
sel marzpanTan saubrisas abibos nekreseli eyrdnoba zemox
senebul Tvalsazriss da cdilobs Teoriulad daasabuTos,
rom cecxli, ise rogorc wyali, aris mxolod masala, risga
nac RmerTi qmnis samyaros.
qristian
obis gavrcelebas saqarTveloSi mohyva rogorc
originaluri mwerlobis ganviTareba, ise safuZvliani mTar
gmnelobiTi saqmianobis gaaqtiureba. am mxriv, gansakuT
rebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs giorgi merCules `grigol
xanZTelis cxovreba~ da `sibrZne balahvarisas~ qarTuli re
daqcia.
goirgi merCulem Tavis nawarmoebSi aRwera VIII X sauku
neebis cnobili qarTveli qristiani moRvawis grigol xan
ZTelis cxovreba da moRveweoba. TxzulebaSi warmoCenilia
avtoris filosofiuri ideebic, kerZod mocemulia miwieri
sa da zecier
is dapirispirebis Tvalsazrisi, sadac giorgi
merCule miwierTan SedarebiT zeciers aniWebs upiratesobas.
giorgi merCules es azri gavrcelebuli aqvs adamianzec, ro
251

melic Sedgeba sulisa da sxeulisagan. sxeuli warmavalia, xo


lo suli maradiuli da ekuTvnis RvTaebriv samyaros.
`sibrZne balahvarisas~ ucnobi avtorisaTvis azrovnebis
upirvelesi sakiTxia RmerTisa da adamianis, zeciurisa da
miwieris raobis gansazRvra, maTi urTierTobis sakiTxi. mi
si azriT, RmerTi adamianisa da mTeli samyaros Semoqmedia,
xolo adamiani RvTis mier Seqmnili arseba da xatia, romelic
arca hgavs Semoqmeds. adamiani, RvTis msgavsad, sulieria, e.i.
ukvdavi, magram, amave dros, fizikurad mokvdavia.
farTod gaSlili eklesia-monastrebis mSeneblobiT ya
libdeboda qarTuli sasuliero, kulturuli da filosofi
uri kerebi rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise sazRvargareT (aTonis
iverTa monasteri, Sua mTa antioqiaSi, petriwonis monaste
ri...), sadac samecniero da mTargmnelobiT moRvaweobas ewe
odnen giorgi da eqvTime mTawmindelebi, ioane petriwi, efrem
mcire, giorgi mcire da sxvebi.
qarTvel swavlulTa mecadineobas ukvalod ar Cauvlia.
amis safuZvelze saqarTvelom XI XII saukuneebSi saxelmwi
foebriv aRmavlobasTan erTad, kulturis gansakuTrebul
simaRleebs miaRwia, rac sabolood rusTavelis `vefxistya
osnis~ SeqmniT dagvirgvinda. es qmnileba renesansul Zegla
daa miCneuli.
renesansi franguli sityvaa da qarTulad aRorZinebas
niSnavs, rac gulisxmobs ukve arsebulis aRdgena-ganaxlebas.
am aRdgena-ganaxlebaSi gaTvaliswinebulia im epoqis Tavise
burebani, romelSic mimdinareobs es procesi. renesansis cne
baSi mocemuli aRdgena-ganaxlebis Sinaarsi, upirvelesad,
gulisxmobs adamianisadmi antikuri damokidebulebis aRdge
nas adamian
i dayenebulia samyaros centrSi, amqveyniur si
namdviles Rirebuleba eniWeba. renesansi aseve gulisxmobs
qalaquri cxovrebis gansakuTrebul dones, saxelmwifo da
samarTlebrivi institutebis demokratiulobas, religiis
saTanado pozicias. XI XII saukuneebis saqarTveloSi yvela
piroba iyo Seqmnili renesansuli kulturis Camoyalibebi
252

saTvis. yvelaze mniSvnelovnad am droisaTvis ivane javaxiS


vils miaCnda qarTvelTa mxridan `safilosofio mwerlobis
dawafeba~, gansakuTrebiT ki neoplatonuri filosofiis SeT
viseba. berZnul filosofiasTan erTad qarTvelebma gaicnes
maTi warmarTuli poeziac. `erTi sityviT, qarTvelobam eli
nuri Semoqmedebis nimuSebi igema da daewafa cxovelmyofel
elinizms, romlis Rrmam da safuZvlianma Seswavlam dasavleT
evropaSi egreTwodebuli `renesansi~ warmoSva. saqarTvelo
Si es moZraoba XII saukuneSi daiwyo, magram misi dasruleba
monRolTa Semosvlam Seaferxa~ (ivane javaxiSvili).
ivane javaxiSvilisagan gansxvavebiT, Salva nucubiZes mi
aCnda, rom saqarTveloSi iyo srulyofili, dasrulebuli
renesansi. S. nucubiZis azriT, renesansis erT-erTi msof
lmxedvelobrivi safuZvelia areopagituli moZRvreba, sa
dac antikuri filosofiuri memkvidreoba (neoplatonizmis
saxiT) `gadargulia qristianobis safuZvelze~. am gziT ki
SenarCunebuli iqna renesansisaTvis aucilebeli ideebi da
principebi: RmerTisa da samyaros erTianoba, RmerTidan (pir
velmizezidan) arsebaTa aucileblobiT gamomdinareoba da
Semdeg amave aucileblobiT arsebaTa RmerTSive ukudabru
neba, adamianis gaRmerTebis SesaZlebloba, ierarqiis princi
pi, sikeTis absoluturobis aRiareba da borotebis SemTxve
viTad miCneva.
qarTuli renesansis saTaveebTan dgas XI XII saukuneebis
gamoCenili qarTveli moazrovne ioane pertiwi. mMan ganaTleba
miiRo konstantinopolSi, manganis akademiaSi, sadac misi mas
wavlebeli iyo cnobili bizantieli filosofosi, neoplato
nikosi ioane itali. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom ioane
itali meore cnobil bizantiel filosofosTan miqael fse
losTan erTad iTvleba renesansuli yaid
is moazrovned, ma
Sin SeiZleba vivaraudoT: saqarTveloSi dabrunebuli ioane
petriwi ukve gamsWvaluli iyo renesansuli msoflmxedvelo
biT. amasTan petriws saqarTveloSi daxvda neoplatonizmis
aTvisebis tradicia. amis dasturia cnobili mTargmnelisa
253

da moazrovnis efrem mcires mier berZnulidan qarTul ena


ze gadmoRebuli areop
agituli wignebi. efrem mcire, ioane
petriwi da arsen iyalToeli iyvnen swored is moazrovneebi,
romlebmac saTave daudes filosofiuri azris aRmavlobas
saqarTveloSi.
efrem mcire (XI s.) savaraudod samcxedan unda yofiliyo,
mas ganaTleba konstantinopolSi miuRia, Semdeg gadasaxle
bula antioq
iaSi Sav mTaze da mTeli cxovreba iq gautarebia.
Zalian didia efrem mcires wvlili filosofiuri termino
logiis SemotanaSi, mis qarTul azrovnebaSi danergvasa da
filosofiur
i Zeglebis Targmnis saqmeSi. upirvelesad am
kuTxiT aRsaniSnavia efrem mcires mier berZnulidan qarTul
enaze Targmnili areop
agituli Txzulebani da ioane damaske
lis `codnis wyaro~.
ioane petriwi (XI XII ss.) qarTuli filosofiuri azris
gamoCenili warmomadgenelia. misi dabadebisa da gardacvale
bis zusti TariRi ucnobia. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, ioane pet
riws ganaTleba miuRia konstantinopolSi, manganis akademi
aSi. aq ioan
e petriws safuZvlianad Seuswavlia berZnuli ena,
filosofia da RvTismetyveleba. daaxloebiT 1083 wlidan igi
grigol bakurianis Zis mier daarsebul petriwonis monaster
Si moRvaweobs (bulgareTi).
ioane petriwis moRvaweob
is bolo periodi gelaTis aka
demiasTanaa dakavSirebuli, sadac is miwveuli iqna daviT
aRmaSenebelis mier. aq man daasrula Tavisi mravalmxrivi
mTargmnelobiTi da originaluri filosofiuri saqmianoba:
berZnulidan qarTulad Targmna aristoteles ori Sroma, ne
mesios emeselis eTikuri Txzuleba `bunebisaTvis kacisa~
da prokle diadoxosis `Teologiis pirvelsafuZvlebi~. ioa
ne petriwma vrceli ganmartebebi dauTmo prokles aRniSnul
Sromas, rac mis originalur filosofiur Txzulebas warmo
adgens. swored am ganmartebebis safuZvelze SeiZleba msje
loba petriwis filosofiuri Sexedulebebis Sesafaseblad.
ioane petriwis msoflmxedvelobis mTlianobaSi ganxilva
254

cxads xdis misi filosofiuri Tvalsazrisis neoplatonur


xasiaTs. petriwi mihyveba neoplatonikosebs, magram is maTi
pasiuri mimdevari rodia. erTi am problemaTagani, romelic
petriws neoplatonuri filosofiidan aqvs aRebuli, magram
masze Tavisi originaluri Tvalsazrisi aqvs Camoyalibebu
li, aris triadis sakiTxi.
petriwi amocanad isaxavs pirveli erTis anu pirvelmize
zis dadgenas. erTi rom gavigoT, amisaTvis saWiroa davicvaT
misi siwminde. erTi mxolod martivi SeiZleba iyos. amitom
goneba, suli, ca SeuZlebelia iyos erTi, vinaid
an yvela ese
ni rTulni arian, maSin roca pirveli erTi mxolod martivi
(`uzado~) SeiZleba iyos. pirvelmizezi (RmerTi) Tanmimdev
robiT warmoSobs mTel arss, romelic rangobrivad ganla
gebul safexurTa erTianobas warmoadgens da TiToeuli
maTganis mniSvneloba pirvelmizezTan siaxlove-daSorebiT
ganisazRvreba.
ioane petriwi ganixilavs Semecnebis or gzas sulis meS
veobiT da gonebis meSveob
iT. sulis Semecneba TandaTano
biT mimdinareobs, warmoadgens gansjas da Sesacnobi sagnis
sxvadasxva mxaris Sedareba-gansxvavebis Sedegs. amis sapiris
pirod gonebiT Semecnebisas uSualod xdeba sagnis mocva.
Aam dros Semecnebis sagani TviT gonebaSia mocemuli, ise ro
gorc mzesTan erTad mocemulia misi saxeebi, ise gonebasTanaa
misi Semecnebis sagani. gonebiT Semecneba Semecnebis maRali
donea da mis sagans ierarqiulad ganlagebuli arsis umaRle
si safexuri warmoadgens. goneba winamavalia sulis da ufro
srulyofilia masTan SedarebiT.
petriwi iziar
ebs da misdevs aristoteles cnobil Sexe
dulebas arsisa da Semecnebis mimarTebaze: is, rac pirvelia
ontologiurad (pirveladobis azriT), ukanasknelia gnoseo
logiurad (Semecnebis azriT) da piriqiT.
arsen iyalToeli (XI XII ss.) ioane petriwis Tanamedro
vea da masTan erTad swavlobda konstantinopolSi, manganis
akademiaSi, Semdgom moRvaweobda antioqiaSi Sav mTaze. sa
255

qarTveloSi dabrunebis Semdeg arsen iyalToeli jer gelaT


Si iyo, Semdgom ki Sio mRvimesa da iyalTos monasterSi, sadac
daarsa akademia. arsen iyalToelis filosofiur Sexedule
bebze urTierTsawinaaRmdego azrebia gamoTqmuli. erT Sem
TxvevaSi igi miCneulia konservatuli azrovnebis moRvawed
da qristian
uli orTodoqsiis iseT damcvelad, romelic eb
rZoda neoplatonur filosofias (ioane petriwis saxiT). me
ore SemTxvevaSi, ioane petriwsa da arsen iyalToels Soris
veraviTar dapirispirebas ver xedaven.
arsen iyalToelis TxzulebaTagan cnobilia misi `dog
matikoni~, romelic warmoadgens sxvadasxva SromebiT Sed
genil didi moculobis kompediums (SemoklebiT gadmocema).
masSi Sesulia anastasia sinelis `winamZRvari~, ioane damaske
lis `codnis wyaro~, Teodore abakuris traqtatebi, romelic
mimarTuli iyo iudaizmis, islamis da sxvadasxva qristianuli
eresebis winaaRmdeg. `dogmatikonSi~ sxva Sromebicaa Sesuli.
filosofiur
i TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania
patara zomis filosofiur-religiuri traqtati `pirmSo
isaTvis~, romelic cnobil bizantiel filosofoss miqael
fseloss unda ekuTvnodes.
masSi ganxilulia `pirvelis~ sakiTxi, rac Sua sauk
uneebis
azrovnebisaTvis erT-erTi mTavari problema iyo. saubari
exeba moZRvrebas pirvelsawyisze, RmerTze. Tavisi Sinaarsis
mixedviT, es traqtati ioane petriwis Tvalsazrisis winaaR
mdeg unda iyos mimarTuli. traqtatSi gatarebulia is Ziri
Tadi azri, rom Semqmnelsa (RmerTisa) da Seqmnils (xiluli
sinamdvilis arsebebi) Soris ufskrulia da maTi gaerTianeba
SeuZlebelia.

256

axali drois qarTuli filosofia


XI XII saqarTvelos politikur, socialur-ekonomikur
da kulturul aRmavlobas dacemis periodi mohyva. es gamow
veuli iyo dampyrobTa mravalricxovani SemosevebiT. am dro
isaTvis qarTvel kacs lamis mxolod yofna aryofnisaTvis
uxdeboda brZola. es iyo upirvelesi mizezi imisa, rom ioane
petriwis, efrem mciresa da arsen iyalToelis mier saqarTve
loSi damkvidrebuli filosofiuri tradicia faqtobrivad
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi aRar gagrZelebula da, bunebrivia,
aRarc ganviTarebula.
amis miuxedavad, saqarTvelosTvis am mZime epoqaSi, epi
zodurad gamokrTis xolme filosofiuri azrovnebis dama
dasturebeli elementebi. am mxriv yuradRebas imsaxurebs as
wlovani istoriis anonimi avtoris, JamTaaRmwerelis (XIV s.)
moRvaweoba, romlis Semoqmedebis sagansac saqarTvelos po
litikuri sinamdvilis filosofiuri axsna warmoadgens.
rodesac wminda filosofiuri saqmianoba Camkvdaria, am
dros, arc Tu iSviaTad, filosofiuri problematikis damuSa
veba SeimCneva kulturis sxvadasxva dargis warmomadgenelTa
mier. saqarTveloSi am mxriv gansakuTrebiT yuradsaRebia ga
moCenili qarTveli mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis sulxansaba orbelianis (1658 1725 ww.) Semoqmedeba.
am didi moRvawis wvlili qarTuli filosofiuri azris
ganviTarebaSi upirvelesad qarTul saazrovno sinamdvileSi
filosofiuri terminologiis SemotaniTa da maTi axleburi
gaazrebiT gamoixateba. sulxan saba orbelianis leqsikonSi,
filosofiuri terminebis da cnebebis ganmartebisas, kargad
Cans avtoris mWidro kavSiri qarTuli filosofiis warsul
Tan. is uxvad iyenebs masalebs qarTvel moazrovneTa (ioane
petriwi, arsen iyalToeli) Semoqmedebidan.
S. nucubiZe sulxan-saba orbelianis Rvawls qarTuli filo
sofiis winaSe imaSi xedavda, rom man `JamTa viTarebaTa uCino
qmnili~ qarTuli azrovnebis tradiciebi da Zeglebi igav-ara
257

kebisa da calke terminebis axsniT nawilobriv mainc gaacocx


la da amiT Semdegi Taobebis mier maT Seswavlas Seuwyo xeli.
SedarebiT sasikeTo Semobruneba qarTuli filosofiuri
azris istoriaSi xdeba XVIII saukunis dasarulsa da XIX sauku
nis pirvel naxevarSi. am mxriv didad iRvwodnen anton bagra
tioni, aleqsandre amilaxvari, iona xelaSvili, ioane bato
niSvili, solomon dodaSvili.
anton bagration
i (anton I, eriskacobaSi Teim
urazi 1720
1788 ww.), saqarTvelos kaTolikosi, mravalmxrivi moRva
we iyo. filosofiis poziciidan gansakuTrebul yuradRebas
ipyrobs misi enciklopediuri xasiaTis naSromi `spekali~,
sadac ganxilulia platonis, aristoteles, grigol noselis,
prokles, ioane damaskelis, ioane petriwis da sxvaTa filo
sofiur Teologiuri Sexedulebebi.
anton bagration
i did yuradRebas aqcevda qarTvel mo
azrovneTa Sexedulebebs. magaliTad, igi Tavis `mza metyve
lebaSi~ did adgils uTmobs rusTavels, petriws, CaxruxaZes,
sulxan-saba orbelians. anton bagrationma Targmna porfiri
usis, baumaisteris, volfis, laibnicis, svimon julfelisa da
sxvaTa filosofiuri Txzulebani. am Targmanebs TandarTu
li aqvs antoniseuli komentarebi.
anton bagrationis damsaxurebad unda CaiTvalos misi Tav
dadebuli moRvaweoba filosofiuri tradiciebis aRdgeni
saTvis da, am mizniT, evropul azrovnebaze orientaciis aReba.
qarTuli filosofiuri azris ganviTarebisaTvis didi
mniSvneloba hqonda ruseTSi moRvawe Zmebis, saqarTvelos
ukanaskneli mefis, giorgi XII Svilebis ioane (1778 1830 ww.)
da daviT (1756 1819 ww.) batoniSvilebis mecnierul saqmiano
bas. ioane batoniSvilma dawera enciklopediuri xasiaTis na
warmoebi `kalmasoba~, romelSic codnis TiTqmis yvela dar
gia warmodgenili, maT Soris filosofia. daviT batoniSvili
mTargmnelobiT moRvaweob
as eweoda, masve ekuTvnis origina
luri xasiaT
is Sroma `Semoklebuli fizika~, romelSic fi
losofiuri sakiTxebic aris ganxiluli.
258

aleqsandre amilaxvars (1750 1802 ww.) ekuTvnis naSromi


`brZeni aRmosavleTisa~, sadac igi saxelmwifos mowyobis
evropul models uWers mxars. Txzulebidan irkeveva, rom av
tori kargad icnobda frangi ganmanaTleblebis ideebs da Ta
naugrZnobda maT.
ioane xelaSvilma (1772 1837 ww.) 1812 wels daamTavra pe
terburgis aleqsandre nevelis sasuliero akademia da si
cocxlis bolomde moRvaweobda am qalaqSi. mas bevri naSromi
darCa filosofiasa da RvTismetyvelebaSi (gamoqveynda misi
`34 SekiTxvis wigni~, Tbilisi, 1967). iona xelaSvili did dax
marebas uwevda peterburgis qarTvelobas. misi mecenatobiT
gamoqveynda solomon dodaSvilis `logika~.
gansaxilveli periodis moazrovneTa Soris gamorCeuli
warmomadgenelia solomon dodaSvili (1805 1836 ww.). misi pi
rovnebiT qarTuli filosofiuri azrovnebis istoriaSi axa
li epoqa iwyeba. man kargad gaicno da Seiswavla axali drois
evropuli filosofia, ris safuZvelzec dawera `logikis~
kursi da rusul enaze gamoaqveyna peterburgSi (1827 w.). am
wigns didi aRfrTovanebiT Sexvdnen im drois cnobili rusi
swavlulebi. `logikis~ kursi Tavisi SesavaliT da misi avto
ris CanafiqriT filosofiis sruli kursis Seqmnis Sesaxeb, na
Tels xdis, rom s. dodaSvili safuZvlianad iyo naziarebi ev
ropul mecnierebis miRwevebs da man aRadgina filosofiuri
azrovnebis tradiciebi saqarTveloSi. aRsaniSnavia agreTve
s. dodaSvilis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli da literatu
ruli moRvaweoba. manve qarTuli kulturis filosofiuri
analizis pirveli da saintereso cda ganaxorciela.
s. dodaSvilis `logikis~ Sesavali nawilidan irkveva, rom
mis avtors filosofiis sruli kursis Seqmnac hqonda ganzra
xuli, magram, obieqturi mizezebis gamo, es didi Canafiqri ver
ganaxorciela da mis filosofiur Sexedulebebze, arsebiTad
`logikisa~ da `logikis meTodologiisaTvis~ mixedviT unda
vimsjeloT.
s. dodaSvils safuZvlianad aqvs gaSuqebuli filosofi
259

is sagani da misi amocana. WeSmariti filosofiis misaRwevad,


misi azriT, aucilebelia crurwmenisagan gaTavisufleba.
Semdeg avtori adgens filosofiis Seswavlis obieqts da an
sxvavebs mas kerZo mecnierebis Seswavlis obieqtisagan. fi
losofia gansakuTrebuli mecnierebaa da iseT codnas gvaZ
levs, romelsac sxva mecnierebebi ver iZleva.
filosofiuri kvleva-Ziebis aucilebel pirobad s. do
daSvils miaCnia: ganyeneba, Secnoba da gageba TavisTavisa.
amasTan, filosofiaSi Semmecnebeli piri da Semecnebis umTav
resi sagani adamiania. swored amiT gansxvavdeba filosofia
sxva Semecnebisagan. aRniSnulis safuZvelze s. dodaSvili ase
ganmartavs filosofiis sagans: `filosofia aris mecniere
ba mTeli Cveni moqmedebis ukanaskneli safuZvlebis Sesaxeb;
masSi unda veZioT da vipovoT Cveni Semecnebis da moqmedebis
iseTi mizezebi, romelTac SeuZliT, metad Tu naklebad daak
mayofilon adamianis goneba~.
s. dodaSvilis mecnierul moRvaweobaSi garda `logikisa~
aRsaniSnavia misi Sromebi: `logikis meTodologiisaTvis~,
`ritorika~, `mokle ganxilva qarTuli literaturisa anu
sityvierebisa~, `mokle filosofia, Sedgenilni Zalni sazR
vrebiTni da ganyofilebaTa misTa~.
s. dodaSvili adreul asakSi gardaicvala da bevri Cana
fiqri ganuxorcielebeli darCa. misi naadrevi daRupvis mi
zezi is iyo, rom igi, rogorc 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis erT-er
Ti ideuri xelmZRvaneli, gaasamarTles da Soreul viatkaSi
gadaasaxles. iqaur mZime klimats s. dodaSvilis isedac avad
myofma organizmma ver gauZlo da gardaicvala.
qarTuli filosofiuri azris mniSvnelovan monapovrad
unda CaiTvalos gamoCenili saeklesio moRvawisa da mecnie
ris, imereTis episkoposis gabrielis eriskacobaSi gerasi
me qiqoZe (1825 1896 ww.) gamokvleva `cdiseuli fsiqologiis
safuZvlebi~ (peterburgi, 1858 w.), romelic didi dagviane
biT, magram mainc iTargmna da gamoqveynda qarTulad (1993 w.).
aseve didi aRiareba hpova gabriel episkoposis qadagebebma,
260

romlebic araerTgzis gamoica, bolos 1990 wels or tomad.


qadagebebSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs avtoris mo
sazrebani adamianis daniSnulebaze, sadac vxvdebiT mecniere
bisa da rwmenis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis cdas. qadagebebis
did mniSvnelobaze metyvelebs is faqtic, rom igi qarTulad
gamoqveynebisTanave, male iTargmna da gamoica rusul da in
glisur enebze.
XIX sauk
unis meore naxevrisa da XX saukunis dasawyisis
qarTuli filosofiuri azris umniSvnelovanesi warmomad
genlebi arian: ilia WavWavaZe, niko nikolaZe, arCil jorjaZe,
giorgi wereTeli, akaki wereTeli, vaJa-fSavela, anton fur
celaZe, varlam CerqeziSvili, mixako wereTeli. maTgan arCil
jorjaZe da mixako wereTeli filosofosebi iyvnen, xolo
varlam CerqeziSvilis bevri statia filosofiuri problema
tikisadmia miZRvnili.
varlam CerqeziSvili (1846 1925 ww.) qarTvel anarqistTa
yvelaze mniSvnelovani warmomadgenelia. misTvis miuRebeli
iyo proletariatis diqtatura, radganac, misi azriT, es ar
iqneboda umravlesobis namdvili batonoba umciresobaze da
sabolood ar iqneboda mimarTuli eqspluataciis mospobisa
ken.
v. CerqeziSvilis azriT, arcerTi gabatonebuli klasi, maT
Soris proletariati, Tavisi nebiT ar daTmobs Tavis gabato
nebul mdgomareobas, gamomdinare aqedan, arc Tavisi Tavis
winaaRmdeg wava. amitomac v. CerqeziSvili yovelgvari saxel
mwifo wyobis winaaRmdegi iyo da maT gauqmebas moiTxovda.
swored amis Semdeg da amis safuZvelze, misi azriT, SeiZle
ba damyardes Tavisufali Temebis, Tavisufali asociaciebis
federaciuli kavSiri. v. CerqeziSvils sazogadoebis mmar
Tvelobis mxolod aseTi forma miaCnda misaRebad, sadac ada
mians SeeZlo normalurad ecxovra.
arCil jorjaZe (1872 1913 ww.) axali drois gamoCenili
qarTveli moazrovne iyo, romelmac, miuxedavad xanmokle si
cocxlisa, mdidari da mravalmxrivi memkvidreoba dagvitova.
261

mis sicocxleSive gamoica TxzulebaTa oTxi tomi da mis mi


erve momzadebuli iyo V tomi.
gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos a. jorjaZis is Txzulebe
bi, romlebic qarTveli xalxis warmoSobas, ganviTarebas da
raobas exeba. misi Sromebidan cxadad mosCans, rom is kargad
da safuZvlian
ad icnobda qarTveli eris warmoSoba-ganviTa
rebis ZiriTad tendenciebs, rac mas saSualebas aZlevda anga
riSsawevi prognozebi gaekeTebina Cveni qveynis momavalTan
dakavSirebiT.
a. jorjaZis Semoqmedebis aranakleb mniSvnelovani mxarea
publicisturi memkvidreoba, romelic exeba ilia WavWavaZis
Semoqmedebas, qarTveli inteligenciis istorias, filosofi
isa da religiis mimarTebas da sxva. filosofiur SromebTan
erTad a. jorjaZis publicisturma memkvidreobam didi gav
lena moaxdina XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli kritikuli da
sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebaze.
mixako wereTeli (1878 1965 ww.). gamoCenili qarTveli mo
azrovne, romelmac Tavisi cxovrebis ZiriTadi nawili sazR
vargareT gaatara. igi mravalmxrivi moRvawe iyo (astrologi,
filosofosi, sociologi). m. wereTlis Sromebis umravleso
ba sazRvargareTaa gamocemuli. CvenSi mas gansakuTrebuli
aRiareba moutana 1910 wels TbilisSi gamocemulma gamokvle
vam `eri da kacobrioba~.
`eri da kacobrioba~ umniSvnelovanesi sociologiuri ga
mokvlevaa, sadac mkvlevari Tanmimdevrulad ixilavs sazoga
doebis arss, kacobriobis cnebas, erisa da sazogadoebis mimar
Tebas, xalxs, ersa da saxelmwifos. am naSromSi kritikuladaa
ganxiluli imdroindeli Teoriebi eris Sesaxeb.
gamokvlevis dasasruls m. wereTeli aanalizebs qarTveli
eris cnebas, ganixilavs mas istoriul ganviTarebaSi da dasas
ruls akeTebs daskvnas, romlis Tanaxmadac qarTveli eri iyo,
aris da iqneba rogorc `gansazRvruli, konkretuli socialuri
organizmi, romelsac iseTive ufleba aqvs sicocxlisa, rogorc
yvelas, didsa Tu pataras, brwyinvalesa Tu daqveiTebulsa~.
262

XX sauk
unis qarTuli filosofia
XX saukunis qarTveli filosofosebis mecnierul kvlevas
didi daRi daasva sabWouri reJimis zewolam. amas isic daer
To, rom bevri maTgani bolSevikuri represiebis msxverpli
gaxda. miuxedavad amisa, maT mainc SeZles sakuTari filoso
fiur
i Sexedulebebis Camoyalibeba.
XX saukunis qarTuli filosofiis ganviTareba, ZiriTa
dad, dakavSirebulia Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
gaxsnasTan (1918 w.), sadac male Camoyalibda `petriwis saxe
lobis filosofiuri sazogadoeba~; amas mohyva S. nucubiZis
filosofiuri seminarebi. yvelaferma ki ganapiroba qarTu
li filosofiur
i azrovnebis gansakuTrebuli aRmavloba,
rac upirvelesad dakavSirebulia Salva nucubiZis, dimitri
uznaZis, sergi danelias, mose gogiberiZis, kita megreliZis,
konstantine kapanelis, konstantine baqraZisa da savle we
reTlis saxelebTan.
S. nucubiZes (1888 1969 ww.) didi aRiareba moutana jer ki
dev 1913 wels rusulad gamoqveynebulma gamokvlevam `bol
cano da mecnierebis Teor
ia~. Tbilisis universitetis gax
snis Semdeg, S. nucubiZe, rogorc erT-erTi damaarsebeli
universitetisa, aqtiur filosofiur da sazogadoebriv moR
vaweobas eweva. sul male TbilisSi qveyndeba misi sami Sro
ma: `filosofiis Sesavali~, `aleTologiis safuZvlebi~ da
`logika~, romlebSic ZiriTadad gadmocemulia S. nucubiZis
filosofiuri msoflmxedvelobis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba.
`aleTologiis safuZlebSi~ S. nucubiZem SeimuSava sakuTari
Teoria WeSmaritebis problemaze (aleTologia berZnulad
niSnavs moZRvrebas WeSmaritebaze). am Teoriis Camoyalibeba
ganapiroba kantisa da kantianuri filosofiis im gadauWrel
ma problemam, rasac transcendenturisa da imanenturis (Se
mecnebis obieqtisa da Semmecnebeli subieqtis) damokidebu
lebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. am damokidebulebas `Catexili
xidis~ problema ewodeba, romlis mixedviTac subieqti vera
263

sodes gava Tavisi imanenturi SesaZleblobidan da ver daad


gens transcendenturis Sesaxeb WeSmaritebas.
S. nucubiZis Teor
iis mixedviT, arsebobs `WeSmarite
ba TavisTavad~, romelic pirobaa `WeSmaritebisa CvenTvis~,
xolo meores mxriv, CvenTvis WeSmariteba TviT aris piroba
`WeSmaritebisa TavisTavad~. amiT Semecnebis obieqti da Sem
mecnebeli subieqti erTimeores emTxveva da Catexili xidis
problema ixsneba. filosofiaSi yovelTvis arsebobs sadao
problemebi, romelzec erTiani azris miReba SeuZlebelia.
swored aseT sakiTxs ganekuTvneba WeSmaritebis problema fi
losofiaSi, romelzec Tavisi gabeduli pozicia Camoayaliba
im dros sruliad axalgazrda mecnierma Salva nucubiZem.
S. nucubiZe ramdenime wliT sazRvargareT miemgzavreba,
sadac germanul enaze aqveynebs or umniSvnelovanes gamok
vlevas: `WeSmariteba da Semecnebis struqtura~ (1926 w.) da
`filosofia da sibrZne~ (1931 w.). am SromebSi didi interesiT
Sexvdnen evropeli mecnierebi.
mniSvnelovania S. nucubiZis Rvawli xelovnebis Teoriis
problemebis damuSavebaSi, romlebic gadmocemulia mis naS
romSi `xelovnebis Teor
ia, monisturi esTetikis safuZvle
bi~ (naw. I, Tb. 1920 w.). Tavisi Semoqmedebis meore periodi S.
nucubiZem mTlianad qarTuli kulturis problemebis kvle
va-Ziebas miuZRvna. am periodSi wamoayena man aRmosavluri
renesansis Teoria, petre iberisa da fsevdodionise areopa
gelis identobis koncefcia da Camoayaliba qarTvelologiis
axali dargi qarTuli filosofiis istoria.
gamoCenil qarTvel fsiqologs, ganwyobis Teoriis fuZem
debels dimitri uznaZes (1886 1950 ww.) didi wvlili miuZR
vis qarTuli filosofiuri azris gaRrmaveba-ganviTarebaSi.
misi Sromebi `vl. soloviov
i misi Semecnebis Teoria da me
tafizika~ (hale, 1909 w.), `ra aris Semecnebis Teoria?~, `omis
filosofia~ da gansakuTrebiT monografiuli gamokvleva
`anri bergsoni~ (Tb. 1920 w.) uaxlesi drois qarTuli filoso
fiis umniSvnelovanesi SenaZenia. d. uznaZes ekuTvnis agreTve
264

gamokvlevebi: `n. baraTaSvilis liris motivebi`, `n. baraTaS


vilis Semoqmedebis ganviTareba~, `gandgomilobis problema
i. WavWavaZis `gandegilSi~ da sxva. es naSromebi, faqtobrivad,
warmoadgenda qarTuli literaturuli memkvidreobis fi
losofiuri poziciidan ganxilvis erT-erT pirvel da warma
tebul cdas.
Zalian didi roli iTamaSa dimitri uznaZis ganwyobis Te
oriam Tanamedrove filosofiis mniSvnelovani problemebis
axsnis saqmeSi. cnobieri da aracnobieri fsiqikis kanonzomi
erebis kvlevis Sedegebi, romelic dimitri uznaZem zogadi
da eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis safuZvlebSi Camoayaliba,
dasayrdens iZleva aixsnas mravali filosofiuri proble
ma, romelic dakavSirebulia, rogorc gnoseologiur, aseve
aqsiologiur sakiTxebTan. davasaxelebT ramdenime sakiTxs:
ra obieqturi da subieqturi motivebi iwveven pirovnebis aq
tivobas? ra aris am aqtivobis sazrisi, anu ra aris adamianis
sicocxlis azri da cxovrebis mizani? subieqtis aqtivobis
procesSi aracnobieri faqtoria gadamwyveti, Tu cnobieri
faqtori? da sxva.
am problemis kvlevas didi yuradReba dauTmo aw gansve
nebulma qarTvelma filosofosma, profesorma apolon Se
roziam, romelic mis ortomeulSi aisaxa. a. Serozias inicia
tiviT da xelmZRvanelobiT TbilisSi Catarda saerTaSoriso
samecniero simpoziumi aracnobieri fsiqikis problemebze,
sadac centraluri adgili daeTmo d. uznaZis ganwyobis Teo
rias. simpoziumSi monawileobdnen msoflios gamoCenili fsi
qologebi da filosofosebi. misi masalebi rusul, inglisur,
germanul da frangul enebze daibeWda oTx tomad (1978 w.).
d. uznaZis ganwyobis Teoria ufro Rrma filosofiur Seswav
las da gaazrebas saWiroebs.
sergi danelias (1887 1963 ww.) saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli
filosofiis istoriis mecnieruli kvlevis dawyeba saqarTve
loSi. am mxriv sayuradReboa Sromebi: `antikuri filosofia
sokratemde~ (1925 w.), `qsenofone kolofonelis filosofia~
265

(1925 w.) da `sokrates filosofia~ (1930 w.). safuZvlian Sro


mebs warmoadgenen misi gamokvlevebi atomistur filosofia
ze, kantis cxovrebaze da moRvaweobaze. s. danelias ekuTvnis
aristoteles `poetikis~ qarTuli Targmani da masze darTu
li vrceli Sesavali werili. manve qarTulad Targmna dekar
tis `metafizikuri ganazrebani~. calke aRniSvnis Rirsia misi
`vaJa-fSavela da qarTveli eri~, `gamokvlevebi msoflio da
rusuli literaturis klasikaze~ da a. S.
sergi danelias filosofiuri naSromebi gamoirCeva Rrma
analiziT da damajereblobiT. am kuTxiT gansakuTrebiT aR
saniSnavia misi `sokrates filosofia~. yvelasaTvis cnobi
lia, rom Tavad sokrates werilobiT araferi dautovebia.
mis Sesaxeb filosofosebi msjeloben misi mowafeebis qseno
fantes, platonis da aristoteles Txzulebebis mixedviT.
swored maT SromebSia sokrates filosofiuri Sexedule
bebi Camoyalibebuli, magram maTi naazrevi zogierT sakiTx
Si erTimeores ar emTxveva. amis gamo, filosofiis istoriis
mkvlevarni gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs gamoTqvamen sokra
tes pirovnebaze da mis filosofiaze. sergi danelia Rrmad
aanalizebs yvela pozicias, iZleva maT Sefasebas da ayali
bebs sakuTar azrs sokrates pirovnebaze da mis filosofiur
Sexedulebebze. Sefasebis kriteriumad mas sokrates cxovre
ba da misi bedi miaCnia. aqedan gamomdinare mecnieri askvnis,
Tu rogori unda yofiliyo sokrate da rogori iyo is.
mose gogiberiZis (1897 1951 ww.) umniSvnelovanes filo
sofiur Sromebs warmoadgenen `ainStainis relatiurobis Te
oria da misi filosofiuri safuZvlebi~ (1924 w.), `Semecnebis
aqsiomaturi dasabami~ (1926 w.), `Semecnebis sagnis problema~
(1928 w.) da sxva. aRniSnul SromebSi mose gogiberiZem Seim
u
Sava sakuTari filosofiuri Sexeduleba usasrulo samyaros
sasrulo logikuri meTodebiT Semecnebis Sesaxeb da mas aq
siomaturi meTodi uwoda. aq mTavari yuradReba eTmoba cno
bierebisagan damoukidebeli yofierebis arsis struqturis
gaazrebis da adamianis azrovnebis raobas, riTac man unda ga
266

moxatos yofierebis usasruloba. amasTanave, m. gogiberiZe


erT-erTi pirvelTagania, vinc qarTuli kulturis nimuSebis
(`vefxistyaosani~, nikoloz baraTaSvilis `merani~, zaqaria
faliaSvilis musikis da sxva) filosofiuri analizi mogvca.
qarTuli filosofiuri da sociologiuri azris ganvi
TarebaSi didi damsaxureba miuZRvis kita megreliZes (1900
1944 ww.). man, sruliad axalgazrdam, moamzada safuZvliani
gamokvleva `azrovnebis sociologiis ZiriTadi probleme
bi~, romlis gamocemac Tavis droze SeCerebul iqna da dRis
sinaTle TiTqmis 30 wlis Semdeg ixila.
adamian
is azrovnebis specifikis gasagebad man airCia so
cialuri garemos yovelmxrivi gaazreba. k. megreliZe ikvlevs
ara mxolod qarTuli azrovnebis socialur problemebs, ara
med is swavlobs azrovnebis socialur bunebas farTo mniS
vnelobiT. mas miaCnia, rom azrovnebis Seswavla unda moxdes
kompleqsurad. am mizniT, is emyareba enaTmecnierebis, an
Tropologiis, fsiqologiis, logikis, eTnologiis da sxva
mecnierebaTa gamokvlevebs. misTvis kritikis obieqtia iseTi
calmxrivi filosofiuri sistemebi, rogoricaa naturaliz
mi, empirizmi, racionalizmi, romlebic azrovnebas Seiswav
lian romelime kuTxiT da iviwyeben mis mTlianobiT bunebas.
megreliZis kvlevis ZiriTadi meTodia istorizmi, romliTac
is adgens azrovnebis uwyvetobis kavSirs materialur da su
lier kulturasTan mimarTebaSi.
konstantine kapanelis (1989 1952 ww.) naSromSi `tanjvis
idea da zekacis poez
ia qarTul literaturaSi~ ganxilulia
nikoloz baraTaSvilisa da vaJa-fSavelas poezia. wignSi `qar
Tuli kulturis genezisi~ kapanelma scada qarTuli kultu
ris gaazreba sociologiis principebis gamoyenebiT.
k. kapanelma SeimuSava organotropizmis Teoria, romel
zec didi gavlena iqonia nicSes moZRvrebam da biologistur
ma sociologiam. misi msoflmxedveloba sicocxlis filoso
fiis iracionalistur principebzea damyarebuli, romelic
uaryofs istoriis sazriss. Kk. kapanelis azriT, istorias
267

sazrisi ar aqvs imis gamo, rom mas ara aqvs gonieri miznisaken
mimarTuleba, ara aqvs kanonzomiereba da amdenad is progre
sulic ver iqneba, rasac racionalizmi progress uwodebs,
is k. kapanels regresad miaCnia. misi azriT, sazogadoebrivi
cxovreba, misi socialuri da moraluri wesebi da kanonebi
zRudaven adamianis sasicocxlo impulsebis gamovlenas da
Tavisuflebas arTmeven individis Semoqmedebas. individis da
pirovnebis Tavisufleba ki mdgomareobs misi biologiuri im
pulsebis (biologiuri siamovnebis) SeuzRudvel ganxorci
elebaSi. amitom ideebi adamianisaTvis sxva araferia, Tu ara
biologiur
i instinqtebis gagrZeleba arsebobisaTvis brZo
laSi. organotropizmis dedaarsi swored imaSia, rom uCvenos
kulturisa da civilizaciis uaryofiTi gavlena adamianis
Tavisuflebaze. sicocxlis filosofiis es saWirboroto sa
kiTxi warmoadgens Tanamedrove eqsistencializmis centra
lur problemas.
kote baqraZem (1900 1970 ww.) filosofiur
i ganaTle
ba germaniaSi miiRo. is leqciebs ismenda, mogvianebiT ki mu
Saobda gamoCenil filosofosebTan: huserlTan, rikertTan,
haidegerTan. misi kvlevis ZiriTadi sfero iyo filosofiis
istoria, logika, Semecnebis Teor
ia. Kk. baqraZes didi wvlili
miuZRvis germanuli klasikuri filosofiis istoriis, dia
leqtikis Teoriisa da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis da
muSavebaSi. misi Sromebi `dialeqtikis problema germanul
idealizmSi~ (1920 w.) da `sistema da meTodi hegelis filoso
fiaSi~ (1936 w.) imTaviTve cxare kamaTis sagani gaxda, Semdgom
ki klasikur gamokvlevebad iqna miCneuli.
Tavis fundamentur gamokvlevebSi kote baqraZem safuZ
vlian
ad daam
uSava germanuli klasikuri filosofiis kori
feebis kantis, fixtes, Selingis da hegelis filosofia da
sakuTari koncefcia Seqmna. kerZod, man Camoayaliba dialeq
tikuri meTodis memkvidreobiTi ganviTarebis idea, romelic
kantidan iwyeba da hegelis dialeqtikiT mTavrdeba. k. baqra
Zem gaakritika is moazrovneebi, romlebic ver xedavdnen igi
268

veobas germanuli klasikuri filosofiis warmomadgenlebSi


da izolirebul sistemebad ganixilavdnen maT.
kote baqraZe iyo Tanamedrove filosofiis ZiriTadi mim
dinareobebis neok
antianelobis, fenomenologiis, pragma
tizmis, eqsistencializmis safuZvliani mkvlevari. amasTan
erTad, is iyo logikis saxelmZRvanelos avtori. moRvaweobis
bolo wlebSi k. baqraZem gamoaqveyna: `axali filosofiis is
toria~(1969 w.), romelSic araerTi sakiTxi metad saintere
sod gaiazra.
dialeqtikis Teor
iis problemebis kvlevas didi Rvawli
dasdo savle wereTelma (1907 1966 ww.). misi mravalwliani
Ziebis Sedegs warmoadgens fundamenturi gamokvleva `di
leqtikuri logika~ (1970 w.). manamde man gamoaqveyna dialeq
tikis Teor
iis problemebisadmi miZRvnili araerTi naSro
mi, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia: `dasabuTebis sawyisi~ (1963 w.)
da `logikuri kavSiris dialeqtikuri bunebis Sesaxeb~ (1965
w.). s. wereTelma ganaviTara originaluri Teoria usasrulo
daskvnis Sesaxeb. am Teor
iis ZiriTadi arsi Semdegia: usasru
lo daskvna azris umaRlesi formaa, is sapirispiro azrebis
erTian
obaa anu TviTdadgenaa Sinagani uaryofis gziT. es di
aleqtikuri meTodi winaaRmdegobis urTierTobis meTodia,
romelze umaRlesic SeuZlebelia. aseve SeuZlebelia winaaR
mdegobis erTianobis uaryofa. aseTi ram formalur logika
Si gamoricxulia, radgan misi ZiriTadi kanonia winaaRmdego
bis SeuZlebloba. aq ar SeiZleba erTsa da imave dros saganze
vamtkicoT ori sapirispiro gamomricxavi azri.
paralelurad s. wereTeli intensiurad muSaobda antiku
ri filosofiis problemebze, rac Sejamda mis naSromSi `an
tikuri filosofiis istoria~ (1968 w.).
XX-is 60-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi intensiuri Ses
wavlis sagani xdeba adamianis filosofiuri problemebi.
am saqmeSi didi wvlili Seitana angia boWoriSvilma (1902
1982 ww.). misi uSualo iniciativiT filosofiis institutSi
Camoyalibda filosofiuri anTropologiis ganyofileba.
269

a. boWoriSvili avtoria `fsiqologiis principuli safuZ


vlebis~ samtomeulisa, sadac fsiqologiis filosofiuri
problemebia ganxiluli. manve araerTi mniSvnelovani ga
mokvleva miuZRvna kantis esTetikas, huserlis fenomeno
logias da dasavleTis sxva gamoCenili moazrovneTa Semoq
medebas.
qarTuli filosofiuri azris istoriis SeswavlaSi S. nuce
biZis tradiciebi gaagrZela Salva xidaSelma (1910 1994 ww.).
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi wvlili adreuli perio
dis (Zveli droidan rusTavelis epoqis CaTvliT) qarTuli fi
losofiis sakvanZo sakiTxebis damuSavebaSi, rac Tavmoyrilia
mis fundamentur naSromSi `qarTuli filosofiis istoria~
(1988 w.). S. xidaSelis Sromebi yuradRebas imsaxurebs imiTac,
rom maTSi adreuli periodis qarTuli filosofia ganxiluli
da Sefasebulia aqsiologiis poziciidan.
S. xidaSelma gaaRrmava da ganaviTara S. nucubiZis qarTuli
renesansis koncefcia, safuZvlianad gamoikvlia renesansis
filosofiur
i safuZvlis sakiTxi, romelsac miuZRvna speci
aluri Sromebi (`rusTavelis msoflmxedvelobis sakiTxebi~,
`neoplatonizmis Teor
ia rusTvelologiaSi~).
calke aRniSvnis Rirsia qarTvel filosofosTa miRwevebi
logikis mecnierebis problemebis damuSavebaSi, rasac saqar
TveloSi didi xnis tradicia aqvs. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom
50-iani wlebis sabWoTa kavSirSi swored qarTvelma logikoseb
ma wamoiwyes diskusia logikis aqtualur sakiTxebze, romleb
sac saerTaSoriso rezonansi mohyva. kote baqraZesa da savle
wereTelTan erTad formaluri, dialeqtikuri da maTemati
kuri logikis problemebis damuSavebaSi mniSvelovani wvlili
Seitanes grigol kalandariSvilma (1906 1965 ww.), levan goki
elma (1901 1975 ww.) da zurab miqelaZem (1916 1993 ww.).
Tamaz buaCiZe (1930 2001 ww.) filosofiur mecniereba
Ta doqtori, profesori, filosofiis institutis direqto
ri; saqarTvelos filosofiuri sazogadoebis Tavmjdoma
re; Jurnal `macnes~ filosofiis seriis mTavari redaqtori;
270

T. buaCiZe SesaniSnavi pedagogi da moazrovne iyo. mM isi audito


ria, rogorc wesi, ver itevda leqciebze daswrebis msurvelebs.
T. buaCiZis samecniero interesebis centrSi filosofiuri
anTropologiis sakiTxebi idga, rasac araerTi monografia mi
uZRvna (`Tanamedrove burJuaziuli filosofiis saTaveebTan~;
`sicocxlis filosofia~). urTulesi filosofiuri probleme
bis Rrma da naTeli xedvisa da damajerebeli gadawyvetis Sesa
niSnavma unarma T. buaCiZe didi xnis win aqcia Cveni qveynis erTerT wamyvan da sayovelTaod aRiarebul mecnierad.
vaxtang erqomaiSvili (1932 2001 ww.) filosofiur mec
nierebaTa doqtori, profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelo
bis saxelmwifo universitetis Teoriuli filosofiis kaTed
ris gamge, filosofiis istoriisa da filosofiis Tanamedrove
problemebis mkvlevari, filosofosTa da sociologTa araerTi
Taobis aRmzrdeli. mM isi ZiriTadi Sromebia: `WeSmaritebis Sesa
xeb neopozitivistur SexedulebaTa kritika~, `jon smitis Teo
ria mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb~, `empirizmi da abstraqciis problema~,
`ena da metyveleba~, `adamianis Tavisuflebisa da pasuxismgeb
lobis problema~, `filosofiis tragedia~, `bedisweris Teoria
da misi uaryofiTi Sedegebi~, `adamiani mecnierulteqnikuri
revoluciis epoqaSi~, `samoqalaqo sazogadoeba~, `kote baqraZis
filosofiuri Sexedulebani~, `eri da ideologia~ da sxva.
aRniSnuli gamokvlevebi dawerilia SesaniSnavi qarTuliT.
gamoirCeva sisadaviT, problemis arsisa da misi istoriis axle
buri, siRrmiseuli gaazrebiT.
aRsaniSnavia v. erqomaiSvilis pedagogiuri moRvaweoba. misi
leqciebi xasiaTdeboda problemis srulyofili garCeviT da
analizis sicxadiT. mM an araerTi pirovneba aziara filosofiur
mecnierebas da daexmara mas cxovrebis gzis arCevaSi.
merab mamardaSvili (1930 1991 ww.) filosofiis mecniere
baTa doqtori, profesori. garkveuli periodi muSaobda Jur
nal `voprosi filosofiis~ (moskovi), Jurnal `problemi mira i
socializmas~ (praRa) redaqciebSi, agreTve moskovis samecnie
ro kvleviT institutSi.
271

1980 wels merab mamardaSvili gadmodis TbilisSi, saqar


Tvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis filosofiis institutSi.
oficial
uri xelisuflebis mier devnili, Seviwroebuli mo
azrovne, romlis wignebs ar beWdavdnen da leqciebis wakiTx
vis nebas ar aZlevdnen, ver aiZules wasuliyo sazRvargareT
emigraciaSi.
sakvanZo problema, romelic aerTianebs m. mamardaSvilis
sakmaod mravalmxriv filosofiur moRvaweobas, cnobiere
bis, azrovnebis filosofiuri problemaa. am problemis ori
ginaluri xedvis wyalobiT m. mamardaSvilma Tavisi wvlili
Seit
ana sazogadod Teor
iuli filosofiis, mecnierebis me
Todologiis, istoriisa da socialuri folosofiis, kul
turisa da adamianis filosofiis, esTetikis, filosofiis is
toriis sakiTxTa kvlevaSi.
Mmerab mamardaSvilis ZiriTad naSromTa nusxa aseTia: `sim
bolo da kultura (metafizikuri msjeloba cnobierebaze,
simbolikasa da enaze)~ (ierusalimi, 1982); `racionalobis
klasikuri da araklasikuri idealebi~ (Tbilisi, 1984); `az
rovnebis formebi da Sinaarsi (Semecnebis formaTa hegelise
uli moZRvrebis kritika)~ (moskovi, 1968).
m. mamardaSvili Tavis kvlevaSi ZiriTadad eyrdnoba kla
sikur tradicias gansakuTrebiT platonis, dekartis, kan
tis naazrevs. Aam sami filosofosis koncefciaTa ganxilvas
man miuZRvna fundamenturi naSromebi `antikuri filoso
fia~, `kartezianuli ganazrebani~ da `kantianuri variaciebi~.
m. mamardaSvili filosofiis urTules sakiTxebze fiq
robda, magram misTvis filosofia cxovrebisagan gaqcevis
saSual
eba ki ar iyo, aramed cxovrebis orientirebis Zieba.
amitomac TvalsaCino mkvlevari sanimuSo moqalaqec brZan
deboda. misma mecnierulma moRvaweobam farTo saerTaSori
so aRiareba hpova.
niko WavWavaZe (1923 1997 ww.) filosofosi, politikosi
da sazogado moRvawe, filosofiur mecnierebaTa doqtori,
profesori, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-ko
272

respondenti. 30 wlis manZilze xelmZRvanelobda saqarTve


los mecnierebaTa akademiis s. wereTlis sax. filosofiis
instituts saqarTveloSi. misi xelSewyobiTa da TaosnobiT
ganviTarda filosofiuri anTropologia, kulturis filo
sofia, aqsiologia. n. WavWavaZis garSemo gaerTianda axal
gazrda, progresulad moazrovne filosofosTa Taoba,
romelsac Semdgom `axali filosofiuri talRis~ saxeliT
moixseniebdnen ara mxolod imdroindel sabWoTa samecniero
wreebSi, aramed ucxoeTSic. es iyo mTeli epoqa, romelmac da
tova `kvali naTeli~.
misi ZiriTadi Sromebia: `esTetikis sakiTxebi~, `esTetiku
ri sagnis bunebisaTvis~, `kultura da Rirebulebebi~.
klasikuri Tanamedrove filosofiis, logikis, eTikisa da
esTetikis, filosofiuri anTropologiis
a da kulturis fi
losofiis problemebis damuSavebaSi TvalsaCino miRwevebi
hqondaT bolo xanebSi gardacvlil qarTvel filosofosebs:
apolon Serozias, zurab kakabaZes, aleqsandre frangiSvils,
vaJa gogoberiSvils, daviT gegeSiZes, arCil begiaSvils, av
Tandil popiaSvils, eduard koduas da sxvebs. maTi Semoqme
debis Seswavla da qarTuli filosofiuri azris istoriaSi
maTi adgilis dadgena, momavlis saqmea. filosofiis sxva
dasxva problemebs swavloben da dResac nayofierad iRwvian
Rvawlmosili mecnierebi: guram TevzaZe, sergi avaliani, meri
WeliZe, napo kvaracxelia da sxva.

273

danarTi
(sakiTxavi masala)

`mokvdi, raTa ar scodo~!


netari avgustine
kacobriobis sulier goniTi gamocdileba gvidastu
rebs, rom sicocxlis cneba sxvadasxvanair
ad esmodaT. pirve
li berZeni filosofosebi bunebas, mTel plastikur kosmoss
gacocxlebulad warmoidgendnen. maT swored sicocxle miaC
ndaT samyaros Sinagani aqtivobisa da TviTmoqmedebis prin
cipad. bunebis aRmniSvneli sityva `fiusis~ xom imas niSnavs,
rac garedan Carevis gareSe, sakuTari Tavidan aRmocendeba
da amoizrdeba. mogvianebiT sicocxlis aseT kosmiur-univer
salur gagebas `hiloZoizmi~ ewoda.
sxvagvarad esmis sicocxle Tanamedrove biologiis mecni
erebas. sicocxle aq aracocxal samyarosTan dapirispireba
Si moia zreba. yvelaze zogadi gansazRvrebiT, sicocxle aris
individis Sinagani TviTaqtivoba arsebobisa da TviTgadarCe
nisaTvis, rac, upirveles yovlisa, garemosTan nivTierebaTa
cvlisa da gamravlebis procesSi gamoixateba. maSin, rodesac
aracocxali samyaro inertulia (es ZiriTadi principi Tavis
droze niutonma Camoayaliba), sicocxle Tavisi bunebiT an
tiinertulia.
aracocxal bunebas, fizikur sxeulTa samyaros, garegani
inerciis principi ganagebs, xolo sicocxles Sinagani Tvi
Taqtivobis principi marTavs da gansazRvravs.
sicocxlis aseTi gansazRvra sikvdilis Sesatyvis gage
bas gulisxmobs. ra aris sikvdili? igi aris sicocxlis Sewy
veta. yoveli individis arseboba gaCenasa da mospobas, daba
debasa da gardacvalebas Soris aris moqceuli. sikvdili ar
aris raRac damoukidebeli, TviTmyofadi arsi, rogorc amas
folkloruli cnobiereba warmoidgens. igi sicocxlis ganu
274

yofeli nawilia, Tanac yvelaze mniSvnelovani da damagvir


gvinebeli nawili. amaod imSvideben Tavs epikurelebi, sikvdi
li da sicocxle arasdros Sexvdebian erTmaneTso. aba, rogor
Sexvdebian isini erTmaneTs, roca mudam erTad arian.
sul sxvanairad ganicdeba sikvdili adamianuri cnobie
rebis doneze. saSinelebaa ara TviTon sikvdili, rogorc si
cocxlis Sewyvetis biologiuri faqti, aramed masze dafiq
reba da misi eqsistencialuri gancda. adamianebi eridebian
sikvdilze saubars. isini cxovrebis yoveldRiur fusfusSi
CarTulni, saguldagulod iviwyeben da Cqmalaven mas.
erTi mxriv, samyaros arsze dafiqreba Cvens gaognebasa da
gakvirvebas iwvevs, rac platonsa da aristoteles filoso
fosobis dasabamad miaCndaT, meore mxriv, samyaroSi adamianis
bedze, mis metafizikur mdgomareobaze fiqri sasowarkveTasa
da imedgacruebaSi gvagdebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom religiurfilosofiuri azrovneba sakuTriv am gakvirveba-sasowarkve
Tam warmoSva. kantsac xom es ori ram ancvifrebda: `varskvla
viebiT moWedili ca Cvens zeviT da moraluri kanoni CvenSi~.
filosofiis TvalTaxedvaSi adamian
is sicocxle didad
samwuxaro da tragikul gaugebrobad gamoiyureba. SemaZrwu
nebelia da Tavzardamcemi imaze dafiqreba, rom adamianuri
individebi sikvdilisaTvis ibadebian. adamiani sikvdilze mi
marTuli yofnaa (haidegeri). sicocxle imTaviTve sasikvdi
lo seniTaa daavadebuli (kirkegori). yvelaze saSineli is
aris, rom am uazrobasa da absurds, hegelis sityvebiT, cud
usasrulobas, bolo ar uCans. marTlac, sikvdili adamianis
cxovrebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani xdomilebaa, romlis gareSe
es cxovreba ar CaiTvleba dasrulebulad. amitomac iTqmis:
adamian
i aResrulao.
magram es sikvdilis mxolod erTi aspeqtia. mas SeiZleba
sxva mxridanac SevxedoT, romelsac misi pozitiuri mxare Se
iZleba vuwodoT. sikvdilis fenomenis amgvar ganxilvas pla
tonma Cauyara safuZveli, roca filosofia sikvdilisaTvis
mzadebad gamoacxada da amiT mis did SemecnebiT da moralur
275

daniSnulebaze miuTiTa. sakuTar ideaTa Teoriasa da agreTve


piTagorelTa moZRvrebaze dayrdnobiT, platoni qmnis gran
diozul miTs sulis ukvdavebisa da maradiulobis Sesaxeb.
platons sikvdili esmis rogorc sulis gayra sxeulisagan
da amiT mis unikalur, SemecnebiT Rirebulebaze miuTiTebs.
`fedonSi~ igi wers: `Znelad saval biliks mivuyvebiT Cven Zi
ebisas da vidre sxeulisgan ar ganvZarculvarT, vidre suli
ar gahyria am borotebas, mTeli sisruliT verasodes miv
wvdebiT mas, rasac veswrafviT, verasodes mivwvdebiT WeSma
ritebas, vinaid
an suli yvelaze kargad azrovnebs maSin, roca
araferi amRvrevs mas, arc smena, arc mzera, arc tkivili, arc
sixaruli, roca iZarcvis da, SeZlebisamebr, Tavisufldeba
sxeul
isagan da Tavis TavSi oden STenili miiqceva arsebulis
Wvretad~. platoni sxeuls sulis sapyrobiles uwodebs da ra
unda iyos sikvdilze ufro didi sikeTe, romelic am sapyrobi
lisagan gvaTavisuflebs, ideaTa WeSmarit samyaros Wvretad
migvaqcevs da amiT umaRles sibrZnesa da sikeTes gvaziarebs.
sikvdilis moraluri Rirebuleba da funqcia, upirveles
yovlisa, imaSi gamoixateba, rom is sicocxlis SezRudvas, sa
sicocxlo instinqtebis alagmvas da maSasadame, garkveuli
azriT, mis uaryofa-gadalaxvas gulisxmobs. budas moZRvre
bidan gamomdinare, Sopenhaueri mas sicocxlis nebis uaryo
fas uwodebs. swored aq SeiZleba davinaxoT moralis Sinagani
kavSiri sikvdilis fenomenTan. moraluri SezRudvis gareSe
sicocxle autaneli gaxdeboda da TviTdinebaze miSvebuli,
igi Tavis Tavs mospobda. sicocxle adamianur doneze imiT
gansxvavdeba yvela sxva danarCenisagan, rom mas sulierebis
Saravandedi adgas, sulierebisa, romlis birTvs zneoba Sead
gens. yvela eTikur-religiuri moZRvreba amitomac Seicavs
askezas garkveul elements.
Cveulebriv adamianebi ver xedaven Sinagan kavSirs sik
vdilsa da zneobas Soris. isini, aTasgvari sacduriT moxib
lulni da mojadoebulni, saguldagulod cdiloben zneobis
xmis CaxSobas da sikvdilis daviwyebas. samwuxarod, sikvdilis
276

cnobierebam amitomac ver moaxdina jerovani zegavlena ada


mianis zneobriv srulyofaze. man elementaruli samarTli
anobac ki ver daamyara adamianTa socialuri Tanacxovrebis
sferoSi. samarTlianoba xom sazogadoebis Semadgenel indi
vidTa garkveul wonasworobasa da Tanasworobas gulisxmobs.
man junglis kanonebi socialur sferoze gadmoitana da mas
sabazro ekonimikasa da Tavisufal konkurencias uwodebs.
filosofiis erT-erTi daniSnuleba isic aris, rom saqme
Si CaZirul da cxovrebis mowyobiT garTul adamianebs romis
erT-erTi imperatoriviT xSirad Seaxsenos sikvdili: `momen
to mori~.
sakacobrio kulturis mTeli gamocdileba imas gvkarna
xobs, rom kacTa modgmis yvelaze didi qmnileba zneobrivad
srulyofili adamiania. civilizacias mxolod imdenad aqvs
Rirebuleba, ramdenadac igi adamianis zneobrivi srulqmnis
am did mizans emsaxureba. adamiani zneobrivi arsebaao, ambo
ben, magram ufro swori iqneboda gveTqva: adamiani zneobriv
arsebad yofnis mxolod SesaZleblobaa. mas jer kidev sinam
dviled ar uqcevia es SesaZlebloba. adamianma mTeli Tavisi
arsebobiTa da zneobrivi cxovrebis wesiT unda daadasturos
am SesaZleblobis namdviloba, rac amasTanave sikvdil-si
cocxlis miRma gasvlasa da sulier-goniT samyaroSi damkvid
rebis winapiroba iqneba.
napo kvaracxelia

`filosofosoba sasikvdilod
mzadebas niSnavs~

ciceroni

mTeli amqveyniuri sibrZnis, mTeli Cveni bWobisa da msje


lobis saboloo daniSnuleba is gaxlavT, rom viswavloT, ro
277

gor davaRwioT Tavi sikvdilis SiSs. marTlac, yvela erTxmad


aRiar
ebs im azrs, rom Cveni saboloo mizani am SiSis daTrgun
va da bednierebaa. Cveni cxovrebis gzis saboloo wertili,
ukiduresi zRvari aris sikvdili. Tuki is Tavzars gvcems, ro
gorRa SevZlebT imas, rom yovel fexis nabijze cieb cxele
bianiviT ar vcaxcaxebdeT? ubiri kaci gamosavals imaSi eZebs,
rom cdilobs saerTod ar ifiqros sikvdilze, magram, sisu
lelea, ase daivso Tvali.
gasakviri araa, rom amisTana adamiani xSirad ebmeba maxe
Si. Wiris dResaviT ufrTxis imas, rom Tavis saxelTan ar ga
aigivos sikvdili. bevri maTgani am sityvis gagonebaze iseve
isaxavs pirjvars, TiTqos eSmakis saxelisaTvis moekras yuri,
da raki anderZSi aucilebelia sikvdilis xseneba, nu moeliT,
rom vinmes azrad mouva misi Sedgena, sanam eqimi saboloo ga
naCens ar gamoutans.
raki es sityva yurs sWrida romaelebs da misi warmoTqmi
sas raRac avismomaswavebeli elandebodaT, isini yovelna
irad cdilobdnen an SeerbilebinaT, an SeecvalaT igi: nac
vlad imisa, rom eTqvaT `mokvdao~, ambobdnen `sicocxle
daasrulao~ an `sicocxles gamoesalmao~. raki aq ismoda `si
cocxle~, Tundac dasrulebuli da gardasuli, isini cotaTi
mainc inugeSebdnen Tavs. aqedanve warmosdgeboda Cveneburi
gamoTqma `werili waiRo~.
sikvdili erTmaneTisagan ar asxvavebs jeelsa da bebers.
yvela ise emSvidobeba sicocxles, TiTqos es-esaa Semoedgas
fexi amqveynad. amas isic unda davsZinoT, rom SeuZlebelia
TviT yvelaze mixrwnil berikacsac ki, ar mieces imedi, erT
oc weliwads kidev vicocxlebo.
gijobT kargad daukvirdeT yvelafers, rac gars gartyia
da daekiTxo Sensave gamocdilebas: Sen ufro didxans cocx
lob, vidre saerTod cocxloben kacni. daukvirdi Sens nacno
bebs da dainaxav, rom maT Soris SedarebiT cotam miaRwia Sens
asaks. Camowere imaTi sia, vinc SesZlo saxeli moexveWa amqvey
nad da darwmundebi, rom umravlesoba ocdaTxuTmet welsac
278

ki ver ewia. goneba da RvTismosaoba gviwesebs, rom adamianuri


cxovrebis nimuSad ieso qristes cxovrebas vTvlideT, magram
man ocdacameti wlisam daasrula sicocxle. yvelaze didi
adamian
i amjerad igulisxmeba mxolod da mxolod adamia
ni, aleqsandre makedoneli, imave xnisa gardaicvala. mereda
ra veragia sikvdili, alaliviT rom Camogiqrolebs, RmerTma
icis saidan da romeli mxridan. ra sazarelia es sikvdili, es
Secxadeba, mrisxaneba Tu sasowarkveTa ra Tavzardamcemia
es Tavsdatexili ubedureba. arada saWiro iyo adreve efiq
raT amaze, radganac yvelaze mZime kaeSanic ki ver gvifaravs
misgan. bolos da bolos viswavloT, rogor SevegeboT mas
warbSeuxrelad.
CamovaSoroT mas idumalebis saburveli, davukvirdeT
da TandaTan gavuSinaurdeT mas. dResaswaulze, gancxroma
Si, qorwilSi, lxinSi, yovelTvis Cagvesmodes xma, Cvens mware
xvedrs rom mogvagonebs. mTelis arsebiT nurasodes mivece
miT Svebas da lxenas da dro da dro mainc gagvaxsendes, rom
xanmoklea Cveni sixaruli da ramdeni moulodneli ubedu
reba emuqreba Cvens arsebobas. ase iqceodnen egviptelebi,
romlebsac dResaswaulis dros, saucxoo saWmel-sasmelTan
erTad, darbazSi SemohqondaT mumia, raTa sikvdili Seexse
nebinaT stumrebisaTvis. `warmoidgine, rom ukanasknelad gi
naTebs yoveli dRe da netarebad miiTvli TiToeul wams, ro
melsac ukve aRar elodi~ horaciusi.
ar viciT, sad gvisafrdeba sikvdili. maS, modiT, yvelgan
velodoT mas. sikvdilze fiqri Tavisuflebaze fiqrs niS
navs; vinc mieCvia sikvdils, monobas gadaeCvia. sicocxleSi
araviTari boroteba aRar arsebobs misTvis, vinc Seicno, rom
sicocxlesTan gamoTxov
eba sulac ar aris boroteba. rakin
sikvdili gardauvalia, gana sul erTi ar aris, rodis mov
kvdebiT? xom sibriyvea tanjva-wameba im qveynad gadasvlis
gamo, sadac aRar arsebobs araviTari tanjva-wameba?
Cvens dabadebasTan erTad daibada CvenTvis mTeli samya
ro da zustad aseve, mTeli samyaro Cvens sikvdilTan erTad
279

mokvdeba CvenTvis. amitomac tirili imis gamo, rom asi wlis


Semdeg aRar viqnebiT, sibriyvea. sikvdili axali sicocxlis
dasabamia, aseve vtirodiT, aseve vitanjebodiT da aseve vi
ZarcvavdiT Cvens Zvel garss Tu samosels am qveynad mosvli
sas. aryofnisaTvis aRarc xangrZlivoba arsebobs da aRarc
xanmokleoba. aristotele gadmogvcems, rom mdinare hipa
nisis piras binadroben pawawkintela cxovelebi, romlebic
mxolod erT dRes cocxloben. zogi dilis 8 saaTze kvdeba da
isini jer kidev axalgazrdebi arian, xolo saRamos 5 saaTam
de Tu miatans, ukve mixrwnilebi ixocebian. mereda vis ar moh
gvrida damcinav Rimils imis mtkiceba, TiTqos zogierTi am
cxovelTagani bednieri iyos, zogi ki ubeduri maTi sicocx
lis xangrZlivobis Sesabamisad?
Tqveni sikvdili samyaroseuli wesrigis erTi nawilia, es
aris samyaros sicocxlis nawili. gaCenis dRidanve Tqven ise
ve iwyebT sikvdils, rogorc sicocxles. da Tu Tqven ixileT
mxolod erTi dRe, ukve ixileT yvelaferi. erTi dRe yvela
sxva dRis sworia. sicocxlis xangrZlivoba dRegrZelobiT ki
ar izomeba, aramed imiT, Tu rogor moixmareT igi. zogma did
xans icocxla, magram cota icxovra. sicocxlis xangrZlivoba
Tqveni xandazmulobiT ki ar ganisazRvreba, aramed Tqvenive
nebiT. gana yvelaferi ar barbacebs Tqvens irgvliv, rodesac
wabarbacdebiT? gana yvelaferi TqvenTan erTad ar berde
ba? aTasi kaci, aTasi sxva arseba kvdeba imave wams, roca Tqven
kvdebiT. ra azri aqvs ukan daxevas imis winaSe, rasac versad
wauxval, versadad gaeqcevi!
Tqven iciT, rom mravalma kacma sikvdilis wyalobiT did
ubedurebas daaRwia Tavi, magram Tu gsmeniaT, rom sikvdilis
Semdeg ubeduri yofiliyos kaci? didi miamitobaa imis gmo
ba, rac piradad ar gangicdiaT da arc sxvisi gamocdilebiT
iciT. maS, ratomRa vgmobT an me da an Sen bedisweras?
yvela dRe sikvdilisaken migviZRvis da mxolod ukanas
knels mivyavarT masTan.
miSel monteni `cdebi~
280

igavni solomonisa
(fragmentebi)




















igavebi solomonisa, daviTis Zisa, ierusalimis mefisa.


sibrZnisa da Segonebis gasagebad, gonieri naTqvamebis Sesagnebad.
Wkuis, simarTlis, samarTlis da siwrfelis Segonebis
misaRebad.
briyvTaTvis gamWriaxobis, yrmisaTvis codnisa da gonierebis
misaniWeblad.
gaigonos brZenma da sibrZne Seematos, mcodnem SeiZinos
Tavgzianoba.
rom mixvdes igavs da andazas, brZenTa naTqvamebs da maT arakebs.
uflis SiSi codnis saTavea. sibrZne da Segoneba briyvebs
ar uyvarT.
Tu sibrZne Sevida Sens gulSi da codna etkbo Sens suls,
goniereba dagifaravs da Segneba dagicavs,
rom gixsnas borotebis gzidan, Tvalmaqci kacisagan,
swori gzis damtovebelTagan, bneli gziT moarulTagan.
bednieria is kaci, vinc hpova sibrZne da vinc goniereba SeiZina!
radgan misi SeZena sjobs vercxlis SeZenas da misi mosavali
xalas oqros.
margalitze ufro Zvirfasia da Sengan sanatreli araferi
Seedreba mas.
misi gzebi netarebis gzebia da yoveli misi biliki simrTelea.
igi ukvdavebis xea maTTvis, vinc mas moeWideba. netarni arian
misi mflobelni.
ufalma sibrZniT daafuZna qveyana, gonierebiT gaamtkica camyari.
nu daukaveb, vinc Rirsia, keTil saqmes, Tuki SegiZlia amis gake
Teba.
nu etyvi Sens axlobels: wadi, xval modi da mogcemo, Tu misa
cemeli Tana gaqvs.
avs nu daupireb Sens axlobels, roca is imedianad cxovrobs
SenTan.
nuravis gaumarTav davas umizezod, Tu avi ar gaukeTebia SenTvis.
281

nu gSurs moZaladisa, nu airCev mis gzas.


radgan sibilwea uflisaTvis mzakvroba da alalmarTlebiske
naa misi saidumlo TaTbiri.
aha, eqvsi ram uflis saZulveli, da aha, Svidi sibilwe mis
TvalSi:
ampartavani Tvalebi, cru ena, ubralo sisxlis mRvreli xelebi,
avismzraxveli guli, saborotod mardi fexebi,
tyuilebis aRmomsunTqveli, cru mowme da ZmaTa Soris SuRlis
mTesveli.
netaria kaci, me rom mismens, Cems karebTan fxizlobs dRenia
dag da Cemi karis wyrTilebs icavs.
vinaidan Cemma mpovnelma sicocxle hpova da uflisagan madls
moixveWs.
brZeni Svili mamas axarebs da ugunuri Svili dedis dardia.
gonieris bageebSi sibrZne ipoveba, WkuaTxelis zurgze ki joxi.
Segonebis dammarxveli sicocxlis gzas adgas, darigebis ukum
gdebeli gzaabneuli daexeteba.
bevri laparakisas codva aucdenelia, sakuTari bageebis am
lagmavi gonieria.
ugunuris xalisi avis qmnaSia, xolo gonieri kacisa sibrZneSi.
rac boroteuls aSinebs, swored is SeemTxveva, marTals ki sa
surveli miecema.
aravis argebs simdidre risxvis dRes, simarTle ki ixsnis
sikvdilisagan.
gulwrfelebs Tavisi simarTle ixsnis, mzakvarni ki TavianTive
sixarbiT datyvevdebian.
WkuaTxeli Tavis axloblebs awyeninebs, gonieri kaci ki
dadumebulia.
briyvs Tavisi gza swored eCveneba brZeni ki rCevis gamgonea.
briyvi wamSi amxels Tavis gabrazebas, gonieri ki malavs wyenas.
gesliani ena maxviliviT Cxvlets, brZenkacis ena ki mkurnalia.
sazriani kaci codnas malavs, umecarTa guli ki sisuleles
roSavs.
sadardebeli kacis guls aRonebs, keTili sityva ki axalisebs.
282

mxolod ampartavnoba warmoSobs SuRls, moTaTbireebTan ki


sibrZnea.
qariT motanili simdidre cotavdeba, xeliT Semgrovebeli ki
abevrebs.
brZenkacebTan mosiarule Tavad dabrZendeba, briyvTa megoba
ri ki gaub
edurdeba.
vinc SvilisTvis wkeplas ar imetebs, misi mteria; xolo moyva
ruli Wkuas aswavlis.
sulels yvela sityvisa sjera, sazriani ki sakuTar nabijs uk
virdeba.
Tavisi axloblis moZule codvilia, Rarib-RatakTa mwyalobe
li ki netaria.
Raribis mCagvreli Tavis Semoqmeds Seuracxyofs, maTxovris
mwyalobeli ki uflis madidebelia.
mSvidi pasuxi guliwyromas acxrobs, sawyeni sityva ki risxvas
iwvevs.
qatafSutas ar uyvars Tavisi mamxlebeli, igi brZenkacebTan
ar wava.
gonieri guli codnas daeZebs, briyvTa piri ki sisuleliT
sazdoobs.
uflis moSiSebiT mcires qona umjobesia, vidre didZali ganZi
mousvenrobaSi.
ukeTesia mwvanileuli sazrdo da siyvaruli, vidre nasuqi
xari da siZulvili.
ficxi kaci cilobas texs, sulgrZeli ki davas acxrobs.
TaTbiris gareSe Canafiqri ifuSeba, mravali mrCevlis Semweo
biT ki xorcieldeba.
kacis sixaruli mis bageTa pasuxSia; ra kargia droulad naT
qvami sityva!
Segonebis abuCad amgdebi sakuTari Tavis moZulea, mxilebis
gamgone ki gonebas ixveWs.
gulis zraxvebi kacs ekuTvnis, enis pasuxi ki uflisgan modis.
kacis yoveli gza sufTaa mis TvalSi, sulTa amwoni ki ufalia.

283

yvela gulzviadi sibilwea uflis winaSe: gjerodes, dausjeli


ver gadarCeba.
ukeTesia mciredi, oRond simarTliT, vidre didZali mogeba
usamarTlobiT.
kacis guli Tavis gzebs gegmavs, mis nabijebs ki ufali
warmarTavs.
sibrZnis SeZena oqroze ukeTesia, Wkuis moxveWa vercxlze
umjobesi.
marTalTa gza-kvali borotebas gverds uqcevs; vinc Tavis
gzas akvirdeba, Tavis suls icavs.
daRupvas win uswrebs ampartavneba, dacemas qedmaRloba.
vinc Tvalebs Wutavs, ukuRmarTs fiqrobs; vinc bageebs kumavs,
siav
isTvis mzad aris.
wils ubidan yrian, magram yoveli ganaCeni uflisgan modis.
erTi lukma xmeli puri simSvideSi ukeTesia, vidre saklaviT
savse saxli uTanxmoebaSi.
moxucTa gvirgvini SvilTa Svilebia, SvilTa dideba ki maTi
mamebia.
danaSaulis damviwyebeli siyvarulis mZebnelia, ambis Semxse
nebeli ki megobars iSorebs.
gonierze datuqsva ufro sWris, vidre umecarze asi dartyma.
sikeTis wil borotis mimgebs saxlSi ubedureba ar gamoeleva.
boroteul
is gamamarTlebeli da marTlis gamamtyunebeli
orive sibilwea uflis TvalSi.
am fuls ra unda umecris xelSi? sibrZnis SesaZenad xom Wkua
ara aqvs?
briyvi Svili mSoblis sadardebelia da verc ukuRmarTis mama
gaixarebs.
briyvi Svili mamis dardia da dedis naRveli.
mcodne kaci sityvaZunwia da gonebis kaci didsulovania.
mdumare sulelic ki brZnad iTvleba, xolo pirmokumuli
Wkvianad.
TavkerZa kaci Tavis gulisTqmas aris ayolili da yovelgvari
sibrZnis winaaRmdeg janydeba.
284

briyvi codnas ar eswrafvis, sakuTari fiqris gamxela surs.


boroteuls siZulvili moyveba, lanZRva-ginebas ki sircxvili.
mouTmenlad pasuxis gacema sibriyvea da sircxvili.
zarmacs ubeSi aqvs xeli Camaluli da pirTan mitana ezareba.
Worikana kaci saidumlos gamtexia, pirmorRveuls axlos nu
gaekarebi.
ded-mamis maginebels ukuneT RameSi Cauqreba lampari.
nu ityvi, borotebas sanacvlos mivagebo, ufals miende da is
giSvelis.
vin ityvis: sufTa guli maqvs da codvisagan ganviwmideo?
WabukTa dideba maTi jania, moxucTa pativi ki WaRara.
qedmaRloba da didguloba boroteulTa lampari codvaa.
muyaiTis zraxvebi siuxves aCens, xolo moCqarisa siduxWires.
vinc RatakTa kvnesis wamyruebelia, Tavadac iyvirebs, magram
ar iqneba Sewynarebuli.
rCeuli saxeli didZal qonebaze ukeTesia, keTili madli ki
vercxlze da oqroze.
gonieri xedavs borotebas da Tavs aridebs, sulelni ki jiqur
midian da isjebian.
ymawvili misi gzis dasawyisSive gawvrTeni da sibereSic ki ar
gadauxvevs mas.
kurTxeuli iqneba gulmowyale, radgan Raribs Tavisi puridan
gaikiTxavs.
Raribs nu waarTmev, radgan Raribia igi; beCavs karibWesTan nu
daCagrav.
didkacTan puris saWmelad rom dajdebi, dakvirvebiT iyavi:
yelze dana miibjine, Tu msunagi xar.
nu indomeb mis nugbar saWmelebs, macduri puria igi.
radgan rogorc iqceva, ise ar fiqrobs; Wame da svio, geubneba,
magram SenTan ar aris misi guli.
SeWmul lukmas ukan amoanTxev da madlobis sityvebs fuWad
daxarjav.
briyvs yurSi nurafers etyvi, radgan mas sZuls Seni gonivru
li sityvebi.
285

nu Secvli Zvel mijnas da oblebis yanaSi nu Sexval;


radgan Zlieria maTi mfarveli, is daicavs maT saqmes Sens wina
aRmdeg.
nu xarob Seni mtris dacemiT da misi waborZikebiT nu ilxens
Seni guli.
nu ityvi rogorc momeqca, ise moveqcevio, Tavisi saqmisaebr
mivagebo.
Tu Tafli ipove, imdeni Wame, ramdenic Segergeba, rom ar gaty
vre da ukan ar amoanTxio.
mezoblis saxlSi xSirad nu ivli, rom ar mobezrde da ar Segi
Zulos.
Tu Seni mteri mSieria, puri aWame; Tu swyuria, wyali asvi.
raRa ugalavno qalaqi da raRa kaci, romelic Tavis Tavs ver
patronobs.
briyvs misi siregvenisebr nu upasuxeb, rom Tavad misi msgavsi
ar gaxde.
raRa ZaRlis yurebSi Cafrenili kaci da raRa sxvis kamaTSi Ca
reul
i.
ormos gamTxreli Sig TviTon Cavardeba, qva mis msrolels da
ubrundeba.
sxvam Segaqos da ara Senma pirma, ucxom d ara Senma bageebma.
megobrisgan Wriloba erTgulebis niSania, mteri ki kocniT
agavsebs.

286

eklesiaste
Tavi pirveli
1. sityvani eklesiastesi, Zisa daviTisa, ierusalimis mefisa.amaoeba
amaoebaTa, Tqva eklesiastem, amaoeba amaoebaTa, yovelive amaoa.
2. adamians ras hmatebs Sroma, romelsac igi mzis qveS eweva?
3. Taoba midis, Taoba modis, es qveyana ki ucvlelia ukunisamde.
4. aRmosdgeba mze da Cadis igi, ubrundeba Tavis adgils da kvlav
iqidan amobrwyindeba.
5. samxreTisaken mihqris qari, gabrundeba CrdiloeTisken; brunavs,
brunavs, mihqris qari da ubrundeba isev Tavis wres.yvela mdinare
zRvebisaken miedineba, zRva ki mainc ar aRivseba; mdinareni saiTke
nac miedinebodnen, kvlavac iqiTken miedinebian.
6. uZluria yoveli sityva, ar ZaluZs kacs yovelives Tqma; Tvali
xedviT ver gaZReba, yuri smeniT ver aRivseba.
7. rac yofila, igive iqneba da rac momxdara, igive moxdeba; arafe
ria mzis qveS axali.
8. naxaven rasme da ityvian: aha, axali. esec yofila Cvens winare
saukuneSi.
9. ar darCenila xsovna imaTi, vinc winaT iyo; da momdevnoTac, vinc
iqnebian, ar gaixsenebs maTi momyoli.
10. me, eklesiaste, mefe viyav israelisa ierusalimSi.
11. viwye kvleva gulmodginebiT, gonebiT gansja yovelivesi, raic
momxdara cisqveSeTSi; es mZime saqme miuCina ufalma adamis ZeT
satanjvelad.
12. ganvicade yoveli saqme, rac ki momxdara mzisqveSeTSi; da aha,
vcani amao aris yvelaferi da qaris devna.
13. gamrudebuls veRar gamarTav, xolo nakluls veRarafriT ve
Rar Seavseb.
14. vuTxari Cems Tavs: aha, movipove da ganvimravle codna yovelTa
upiratesad, vinc arsebula Cems uwinares ierusalimSi, da eziara
goneba Cemi ganuzomel sibrZnes da codnas.
15. roca mivapyar gulisyuri, Sevican sibrZne, mecniereba, umecreba
da sisulele, mivxvdi amasac ara aqvs azri.
287

16. radgan, roca didia sibrZne, dardic didia; mravlis Secnoba


adamians wuxils umravlebs.

Tavi meore
1. vuTxari Cems Tavs: modi, gamovcdi mxiar
ulebas da mivecemi sia
meTa da, aha, esec amaoeba yofila mxolod.
2. mivxvdi, garToba fuWi saqmea; mxiaruleba ris maqnisia?
3. vifiqre, RviniT damebanga Cemi sxeuli, xolo gonebas sibrZniT
efxizla; davdgomodi gzas sibriyvisas, vidre vnaxavdi, ra sike
Tea kacTaTvis masSi, rasac iqmnian cisqveSeTSi, sanam cocxloben.
4. didi saqme Cavidine, avige saxlni, Cavyare vazi,
5. gaviSene CemTvis baRebi da walkotebi, davrge xexili yovelgvari,
6. wyalsatevebi movawyve, rom moerwyaT norCi tevrebi,
7. SeviZine mona-mxevalni, da mravlad mesxnen saxlSi saxleulni;
myavda cxvar-Zroxa imaTze meti, visac Cems uwin umefia ierusa
limSi.
8. davagrove oqro da vercxli, mefeTa ganZi yoveli mxaris; gaviCi
ne mgalobelni, kacni da qalni, da siameni xorcielni, ulamazes
xarWaTa dasi.
9. ganvidide da gavmdidrdi umetes maTsa, vinc Cems winare arsebu
la ierusalims; da sibrZne Cemi meve meyudna.
10. ar uarvyavi araferi, rac ki momTxoves Cemma Tvalebma, ar davao
ke guli Cemi sixarulisgan, radgan xarobda Cemi guli Cemi naRva
wiT. es yovelive iyo xvedri Cemi Sromisa.
11. merme, rodesac gadavxede yovelives, rac ki Seqmna Cemma mar
jvenam, da yovel saqmes, Cems namoqmedars, mivxvdi, amao rom yo
fila es yvelaferi, qarisnaberi, da rom ar aris sargebeli am
mzisqveseTSi.
12. radgan raRa qmnas adamianma, romelic mova Semdgom mefisa, ro
melsac ukve yvelaferi uqmnia qveynad?
13. odes vikvlie, ra aris sibrZne anu sibriyve da umecreba, vna
xe, rom sibrZne sibriyveze upiratesobs, iseve rogorc naTeli
bnelze.
288

14. brZeni kaci gonebiTa Wvrets, ugunuri ki bnelSi davals. da


vuwyi, mainc mowevnadi erTi aqvs yvelas.
15. guls vuTxar maSin: mec ugunuris bedi meweva; maS, radRa viyav me
sxvaze brZeni? da gulsave vuTxar: amaoeba yofila esec.
16. maradiulad ar exsomebaT arc brZenkaci, arc ugunuri; gaivlis
Jami, yvelaferi daiviwyeba. vaglax, rom kvdeba brZeni kaci ugu
nuriviT!
17. da SeviZule me es cxovreba, radgan memwara yvelaferi, rac mzis
qveS xdeba, radgan yoveli amaoa, qarebis devna.
18. da moviZule yovelive naRvawi Cemi, rac miRvawia am mzisqveSeT
Si, da rac sxvas unda davutovo, Cems Semdgom mosuls.
19. aravin uwyis, vis Sexvdeba Cemi naRvawi, brZens Tu ugunurs, raic
sibrZniT momiRvawia am mzisqveSeTSi? aha, kidev amaoeba.
20. da warvuxoce imedi Cems Tavs, rom aRarafers movelode im Rvaw
lisagan, rac mzisqveSeTSi gamiwevia.
21. naxav kacs, iRwvis, ar iSurebs sibrZnes da codnas, magram naRvawi
sxvas xvdeba wilad, visac arasdros uRvawnia am saqmisaTvis. ama
oeba aris esec da udidesi boroteba.
22. maS, raRa rCeba adamians Sromisa da zrunvis Sedegad, romelsac
igi mzis qveS eweva?
23. dReni misni satanjvelia, sazrunavi misi wuxili, RamiTac ar
isvenebs, SfoTavs guli. aha, kvlav amaoeba.
24. kacisaTvis araferia imaze kargi, rom Wamos, svas da datkbes Ta
visi naRvawiT. es gamovcade, radgan esec RmerTis xelTaa.
25. vin Wams anu svams, an gancxromas vin miecema mis gareSe?
26. visac is iTnevs, mas mianiWebs sibrZnes codnasa da sixaruls; xo
lo codvils ki moxveWisaTvis sazrunavs uCens, raTa RvTis saT
nos dautovos es monagari. amaoeba aris esec da qaris devna.

289

Tavi mesame
1. yovelives Tavis dro aqvs da yvelafers Tavisi Jami am cisqveSeTSi.
2. Jami Sobisa da Jami sikvdilisa; Jami danergvisa da Jami danergulis
aRmofxvrisa.
3. Jami mokvdinebisa da Jami gankurnebisa; Jami ngrevisa da Jami Senebisa.
4. Jami tirilisa da Jami sicilisa; Jami glovisa da Jami lxinisa.
5. Jami qvaTa mimofantvisa da Jami maTi Segrovebisa; LJami mijnurTa
paemanisa da Jami maTi gayrisa.
6. Jami povnisa da Jami dakargvisa; Jami Senaxvisa da Jami gaflangvisa.
7. Jami darRvevisa da Jami Sekervisa; Jami dumilisa da Jami ubnobisa.
8. Jami siyvarulisa da Jami siZulvilisa; Jami omisa da Jami mSvidobisa.
9. ras argebs maSvrals Sroma misi?
10. kidevac vnaxe sazrunavi, romelic RmerTma miuCina adamis ZeT
maT satanjvelad.
11. man yvelaferi keTilad Seqmna Tavis droisTvis, TviT idumalis
Secnobad aRZra goneba kacTa, oRond ise, rom ver gaug
on RvTis
namoqmedars Tavi da bolo.
12. vuwyi, radgan araferia kacisaTvis imaze kargi, rom gaixaros da
qmnas sikeTe, vidreRa cocxlobs.
13. Tu kacsa visme ar akldeba sasmel-saWmeli da Sromisa wil sike
Tes hpovebs, es madlia, RvTis naboZebi.
14. vuwyi isic, rom yovelive, RvTis mier qmnili, iarsebebs uku
nisamde; arc damateba sWirdeba ramis, arc gamokleba. ase qmna
RmerTma, mis winaSe SiSi rom hqondeT.
15. raic yofila, ukve aris didi xania; da rac iqneba, is ukve iyo. da
aw gardasuls mxolod RmerTi gamoiZiebs.
16. kidev vixile mzisqveSeTSi: gansjis adgili daeWira ukanonobas,
marTlis adgili mtyuan kacs epyra.
17. maSin vTqvi gulSi: RmerTi gansjis marTals da mtyuans, roca
yvelafers da yovel saqmes daudgeba iq Tavis Jami.
18. da vTqvi Cems gulSi: ase gamocdis Turme RmerTi adamis ZeTa,
raTa darwmundnen, rom TavisTavad pirutyvebi arian mxolod.

290

19. radgan kacis da pirutyvis xvedri erTia erTis sikvdili meo


risas hgavs da yvelas erTi suli udgas, kaci pirutyvze veraf
riT ver upiratesobs, radgan yvelaferi amaoa.
20. yovelive erT adgils miva; yvelaferi miwisganaa da yvelaferi
miwad iqceva.
21. romeli ityvis, rom kacTa suli zeviT miiltvis, xolo piruty
vis qveviT Cadis, qvesknelisken?
22. vxedav, kacTaTvis sxva sikeTe rom ar yofila, Tu ar ixara Tavis
naRvawiT, radgan esaa misi wili am mzisqveSeTSi, vin daanaxvebs,
ra moxdeba Semdgomad misa?

D
Tavi meoTxe
1. kvlavac vxedavdi Zaladobas, rac ki xdeboda am mzisqveSeTSi:
aha,iRvreba CagrulTa cremli da maT aravin ar anugeSebs; mCag
vrelTa xelSia Zala, aravina hyavT nugeSismcemeli.
2. ufro bednierad Sevracxe didi xnis mkvdarni maTze, vinc jerac
cocxloben kidev.
3. da orTaveze bednieri mainc is aris, vinc jerac ar dabadebula
da ar uxilavs boroteba, rac mzis qveS xdeba.
4. isica vnaxe, rom sibejiTe yvela saqmeSi mxolod erTurTis SuriT
aris gamowveuli. amaoeba yofila esec da qaris devna.
5. briyvs gulze xeli daukrefia da Tavis xorcs Wams.
6. erTi peSvi simSvide sjobs mTel kalTa garjas da fuWQsazrunavs.
7. kidev da kidev ganvicade amaoe
ba am mzisqveSeTSi:
8. arsebobs kaci martoxela, ar hyavs aravin, arc Zma, arc Svili,
xolo mis Sromas bolo ar uCans da ver gaZReba misi Tvali dov
laTis xilviT. visTvisRa vSromob da siames risTvis vaklebdi?
amaoeba aris esec da fuWi saqme.
9. marto yofnas sjobs orni iyvnen, radgan keTilad miezRvebaT
maT saSromelSi.
10. Tu daecnen, erTi mainc wamoayenebs Tavis amxanags. magram vai,
martomyofs, Tu daeca vinRa uSvelis?
11. Tu orni dawvnen, gaTbebian; martomyofs ki raRa gaaTbobs!
291

12. Tu erTs dasZlevs vinme, ori xom gaumklavdeba. male ar gawydeba


sammagi Zafi.
13. Rataki, magram brZeni ymawvili sjobs moxucebul da briyv mefes,
romelic ukve veras iswavlis.
14. radgan igi sapyrobiledanac gamova mefed, Tundac Tavis same
foSi upovrad iSvas.
15. vixile: yovel mkvidrs mzisqveSeTSi ymawvili axlavs, es misi
sxvaa, mis nacvlad dadgeba.
16. ar uCans dasasruli xalxs, vinc maT uwinares iyo, da arc Sem
dgomni moinatreben maT. radgan esec amaoeb
aa da qaris devna.
17. fexs nu auCqareb RvTis saxlisken mimavali; gafrTxildi, msxver
pli ugunurTa msgavsad ar Seswiro, radgan ar uwyian ukeTure
bas rom sCadian.

Tavi mexuTe
1. nu giswrebs ena da guli Seni nu gaCqaris sityvis warmoTqmas
RvTis winaSe, radgan RmerTi caSia, Sen ki miwaze. amitom ikmare
cota sityvebi.
2. rogorc mravladaa sizmarSi ambebi, ise mravlsityvaa ugunuris
naubari.
3. Tu RmerTs aRTqmas miscem, nu daayovneb mis aRsrulebas, radgan
upironi arad varganan. rasac aRuTqvam, aRusrule.
4. sjobs ar aRuTqva, vidre aRTqmuli ar aRusrulo.
5. nu aTqmevineb Sens bageebs iseT sityvas, rom codvaSi Caigdo Ta
vi; nurc imarTleb Tavs angelosis winaSe, Sevcdio. rad unda gan
risxdes RmerTi Sens xmaze da daRupos Seni xeliT qmnili?
6. radgan bevrs sizmrebs bevri amao sityva axlavs; Sen ki RvTisa
geSinodes.
7. Tu sadme qveynad ixilav RatakTa Seviwoebas da samarTlisa da
WeSmaritebis Seryvnas, nu gaikvireb, radgan maRals uTvalTva
lebs masze maRali; xolo maT zemoT kidev aris ufro maRali.
8. ukeTesia is qveyana, sadac mefe qveynisTvis iRwvis.
9. fulis moyvaruli fuliT ver gaZReba, da arc simdidris moyva
ruli Tavis SemosavliT. esec amaoebaa.
292

10. bevr dovlaTs bevri mWameli hyavs; raRa darCeba patrons misas?
mxolod yureba.
11. tkbilia Zili mSromeli kacis, gind cota Wamos, ginda bevri; xo
lo simaZRre Zils ufrTxobs mdidars.
12. aris, mixilavs mtanjveli boroteba am mzisqveSeTSi: patronis
sazianod damarxuli simdidre.
13. daikargeba es simdidre ubeduri SemTxvevis gamo da Svili misi
xelcarieli darCeba;
14. isev SiSveli gabrundeba, rogorc movida dedis muclidan da ve
Rarafers moixveWs SromiT.
15. esec mtanjveli borotebaa: rogorc movida, ise rom wava. ra si
keTea, fuWad rom Sromobs?
16. Tan Tavis dReebs bnelSi amoWams, dardiT, tkiviliT gulgasenili.
17. ai, sad vxedav me sikeTes, Sesafer saqmes: Wamos kacma, svas da ixa
ros Tavisi RvawliT am mzisqveSeTSi dReni misni, RmerTma rom
misca; radgan esaa misi xvedri.
18. kacs RmerTi aZlevs qonebasa da simdidres da imis Snosac, rom
moixmaros, miiRos wili da gaixaros Tavisi SromiT; es yvelafe
ri RvTis wyalobaa.
19. da raki bevrs veRarafers gaixsenebs kaci Tavis sicocxleSi,
RmerTi miscems mas gulis sixaruls.

Tavi meeqvse
1. aris boroteba, romelic vixile mzisqveSeTSi da mZimea igi
kacTaTvis.
2. miscems kacs RmerTi qonebas, simdidres da didebas, da aha, yve
laferi aqvs, rac ki inatra, magram RmerTi ar moaxmarebs da sxva,
ucxo vinme, moixmars. amaoeba aris es da ubedureba.
3. kidev rom Svas kacma asi Svili da icocxlos mravali weli,
magram ver igemos siame da saflavic aRar eRirsos, vityvi, ujob
da dedis mucels mowyvetiliyo.
4. fuWad rom movida da bnelSi wavida, bnelSi rom dainTqa saxeli misi;
5. visac mze ar unaxavs da arc gaugia, im kacze ufro mosvenebulia.
293

6. Tundac icocxlos ori aTas wels da veraferi sikeTe naxos, ra


bedenaa, mainc yvela erT adgils miva.
7. adamianis yoveli Sroma pirisTvisaa, magram sul ar aRivseba.
8. radgan ra upiratesoba aqvs brZens ugunurze? an da Rataks, ro
melmac icis, rogor gauZlos cxovrebas?
9. sjobs TvaliT naxo, vidre guls ahyve amaoeb
a aris esec da qa
ris devna.
10. rac ki arsebobs, yovelives didi xania saxeli hqvia; ar aris kaci,
esec cnobilia: ZlierTan dava kacs ar SeuZlia.
11. bevri ramea, amaoebas rom amravlebs; ra upiratesoba aqvs kacs?
12. radgan vin uwyis, ra aris kargi kacisaTvis mis amao wuTisofel
Si, romelsac aCrdiliviT atarebs? vin auwyebs kacs, ra moxdeba
mis Semdeg mzis qveS.

Tavi meSvide
1. kargi saxeli sjobs Zvirfas nelsacxebels, dRe sikvdilisa ga
Cenis dRes.
2. tirilSi wasvla sjobs lxinSi wasvlas, radgan iq aris bolo ka
cisa; cocxalma kacma es yurad iRos.
3. mwuxareba sjobs sicils, radgan saxis daRvremisas keTilia guli.
4. brZenTa fiqrebi glovis saxlSia, ugunurTa fiqrebi mxiaru
lebis saxlSi.
5. sjobs brZenisagan kicxvas ismende, vidre briyvisagan qeba-didebas.
6. radgan briyvTa sicili qvabis qveS fiCxis tkacuns hgavs; amaoebaa es.
7. gaWirveba brZens gamoaCens, xolo qrTami ryvnis guls kacisas.
8. saqmis bolo sjobs mis dasawyiss; sulgrZeli kaci sjobs ampar
tavans.
9. guliswyromad nu iCqari, radgan guliswyroma ugunurTa mker
dSi budobs.
10. nu ityvi: warsuli droeba awmyos rad sjobdao, radgan sibrZne
ar axlavs am kiTxvas.
11. kargia sibrZne da dovlaTi, didad sargoa mzis mWvretelTaTvis.
12. sibrZnec daifaravs kacs da fulic daifaravs, magram sibrZne
upiratesia; mis mflobels acocxlebs.
294

13. Sexede RvTis Seqmnils: vin gamarTavs misgan gamrudebuls?


14. keTildReobisas ibedniere, Znelbedobisas frTxilad moiqec!
esec da isic RmerTma Seqmna erTmaneTis sapirispirod, raTa kac
ma mis ukan veraferi Seicnos.
15. bevri ram vnaxe Cems amao wuTisofelSi: marTali iRupeba Tavis
simarTleSi, boroteuli dRegrZelobs Tavis borotebaSi.
16. nu iqnebi zedmetad marTali da metismetad nu dabrZendebi
rad ginda rom SeZrwunde?
17. metismetad nu iboroteb, arc gabriyvde rad ginda, rom udro
od mokvde?
18. umjobesia, erTic iyo da meorec, arc erTi uaryo da arc meore;
radgan RvTis moSiSi yvelafrisgan Tavs aRwevs.
19. sibrZne brZenisaTvis Zalaa, qalaqis aT mbrZanebelze aRmatebuli.
20. ar ipoeba qveynad marTali kaci, romelic iqmodes keTil saqmes
da ar scodavdes.
21. yvela sityvas, rasac amboben, yurs nu miugdeb, raTa ar gesmo
des, Seni mona rogor gaginebs.
22. radgan bevrjer gamogicdia, Senc rom aginebdi sxvebs.
23. yovelive es sibrZniT gamovikvlie; vTqvi: brZeni var-meTqi, mag
ram sibrZne Sorsaa Cemgan.
24. Soria, rac iyo, da Rrma aris, Rrma, vin miagnebs?
25. guls videv, Semecno, Semeswavla, gamomekvlia ra aris sibrZne da
goniereba, raTa mcodnoda, rom umecreba borotebaa.
26. mivxvdi, sikvdilze mwarea diaci, maxe da badea misi guli, borki
lebia xelebi misi; RvTis saTno gadaurCeba, xolo codvili mis
gan datyvevdeba.
27. ai, ras mivxvdi, Tqva eklesiastem: TanmiyolebiT unda misdio,
rom azrs miagno.
28. kidev amas eZiebda goneba Cemi, magram ver vpove: aTasidan erTi
mamakaci vpove, magram maT Soris vera vpove vercerTi qali.
29. aha, es vpove mxolod: RmerTma wrfeli Seqmna kaci, isini ki zed
met Tavsatexs mravlad iCenen.

295

Tavi merve
1. brZens vin Seedreba da vin Seicnobs saganTa bunebas? sibrZne ada
mians saxes unaTlebs da misi saxis sitlanqe icvleba.
2. geubnebi, asrulebde mefis brZanebas, Tundac RvTisadmi mice
muli ficis gamo.
3. nu iswrafvi misgan wasvlas da borot saqmes nu daadgebi, radgan
rasac isurvebs, yvelafers gaakeTebs.
4. vinaid
an sityva mefisa kanonia; vin hkadrebs mas ras akeTebo?
5. cnebis Semnaxvels avi saqme ar SeemTxveva; Jamsac da wessac brZen
kacis guli grZnobs.
6. vinaidan yvelafers Jami da wesi aqvs, adamianis ubedureba ki is aris,
7. rom man ar icis, ra moxdeba; an vin etyvis mas, rogor moxdeba?
8. aravis ZaluZs qaris SeCereba, veravin ganagebs dRes sikvdili
sas, vervis daiTxov
en brZolis velidan, ver ixsnis siborote mis
patrons.
9. es yvelaferi vixile da davakvirdi yvela saqmes, rac mzisqve
SeTSi momxdara; da is droc vnaxe, roca kaci kacze mZlavrobda
Tavisda sazianod.
10. kidevac vnaxe boroteulni da marxulni, adre rom modiodnen
wmida adgilas da brundebodnen; daviwyebul iqnen im qalaqSi,
sadac amgvarad iqceodnen. esec amaoebaa.
11. raki swrafadve ar isjeba boroti saqme, amitom bedavs kaci bo
rotebis Cadenas.
12. codvilma kacma asjerac rom Caidinos boroti saqme, miet
eveba;
me isic vici, rom miegebaT madli RvTismosavT, romelTac eSini
aT RvTisa.
13. ar miegebaT madli boroteulT da landiviT dRemokle iqneba
yvela, visac RvTisa ar eSinia.
14. aris kidev amaoeba, qveynad rom xdeba: marTlebs boroteulTa
saqmeTaebr miegebaT; da arian boroteulni, romelTac marTal
Ta saqmeTaebr miegebaT. vTqvi: esec amaoebaa.
15. da Sevaqe me mxiaruleba, radgan ar yofila sxva sikeTe adamiani
saTvis mzisqveSeTSi, garda imisa, rom svas, Wamos da imxiarulos;
es yovelive axlavs mas mis saSromelSi dReni misni, RmerTma rom
uboZa mzisqveSeTSi.
296

16. roca guls videv, Semecno sibrZne da momexila yoveli saqme, rac
qveynad xdeba, Cems Tvalebs Zili ar unaxavT arc dRe, arc Rame.
17. vixile RvTis yoveli saqme, rom ver mixvdeba adamiani verafer
saqmes, rac mzis qveS xdeba; rac unda daSvres da iZios, veras mix
vdeba; Tundac brZenkacma Tqvas: mivxvdio, veras mixvdeba.

Tavi mecxre
1. es yovelive gulSi Cavidevi da gamovikvlie es yvelaferi, rom mar
Talni, brZenni da maTi namoqmedarni RvTis xelTaa; arc siyvaru
li, arc siZulvili ar uwyis kacma da arc sxva rame, rac mis winaa.
2. erTi xvedri aqvs yvelas: marTals da ukuRmarTs, keTils da bo
rots, sufTas da mireuls, msxverplis Semwirvels da msxver
plis arSemwirvels, rogorc keTils, ise codvils, rogorc mo
ficars, ise ficis moSiSs.
3. ubedrebaa mzisqveSeTSi, rom yvelas erTi xvedri aqvs; adamis Ze
Ta gulebic aRsavsea siborotiT da siSlegea maT gulebSi, vidre
cocxloben; amis Semdgom ki mkvdrebSi gadavlen.
4. radgan cocxlebSi Seracxils kidev aqvs imedi; radgan cocxali
ZaRli mkvdari lomis umjobesia.
5. radgan cocxalma icis, rom mokvdeba; mkvdrebma ki araferi ici
an da aRarc sazRauri miezRvebaT, radgan maTi xsovna daviwyebas
miec
a.
6. warxda maTi siZulvilic, Suric da trfobac; aRar eqnebaT aw da
maradis wili imaSi, rac mzisqveS xdeba.
7. wadi, mxiarulad Wame Seni puri da gulis sixaruliT svi Seni Rvi
no, raki RmerTma mogiwona namoqmedari.
8. mudam spetaki gqondes samoseli da zeTi ar moakldes Tavs Sensas.
9. datkbi sicocxliT qalTan erTad, romelic giyvars Sens wuTi
sofelSi, da romelic mogca RmerTma mzis qveS Sens wuTisofel
Si, radgan esaa Seni xvedri sicocxleSi da im SromaSi, rasac Sen
mzis qveS eweodi.
10. risi keTebis Zalac Seswevs Sens xelebs, akeTe; radgan arc saq
me, arc safiqrali, codna, an sibrZne ar gagyveba SaveTSi, sadac
midixar.
297

11. isic Sevityve am mzisqveSeTSi, rom mkvircxlTa nebaze araa rbo


la, arc mamacTa nebazea omi, arc brZenTa nebazea puri, arc goni
erTa nebazea simdidre, arc mcodneT nebazea madli; radgan dro
da SemTxveva ganagebs yvelafers.
12. radgan adamianma ar uwyis Tavisi Jami; av badeSi gaxveul
i Tevze
biviT da maxeSi gabmuli CitebiviT iqnebian Sepyrobilni adamis
Zeni avbediT Jams, romelic moul
odnelad eweva maT.
13. es sibrZnec Sevityve mzisqveSeTSi da sagulisxmod Sevracxe igi:
14. iyo qalaqi mcire da xalxic cota; moadga qalaqs didi mefe, alya
Semoartya da SemoaSena didi simagreebi.
15. aRmoCnda iq kaci vinme upovari, magram brZeni da ixsna qalaqi Ta
visi sibrZniT, magram upovari igi aravis aRar gaxsenebia.
16. vTqvi: sibrZne Zalaze upiratesia, magram upovaris sibrZnes abu
Cad igdeben da mis sityvebs yurs aravin ugdebs.
17. brZenTa sityvebi, wynarad naTqvami, umjobesia, vidre sulelTa
mTavris yvirili.
18. brZolis saWurvels sibrZne sjobia, erTi codvili ki bevr sike
Tes daRupavs.

Tavi meaTe
1. Sxamiani buzebi afuWeben da alpoben surnelovan zeTs; mciredi
sibriyve ufro Zvirfasia zogjer, vidre sibrZne da dideba.
2. brZens guli marjvniv aqvs, briyvs marcxniv.
3. sadac ar unda wavides briyvi, briyvadve rCeba, yvelas eubneba,
rom briyvia.
4. Tu Tavs dagatyda ufrosis risxva, Sens adgils nu miatoveb,
radgan Tviniers didi codvebic mieteveba.
5. aris siborote kidev, mzisqveS rom vixile: TiTqos mbrZanebli
sagan momdinare Secdoma iyos.
6. sibriyve gandidda metad, xolo mdidrebi dabla sxedan.
7. vnaxe monebi cxenebze msxdarni, xolo mTavarni monebiviT fexiT
mavalni.
8. ormos gamTxreli Tavad Cavardeba Sig, xolo kedlis damangre
vels gveli daSxamavs.
298

9. vinc qvebs miaTrevs, wels qvave moswyvets; xis gamCexavs xeve da


asaxiCrebs.
10. culi Tu dagiClungda da ar galese, zedmeti Zala dagadgeba;
WkuiT unda warmarTo saqme.
11. Tu Seul
ocvels ukbina gvelma, Semlocveli veRar uSvelis.
12. brZenis sityvebi madlia, briyvs ki misi bageebi Rupavs.
13. misi sityvebis dasabami sibriyvea, xolo Sedegi avi siSlege.
14. briyvi mravalsityvaa, magram ar uwyis kacma, ra moxdeba; vin
auwyebs, mis Semdgom ra iqneba?
15. briyvs dahqancavs Tavisi Sroma, radgan man ar icis qalaqisken
mimavali gza.
16. vai, Senda, qveyanav, bavSvi rom gizis mefed, da Seni didebulebi
dilidanve rom iwyeben Wamas!
17. bednieri xar, qveyanav, rom Seni mefe aravis hmonebs da Seni dide
bulebi Tavis droze rom Wamen, ZalTa mokrebad, ara salxinod!
18. sizarmacisgan Weri Camoiqceva, gulxeldakrefisagan wyali Ca
mova saxlSi.
19. samxiarulod imarTeba puroba; Rvino sixaruliT avsebs sicocx
les, xolo fuli yvelaferze pasuxs agebs.
20. Sen fiqrSic ki nu agineb mefes, sawol oTaxSiac nu agineb dide
buls: radgan cis frinveli wauRebs ambavs da frTosani auwyebs
sityvas.

Tavi meTerTmete
1. wyals gaat
ane Seni puri, radgan mravalTa dReTa Semdgom kvlav
moiZieb.
2. miec nawili qonebisa Svids, rvasac ki, radgan ar ici, ra ubedu
reba moelis qveyanas.
3. roca Rrubeli aivseba, wvimac iwvimebs qveyanaze; Tu daeca xe
samxreTSi an CrdiloeTSi, sadac daeca, iqve darCeba.
4. vinc qars akvirdeba, ver daTesavs; vinc Rrublebs Sescqeris, ve
ras moimkis.
5. rogorc ar uwyi gza qarisa da rogor isaxeba Zvlebi savse mu
299

celSi, aseve ar uwyi saqmeni RvTisa, romelmac yovelive Seqmna.


6. diliT Tese Seni Tesli da mwuxrisas nu daisvenebs Seni xeli;
radgan ar ici, romeli ufro sasikeToa; iqneb orive erTnairad
kargi gamodges.
7. tkbilia sinaTle da saamuria TvalTaTvis mzis Wvreta.
8. Tundac mravali weli icocxlos kacma da imxiarulos,axsovdes,
rom mravlad iqneba Savi dReebi; yvelaferi, rac mova, amaoa .
9. ixare, yrmao, vidre norCi xar; gaamos Senma gulma siymawvileSi,
mihyev Sens guls da TvalTa mzeras, oRond icode, yvelafris
amis gamo samsjavroze wargadgens RmerTi.
10. ukuiyare gulidan dardi da sxeuls aride uamuri ram, radgan
bavSvobac da siymawvilec amaoa da warmavali.

Tavi meTormete
1. gaxsovdes Seni gamCeni Sens saWabukeSi, vidre dagidgebodes mwa
re dReebi da geweod
es wlebi, romlebzec ityvi, raRaSi madgian
me isinio?
2. vidre dabneldebodes mze, naTeli da mTvare da varskvlavebi,
vidre Rrublebi kidev Canan wvimis Semdeg,
3. im dRemde, vidre dafrTxebodnen sasaxlis mcvelni da meomarni
dauZlurdebodnen, vidre Sewyvetdnen samuSaos mewisqvile qa
lebi (radgan mciredniRa darCebian), vidre naTeli daakldebo
deT sarkmlidan mWvretelT,
4. vidre daigmanebodes quCis karebi, miCumdebodes dolabis xmauri,
miwydebodes frinvelTa Jriamuli, dadumdebodes yoveli galoba,
5. SeeSindebodeT simaRlisac da gzebze SiSi daivanebdes, ayvavde
bodes nuSi, damZimdebodes kalia da dacxrebodes vneba, - roca mi
dis kaci Tavis saukuno saxlisaken da ukan mihyvebian motiralni,
6. vidre gawydebodes vercxlis sabeli da gatydebodes oqros
WurWeli, daimsxvreod
es doqi wyarosTan, CaeSvebodes owinaris
borbali WaSi,
7. miiqceodes mtveri miwad, rogorc iyo, da suli daubrundebo
des RmerTs, romelmac STabera.
300

8. amaoeba amaoebaTa, Tqva eklesiastem, yovelive amaoa.


9. Tavad xom brZeni iyo eklesiaste, xalxsac Seaswavla sibrZne. ik
vlevda, iZiebda da Txzavda igavebs mravals.
10. eZebda eklesiaste saWiro sityvebs da wrfelad daiwera WeSma
riti sityvebi.
11. brZenTa sityvebi wvergamaxuli solebia, CaWedili lursmnebia.
igavTa krebuli erTi mwyemsisgan STagonebuli.
12. kidev getyvi, Svilo, yurad iRe: bevri wignebis weras bolo ar eq
neba da zedmeti fiqri sxeuls adunebs.
13. movisminoT yvelafris Tavi da bolo: RvTisa geSinodes da dai
cavi mcnebani misni, radgan es aris kacis Tavi da Tavi.
14. radgan yvela saqmes samsjavroze miitans RmerTi, yovelive da
faruls, keTils Tu borots.

301

platoni. `fedoni~
(fragmentebi)
dialogi `fedoni~ platonis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi Txzu
lebaa. platonuri filosofiis kardinaluri momentebis dasabu
Tebis garda (mogonebis Teoria, dapirispirebulTa Teoria, ideaTa
Teoria da sxva), `fedoni~ miznad isaxavs sulis ukvdavebis mtki
cebas. miuxedavad mtkicebis arasakmarisobisa, es nawarmoebi mainc
rCeba platonis dialeqtikuri azrovnebisa da mxatvruli ostato
bis brwyinvale nimuSad.
dialogSi gadmocemulia sokratesa da misi megobrebis msjelo
ba. aq ikvanZeba da yalibdeba sokrates filosofiuri Sexeduleba
sikvdilsa da sicocxleze, dapirispirebulTa urTierTobaze, ide
ebze, mogonebaze da a.S. `fedonis~ problematikis Sesavlad unda
miviCnioT platonis mier zogierTi zogadi sakiTxis garCeva, ro
goricaa, magaliTad:
1. ratom warmoadgens sicocxle yvelasaTvis da yovelTvis er
TaderT da ucvlel aucileblobas, maTTvisac ki, visac sicocxles
sikvdili ujobs?
2. ratom ara aqvs im kacs ufleba, visac sicocxles sikvdili
ujobs, TviTonve moiklas Tavisi Tavi, ratom unda daelodos sxva
mxsnelsa da keTilismyofels?
sokrate ambobs: es azri, SesaZloa, sisuleled eCvenos kacs,
magram mas Tavisi gamarTlebac moeZebneba. gavixsenoT mistiur
moZRvrebaTa didi da bundovani sityvebi: marTalia, am qveynad Ti
Toeuli Cvengani dilegSia gamoketili, magram mainc ar unda veca
doT am dilegidan gaqcevas da Tavis daRwevas. RmerTebi zrunaven
Cvenze da Cven, kacni, RmerTebs vekuTvniT. siSlegea kacma Tavi mo
iklas manam, sanam amis aucileblibas ar mouvlens RmerTi. Sens erT
monaTagans Seni neba-survilis winaaRmdeg rom moekla Tavi, Sen,
albaT, aRSfoTdebodi da, dasja rom SegZleboda, dasjidi kidec.
amitom adamiani Tavis Semoqmeds unda elodos, sanam amis dros ar
mouvlens.

302

3. filosofosisaTvis Zneli rodia isurvo sikvdili. ismis kiTxva:


gana uazroba araa, kacTa Soris yvelaze gonierni udrtvinvelad
eclebodnen sicocxles?
me mwams, rom iq vixilav sxva brZensa da keTil RvTaebebs, vixi
lav aq gardacvlilTa sulebs, romelTac veravin Seedreba cocxal
Ta Soris. es rom ar mwamdes, Cemis mxriv didi Secdoma iqneboda ud
rtvinvelad Sevxvedrodi sikvdils. me imedi maqvs, rom kacTaTvis
sikvdilis Semdegac arsebobs raRac da Zveli gadmocemisa ar iyos,
es raRac keTilTaTvis gacilebiT ukeTesia, vidre borotTaTvis.
rogorc Cans, kacTaTvis SeumCneveli rCeba, rom mTeli misi sicocx
le, vinc uangarod emsaxureba filosofias, sxva ara aris ra, Tu ara
samzadisi kvdomisa da sikvdilisaTvis. TiTqos ucnauria: mTeli si
cocxle sikvdilisaTvis emzadebodes kaci da mere, roca sikvdili
TviTon moadgeba karze, drtvinviT xvdebodes mas, rasac amden xans
natrobda da eswrafvoda?
4. aris Tu ara, raime sikvdili? sxva ara aris igi, Tu ara su
lis gayra sxeulTan? ras niSnavs igi, Tu ara calcalke arsebobas
erTurTs gayrili sulis da sxeulis? gana swored es araa sikvdili?
5. rodis wvdeba suli WeSmaritebas? gviSlis Tu ara xels sxe
uli, roca mas mwed movuxmobT codnis SeZenisas? WeSmaritia is,
rasac Cveni mzera gvawvdis da Cveni smena, Tu marTali arian isini,
romlebic gamudmebiT CagvCiCineben: danamdvilebiT veras vxedavT,
veras vismenTo! WeSmarits suli maSin wvdeba upiratesad, roca az
rovnebs. xolo suli yvelaze ukeT azrovnebs maSin, roca araferi
amRvrevs mas, arc smena, arc mzera, arc tkivili, arc sixaruli, ro
ca inZarcvis da SeZlebisamebr, Tavisufldeba sxeulisagan da Tavis
TavSi oden STenili miiqceva arsebulis Wvretad.
Znelad saval biliks mivsdevT Cveni Ziebisas da vidre sxeuli
sagan ar ganvZarculvarT, vidre suli ar gahyria am borotebas,
mTelis sisruliT verasodes mivwvdebiT mas, rasac veswrafviT,
verasodes mivwvdebiT WeSmaritebas. marTlac, sxeuli uTvalav
dabrkolebas gviqmnis Cven, radgan gvaiZulebs sazrdeli viZioT
misTvis, xolo Tu amas avadmyofobac daerTo zed, samudamod xel
mocarulni vrCebiT WeSmaritebaze monadireni. swored sxeuli
303

gvavsebs vnebebiT, survilebiT, ZrwoliT, aTasgvari moCvenebebiT,


amao da fuWi gancdebiT, da ar cdebian, roca amboben, rom sxeu
lis wyalobiT, erTxelac ver CavfiqrebulvarT jerovnad. omebi,
amboxebebi, brZolebi mxolod sxeulisa da misi vnebebisagan iRebs
dasabams, radgan yoveli omis mizani simdidris moxveWaa, xolo sim
didre Cven gvWirdeba sxeulisaTvis, romelsac monis morCilebiT
vemsaxurebiT. amitom veRar vicliT filosofiisaTvis. da maSinac
ki, roca amisaTvis vicliT, sxeuli myisve eCreba Cvens ZiebebSi,
gvamRvrevs, gvaRelvebs da gvaSorebs QWeSmaritebas. an verasodes
SeviZenT codnas, anda mxolod maSin, sikvdilis Semdeg, roca sxe
uls davSordebiT. amrigad, yovelTvis, roca ixilav kacs, romelic
drtvinviT egebeba kars momdgar sikvdils, es iqneba utyuari sabu
Ti imisa, rom Sen win sibrZnis trfiali ki ar dgas, aramed sxeulis
da ara marto sxeulis, albaT, simdidrisac da pativisac.
sibrZnea erTaderTi WeSmariti moneta, romelzedac yvelaferi
unda gaicvalos. mxolod sibrZniT iyideba da gaiyideba yoveli: si
mamace, TavdaWeriloba, samarTlianoba, mokled rom vTqvaT, WeSma
riti saTnoeba ganuyrelia sibrZnisagan.
6. marTla hgian micvalebulTa sulebi hadesSi, Tu ara hgian?
arsebobs Zveli gadmocema, romelic ambobs, rom aqedan wasulTa
sulni iq agrZeleben arsebobas, da mere ukanve brundebian, raTa
mkvdarTagan aRdgnen cocxalni. da Tu es asea, Tu kacni sikvdilis
Semdeg axali sicocxlisaTvis ibadebian, aqedan mxolod is SegviZ
lia vifiqroT, rom Cveni sulni hgian hadesSi, radgan ukan veRar
mobrundebodnen, hadesSi rom ar agrZelebdnen arsebobas da Tu
virwmunebT, rom cocxalni mkvdarTagan ibadebian, martooden esec
ikmarebda hadesSi sulTa arsebobis dasamtkiceblad.
marto kacTaken nu ki mimarTav mzeras, Tu ginda ufro advilad
irwmuno eg, aramed yvela cxovelisa da mcenarisaken. erTi sityviT,
yvelafrisaken, rac ibadeba. yvelaferi, rac ibadeba, Tavisi mopi
rispiresagan ibadeba mxolod da mxolod. magaliTad, mSveniers ma
xinji upirispirdeba, samarTlians usamarTlo, roca raime didi
xdeba, igulisxmeba Tu ara, rom odesRac igi patara iyo? diax! xo
lo, roca pataravdeba, igulisxmeba Tu ara, rom igi odesRac didi
304

iyo? diax! sicocxles upirispirdeba Tu ara raRac, iseve, rogorc


RviZils upirispirdeba Zili? diax! ra aris es? sikvdili. da raki
upirispirdeba, cxadia, erTi meoresagan iRebs dasabams. maT Sori
sac Zevs Sual
eduri fenomeni, romliTac erTi meoreSi gadadis. Zi
lisagan RviZili iRebs dasabams da RviZilisagan Zili. cocxalisa
gan ibadeba mkvdari. mkvdrisagan ki cocxali. amrigad, mkvdrisagan
ibadeba yvela suldgmuli, yvela cocxali. gana gardacvalebas me
ore dabadeba ar unda upirispirdebodes uTuod? Tu mainc da mainc
aq koWlobs buneba? sikvdils aRdgoma cvlis uTuod.
maSasadame, cocxalni mkvdarTagan ibadeban, iseve, rogorc
cocxalTagan mkvdarni. es ki savsebiT sakmarisia imis dasamtki
ceblad, rom Cveni sulebi sikvdilis Semdegac arseboben sadRac,
saidanac axali sicocxlisaTvis brundebian ukan. rom iyos mxolod
daZineba da mis sapirispirod aRar iyos gamoRviZeba, maSin yvelafe
ri daemsgavseboda saRaTas ZiliT moculs. yvelaferi rom erTde
bodes da ar iTiSebodes, kosmosis nacvlad miviRebdiT qaoss. si
cocxlesTan wilnayari yvela arsi rom kvdebodes mxolod, mkvdari
ki aRar dgebodes, gana darCeboda qveynad cocxali?
swavla mogonebaao mxolod, sxva araferi da Tu es asea, Cven
SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom is, rasac axla vigonebT, odesRac unda
gvcodnoda ukve. es ki SeuZlebeli iqneboda, Cvens suls rom ar ear
seba sadme, sxeuls Seimosda sanam kacisas. codna dabadebidan Tan
dagvyveba, magram am codnas erTxel ziarebulni, yoveli axali da
badebis Semdeg TandaTan vkargavT. iciso, amboben imaze, vinc flobs
erTxel SeZenil codnas da ar kargavs mas. xolo ras vuwodebT da
viwyebas? erTxel SeZenili codnis dakargvas.
maS, ra iqneba e.w. swavla, Tu ara xelaxla SeZena odesRac Cveni
kuTvnili codnisa. amitom ar vcdebiT, Tu mogonebas vuwodebT mas.
saganTa romeli gvari ganicdis gafantvas-ganqarvebas? romeli
maTganisaTvis unda vSiSobdeT, vaiTu daiSalono? da romel maT
gans ekuTvnis suli? swored is sagnebi ganicdian daSlas, romelnic
Sedgenilni arian. sul Sedgenil nawilebad iSlebian. xolo martivi
sagnebi, romelTac Semadgeneli nawilebi ar gaaCniaT, daSlas rodi
ganicdian Sedgenili sagnebis msgavsad.
305

martivs iseT sagnebs vuwodebT Cven, romelnic miwyiv icvlebian


da arasodes ar arian erTi da igive.
miviRoT, rom arsebobs saganTa ori wyvili. erTi xilulTa, me
ore uxilavTa. xilulni arasodes ar arian igiveni, ucvlelni; uxi
lavni ucvleli da igiveni arian mudam. sxeuli xilulTa gvars
enaTesaveba, suli uxilavTa (kacTaTvis uxilavTa mainc). erTad
rom Sehkra suli da sxeuli, bunebam sxeuls monoba da morCileba
arguna wilad; xolo suls xelmwifoba da meufeba. axla am orTa
gan, romeli hgavs RvTaebrivs da romeli mokvdavs? cxadia, RvTaeb
rivs suli, mokvdavs sxeuli.
suli yvelaze metad waagavs RvTaebrivs, ukvdavs, erTsaxovans,
goniT sacnaurs, uSlels, maradis ucvlelsa da TavisTavads; sxe
uli ki kacurs, mokvdavs, mravalsaxovans, ara goniT grZnobiT
sacnaurs, Slads, miwyiv cvladsa da araTavisTavads. gana SeiZle
ba eWvi SevitanoT amaSi. da Tu es asea, sxeuls daSla uweria, xolo
suls uSleloba.
magram ras vityviT, roca suli Seryvnili da Sebilwuli eyreba
sxeuls? nivTieri buneba qve-damzidvelia. mZime, xiluli da miwie
ri, raki mis mier ganwonili suli simZimis gavleniT ukan, xiluli
samyarosakenve moiswrafvis, uxilavi samyaros da misi meufis winaSe
wardgomis SiSiT SemkrTali kvlav am qveynad mo-ra-iqceva, rogorc
amboben samarxTa da samaris qvaTa irgvliv iwyebs borials, romel
Ta Soriaxlos marTla xedaven xolme mwuxare aCrdilebs: am saxiT
gvecxad
ebian sulni, wmindad ki ar gahyrian sxeuls, aramed xilulis
uwmindurebac waritanes Tan da amitom xilulni xdebian Tavad. eg
sulni keTilTa sulni ki ar arian, aramed borotTa sulni, romel
Tac yvela Zveli borotebisTvis saflavTa Soris boriali ergoT
sasjelad da borialoben eg sulni manam, sanam miwyiv maTi Tanamdevi
nivTieri bunebis wyurviliT devnilni axal sxeuls ar Seimosen. xo
lo SemosviT, bunebrivia, im arsTa sxeuls Seimosen, romelTac zniT
waagavdnen Zvel sicocxleSi. maTi sulebi, vinc usamarTloba, tira
nia da Zarcva-gleja airCia, mglebsa, qorebsa da berebSi gardasax
debian. aba, sxvagan sad wavlen isini?
gedebi sikvdilis win mRerian xolme, mRerian ise nazad da war
306

mtacad, rogorc arasodes ar umReriaT da eg simRera sixarulis


simReraa. maT axarebT RvTaebisaken moqceva. xolo sikvdilis SiSiT
SemkrTalni kacni, cils wameben gedebs, roca amboben, rom eg simRe
ra sixarulisa ki ara, mwuxarebiT Sobili simReraa, romliTac isi
ni sakuTar sikvdils dastirian TiTqos! ratom ar esmiT, neta, rom
arc erTi frinveli ar daiwyebs simReras maSin, roca Sia, roca sci
va, anda ram awuxebs mas. raki winaswar Wvreten isini hadesis yvela
sikeTes, amitom sikvdilis dRes ufro tkbilad mRerian da ufro xa
roben, vidre odesme. es sityvebi SeiZleboda harmoniis, lirisa da
simebis mimarTac Tqmuliyo, radgan cnobili liris harmoniac uxi
lavTa, usxeulo, RvTaebrivi da mSvenieri, xolo lira, simebiTurT,
nivTieri, Sedgenili da miwieri sxeulia, mokvdavis naTesavi da
Tvistomi. hoda, Tu vinme daamsxvrevs liras, an mis simebs daglejs
da dawyvets, amiT harmonia ar iRupeba da arsebobas ganagrZobs. xe
da simebi ufro umal ixrwnebian, vidre harmonia. sulic upiratesad
an saxiT warmogvidgeba Cven.

307

mokle biografiuli cnobebi


A
anaqsimandre mileTidan, (Zv. w. 611 545) ioneli naturfi
losofosi, Talesis mowafe da mimdevari. misi wigni `bunebis Sesa
xeb~ warmoadgens berZnul enaze Sesrulebul pirvel filosofiur
naSroms. man pirvelma dasva kiTxva yovelive arsebulis `sawyisze~
da gansazRvra igi rogorc principi, apeironi. apeironi (berZ. ganu
sazRvreli) aris pirvelsawyisi, bunebis usasruloba, raRac `RvTa
ebrivi~. misgan, gamoyofis gziT warmoiSveba sxvadasxva sagnebi.
anaqsimene (Zv.w. 585 525) ioneli naturfilosofosi. materia
lur sawyis
ad Tvlida haers, romlisganac ganmuxtvis Sedegad war
moiqmneba cecxli, Sesqelebis Sedegad qari, Rrublebi, wyali, miwa
da qvebi.
aristotele stagiriti (Zv. w. 384\383 322\321) Zveli berZnu
li azrovnebis mwvervali, Zveli drois enciklopediuri goneba, `an
tikuri xanis hegeli~. igi daibada q. stagiraSi, berZnul kolonia
Si. mamamisi nikomaxe eqimi iyo da megobrobda makedoniis mefesTan
amnistisTan, filipe makedonelis mamasTan. mamam Seaswavla bune
bismetyveleba, ramac didi mniSvneloba iqonia aristoteles msof
lmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze. 18 wlis aristotele Cavida aTenSi
da platonis skolaSi Sevida, sadac 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi swavlobda.
mas Zalian uyvarda Tavisi maswavlebeli, magram misi sawinaaRmdego
Tvalsazrisi SeimuSava, Seqmna sakuTari filosofiuri mimdinareo
ba aristotelizmi. aristotele ambobda: miyvars platoni, magram
kidev ufro metad miyvars WeSmaritebao!
342 w. filipe makedonelma aristotele miiwvia Svilis, 13 wlis
aleqsandres aRmzrdelad. aristotele mas aswavlida 3 weliwads
gamefebamde. Semdeg dabrunda aTenSi da daarsa skola liceumi
(likei), sadac 15 weli moRvaweobda. gadmocemis Tanaxmad, am xnis gan
mavlobaSi aristotelem dawera 1000 Txzuleba (msmenelTa Canawere
bi aristoteles redaqtorobiT). aleqsandres sikvdilis Semdeg mas
devna dauwyes uRmerToba daswames da aristotelesave TqmiT, imis
SiSiT, rom filosofiis winaSe meore codva ar CaedinaT (pirveli
sokrates mowamvla iyo), igi gaiqca evbeaSi, sadac 322 w. gardaicvala.
308

aristoteles Txzulebebs sam jgufad yofen: 1) `gamoqveynebuli


Sromebi~, dial
ogebi, romlebic Turme Seicavda SesaniSnav azrebs
da dawerili iyo brwyinvale eniT (am TxzulebaTagan arcerTi Semo
naxuli ar aris); 2) krebulebi (yvela daikarga); 3) saswavlo Txzule
bebi, romelTa mxolod meeqvsedi nawilia SemorCenili. aristote
les Txzulebebi exeboda codnis TiTqmis yvela dargs, saxeldobr,
aristoteles ekuTvnis Txzulebebi metafizikaSi, fsiqologiaSi,
logikaSi, eTikaSi, politikaSi, esTetikaSi, meteor
ologiaSi, orga
nuli bunebis Seswavlis dargSi, maTematikaSi da sxva.
aristoteles Sexedulebebma mniSvnelovani zegavlena moaxdina
kacobriobis azrovnebis ganviTarebaze, gansakuTrebiT misma mec
nier
uli disciplinebis klasifikaciis filosofiurma sistemam,
romelic nawilobriv gadamuSavebuli saxiTaa Semonaxuli. am sis
temis safuZvels warmoadgens logika da metafizika. filosofiur
disciplinebs aristotele maTi Sinaarsis mixedviT yofs Teoriul
(maTematika, fizika da fsiqologia), praqtikul (eTika, politika,
ekonomika) da poetikur (teqnika, esTetika, ritorika an pedagogika)
disciplinebad.
demokrite (Zv.w. 460/70 gardacvalebis weli ucnobia. zogier
Ti versiis Tanaxmad, icocxla 100 weli) Zveli berZeni filosofo
si atomisti da swavluli enciklopedisti. daibada q. abderaSi
SeZlebul ojaxSi. igi bavSvobidanve did siyvaruls iCenda swavli
sadmi da kargi ganaTlebac miiRo. demokrite TiTqmis yvela didi
filosofosis moZRvrebas icnobda. mas bevri umogzauria mecnie
ruli mizniT aRmosavleTis qveynebSi, maT Soris egvipteSic, sadac
maT codnas gaecno. magram axali codnis miReba egviptelebisagan
demokrites ar SeeZlo, radgan TviTon mas Turme meti codna hqonia
dagrovebuli.
Tavisi xangrZlivi cxovrebis manZilze demokrites mravali
Txzuleba dauweria. am Txzulebebidan Cvenamde moaRwia mxolod
calkeulma nawyvetebma. ar darCenila TiTqmis arcerTi mniSvne
lovani problema imdroindeli mecnierebisa, romelsac es didi
moazrovne ar Sexebodes. astronomia, fizika, botanika, zoologia,
anTropologia, esTetika, eTika yvela am dargSi demokritem Se
309

saniSnavi gamokvlevebi daut


ova kacobriobas. magram mTavari mainc
atomizmis Teoriaa, romelic safuZvlad edo zemoCamoTvlil mec
nierul gamokvlevebs.
epikure B(Zv.w. 342/41 271/70 ) elinizmis epoqis berZeni filo
sofosi. daib
ada skolis maswavleblis Rarib ojaxSi. cameti wli
sa demokrites Txzulebebs gaecno da filosofiisadmi siyvaruli
cxovrebis bolomde gayva. ocdaTeqvsmeti wlis asakSi aTenSi daaar
sa sakuTari skola `epikures baRi~, romlis SesasvlelSi Semdegi
warwera iyo gakeTebuli: `stumaro, Sen aq Tavs kargad igrZnob; aq si
amovneba umaRlesi sikeTea~. igi cdilobda adamianebisaTvis cxov
rebis praqtikuli saxelmZRvanelo mieca (eTika): bunebis Semecneba
TviTmizani ar aris. igi aTavisuflebs adamians crurwmenebis SiSisa
da saerTod religiisagan, agreTve exmareba mas daZlios sikvdilis
winaSe SiSi. gaTavisufleba adamianis bednierebisa da netarebis
Tvis aris aucilebeli, romelTa arss siamovneba warmoadgens. mag
ram es ubralo grZnobadi siamovneba ki ar aris (Tumca, TavisTavad,
nebismieri siam
ovneba kargia), aramed sulieri siamovnebaa. igi bev
rad mdgradi xasiaTisaa, radgan damokidebuli ar aris garegan dab
rkolebebze. RmerTebisagan boZebuli gonebis safuZvelze, Cveni
miswrafebebi erTmaneTs unda SevuxamoT da davamTxvioT (simetria),
rac siamovnebas gulisxmobs da Tanac miiRweva simSvide, aRuSfoT
veloba (ataraqsia). swored maTSia WeSmariti RvTismosaoba. sazo
gadoebriobisadmi (gansakuTrebiT, saxelmwifosa da kultisadmi)
brZeni adamiani megobrulad, Tumca TavSekavebulad unda iyos gan
wyobili.
epikurem Seqmna moZRvreba samarTlianobaze, romelsac konven
cionalizmis principi udevs safuZvlad. samarTlianoba warmoiSve
ba da arsebobs mxolod iq, sadac adamianebs Soris saxelSekruleb
lo urTierTobebia gaformebuli. Tu adamianebi Tanxmdebian, rom
zians ar miayeneben da izruneben erTmaneTze, Seqmnian usafrTxo ga
remos, sadac TiToeuli Tavs daculad igrZnobs, maSin aseTi saxel
mwifo samarTliani iqneba. samarTlianad mowyob
ili saxelmwifos
individebi Tavisufali arian saqmianobis saxis arCevaSi, drois ga
tarebasa da pirad miswrafebebSi, gulmidrekilebebsa da simpaTieb
310

Si. es piradi cxovrebis sferoa, romelic keTilgonierma adamianma


sxeulebrivi da sulieri siamovnebebiT unda Seavsos.
epikures devizi iyo: `icxovre ganmartovebiT!~
epikurem kacobriobas dautova kidev erTi cnobili gamonaTqvami,
romelic saukuneebis manZilze adamianis sikvdilis winaSe SiSis daZ
levis filosofiur damSvidebad iyo miCneuli: `borotebaTagan usa
Sinlesi sikvdili Cven sruliad ar gvexeba, radgan, roca Cven varT,
sikvdili ar aris, xolo rodesac sikvdili aris, Cven aRar varT. ase
rom, igi srulebiT ar exeba arc cocxlebs, arc mkvdrebs, radgan pir
velTaTvis igi ar arsebobs, meoreni ki ukve aRar arseboben~.
Talesi mileTeli (Zv.w. 635 545) filosofosTuxucesi. igi Te
lidebis warCinebul gvars ekuTvnoda. mas bevri umogzauria egvip
teSi da maTematikuri codna daugrovebia; sainJinro samuSaoebsac
asrulebda: mas xidi gauyvania halisze. didi saxeli hqonda Taless
TanamedroveTa Soris, rogorc politikossac; astronomiaSic er
kveoda: scodnia, rom mzis dabneleba period
ulad xdeba da amde
nad misi winaswarmetyveleba SesaZlebelia; rom weliwadi 365 dRes
Secavs da rom TveSi 30 dRea. masve gamouyvia e.w. mcire daTvis var
skvlavTa wyoba. cnobilia misi geometriuli Teoremebic. magram mi
si SemoqmedebiTi niWi ufro aSkarad filosofiaSi mosCans. Talesi
pirveli berZeni filosofosia da evropuli filosofiis istori
ac misiT iwyeb
a. swored man dasva pirveli filosofiuri kiTxva: ra
aris yovelive da risgan Sedgeba igi? Talesi movlenaTa da saganTa
mravalferovnebis pirvelsawyisad Tvlida wyals.
leboni gustavi (1841 1931 ww.) frangi eqimi, anTropologi, so
ciologi, arqeologi, publicisti. damnaSaveobis masobrivi forme
bis fsiqologiur-sociologiur
i Teoriis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli.
lebonma Semoitana da daamkvidra cneba `fsiqologiuri brbo~,
rac sulac ar niSnavs erT adgilze mravali adamianis erTdroulad
yofnas. man Camoayaliba `brbos sulieri erTobis kanoni~: fsiqikis
aqtivizirebuli aracnobieri rezervebi brbos Semadgenel indivi
debs gadascemen masasTan gansakuTrebuli emociur-komunikaciu
ri erTianobis, Serwymulobis SegrZnebas. individualuri `me~ fsi
qologiurad iTqvifeba masobriv `Cven~-Si da nebismier qmedebaze
311

kargavs piradi pasuxismgeblobis grZnobas. lebonis azriT, brbos


destruqciuli efeqtebisaTvis yvelaze xelsayreli dro socia
lur-istoriuli krizisebis mSfoTvare periodia.
nicSe fridrixi (1844 1900 ww.) germaneli filosofosi, mwe
rali, poeti, eseisti. nicSe warmoSobiT sasuliero pirTa ojaxidan
iyo. bavSvobidanve susti janmrTelobiT, arakomunikabelobiTa da
moridebulobiT gamoirCeoda. es komplesebi rom daeZlia, sxveb
Tan zedmetad TviTdajerebulad da ampartavnulad eWira Tavi.
1888 w. nicSes dambla daeca. sigiJem ki sabolood dausva wertili
mis saun
iversiteto profesoris karieras. nicSe martoobisaTvis
ganwiruli pirovneba gaxldaT. igi mTeli arsebiT gatacebuli iyo
mis mierve Seqmnili idealuri adamianis zekacis saxiT da gamogo
nil, iluzorul, ararealur samyaroSi imkvidrebda Tavs, ramac, sa
boloo jamSi, TviTgaRmerTebamde miiyvana. Tavis yvelaze cnobil
nawarmoebs `ase ambobda zaratustra~ (qvesaTauriT `wigni yvela
saTvis da aravisTvis~) nicSe miiCnevda kacobriob
is yvelaze siR
rmiseul da mniSvnelovan wignad da sakuTar Tavs zaratustrasTan
aigivebda. igi mowadinebuli iyo Seeqmna axali adamianis, zekacis
ideali, romlis mizanic yovelive avadmyofuris, yalbis, sicocx
lisadmi mtrulad ganwyobilis ganadgureba iqneboda.
nicSeanelobis metafizikuri leitmotivi SeiZleba ase warmoCin
des: yovelive arsebuli, maT Soris adamianuri Semecneba, mxolod Za
lauflebisadmi swrafvis gamovlenis formaa; araviTari absoluturi
yofiereba ar arsebobs: yofiereba axlis qmnadobaa da ara misi ganuwy
veteli warmoSobis procesi, igi mxolod `maradiuli wrebrunvaa~ yo
velive imisa, rac warsulSi mravaljer gameorebula (`yofierebis ma
radiuli qviSis saaTi kvlav gadatrialebulia~); identuri, ucvleli
`me~ iseTive fiqciaa, rogorc WeSmariti yofiereba.
Tanamedrove eqsistencialuri filosofiisaTvis metad mniS
vnelovania nicSes Semdegi mosazreba: `adamianma, romelsac ar surs
brbosTan Serwyma, upirveles yovlisa, unda daZlios sizarmace da miy
ves Tavis sindisis xmas: `iyavi rac xar, SeinarCune Seni Tavi. yvelafe
ri, razec axla fiqrob da akeTeb, riskenac miiswrafi Sen ar xar!~ wi
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, mxolod Sablonurad moazrovne manekeni iqnebi.
312

nicSesTan simSvides ver moiZieb, mis filosofiaSi ar aris arc


saboloo WeSmariteba, arc sarwmuno debulebebi... nicSes sworad
gaigebs mxolod is, vinc winaswar ukve miiRo safuZvliani Teoriu
li ganaTleba, vinc SeiTvisa azrovnebis sirTule da sizuste, vinc
jiuti da TavisnaTqvamaa. ifilosofoso nicSesTan erTad, niSnavs
gamudmebiT mis mowinaaRdeged daimkvidro Tavi (karl iaspersi).
ortega i- gaseti xose (1883 1955 ww.) espaneli filosofosi,
sociologi, kulturologi, Jurnalisti. misi filosofiur-socio
logiuri Sexedulebebi eqsistencialistebis Tvalsazrisis msgavsia
da nawilobriv nicSes calkeul ideebsac exmianebian. gasetma wamoa
yena vitaluri sawyisidan (adamianTa cxovelmoqmedi energia) saxel
mwifos iracionaluri warmoSobis neoromantikuli koncefcia, xolo
civilizaciebis istorias ganixilavda, rogorc or ZiriTad vitalur
riTms (asakobrivsa da seqsualurs) daqvemdebarebul process.
platoni (Zv.w. 427 347) antikuri samyaros udidesi moazrov
ne. daibada aTenSi, Zveli tradiciebis mqone aristokratiul ojax
Si. mravalmxrivi niWiT dajildovebuli pirovneba gaxldaT: werda
leqsebsa da dramebs, swavlobda musikasa da ferweras, monawileob
da da imarjvebda olimpiur TamaSebSi. oci wlis asakSi filosofiam
gaitaca da sokrates mowafe gaxda. magram bedi mas pirad tragedi
as, gamocdas umzadebda sasamarTlo, cixe, ganaCenis aRsruleba da
umZimesi sulieri tkivili. es misi maswavleblis, sokrates sasamar
Tlo, patimroba da sikvdiliT dasja iyo, romelic misTvis ufro
mets warmoadgenda, vidre maswavlebeli sulieri mama, SemdgomSi
ki, misi `Alter ego~ dialogebSi. sokrates sikvdilisTanave platoni
tovebs aTens da didi xnis Semdeg ganaxlebuli, sxva adamianis saxiT
ubrundeba mSobliur qalaqs. man mTeli Tavisi inteleqtualuri
da sulieri SesaZloblobebi mimarTa ukvdavi, maradiuli ideebis,
upirveles yovlisa, umaRlesi samarTlianobis ideis, zegrZnobadi
samyaros arsebobis dasasabuTeblad. sokratesaTvis sikvdili sxva
samyaroSi, sicocxlis sxva formaSi gadasvlas niSnavda. es mosazre
ba amosavali debuleba gaxda platonisaTvis samyaro, romelSic
adamiani arsebobs sulierad da ara xorcielad, mTavaria. is realo
ba ki, sadac udanaSaulo brZeni adamianebisaTvis sasikvdilo gana
313

Ceni gamoaqvT, ar SeiZleba iyos erTaderTi, WeSmariti, umTavresi.


amdenad, aucileblad unda arsebobdes sxva, umaRlesi, idealuri
samyaro, romelSic samarTlianoba ki ar ibRaleba, aramed sufevs.
platonis filosofiisaTvis dialogis formaa damaxasiaTebeli,
romlebSic gadmocemulia misi Sexedulebebi yofierebis dramatiz
mze, aRmoufxvrel cxovrebiseul winaaRmdegobebsa da adamianis marad
mSfoTvare sulze, romelsac WeSmariteba da samarTlianoba swyuria.
platonma sakuTari Tavi sokratesTan gaaigiva da misgan Tavisi filo
sofiuri oreuli Seqmna. sainteresoa, rom dialogebSi platoniseuli
sokrate arasodes gvevlineba orakulis rolSi. igi yovelTvis sabo
loo sityvas, anu daskvnis gamotanis SesaZleblobas, avtors an saku
Tar Tavs ki ar utovebs, aramed dialogis mkiTxvels dRevandels,
xvalindels, momavals. amaSia misi WeSmariti filosofiuri sidiade.
Tavisi dialogebiT platonma STamomavlobas ori saxelis mqone er
Ti moazrovnis swavleba dautova sokrate-platoni. man Tavis Tavze
RmerTebis uflebamosileba aiRo: maswavlebeli ukvdavebas aziara.
seneka (Zv.w. 4 65) Zveli romaeli filosofosi, poeti da saxel
mwifo moRvawe. keTilSobili patriciebis STamomavali; miiRo kargi
filosofiuri da iuridiuli ganaTleba; dajildovebuli iyo ora
toruli niWiT; stoicizmis TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli; imperator
neronis aRmzrdeli, romelmac mogvianebiT sasikvdilo ganaCeni ga
moutana Tavis maswavlebels.
senekas mixedviT, filosofia cxovrebis zneobriv-religiur
saxelmZRvanelos warmoadgens. adamiani zneobrivad susti da nak
lovani arsebaa. amdenad, igi zneobrivi TvalsazrisiT sakmaod mom
Txovni unda iyos sakuTari Tavisadmi, xolo moyvasisadmi iCendes
gonivrul Semwynareblobas da ara sibraluls. umaRlesi saTnoeba,
senekas azriT, sakuTari Tavisadmi erTgulebaa.
senekas Txzulebebma da Tavad filosofosis pirovnebam ganapi
roba stoicizmis mniSvnelovani gavlena romis sazogadoebriv da
kulturul cxovrebaze, iuridiul sferosa da saxelmwifos mar
Tvis sistemaze.
sokrate (Zv.w. 470 399) gamoCenili berZeni moazrovne. daiba
da aTenSi, qvismTlel-skulptorisa da bebia qalis ojaxSi. Tavidan
314

mamis profesias misdevda, magram ormoci wlisam filosofiisadmi


dauokebeli swrafva da siyvaruli gamoiCina da yovelive sxvam mis
Tvis azri dakarga. sokrate did dros aTenis inteleqtualebTan
saubar-disputebSi atarebda. sxvebisagan gansxvavebiT mas Tandayo
lili gamWriax
i goneba, araCveulebrivi oratoruli niWi da mkveT
rad gamoxatuli SemecnebiTi interesebi gamoarCevda. `me RmerTeb
ma Camayenes mwyobrSi da filosofiiT dakaveba margunes xvedrad,
raTa sxvebi da sakuTari Tavi gamovcado~ ase ambobda Tavis Tavze.
zepirsityvieri, cocxali filosofosoba iyo misi WeSmariti cxov
rebiseul
i daniSnuleba. sokratem, ironiulma da principulma mo
kamaTem, daundobelma iseTi adamianuri mankierebebisadmi, rogori
caa pirferoba, farisevloba, orpiroba, yeyeCoba, angareba, aTenis
mkvidrTa Soris bevri mteri SeiZina. samma maTganma sasamarTloSi
daabezRa sokrate da RmerTebis gmoba da axalgazrdobis Seryvna
dasdo bralad. xuTasi nafici msajulisagan Semdgarma aTenis sa
samarTlom kenWisyris safuZvelze sasikvdilo ganaCeni gamoutana
filosofoss. sokratem TviTon aRasrula es ganaCeni.
Tavad sokrateSi, rogorc konkretul empiriul adamianSi (Cve
ulebrivi aTeneli, msuqani, meloti, paWua cxviriT, ojaxuri prob
lemebiT damZimebuli) Sinaganad arsebobda metafizikuri `me~, ro
melsac igi `daimons~, anu Sinagan xmas uwodebda. igi yovelTvis
emorCileboda da iTvaliswinebda `daimonis~ rCevebs. odesRac, Si
naganma xmam sokrates urCia, Tavi Seekavebina politikuri moRvaweo
bisagan ubralo, Cveulebrivi adamiani win ver aRudgeba `ZlierTa
ama qveynisa~ nebas, ver gadaurCeba maT risxvas, roca daufaravad am
xels maT arakanonier qmedebebsa da usamarTlobas. mxolod Tavisu
fal kerZo pirs Seswevs Zala ibrZolos sikeTisaTvis. mxolod aseT
adamians SeuZlia SeinarCunos sulieri Tavisufleba da WeSmarite
bis Ziebis SesaZlebloba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi filosofosi aRar
aris brZeni. politikur cxovrebaSi mTeli arsebiT Cafluli adami
anis suli garegan zemoqmedebas ganicdis da deformirdeba. kargavs
ra Tavisuflebas, suli umaRles realobasTan kavSirsac kargavs.
Zil-RviZilis mdgomareobaSi vardeba. aqedan Tavis daRweva ki praq
tikulad SeuZlebelia. sokrate Zalian afasebda Tavisufali moaz
315

rovnis statuss, romlis sulieri `me~ yovelTvis sifxizlis mdgoma


reobaSi imyofeba, yovelTvis mzadaa yvelaze rTuli filosofiuri
problemebis inteleqtualuri wvdomisa da daZlevisaTvis.
tardi gabrieli (1843 1904 ww.) frangi sociol
ogi, fsiqolo
gi, kriminalisti. igi Tvlida, rom socialuri cxovrebis ZiriTad
funqcias warmoadgens iniciativa (siaxleebi) da mibaZva (moda da
tradiciebi). tardma didi wvlili Seitana brbos fsiqosocialuri
Teoriis damuSavebaSi.
froidi zigmundi (1856 1939 ww.) avstrieli nevropaTolo
gi, fsiqiatri, fsiqologi; fsiqoanalizis fuZemdebeli, romelsac
Tavidan aviTarebda, rogorc isteriis sxvadasxva formebis mkur
nalobis fsiqoTerapiul meTods, Semdeg ki, rogorc moZRvrebas
aracnobieris sakuTari kanonzomierebebisa da moqmedebebis Sesa
xeb, gansakuTrebiT ltolvis, instinqtebis sferoSi. froidi Tavis
yvelaze did miRwevad Tvlida aracnobieri fsiqikuri procesebis
aRmoCenasa da zrdasruli adamianis fsiqologiis bavSvobis perio
dis movlenebiT axsnisa da wvdomis meTodologiis SemuSavebas.
froidis moZRvrebaSi centraluri adgili uWiravs individis
fsiqoseqsualuri ganviTarebis Teorias. froidis Tanaxmad, arac
nobieris safuZvels seqsualuri instinqtebi (libido) warmoadgens,
romlebic adamianis fsiqikuri moqmedebebis umravlesobas ganapi
robeben da xasiaTdebian instinqtebTan dakavSirebuli ori cnebiT:
kompleqsiT da sublimaciiT (laT. amaRleba, gandideba. froidTan:
gamoZevebuli sqesobrivi ltolvis gardasaxva sulier moRvaweoba
Si, umetesad religiis, metafizikis an xelovnebis sferoSi).
fromi erixi (19001980 ww.) ebraul
i warmoSobis germaneli
fsiqologi, sociologi, filosofosi. sxvadasxva dros gatacebu
li iyo marqsizmiT, budizmiT, fsiqoanaliziT.
mTeli Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis ganmavlobaSi froms
ainteresebda da ikvlevda borotebis anTropologiur safuZvlebs.
rogorc Zveli drois moazrovneebi, fromic borotebas sicocx
lis erT-erT Semadgenel gamovlinebad miiCnevda. sicocxlisaTvis
damaxasiaT
ebelia, rogorc srulyofileba da harmonia, aseve nak
lovaneba da disharmonia. marTalia, igi iziarebda klasikuri fi
316

losofiis mier SemuSavebul metafizikur da eTikur wanamZRvrebs


borotebis warmoSobisa da misi safuZvlebis Taob
aze, magram mainc
Tavisi sakuTari gziT siaruli arCia. fromi ikvlevda adamianTa so
cialuri qcevis destruqciuli formebis anTropologiur, fsi
qikur da social
ur fsiqologiur sawyisebs. Tavis fundamentur
naSromSi `adamianuri destruqciulobis anatomia~ fromma safuZ
vlianad gamoikvlia agresiulobis problemebi.
Spengleri osualdi (1880 1936 ww.) germaneli moazrovne. moR
vaweobda socialuri filosofiisa da kulturis filosofiis sfe
roebSi. misi erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili naSromi, filosofiur
i
bestseleri `evropis Casveneba~ gamoqveynda 1922 wels. wignSi gan
xilulia saxelmwifoebis, kulturebisa da civilizacieb
is isto
riuli bedis koncefcia da gamoirCeva argumentaciisa da saboloo
daskvnebis eqstravaganturi stiliT.
Spengleris istoriul-filosofiuri sistema iziarebs da emor
Cileba bibliuri eklesiastis lakonur gamonaTqvams `yvelaferi
amaoebaa~.
Zenoni eleel
i (Zv. w. daax. 490 430 ww.) Zveli berZeni filoso
fosi, romelmac pirvelma gamoiyena iribi damtkicebis xerxi. amis
gamo uwodes mas `dialeqtikis Semqmneli~. cnobili gaxda Tavisi pa
radoqsebiT aporiebiT, romelTa mizans moZraobis SeuZleblobis
damtkiceba warmoadgenda (`aqilevsi~, `isari,~ ~diqotomia~). Zenoni
ganTqmuli iyo ara marto filosofiiT, aramed politikuri moRva
weobiTac. igi monawileobda erT politikur SeTqmulebaSi tirani
nearxis winaaRmdeg. SeTqmuleba udrood gamoaSkaravebula da Ze
nonic SeupyriaT. Mmagram, miuxedavad imisa, rom Zenoni sastikad uwa
mebiaT, mas Tavisi megobrebi ar gaucia.

317

saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebul filosofiur


terminTa mokle leqsikoni
Aadekvaturi (laT. Mmitolebuli) Sesabamisi, Tanazomie
ri, SemTanmxmebluri. warmodgena sagnis adekvaturia, Tu igi
mas Seesatyviseba, Tu ki igi `sworia~.
Aavantiura socialuri `gubristiuli motivaciis~ (berZ.
Kkadnieri, SeteviTi, Tavxeduri sawyisi, romlis safuZvelzec
miznis misaRwevad arafers Takiloben) cnobierebis tyveoba
Si myofi mravali adamianis mier ganxorcielebuli grandio
zuli socialuri RonisZieba.
Aavantiurizmi individebisa da jgufebis moqmedebebis
socialuri praqtika, romelic scildeba da arRvevs sazoga
dod miRebul, Cveul yofiT, agreTve socialur, moralur,
samarTlebriv normebs. miCneulia, rom pirovnebis avantiu
ristuli qcevis safuZveli pragmatuli interesebia, magram
ufro xSirad, igi ganpirobebulia mZafri SegrZnebebisa da
gancdebis moTxovnilebiT. Aavantiuristuli qceva SeiZleba
iyos, rogorc konstruqciuli, aseve asocialuri, anormalu
ri, destruqciuli xasiaTis.
absoluti (laT. upirobo) maradiuli, usasrulo,
srulyofili, ucvleli, damoukidebeli absoluturi goni
anu RmerTi.
absoluturi suli hegelis filosofiur sistemaSi ab
soluturi codnisaken sulis aRmavali ganviTarebis sabo
loo rgoli. Tavis ganviTarebis etapebze absolutur ideas
suli swvdeba: a) xelovnebaSi Wvretisa da grZnobebis meS
veobiT, b) religiaSi - emociuri gancdebiT, g) filosofiaSi
adekvaturad ayalibebs ideas, rogorc TviTSemecnebul cne
bas. amgvarad, aqtualizebuli absoluturi suli xdeba goni
eri, Tavisufali da usasrulod TviTSemoqmedi.
aA bsurduli (laT. xelovnurad, yalbad JReradi) uazro,
ugunuri, Seusabamo, winaaRmdegobrivi. daviyvanoT absurdamde,
niSnavs davasabuToT mtkicebis Sinagani winaaRmdegobrioba.
318

Aabulia (berZ.) moqmedebaTa fsiqiuri regulaciis paTo


logiuri darRveva; unebisyofoba, gaubedaoba.
aA gnozia (berZ.) uvicoba, ucodinaroba. sokrates Tanax
mad sawyisi; stoikosebis mixedviT filosofosobis Sedegi.
abstraqcia (laT. ganyeneba) SemecnebiTi operacia, Se
mecnebis forma, romelic mdgomareobs saganTa Tvisebebis
da mimarTebebis azrovnebiT gamoyofaSi, gamocalkevebasa da
Semdeg ganzogade
baSi.
agnosticizmi (berZ. codnis uaryofa) moZRvreba, rome
lic mTlianad an nawilobriv uaryofs samyaros Semecnebis Se
saZleblobas. Semecnebis SeuZleblobis mizezad miiCnevs ada
mianis Semmecnebeli unarebis naklovanebas da SezRudulobas.
Aavtokratia (berZ. TviTmpyrobeloba) erTmmarTvelo
ba; mmarTvelobis forma, romelic gulisxmobs erTi piris ga
nusazRvrel ukontrolo sruluflebianobas.
Aavtonomia (berZ. sakuTari kanonzomiereba) saubroben
organuli sicocxlis avtonomiaze araorganulTan mimarTe
baSi; azrovnebis avtonomiaze yofierebasTan mimarTebaSi;
eTikur avtonomiaze da sxva.
Aavtoritarizmi (laT. Ggavlena, Zalaufleba):
1.arasamarTlebrivi xasiaTis politikuri reJimi;
2. Zalaufleba, romelic Tavis funqciebs moqalaqeTa bu
nebiTi uflebebis sistematuri darRvevis gziT axorcielebs;
3. cnobierebis orientacia, romelic mimarTulia marTvis
iZulebiT-Zaladobrivi meTodebis aRiarebaze. Aavtoritaru
li cnobiereba aris saxelmwifoebrivi marTvis avtoritaru
li modelis mier warmoSobili mTavari socialuri produqti.
misTvis damaxasiaTebelia: azrovnebis tipi, romelic, ro
gorc wesi, scildeba zneobriv-samarTlebrivi kategoriebis
sazRvrebs; saxelmwifo xelisuflebis ukritiko damokidebu
leba arasamarTlebrivi aqciebisadmi; avtokratuli mmarTve
lobis subieqtebisadmi maamebluri, mliqvneluri morCileba.
Aavtoriteti mniSvneloba an gavlena, romelic SeiZleba
hqondeT adamianebs, sagnebs, nivTebs da romelic ar saWiro
319

ebs am gavlenisa Tu mniSvnelobis mudmiv dasabuTebas, mis re


alurad damtkicebas. imisda mixedviT, Tu romeli sfero aqvT
mxedvelobaSi, saubroben religiur, politikur, samecniero
da a. S. Aavtoritetze.
Aavtoritarul-politikuri saxelmwifo arasamarTleb
rivi saxelmwifos tipi, romlis farglebSic marTlwesrigi
emyareba ara ganaTlebul, civilizebuli moqalaqeebis gan
viTarebul marTlSegnebas, aramed xelisuflebis sifxiz
les, mis gadaWarbebul, akviatebul swrafvas xelqveiTebis
meurveobisadmi da zedamxedvelobis funqciebis zedmiwevniT
Sesrulebas. Aavtoritarul-politikuri saxelmwifosaTvis
damaxasiaT
ebelia administrirebis mravalsafexuroba. amas
Tan erTad, uflebismqone aqciebis absoluturi umravlesoba
atarebs zekanonier xasiaTs da dasaSvebad iTvleba moqala
qeTa bunebiTi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis sistematuri
ugulvebelyofa. saxelmwifos mier deklarirebuli miznebi
xalxis keTildReobis, misi materialuri uzrunvelyofis,
ganaTlebis, janmrTelobis dacvis da a. S. Sesaxeb, aSkarad
ewinaaRmdegeba individebisadmi (rogorc kontrolis obieq
tebisadmi da ara rogorc samarTlis subieqtebisadmi) yovel
dRiur praqtikaSi damkvidrebul damokidebulebas.
aTeizmi (berZ. RmerTis uaryofa) filosofiuri Te
oria, romelic uaryofs zebunebriv RvTaebriv Zalebs da
RmerTis arsebobas. aqedan gamomdinare, is ugulvebelyofs
yovelgvar religias da yvelafris safuZvels materialur
substanciaS
i xedavs.
anTropologia (berZ. anTropos adamiani, logos moZR
vreba) moZRvreba adamianis warmoSobasa da evoluciaze.
1. sabunebismetyvelo da samedicino anTropologia gan
sazRvravs adamianis adgils cocxal arsebaTa samyaroSi da
swavlobs mis sxeulebriv organizacias, riTac igi gansxvav
deba sxva cocxali arsebebisagan. mas ganekuTvneba anatomia,
fiziologia, moZRvreba rasebis Sesaxeb da sxva.

320

2. filosofiuri anTropologia filosofiuri koncef


cia, romelic mTeli sisruliT moicavs realur adamianur
arsebobas, gansazRvravs adamianis adgilsa da mis damokide
bulebas garemomcveli samyarisadmi. adamianis raobis gaaz
rebisaTvis gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba kulturis is
toris Seswavlas.
anTropologia samarTlis codnis sfero, sadac gaSuqe
bulia adamianis samarTlebriv realobasTan mimarTebis Ziri
Tadi problemebi: a) adamianis roli samarTlebrivi realobis
CamoyalibebaSi; b) adamianis adgili samarTlebriv realoba
Si; g) samarTlebrivi realobis arseboba adamianSi; d) adami
anis aqtivobis destruqciuli formebi, romlebic angreven
da Slian samarTlebriv realobas adamianis garSemo da Tavad
masSi. anTropologiuri midgomis konteqstSi adamiani da sa
marTali warmoadgenen urTierTkreatiuli Tvisebebis mqone
mxareebs: adamiani qmnis samarTlebriv realobas, samarTali
ki monawileobs WeSmaritad adamianuri arsebobis formebis
dafuZnebaSi, romlebic Seesabamebian da pasuxoben civilize
bulobis kriteriumebs. Oormxrivi Zalisxmevis Sedegad iqmneba
erTian
i socialur-samarTlebrivi anTroposfero, romelic
gamyarebulia simboluri, normatiuli, RirebulebiTi, az
robrivi kavSirebiT. samarTlis anTropologia akonkretebs
zogadfilosofiur kiTxvas adamianis raobaze: ras warmoad
gens iuridiuli adamiani da saxelmwifoebrivi adamiani? ras
warmoadgens kanonmorCili adamiani da adamiani damnaSave? da
a. S. mas ainteresebs is anTropogenuri safuZvlebi, romlebic
aiZuleben adamians daicvas an daarRvios samarTlis normebi.
anTropomorfizmi (berZ.) adamianuri Tvisebebis gada
tana usulo sagnebze, RmerTis cnebaze an bunebaze.
anTropocentrizmi (berZ.) Sexeduleba, romlis Tanax
mad adamiani aris samyaros centri da masSi mimdinare yvela
movlenis mizani.
Aalqimia (laT.) Mmecnierebamdeli mimarTuleba qimiaSi.
Aalqimikosebis mTavari mizani iyo e. w. `filosofiuri qvis~
321

mopoveba. `filosofiuri qvis~ ZiriTad Tvisebad iTvleboda


arakeTilSobili metalebis gardaqmna oqrod da vercxlad.
Aalqimikosebi `filosofiur qvas~ miawerdnen mraval samkur
nalo Tvisebas daavadebaTa gankurnebas, axalgazrdobis
dabrunebas, sicocxlis usasrulod gaxangrZlivebas da sxva.
alternativa (frang. Ooridan erTi) ori, urTierTga
momricxavi SesaZleblobidan erT-erTis arCevis aucileblo
ba; emyareba moTxovnas miiRe gadawyvetileba da airCie ori
dan erTi.
Aaltruizmi (laT. sxva) zneobrivi principi, romelic
gulisxmobs sxva adamianebisadmi uangaro msaxurebas, mzad
yofnas gaiRos Tavi msxverplad maTi keTildReobisa da bed
nierebisaTvis. sawinaaRndego cnebaa egoizmi.
Aambivalentoba (laT.) grZnobadi gancdebis gaoreba,
rac gamoixteba SemdegSi erTi da igive obieqti adamianSi
erTdroulad or urTierTsawinaaRmdego grZnobas iwvevs. ma
galiTad, simpaTia da antipaTia, siyvaruli da siZulvili, si
amovneba da usiamovneba.
Aamnezia (berZ.) Mmexsierebis nawilobriv moSla an mTli
anad dakargva.
analizi (berZ. danawevreba, daSla) logikaSi cnebiTi
(azrobrivi) daSla erTianobisa simravleebad, mTlianis
mis nawilebad. analizis aqts ewodeba analizireba, xolo ana
lizis Catarebis xerxs analitikuri meTodi. sapirispiro
cnebaa sinTezi.
analitikuri msjeloba msjeloba, romlis WeSmariteba
dgindeba wminda logikuri analizis gziT.
analogia (berZ. msgavseba) mimarTebaTa msgavseba, to
loba. agreTve, Sedarebis gziT Semecneba. Sesadarebel sag
nebs Soris aucileblad unda arsebobdes, rogorc gansxva
veba, aseve msgavsebac. is, rac Sedarebis safuZvlad gvaqvs
aRebuli, bevrad ufro kargad unda iyos CvenTvis cnobili,
vidre is, rac mas unda SevadaroT.

322

anamnezisi (berZ. mogoneba) platonis Tanaxmad, Semecne


ba ramdenadac yoveli Semecneba aris sulis mogoneba idee
bis Sesaxeb, romlebsac igi ganWvretda sxeulTan SeerTebamde.
anarqia (berZ. uxelisufleoba) mdgomareoba, romel
Sic imyofeba sazogadoeba xelisuflebis gauqmebis pirobeb
Si. anarqizmi moZRvreba sazogadoebaze, romlis mizans war
moadgens adamianis gaTavisufleba politikuri, ekonomikuri
da sulier
i Zalauflebis yovelgvari saxesxvaobisagan. aRi
arebs mxolod calkeuli pirovnebis nebas, sxva nebismier av
toritetsa da saxelmwifoebriv wyobas uaryofs.
animizmi (laT. anima suli) religiuri rwmena sulebis
arsebobaze da maT Zalebze, romlis mixedviTac bunebis yvela
saganSia suli da is did gavlenas axdens adamianis cxovreba
ze. arsebobda pirvelyofil, primitiul sazogadoebaSi.
anomalia (berZ). normidan, saerTo kanonzomierebidan
gadaxveva.
anormatuli qceva individis socialuri qmedeba, rome
lic ar Seesabameba civilizebuli sazogadoebis stereoti
pebs, scildeba da ar emTxveva etiketis, kulturis, moralis,
samarTlis sazogadod miRebul normebs da amdenad, rogorc
wesi, ganapirobebs sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis uaryofiT
reaqcias. sazogadoebaSi adamianebis vitaluri, socialu
ri da sulieri aqtivobis yvela gamovlineba regulirdeba,
Zlierdeba an piriqiT, Seferxebulia socialuri normebisa
da Rirebulebebis safuZvelze, romelTa mizani da daniSnu
lebaa subieqtis aRmSenebluri moRvaweobis stimulireba da
maTi destruqciuli miswrafebebisa da Zalisxmevis blokire
ba. im SemTxvevaSi, roca blokirebis, Seferxebis, damuxruWe
bis funqciebi Sedegs ver aRwevs, xolo adamianTa qcevebi da
moqmedebebi arRvevs da scildeba normatiul CarCoebs, war
moiqmneba anormatiuli qcevis fenomeni. normatiuli qceva
uzrunvelyofs socialuri sistemis stabilurobas, mdgra
dobas, anormatiuli qcevis gamovlenis mizans ki warmoadgens
sistemis cvalebadobis uzrunvelyofa.
323

antagonizmi (berZ. erTmaneTTan brZola) winaaRmdegoba,


romelic xasiaTdeba mtruli Zalebis Seurigebeli brZoliT.
antiTezisi (berZ. dapirispireba) logikaSi Tezisis sa
pirispiro msjeloba.
antikuroba (laT. Zveli) Zveli berZnuli da romauli
klasikuri epoqa.
antinomia (berZ. winaaRmdegoba) ori winaarmdegobrivi
msjeloba, sadac upiratesoba arcerTs ar eniWeba, aramed isi
ni TanabardasabuTebadi msjelobebia. erTis uaryofiT meore
sabuTdeba da piriqiT. debulebaTa Soris yovel maTgans aq v s
kanonieri Zala.
apeironi (berZ. ganusazRvreli) anaqsimandres mixedviT,
usasrulo, uformo pirvelsawyisi, romlisganac Sedgeba yve
la sagani. platonTan da piTagorelebTan materiis sinonimi.
apercefcia (laT.) logikaSi, Semecnebis TeoriaSi igi
vea, rac gacnobierebuli aRqma.
apologia (berZ. dacva) dasacavi sityva. sokrates mier
sasamarTlos winaSe warmoTqmuli sityva. agreTve, platonisa
da qsenofantes am sityvisadmi miZRvnili Txzulebebi.
aporia (berZ.) gamouvali mdgomareoba, problemis ga
daWris SeuZlebloba, vinaidan Tavad saganSi an gamoyenebul
cnebebSi arsebobs winaaRmdegoba.
aprior
i (laT. winamdebare, winamorbedi) codna, rome
lic win uswrebs cdas da misgan damoukidebelia. aprioruli
ewodeba Sexedulebas, romlis sisworis damtkiceba an uaryo
fa cdis meSveobiT SeuZlebelia.
aposteriori (laT. momdevnodan, Semdgomidan) Semec
nebis Teoriis cneba. aposteriuli ewodeba cdis safuZvelze
aRqmidan miRebul codnas. sawinaaRmdego cnebaa apriori.
argumenti (laT. sabuTi, mosazreba) damtkiceba, misi is
nawili, romelsac mtkicebis utyuaroba, ueWveloba eyrdno
ba. argumentireba damtkiceba, dasabuTeba.
argumentacia dasabuTebis motana.

324

artefaqti iuridiuli (laT. xelovnurad gakeTebuli)


cneba, romelic aRniSnavs samarTlebriv realobaSi CarTuli
adamian
is monawileob
iT Seqmnil meorad, xelovnur faqteb
sa da formebs. Tu ki iuridiuli faqti empiriul-Teoriuli
gziT gamovlenili mTlianobaa da moicavs informacias samar
Tlebrivi real
obis SigniT arsebul konkretul subieqtur
urTierTobebze, iuridiuli artefaqti aris genetikurad
meor
adi kulturuli realoba, romelic Tavisi SemecnebiTRirebulebiTi funqciebis safuZvelze iZleva informacias
samarTlebriv urTierTobebis arsebiT Tvisebebze.
arxe (berZ. sawyisi) pirvelsawyis
i, principi.
arxetipi (berZ. sawyisi saxe) pirvelsaxe, sawyis
i forma,
nimuSi.
asketizmi (berZ. raimeSi movarjiSe) Tavdapirvelad aT
letebis SejibrebisaTvis momzadeba; SemdgomSi saTno cxov
rebisaken swrafva da codvebTan da mavne CvevebTan brZola.
qristian
uli asketizmi locvaSi, marxvaSi, sxeulis ganwmen
daSi moRvawe adamianis cxovreba.
asocial
uri (berZ.) sazogadoebis mimarT Sinaganad
gulgrili da garegnulad pasiuri adamiani.
atributi (laT. gamoyofa, boZeba) Tviseba, niSani, arse
biTi niSan-Tviseba.
afeqti (laT. sulieri mRelvareba, gaSmageba, gaxeleba)
xanmokle emociuri mdgomareob
a, romelic xasiaTdeba grZno
bebis avadmyofuri aRgznebiT, azrovnebisa da misi zemoqme
debis Zlieri daqveiTebiT.
aqsiologia (berZ. aqsi Rirebuleba, logos moZRvre
ba) filosofiuri moZRvreba Rirebulebebze. Rirebule
bebSi igulisxmeba ideebi, idealebi, Sexedulebebi, principe
bi, romlebic safuZvlad udevs adamianTa cxovrebis wess. aq
igulisxmeba zneobrivi, samarTlebrivi, politikuri, reli
giuri, mecnier
uli, mxatvruli (xelovnebis) da sxva ideebi,
idealebi da principebi, romelTac Rirebuleba aqvT sazoga
doebisa da pirovnebisaTvis.
325

biblia (berZ. wignebi) qristianobis wminda werili


RvTis gamocxadebaze, samyaroze da adamianze, kacobriobasa
da mis momavalze, mis saboloo bed-iRbalze. Sedgeba ori na
wilisagan `Zveli aRTqma~ (51 wigni) da `axali aRTqma~ (27 wig
ni) da warmoadgens erT mTlianobas. biblia Svidasamde enaze
da dial
eqtzea Targmnili. qarTul enaze arsebobs Zveli da
axali aRTqmis uZvelesi Targmanebi da mogviano redaqciebi
(xanmeti da sabawminduri VII-VIII ss., adiSuri - 897w., jruW-par
xlis X s., oSkuri - 987 w., aTonuri - X-XI ss., irusalimuri
XI s., gelaTuri - XII s., mcxeTuri - XVIIXVIII ss., baqariseuli
1743 w., 1884 w.).
boroteba filosofiur-eTikuri kategoria, romelic
adamianTa socialur sinamdvileSi aRniSnavs yovelive ara
marTebulis vnebis momtan da saSiS formebs. boroteba, ro
gorc ontologema arsebobs sami ZiriTadi ipostasis saxiT: 1.
metafizikuri, 2. religiuri da 3. naturalisturi. boroteba,
rogorc sikeTis antiTeza, warmoadgens im sociogenuri fe
nomenebis kvalificirebis zogadSemfaseblur kategorias,
romlebic adamianuri arsebobis umniSvnelovanes Rirebule
bebsa da faseulobebs ngreviT da ganadgurebiT emuqreba.
bunebiTi samarTali filosofiur samarTlebrivi da
iuridiuli azrovnebis erT-erTi wamyvani paradigma, ro
melic eyrdnoba kosmosSi, bunebasa da sazogadoebaSi gaba
tonebul erTian normatiul RirebulebiT principebs da
SesaZlebloba aqvs gaxdes saxelmwifos mier dadgenili ka
nondebulebaTa samarTlianobis sazomi. bunebiTi samarTali
(Cveul
ebiTi samarTlis dauwereli wesebisa da tradiciebis
saxiT) warmoiS
oba kacobriob
is civilizaciisa da kulturis
gaCenasTan erTad. misi moTxovnebi warmodgenilia miTebSi,
religiur da moralur normativebSi. mogvianebiT, filoso
fiis warmoSobasTan erTad, isini iReben ontologiur da me
tafizikur dasabuTebas.
gaucxoe
ba adamianis iseTi mdgomareoba, rodesac masze
batonobs garegani socialuri faqtori, romelic adamians
326

arTmevs Sinagan Tavisuflebas. es warmoSobs gansxvavebas moq


medebis mizansa da Sedegs Soris, ris gamoc adamiani pesimis
tur da nihilistur ganwyobaSi vardeba da gamosavalis povna
uZneldeba.
determinizmi (laT. gansazRvra) Sexeduleba samyaros
kanonzomierebis Sesaxeb, romlis mixedviTac samyaroSi yvela
feri mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiriT aris ganpirobebuli, deter
minirebuli. amitom samyaroSi ar arsebobs araviTari umizezo
movlena anu SemTxveviToba. SemTxveviToba mxolod subieqtu
ri arcodnis gamo moixmareba mecnierebaSi, Torem TavisTavad
samyaroSi araviTari SemTxveviToba ar arsebobs. samyaros mxo
lod mkacri aucilebloba da mizezobrioba marTavs.
deduqcia (laT. gamoyvana) zogadidan konkretulis ga
moyvana;
deduqciuri meTodi azrovnebis meTodi, romlis meSveo
biTac zogadi msjelobidan gamogvyavs kerZo debulebebi.
deizmi (laT.) rwmenis forma, romelic warmoiSva ganma
naTleblobis epoqaSi (gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia ingli
sisaTvis). deizmis Tanaxmad, marTalia, RmerTi samyaros pir
velmizezia, magram Seqmnis Semdeg samyaro misi monawileobis
gareSe viTardeba; arc saswaulebs, arc RvTis Svilis movline
bas dedamiwaze, kavSiri ara aqvT samyaros ganviTarebasTan.
dekadentoba (fr. gaxrwna, daknineba, dacema) cneba, ro
melic xSirad ixmareba filosofiis istoriaSi kulturebisa
da sxvadasxva erebis istoriis ayvavebisa da dakninebis peri
odebis ganxilvis dros.
dekalogi bibliuri aTi mcnebis zogadi dasaxeleba.
demiurgi (berZ.) platonis filosofiaSi: samyaros
Semqmneli RvTaeba
demokratia (berZ. xalxis Zalaufleba) saxelmwifoeb
rivi mowyobis forma, romelic saSualebas aZlevs xalxs da
mis warmomadgenlebs uSualod ganaxorcielon mmarTvelobi
Ti funqciebi.

327

depresia (laT. daTrgunva) daTrgunuli sulieri mdgo


mareob
a.
despotizmi saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis arasamarTleb
rivi forma, romlis drosac xelisuflebis mxridan sastikad
da sistematurad irRveva moqalaqeTa bunebiTi uflebebi,
ilaxeba pirovnebis Rirseba da iTrguneba misi Tavisufali
neba.
destruqciuloba e. fromis filosofiur
i anTropolo
giis centraluri cneba. aRniSnavs zogierTi adamianis ngre
viTi procesebisadmi miswrafebasa da midrekilebas.
definicia (laT. SezRudva) cnebis gansazRvra misi Tvi
sebebis CamoTvlis gziT.
didaqtika (berZ. gawrTvnis, ganswavlis xelovneba an mec
niereba) ganswavlis Teor
ia.
disonansi (laT. sxvadasxvaxmovanoba, arakeTilxmovani,
Seuwyob
eli) arakeTilxmovaneba, uTanxmoeba.
dogma (berZ. azri) filosofiuri Tezisi, romlis WeS
mariteba safuZvlad edeba ama Tu im filosofiur sistemas;
agreTve, qristianuli rwmenis dogmati saeklesio kanoni,
romelic Secvlas ar eqvemdebareba.
doqtrina (laT. swavleba) sistematizirebuli filoso
fiuri, politikuri an ideologiuri moZRvreba, koncefcia,
principebis erToblioba.
dialeqtika (berZ. vsaubrob, vmsjelob) moZRvreba ganvi
Tarebis Sesaxeb. Zvel saberZneTSi masSi kamaTis xelovneba igu
lisxmeboda. kamaTi miCneuli iyo azrovnebis ganviTarebis saSu
alebad, romliTac WeSmariteba miiRweoda. hegelma dialeqtika
absoluturi gonis TviTSemecnebis meTodad gamoacxada. hege
lis mixedviT azrovnebis dialeqtika warmoadgens Semecnebis aR
maval process, romliTac adamiani absoluturi gonis Semecne
bisaken miiswrafvis.
dualizmi (laT. ori) filosofiuri moZRvreba, romelic
materialur da sulier substanciebs miiCnevs TanabarmniSvne
lovan sawyisebad, romlis mixedviTac verc sulisagan warmoiSo
328

ba materia da verc materia warmoSobs suls, aramed isini abso


luturad gansxvavebuli cnebebia.
egoizmi (laT) TavisTavis moyvaruloba, TavmoTneoba. qce
va, romelic srulad Semoifargleba da ganisazRvreba sakuTari
`me~- s interesebiT sakuTari sargebeli, gamorCena, sakuTari
interesebis sxva adamianis interesebze maRla dayeneba. sawinaaR
mdego cnebaa altruizmi.
egocentrizmi samyarosadmi damokidebulebis forma, ro
melic xasiaTdeba sakuTar individualur `me~-ze yuradRebis aq
centirebiT.
evTanazia (berZ. kargi sikvdili) `kargi, sasiamovno sokvdi
li~. pirvelad es termini gamoiyena bekonma. igi evTanaziaSi msu
buq, umtkivneulo, bednier sikvdils gulisxmobda. mecnierul
terminologiaSi damkvidrda XX s. me-2 naxevridan da aRniSnavs
Segnebul qmedebas an umoqmedobas, romelic iwvevs ganukurnebe
li seniT daavadebuli pacientis sikvdils, SedarebiT swrafi da
umtkivneulo gziT. misi mizania Sveba moutanos da ixsnas adamiani
mtanjveli tkivilebisagan.
eTika (berZ. Cveuleba) - filosofiuri moZRvreba, romelic
Seiswavlis adamianis morals, adamianis zneobrivi qcevis normebs
da Rirebulebebs. eTika aris aqsiologiuri Teoria, romelic
yuradRebis centrSi ayenebs im principebisa da Rirebulebebis
kvlevas, rac safuZvlad udevs adamianTa cxovrebis wess. aq saq
me exeba im ideebsa da idealebs, risTvisac adamiani axorcielebs
Tavis aqtiur moqmedebas da azrs aZlevs sicocxles.
eTikuri Teologia (agreTve, moraluri Teologia)
gvxvdeba kantis `praqtikuli gonebis kritikaSi~. kantis Ta
naxmad, zneobrivi kanonis arseboba, romelic gansazRvravs
adamian
is moqmedebebis, qcevebis moralurobas, ukve warmo
adgens RmerTis, rogorc am kanonis pirvelSemoqmedisa da mi
si garantis, arsebobis dasabuTebas.
ekleqtika (berZ. arCevis unari; is vinc irCevs) gansxva
vebuli xasiaTis Sexedulebebis, ideebis, principebis an Te
oriebis SeerTeba. ekleqtiki ewodeba pirovnebas, romelic
329

Tavad ar qmnis erTian principze dafuZnebul sakuTar filo


sofiur sistemas da ar iziarebs romelime erTi filosofo
sis Sexedulebebs, aramed sxvadasxva sistemebidan sesxulobs
misTvis misaReb, swor ideebs da aerTianebs maT.
elita (fr. saukeTeso, rCeuli) sociologiaSi sazoga
doebis maRali, privilegirebuli fena, romelic axorcielebs
marTvis, mecnierebisa da kulturis ganviTarebis funqciebs.
emanacia (laT. gamosvla, gamodineba) mTlianidan, er
Tianidan gamodineba, gamosxiveba. neoplatonizmisa da gnos
ticizmis Tanaxmad, samyaro aris RvTis emanacia, romelic
imavdroul
ad ucvleli rCeba.
empirizmi (berZ. cda) filosofiuri moZRvreba, ro
melic grZnobad cdas codnis erTaderT wyarod miiCnevs da
amtkicebs, rom yovelgvari codna sabuTdeba cdaSi da cdis
saSual
ebiT; ar arsebobs araviTari Tandayolili zogadi
ideebi adamian
is cnobierebaSi, aramed cnobierebis Sinaarsi
mTlianad SegrZnebebiT miRebuli codniT ganisazRvreba. Aam
mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi arian: berkli, iumi, avenari
usi, loki da sxvebi.
esTetika (berZ. mgrZnobeli) moZRvreba mSvenierebis
Sesaxeb. es aris xelovnebis Teoria, romelic ikvlevs mxat
vrul saxeebSi gadmocemul iseT Rirebulebebs, romelTac
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvT adamianis mxsoflmxedvelobis Ca
moyalibebaSi. esTetika msjelobs da afasebs xelovnebis iseT
kategoriebs, rogoricaa mSveniereba, silamaze, amaRlebuli,
tragikuli, komikuri da sxva.
epistomologia samarTlebrivi (berZ.) disciplinaT
Sorisi Teoriuli sfero, romlis farglebSic SemuSavebulia
meTodologiuri problemebi samarTlis bunebaze, struqtu
rasa da funqciebze.
eqsistencia (laT. arseboba) - adamianuri arsebobis wesi.
es termini ixmareba eqsistencializmSi da warmoadgens ada
mian
uri `me~-s sulier sawyiss, romlis wyalobiTac adamiani
aris ganumeorebeli pirovneba, persona.
330

eqsistencialebi adamianuri arsebobis saSualebebi, ada


mianuri yofierebis kategoriebi (arseboba samyaroSi, SiSi,
zrunva, siyvaruli, gageba, martooba da sxva ).
eqsistencializmi filosofiuri moZRvreba adamianuri
arsebobis Sesaxeb; Camoyalibda XX saukuneSi. misi ZiriTadi
warmomadgenlebi arian: iaspersi, berdiaevi, haidegeri, sar
tri, kamiu, da sxv. eqsistencializmi aris iracionalisturi
filosofia, is ar iziarebs da akritikebs yovelgvar racio
nalizms da miaCnia, rom filosofiam unda ikvlios mxolod
adamiani da masTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. filosofiam
xeli unda aiRos mTeli samyaros Seswavlaze, rasac tradici
uli filosofia akeTebda da miznad unda daisaxos adamianis
sulieri samyaros wvdoma. eqsistencializmis mixedviT, su
lieri samyaros wvdoma da misi eqsistencialuri fenomenebis
gageba SeuZlebelia racionaluri meTodebiT; maTi azriT,
aseTi wvdomis funqcias mxolod emocionaluri intuicia
da emocionaluri gancda asrulebs. SiSisa da sasowarkveTis
gancdis momentSi adamiani gacilebiT mets igebs misi yofie
rebis Sesaxeb, vidre xangrZlivi logikuri gaazrebis saSua
lebiT. amdenad, adamians sicocxlis arsi mxolod gancdaSi
eZleva; aseve gancdis saSualebiT xdeba gasagebi eqsisten
ciebi da Rirebulebebi, riTac adamiani xelmZRvanelobs ga
dawyvetilebis miRebaSi. eqsistencializmi eWvqveS ayenebs
samecniero-teqnikur miRwevebs da saerTod mecnierebis
rols sazogadoebrivi istoriis ganviTarebaSi. maTi azriT,
swored teqnikurma progresma warmoSva pirovnebis gaucxoe
bis problema, ramac gamoiwvia adamianTa pirovnuli Rirsebe
bis nivelireba, standartizacia da Tavisuflebis dakargva.
verifikacia (laT. WeSmaritebis damtkiceba) logikuri
pozitivizmis erT-erTi amosavali principi, romlis Tanax
mad, samyaros Sesaxeb yoveli mtkicebis WeSmariteba, saboloo
angariSiT, unda dadgenil iqnes grZnobad monacemebTan misi
Sedarebis gziT. amdenad Semecneba ar unda gascdes grZno
badi cdis sazRvrebs, Semecneba unda Semoifarglos cdidan
331

miRebuli codnis logikuri analiziT. debuleba, romelic


cdaSi ar mowmdeba, mcdaria.
virtualuri (laT. Zala, unari) SemZle.
vitaluri adamianis cxovelmoqmedi energia.
voluntarizmi (laT. neba) filosofiuri mimdinare
oba, romelic uaryofs obieqturi kanonebisa da adamianis
gonebis rols sazogadoebis istoriaSi. istoriis mamoZra
vebel Zalad miiCnevs RvTaebriv an did pirovnebaTa nebas.
swored amitom ewodeba mas nebisyofis anu voluntarizmis
Teoria. voluntarizmi aris iracionalisturi Teoria. mi
si ZiriTadi warmomadgenlebi arian: Sopenhaueri, hartmani,
nicSe da sxv.
vulgaruli materializmi (laT. ubralo) - XIX s. filo
sofiuri mimdinareoba, romelic bunebis mecnieruli monace
mebiT cdilobda adamianis da misi cnobierebis axsnas. isini
materialur sinamdviles da cnobierebas erTimeoresTan aigi
vebdnen, cnobierebas fiziologiuri procesebiT xsnidnen. mi
si warmomadgenlebi arian: fogti, moleSoti, biuxneri da sxva.
zaratustra (daax. Zv. w. X-VI ss.) Zveli iranuli religi
is qurumi da reformatori. mis swavlebas gadmoscems am re
ligiis wminda wigni `avesta~.
zneobrioba normatiuli dadgenilebebis sistema, rome
lic icavs adamianuri arsebobis universalur Rirebulebebs
sicocxle, Tavisufleba, Rirseba da sxva.
Talmudi (Zv. ebr. Seswavla) iudaizmis religiur-eTi
kuri da samarTlebrivi debulebebis krebuli.
Teza, Tezisi (berZ. fuZemdebluri debuleba) mtkice
buleba, debuleba. logikaSi mtkicebuleba, romelic dam
tkicebas moiTxovs.
Teizmi (berZ. RmerTi) religiur-filosofiuri moZR
vreba, aRiarebs pirovnuli RmerTis arsebobas, romelic ze
moqmedebas axdens yvela materialur da sulier processze.
amitom yovelive, rac samyaroSi xdeba, RmerTis Canafiqris
ganxorciel
ebas warmoadgens.
332

Teogonia (berZ.) RmerTebis dabadeba; miTi RmerTebis


warmoSobaze.
Teokratia (berZ.) saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis forma,
romlis drosac saero politikuri Zalaufleba sasuliero
pirTa xelSia.
Teosofia (berZ.) RvTaebrivi sibrZne; uSualo WvretiT
miRweuli umaRlesi codna RmerTisa da RvTaebrivi Sesaqmis
saidumloebis Sesaxeb.
Teologia religiuri moZRvreba anu RvTismetyveleba,
romelic ama Tu im religiis sarwmunoebis principebisa da
dogmebis sistematizacias axdens. qristianuli Teologia ey
rdnoba biblias, saeklesio krebebis dadgenilebebs da `ekle
siis mamebis~ moZRvrebas.
ideal
i (berZ. saxe, xati) adamianis an sazogadoebis
umaRlesi mizani, romelic azrs aZlevs adamianis da sazoga
doebis SemoqmedebiT aqtivobas. ideali aris is umaRlesi Ri
rebuleba, romlisTvisac adamiani yvelafers swiravs, TviT
sicocxlesac ki. idealis cneba sxva mniSvnelobiTac ixmareba.
magaliTad, rodesac adamiani raimes Sefasebas axdens (idea
luri adamian
i, idealuri qandakeba, idealuri musika da a.S.),
idealuri SefardebiTi mniSvnelobis cnebas gamoxatavs, rad
gan Sefaseba subieqtur gemovnebazea damokidebuli.
ideal
izmi filosofiuri mimdinareob
a, romelic mate
rialurTan SedarebiT sulierebis upiratesobas amtkicebs;
ideebi pirveladi da maradiulia, xolo materialuri sagne
bi meor
adi da warmavali. es iyo platonis filosofiis amo
savali principi, romelic ganaviTares dekartma, laibnicma,
hegelma... obieqturi idealizmis garda, arsebobs subieqturi
idealizmis Teoriac, romelic materialurTan mimarTebaSi
obieqturi ideebis nacvlad, SegrZnebebisa da aRqmebis upira
tesobas asabuTebs. Aam mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebTa (ber
kli, iumi, avenariusi) azriT, materialuri sinamdvile subi
eqturi SegrZnebebiT ganisazRvreba.

333

identuroba (laT. igive) igiveobrioba, sruli dam


Txveva.
ideol
ogia politikuri, samarTlebrivi, zneobrivi, re
ligiuri Sexedulebebis sistema, romelsac esa Tu is filo
sofia an politikuri organizacia ayalibebs sazogadoebis
momavlis, misi marTvisa da cxovrebis wesis Sesaxeb.
imanenturi (laT. niSandoblivi) Sinaganad damaxasiaTe
beli Tviseba (kanonzomiereba). gnoseologiaSi es termini ga
moiyeneba subieqtis Sinagani kanonzomierebis aRmniSvnelad.
am termins kanti iyenebs transcendenturis (is rac subieqtis
gareT aris da ar moiazreba) sapirispiro mniSvnelobiT. kan
tma Tavisi filosofia swored imanenturis kanonzomierebis
Seswavlas miuZRvna. imanenturi cnebis irgvliv yvela drois
filosofiaS
i iyo kamaTi, rac dResac grZeldeba, radgan is
fenomenologiuri filosofiis centralur problemas war
moadgens.
imaterialuri (laT.) arasagnobrivi, arasxeulebrivi,
sulieri.
imoralizmi moralis principebisa da moTxovnebis auci
leblobis uaryofa.
imperativi (laT.) moTxovna, brZaneba, kanoni.
indeterminizmi determinizmis sapirispirod amtkicebs,
rom samyaroSi obieqturad ar arsebobs mizezobriobisa da
aucileblobis kanoni, aramed samyaroSi gabatonebulia mxo
lod SemTxveviToba da albaToba. indeterminizmi gansakuT
rebiT Tanamedrove kvanturi fizikis monacemebs emyareba,
sadac mizezobriob
is klasikuri gageba Zalas kargavs. klasi
kur fizikaSi miRebuli iyo, rom erTi da igive movlena, er
Tsa da imave pirobebSi, erTsa da imave Sedegs iZleva. xolo
kvanturma fizikam daadgina, rom mikro nawilaki am kanons ar
emorCileba da moqmedebs araerTmniSvnelovnad, aramed usas
rulod mravali SesaZlebeli mimarTulebiT. mogvianebiT ga
irkva, rom mikro sinamdviles aqvs albaTuri statistikuri
mizezobrioba.
334

intuicia (laT. daJinebiT mzera) uSualo Semecnebis


aracnobieri unari. arsebobs intuiciis sxvadasxva formebi:
grZnobadi, inteleqtualuri, emocionaluri da mistikuri.
grZnobadi intuicia grZnobad-konkretul sinamdviles exeba,
inteleqtualuri zogad cnebebs, emocionaluri subieqtur
gancdebs, xolo mistikuri RmerTis Semecnebas axorcielebs.
intuit
ivizmi filosofiuri Teoria, romelic Semecne
baSi upiratesobas aniWebs intuicias da amtkicebs, rom adami
anis SemoqmedebiTi aqtivoba da sasicocxlo swrafva mxolod
intuic
iur
i aracnobieri alRos safuZvelze mimdinareobs,
rom adamianis sicocxlis usasrulo swrafvis Semecneba da
wvdoma mxolod intuiciiT xdeba. rac Seexeba inteleqts, mas
mxolod materialuri sagnebis Semecneba SeuZlia da meti ara
feri. maTi azriT, inteleqti da saerTod mecniereba, xels
uSlis da win eRobeba namdvili sicocxlis ganxorcielebas.
intuit
iuri meTodi SemecnebiT saSualebaTa erTobli
oba, romelic eyrdnoba materiisa da sulis, subieqtisa da
obieqtis, cnobier
isa da aracnobieris erTianobis ideas da
aRiarebs adamian
is sulis mier erTiani samyarosa da misi cal
keuli nawilebis, maT Soris, samarTlebrivi realobis arsis,
uSualo, araracionaluri wvdomis strategias.
infantiluri (laT.) bavSvuri.
infantilizmi bavSvobis etapze fizikuri da gonebrivsulieri ganviTarebis Seferxeba.
incesti (laT. biwier
i, mankieri) sisxlis aRreva, sis
xlis naTesavTa Soris seqsualuri kavSiri.
iracionalizmi (laT. aragonieri) filosofiuri moZR
vreba, romelic Semecnebis ZiriTad unarad intuic
ias miiC
nevs, xolo adamianis azrovnebis rols SemecnebaSi umniS
vnelod Tvlis. iracionalizmis mixedviT, adamianis goneba
uZluria Cawvdes samyaros saidumloebas da gansakuTrebiT
adamian
is sicocxlis kanonzomier
ebas.
kaTarsisi (berZ. ganwmenda) emociuri ganmuxtva; su
lis mistikuri ganwmenda.
335

kanibalizmi kaciWamiaoba; cnobilia kanibalizmis ramde


nime saxesxvaoba:
1. nekrofagia ubeduri SemTxvevebis, avadmyofobis, sibe
ris Sedegad gardacvlili adamianebis xorcis Wama;
2. egzokanibalizmi mtrebis, tyveebis, agreTve adamianeb
ze mizanmimarTuli nadirobis msxverplTa xorcis gamoyeneba
sakvebSi;
3. endokanibalizmi naTesavebis, ritualuri msxverplisa
da moxucebul TvistomTa xorcis Wama.
kategoria (berZ. gamoTqma, mtkiceba) codnis forma,
romelSic gamoiTqmeba sinamdvilis sxvadasxva kavSirebi, mi
marTulebebi, Tvisebebi da kanonzomierebani. ganasxvaveben
universalur da specifikur kategoriebs.
kategoriebi filosofiur samarTlebrivi, filosofiur
iuridiuli diskursis mniSvnelovani Sinaarsobriv-azrob
rivi datvirTvis mqone sakvanZo cnebebi, romlebic maqsima
luri aqtivobiT monawileoben samarTlis subieqtis filo
sofiuri TviTSegnebis analitikur moRvaweobaSi. maT ricxvs
ganekuTvneba iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa norma, kanoni, samar
Tlianoba, bunebiTi da pozitiuri samarTali, Tavisufleba,
Zalaufleba, marTlmsajuleba, danaSauli, sasjeli, samar
Tlebrivi urTierTobebi, socialur-samarTlebrivi winaaR
mdegobebi, socialuri wesrigi da sxva.
kanoni erTiani sistemis elementebsa da Tvisebebs Soris
obieqturi xasiaTis mdgradi, arsebiTi kavSiri.
kanonikuri samarTali religiuri da iuridiuli normebis
sistema, romelic Camoyalibda saeklesio kanonebis safuZvelze.
kategoriuli imperativi kantis `praqtikuli gonebis
kritikis~ gamoqveynebis Semdeg imperativi ganixileba, ro
gorc sayovelTaod mniSvnelovani zneobrivi dadgenileba
(maqsimis piradi principis sawinaaRmdegod); wesi, romelic
valdebulebas gamoxatavs (obieqturi davaldebuleba moi
qeci ase da ara sxvagvarad). hipoTeturi imperativi moqmedebs
mxolod gansazRvrul pirobebSi; kategoriuli imperativi
336

gulisxmobs upirobo valdebulebas. igi adgens qcevis auci


lebel formasa da princips.
kauzaloba mizezobrioba, mizezisa da Sedegis kanonzo
mieri kavSiri.
kolizia (laT.) dapirispirebuli Zalebis, miswrafebe
bis, Sexedulebebis, interesebis Sejaxeba.
konsesusi moralur samarTlebrivi (laT. SeTanxmebu
loba) social
uri winaaRmdegobis gansakuTrebuli tipi,
romelic gulisxmobs mxareTa mzadyofnas poziciebis urTi
erTSeTanxmebisa da kompromisebisaken.
konfliqtologia samarTlebrivi (iuridiuli) Teori
uli disciplina, romlis sagans warmoadgens samarTlebriv
urTierTobaTa sferoSi subieqtebs Soris arsebuli da indi
vidual
ur da sazogadoebriv marTlSegnebaSi fesvgadgmuli
motivaciuri konfliqtebi.
kosmogonia (berZ. samyaros Seqmna) samyaros Seqmnisa da
ganviTarebis mecnierebamdeli miTosur-religiuri moZRvreba.
kosmologia (berZ. moZRvreba samyaros Sesaxeb) kosmo
goniis safuZvelze kosmosis, samyaros filosofiur mecni
eruli ganxilva.
kosmosi (berZ. samyaro) mowesrigebul erTianobad mo
azrebuli samyaro (qaosis sawinaaRmdego); Tavdapirvelad,
igive iyo, rac wesrigi, mowyob
a; samyaros kosmosi pirvelad
piTagoram uwoda, miaqcia ra yuradReba masSi gamefebul wes
rigsa da harmonias.
kreatuloba raRac axlis gakeTebis an axleburad Seq
mnis unari; problemis axleburad gadawyveta, axali meTodi
an instrumenti.
kreacionizmi religiuri koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmad yo
velive arsebuli warmoadgens RvTaebrivi Semoqmedebis Sedegs.
kriminaluri cnobiereba fsiqikur-nebelobiTi, menta
luri Tvisebebis erToblioba, romelic individs saSualebas
aZlevs sazogadod miRebul moralur-samarTlebriv Rire
bulebaTa sistemas ara marto daupirispiros alternatiuli
337

normebi, aramed, am ukanasknelze dayrdnobiT, Caidinos mar


TlsawinaaRmdego, socialurad saSiSi qmedeba.
legitimoba (laT. kanonieri, dakanonebuli) saxelmwi
fo xelisuflebis kanonierebis aRmniSvneli principi, rome
lic uflebamosils xdis mis arsebobas da aniWebs mis subieq
tebs saxelmwifos marTvis kanonier uflebas.
liberalizmi (laT. Tavisuflebas naziarebi) socia
lur filosofiuri, politikuri da samarTlebrivi ideebis
erTian
oba, romelTa mizania pirovnebis, misi uflebebisa da
Tavisuflebebis dacva saxelmwifo diqtatisagan.
logosi (berZ.) sityva, moZRvreba, kanoni, azri.
mantika (berZ. winaswarmetyveli) winaswarmetyvele
bis xelovneba, magaliTad, astrologia, qiromantia (xelze
mkiTxaoba), banqoTi mkiTxaoba, sizmrebis axsna da sxva.
materia (laT. nivTieri) materialisturi filosofi
is ZiriTadi cneba, romlis mixedviTac materia warmoadgens
samyaros substancias (sawyiss), romelic ar warmoSobila da
ar ispoba, maradiulad moZraobs droSi da sivrceSi, ganicdis
ganviTarebas da am ganviTarebis procesSi warmoiS
oba yvela
feri am samyaroSi. TviT adamianic Tavisi cnobierebiT, mate
riis ganviTarebis Sedegs warmoadgens. amdenad, cnobiereba
maRalganviTarebuli materiis anu adamianis tvinis gamovle
naa da ar arsebobs araviTari cnobiereba da araviTari ideebi
materiis gareSe.
material
izmi filosofiuri moZRvreba, romelic upi
rispirdeba idealizms da samyaros sawyisad materias miiC
nevs. arsebobs materializmis istoriuli formebi: Zveli
berZnuli gulubryvilo materializmi, meqanisturi da meta
fizikuri, vulgaruli da dialeqtikuri materializmi.
meTodi (berZ. gza, kvleva) garkveuli miznis miRwevis sa
Sualeba, sinamdvilis praqtikuli an Teoriuli aTvisebis xer
xebis an operaciebis erToblioba. samecniero sferoSi sa
Sualeba, romlis meSveobiTac mkvlevari sakuTari hipoTezis
safuZvelze imecnebs misTvis saintereso sagans (problemas).
338

mentaloba (laT.) adamianis, garkveuli jgufis azrov


nebis wesi, saerTo sulieri ganwyoba.
movaleoba pirovnebisadmi mimarTuli moraluri an sa
marTlebrivi jerarsis konkretuli forma. igi gamoxatavs
konkretul socialur pirobebsa da situaciaSi calkeuli
individis, adamianTa jgufis, klasis, xalxis mier Sinaganad
miRebul da gacnobierebul zneobriv valdebulebebs. Mmova
leoba arsebobs sazogadoebis, saxelmwifos, uaxloesi socia
luri garemocvis (naTesavebis, megobrebis, kolegebis da a.S.)
winaSe, agreTve, sakuTari Tavis winaSe. normatiuli realobis
pirobebSi ganasxvaveben damavaldebulebeli zemoqmedebis
or meqanizms garegani, romelic saTanado qcevas ganapiro
bebs iZulebis safuZvelze da Sinagani, romlis safuZvelia
motivaciuri survili, moTxovnileba. pirveli, metwilad, da
maxasiaTebelia samarTlebrivi regulirebis meqanizmebisaT
vis, meore moralurisaTvis.
motivacia (laT. Segulianeba, waqezeba) garkveuli qce
vebisa da moqmedebebis mimarT Sinagani survilebis (motive
bis) warmoSobisa da gamovlenis fsiqodinamika.
metafizika filosofiaSi es cneba ori mniSvnelobiT ix
mareba: metafizika, rogorc filosofiis sinonimi da meta
fizika, rogorc erT-erTi meTodis aRmniSvneli. es termini
pirvelad gamoiyenes aristoteles `pirveli filosofiis mi
marT~. imis gamo, rom am Sromas saTauri ar aRmoaCnda da ido
aristoteles Sromis `fizikis~ Semdeg, mas uwodes metafizi
ka, e. i. is, rac fizikis miRmaa. droTa ganmavlobaSi am terminma
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. igi aRniSnavs yvela fi
losofiur moZRvrebas yofierebisa da Semecnebis sawyis
ebze.
misticizmi (berZ. saidumlo) religiur-filosofiu
ri Sexeduleba, romelic rwmenas emyareba da miznad isaxavs
RmerTTan miaxloebas da urTierTobas. RmerTTan miaxloebis
saSualebad mas eqstazur mdgomareobaSi yofna da intuiciu
ri Wvreta miaCnia, romelSic qreba subieqtad da obieqtad da
yofa da adamiani erwymis sulier pirvelsawyiss anu RmerTs.
339

monizmi (berZ. erTi) filosofiuri moZRvreba, rome


lic yoveli arsebulis safuZvlad acxadebs erT sawyiss. ma
terializmi aseT sawyisad materias miiCnevs, xolo idealizmi
RmerTs.
monoTeizmi (berZ. erTi) erTRmerTianoba, romelic
uaryofs miTologiur mravalRmerTianobas anu poliTeizms
da samyaros Semqmnelad da yvelafris safuZvlad erT RmerTs
aRiar
ebs. moniTeituri religiebia: iudaizmi, budizmi, qris
tianoba, islami.
muzageti (berZ.) muzebis winamZRoli; apolonis metsa
xeli. aRniSnavs muzebisa da xelovnebis mfarvels.
negacia (laT.) mTlianad subieqtis an misi predikatis
uaryofa (magaliTad, antiTezisi aris Tezisis negacia).
neoTomizmi kaTolokuri eklesiis oficialuri filo
sofia, romelic Sua saukuneebis religiuri moazrovnis Toma
aqvinelis Teologias emyareba. misi warmomadgenlebi arian:
mariteni, Jilsoni, boxenski da sxvebi. neoTomizmi aris obieq
tur-ideal
isturi filosofia, romelic platonisa da aris
toteles filosofias religiur moZRvrebasTan aTavsebs.
neokantian
eloba filosofiuri mimdinareoba, romelic
germaniaS
i warmoiSva XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi. neokan
tianurma filosofiam wamoayena lozungi: `ukan kantisaken~.
neokantianuri filosofia ZiriTadad Camoyalibda or - mar
burgis (koheni, natropi, kasireri da sxva) da fraiburgis
(vindelbandi, rikerti da sxva) skolad. am filosofiis kvle
vis amocanas warmoadgens kantis transcendentaluri subieq
tis axleburad gaazreba. maT kantis filosofiid
an amoiRes
`nivTi TavisTavadis~ cneba da amiT transcendentalur subi
eqts SeuzRudavi asparezi misces. amdenad subieqtis imanen
tur sinamdvileSi transcendentalur subieqts mouazrebe
li araferi rCeba. badenis skolis warmomadgenlebma buneba
da sazogadoeba or gansxvavebul sinamdviled miiCnies. maTi
azriT, bunebaSi moqmedebs kanonebi da kanonzomiereba, xolo
sazogadoebaSi araviTari obieqturi kanonebi ar arsebobs.
340

amdenad, sazogadoebis procesebis Semecneba da momavlis gan


sazRvra SeuZlebelia.
neoplatonizmi religiur-filosofiur
i moZRvreba, ro
melic III saukuneSi Camoayaliba plotinma, xolo ufro maRal
doneze ganaviTara proklem. neoplatonizmi emyareba plato
nis filosofias, magram misgan gansxvavebiT ayalibebs sulie
ri pirvelsawyis
idan mTeli materialuri samyaros emanacias
(gamosxivebas). emanaciis yvelaze dabal safexurs amqveyni
uri samyaros ierarqiaSi aracocxali materia warmoadgens,
xolo maRals adamiani. yvelaferi, rac sulieri sawyisidan
(RmerTidan) gamosxivdeba, SemdegSi isev sulieri sawyisisaken
miiswrafvis. es aris swrafva umaRlesi sikeTisaken, umaRle
si sinaTlisaken anu RmerTisaken. neoplatonizmis mixedviT,
adamians eqstazis (Zlieri gancdis) gziT SeuZlia RmerTTan
misvla da Semecneba. neoplatonizmis Teoria XI saukuneSi ga
naviTara qarTvelma filosofosma ioane petriwma.
neopozitivizmi XX saukunis filosofia, romelic eq
sistencial
izmisagan gansxvavebiT, filosofiis sagnad miiC
nevs mecnieruli Teor
ieb
is logikur da sintaqsur analizs.
misTvis miuRebelia metafizikuri da msoflmxedvelobrivi
problemebis kvleva.
nihilizmi (laT. ararsi) Tvalsazrisi, romelic yvela
fers eWvis TvaliT uyurebs da uaryofs warsulisa da Tana
medroveobis zne-Cveulebebs, Rirebulebebs da kulturas.
amis klasikur magaliTs warmoadgens nicSes filosofia, ro
melmac uaryo tradiciuli morali da mis nacvlad `zekacis
Teoria~ iqadaga.
nominalizmi (laT. saxeli) mimarTuleba Sua saukunee
bis filosofiaSi, romelic erTeuli sagnebis saxelwodebad
zogad cnebebs miiCnevda. nominalistebi amtkicebdnen, rom
realurad arseboben mxolod erTeuli sagnebi, xolo zogadi
cnebebi Seqmnilia azrovnebis mier da maT realuri arsebobis
safuZveli ar gaaCniaT.

341

norma (laT. wesi, nimuSi) socialuri qcevis mtkice for


mula, romelic adamianTa umravlesobis mier sayovelTao
nimuSad aris aRiarebuli. norma mowodebulia moawesrigos
adamianTa Soris urTierTobebi, aamaRlos sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis xarisxi, gansazRvros sociokulturuli sivrcis
sazRvrebi, romlis farglebSic adamians SeuZlia icxovros
civilizebuli subieqtisaTvis Sesaferisi praqtikuli da su
lieri cxovrebiT.
normebi samarTlis socialuri regulatorebi, romle
bic aiZuleben adamianebs maTi sazogadoebrivi aqtivobis
yvela gamovlena miusadagon saxelmwifosa da mTeli civi
lizebuli samyaros moTxovnebs. samarTlis normebis miza
nia civilizebuli Tanacxovrebis safuZvlebisaTvis saSiSi,
destruqciuli muxtis mqone aqtivobis formebis blokire
ba. samarTlis normebi avaldebuleben individs gamoaswo
ron an Secvalon Tavisi socialuri qceva, mravali samoqme
do variantidan upiratesoba mianiWon da airCion iuridiuli
kriteriumebis Sesabamisi qcevis sanimuSo modeli, romelic
uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebis wonasworobasa da dinamiur
mdgomareobas.
noumeni (berZ.) azris, gonebis obieqti.
ontologia (berZ. arsebuli) moZRvreba samyaros arsis
Sesaxeb. samyaros arsSi igulisxmeba rogorc sazogadoebri
vi, aseve TviTon adamianis pirovnuli yofierebac. ontolo
giis centralur sagans warmoadgens substanciis problema.
aqedan gamomdinare, yvela filosofia Taviseburad wyvets
samyaros kanonzomierebis sakiTxs. ontologiur problemeb
ze saerTod uars ambobs neopozitivisturi filosofia. am
denad, Tu tradiciuli ontologiuri sistemebi, ZiriTadad,
samyaros substanciisa da kanonzomierebis problemebs ik
vlevdnen, Tanamedrove filosofiaSi ontologiurma kvlevam
adamianSi gadmoinacvla. kvlevis obieqti gaxda TviTon ada
mian
i, misi Semmecnebeli unarebi, emociebi, gancdebi da saer
Tod sulieri fenomenebi.
342

panTeizmi (berZ. `pan~ yvelaferi, `Teos~-RmerTi) fi


losofiuri moZRvreba, romlis mixedviTac RmerTi warmoad
gens upirovno sawyiss, romelic bunebis miRma ki ar arsebobs,
aramed masTan gaigivebulia. spinozas mixedviT, RmerTi Tvi
Ton bunebaSia, is Semoqmedi da mwarmoebeli bunebaa, xolo
yvelaferi danarCeni warmoebul bunebas ganekuTneba.
paradigma (berZ. magaliTi, nimuSi):
1. antikur filosofiaSi cneba, romelic axasiaTebs suli
eri da real
uri samyaros urTierTdamokidebulebas;
2. sakvlevi amocanebis nimuSad miCneuli Teoria (an prob
lemis dayenebis modeli).
percefcia (laT.) aRqma, rogorc aqti.
pirovnebis samarTlebrivi cnobiereba individualuri
sulieri Tvisebebis erToblioba, romlic uzrunvelyofs
subieqtis orientacias samarTlebriv realobaSi. es Tavise
buri `marTvis pultia~, romelSic Tavs iyris orive mxridan,
civilizebuli sistemidan da Tavad subieqtisagan, mowo
debuli informacia. marTlcnobierebis amocanaa moZebnos
orive mxris miswrafebaTa SeTanxmebisaTvis saWiro saSua
lebebi, Searbilos winaaRmdegobebi, winaswar ganWvritos
da Tavidan aicilos mosalodneli konfliqtebi, SeimuSaos
SesaZlo kompromisebis variantebi, Semdeg ki Camoayalibos
direqtivebi, gasces brZanebebi iuridiuli kriteriumebis
Sesabamis garkveul socialur moqmedebebze.
pirovnebis marTlcnobiereba vlindeba ori formiT he
teronomiuri da avtonomiuri. pirvelis Tanaxmad, samar
Tlis normebi garedan Tavs moxveuli da sakmaod mtrulia
adamianisaTvis. adamiani valdebulia ixelmZRvanelos Tavs
moxveuli nimuSebiT, romlebic mis interesebs ar Seesabame
ba. amdenad, igi iZulebulia Seeguos am moTxovnebs. avtono
miuri marTlcnobierebac aseve xelmZRvanelobs civilize
buli sistemis moTxovnebiT, magram es normativebi imdenad
Rrmad aris integrirebuli individualur `me ~-Si, rom su
bieqti maT sakmaod xSirad sakuTar normebad miiCnevs. amde
343

nad, misTvis normativebis Sesruleba Sinagani Tavisuflebis


gamoxatvis aqtia.
pluralizmi (laT. mravlobiTi):
1. pozicia, romlis Tanaxmad, arsebobs codnis mravali
damouk
idebeli da erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli sawyisi, sa
fuZveli da forma;
2. filosofiuri Teor
ia, romelic samyaros mraval sawy
iss aRiar
ebs. am mraval sawyisSi igulisxmeba absoluturad
ganuyofeli da izolirebuli an materialuri nawilakebi da
atomebi (demokrite), an idealuri sawyis
ebi (laibnici). Pplu
ralizmi, gnoseologiis TvalsazrisiT, niSnavs iseT Teorias,
romelic WeSmaritebaTa simravles aRiarebs. magaliTad: Zve
li berZeni filosofosi protagora amtkicebda, rom WeSmari
teba imdenia, ramdeni adamianicaa.
pnevma (berZ. sunTqva, SesunTquli haeri, mogvianebiT
suli) suli; sasicocxlo Zala. TeologiaSi suli wminda.
poliTeizmi (berZ.) mravalRmerTanoba.
politikuri danaSauli marTlsawinaaRmdego meTodebisa
da saSualebaTa gamoyenebiT Cadenili socialuri qmedeba, rom
lis mizania arsebuli politikuri wyobis dacva (kriminalurtiranuli saxelmwifos pirobebSi), an Secvla (civilizebuli
sazogadoebrivi sistemis pirobebSi). politikur danaSaulTa
rigs ganekuTvneba saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli aqcie
bi, romlebic Zirs uTxrian mis konstituciur safuZvlebs da
Tavdacvisunarianobas; saxelmwifoebrivi Ralati; politiku
ri SeTqmulebebi; SpionaJi sxva saxelmwifoebis sasargeblod;
saxelmwifos meTaurisa da parlamentis wevrebis winaaRmdeg
mimarTuli politikurad motivirebuli danaSauli.
arsebobs politikuri danaSaulis sxva saxec im pirTa
moRvaweoba, romlebmac Seqmnes kriminaluri saxelmwifoeb
rivi sistema, moaxdines xelisuflebis uzurpireba, sistema
turad mimarTaven represiebs moqalaqeTa winaaRmdeg, arRve
ven maT uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs.
predikati is, rac gamoiTqmis subieqtze.
344

pozitivizmi (laT. dadebiTi) filosofiuri mimdina


reoba, romelic daupirispirda yovelgvar metafizikur fi
losofias, brali dasdo maT, rom isini msjeloben iseT sa
kiTxebze, rac arafris momcemi da usargebloa. pozitivizmis
mixedviT, filosofiam unda ikvlios is, rac dadebiTi da po
zitiuria da rac amave dros sasargebloa. amitom filosofi
am uari unda Tqvas gonebis usargeblo metafizikur manipu
laciebze da miznad daisaxos imis Seswavla da analizi, rac
cdaSi aqvs mocemuli mecnierebas. pozitivizmis ganviTare
baSi gamoyofen sam etaps: pirveli etapis warmomadgenlebia:
konti, mili, spenseri, meore etapisa maxi da avenariusi, xo
lo mesame pozitivizms neopozitivizmi warmoadgens (Sliki,
karnapi, raseli, vidgenSteini, franki da sxva).
pragmatizmi (berZ. saqme, moqmedeba) filosofiuri mim
dinareoba, romelic pozitivizmis nairsaxeobas warmoadgens.
pozitivizmis msgavsad, pragmatizmic mxolod cdas emyareba
da uaryofs yovelgvar metafizikas. pragmatizmi codnis Si
naarss misi praqtikuli SedegebiT gansazRvravs. maTi azriT,
WeSmariti aris is, `rac ukve muSaobs~ CvenTvis, rac yvelaze
ukeT Seesabameba cxovrebis yovel nawils da subieqtur inte
resebs akmayofilebs. pragmatizmis ZiriTadi warmomadgenle
bi arian jemsi, pirsi, diui da sxva.
providencial
izmi (laT.) gangeba.
racionalizmi (laT. gonieri) filosofiuri moZRvreba,
romlis mixedviTac sayovelTaoba da aucilebloba ver gamo
iyvaneba cdidan da misi ganzogadoebidan, aramed isini unda
moiZebnos mxolod gonebaSi. racionalizmis mixedviT, sayo
velTao da zogadi ideebi adamians gonebaSi Tandayolili aqvs.
am ideebs adamiani mxolod logikuri azrovnebiT da inteleq
tualuri intuiciiT wvdeba. rac Seexeba grZnobad Semecnebas,
is WeSmaritebas verasodes daadgens. e. i. codnis da WeSmarite
bis miRebis erTaderT unarad, racionalizmSi gonebaa miCneu
li. racionalistur filosofias sxvadasxva formiT ayalibeb
dnen platoni, dekarte, spinoza, kanti, hegeli da sxvebi.
345

real
oba (Zv. laT. sagnobrivi, arsebuli) sinamdvileSi
arsebuli. real
uroba miewereba yovelive imas, rac SeiZleba
warmoiSvas an warmoiSva droSi, rac arsebobs da warmavalia.
real
oba samarTlebrivi lokaluri an msoflio civili
zaciis socialur sivrceSi arsebuli samarTlis uklebliv
yvela fenomenis erTobliob
a. ganasxvaveben samarTlebrivi
realobis or formas obieqturs da subieqturs. obieqtur
realobaSi moiazreba samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi da soci
aluri institutebi. subieqtur realobaSi individualu
ri marTlSegnebis normatiulRirebulebiTi, motivaciur
orientirebadi struqturebi.
regresi (laT.) ukusvla, ukan dabruneba.
regresia kriminaluri instinqtebis, afeqtebisa da vne
bebis dominirebadi zemoqmedebiT ganpirobebuli qceviTi
strategia. afeqtebi da vnebebi sakmaod aqtiurad erevian in
dividis savaraudo moqmedebaTa logikaSi, mTlianad imorCi
leben adamian
is nebas da saSiSs xdian mas sazogadoebisaTvis.
maT Zala SeswevT Secvalon adamianis cnobiereba; mniSvnelov
nad Seasuston kritikis unari; droebiT an xangrZlivi perio
dis manZilze gaaufasuron moralisa da samarTlis normebi;
xeli Seuwyon sxvadasxva saxis samarTaldarRvevebisa da da
naSaul
is Cadenas.
represiuloba Zalovani institutebis socialuri praq
tika, romelic gulisxmobs adamianis winaaRmdeg arasamar
Tlebrivi iZulebisa da Zaladobis sxvadasxva formebis (sxe
ulebrivi, socialuri, sulieri) sistematur gamoyenebas.
represia SeiZleba iyos kerovani an sistematuri xasiaTis.
sistematuri represiebis subieqtebia despotur-totalita
ruli reJimebis pirobebSi moqmedi Zalovani struqturebi da
maTze daqvemdebarebuli organoebi.
relativizmi (laT, SefardebiTi) filosofiuri Teo
ria, romelic uaryofs absolutur WeSmaritebas da mTeli
mecnieruli codna dahyavs SefardebiTze. maTi azriT, codna
SefardebiTia, ara mxolod im gagebiT, rom adamians ar SeuZ
346

lia Cawvdes samyaros absolutur mTlianobas, aramed imitom,


rom ar arsebobs samyaroSi obieqturi aucilebloba da sayo
velTaoba, ris gamoc ar SeiZleba codna mis Sesaxeb aucileb
lobis da sayovelTaobis matarebeli iyos.
refleqsia (laT. ukan mimarTva) TviTdakvirveba saku
Tar azrebze, gancdebze da emociebze, romliTac adamiani ax
dens sulieri samyaros fenomenebis TviTSemecnebas. Semecne
bis aseT meTods iyenebs fenomenologiuri filosofia.
ritorika (berZ.) oratoruli xelovneba.
samarTaldarRveva sazogadoebrivad saSiSi socialuri
qmedeba, romelic arRvevs saxelmwifos mier samarTlebriv
kodeqsebSi dafiqsirebul normebs da mimarTulia civilize
buli Tanacxovrebis safuZvlebis ngrevisaken.
samarTlebrivi saxelmwifo sazogadoebis marTvis mik
rosocial
uri meqanizmi, romelic samarTlis sistemas saSua
lebas aZlevs TviTnebobis nebismieri formis gamovlenisagan
daicvas moqalaqeebi, maTi sicocxle, Tavisufleba, sakuTre
ba da piradi Rirseba.
samoqalaqo sazogadoeba individebs Soris bunebrivad
Camoyalibebuli socialuri urTierTobebis mravalganzo
milebian
i, TviTorganizebadi sistema, sadac TiToeuli ada
miani warmoadgens gansakuTrebuli cxovrebiseuli miznebis
mqone pirs da ara saxelmwifos qveSevrdoms.
saxelmwifo wesrigis dacvisaken mimarTuli giganturi
makroinstituti, sociog
enuri Zalovani struqtura, rome
lic moicavs mTel sazogadoebriv organizms da axorcielebs
marTvis, Sinagani da garegani destruqciebis saSiSroebisagan
Tavdacvis, dabalansebuldinamiuri mdgomareobis uzrun
velyofisa da SenarCunebis funqciebs. am amocanaTa gadaWri
saTvis saxelmwifos xelSia specialuri saSualebebi Zala
uflebisa da marTvis organoebis sistema, iZulebis aparati,
armia, policia, sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebebi.
sikeTe eTikuri kategoria; ZriTadi moraluri Rirebu
leba; TavisTavad warmoadgens zneobriv faseulobas. sikeTe
347

ar SeiZleba ganvixiloT `sikeTed raRacasTan mimarTebaSi~.


igi ar SeiZleba iyos `umaRlesi sikeTe~ an raRac Sesadarebe
li sidide. sikeTe yovelTvis ubralo pozitiurobaa. eTiku
rad Rirebulia (anu sikeTea) im adamianis saqcieli, romelic
nebismier konkretul situaciaSi yovelTvis sikeTes irCevs.
sensualizmi (laT. grZnoba, SegrZneba) gnoseologiuri
moZRvreba, romlis mixedviTac Semecnebis erTaderT wyaros
SegrZnebebi warmoadgens. arsebobs materialisturi da idea
listuri sensualizmi. materialisturi sensualizmis mixed
viT, SegrZnebebi aris obieqturi sinamdvilis asaxva. xolo
idealisturi sensualizmis mixedviT, obieqtur sinamdviles
TviTon subieqturi SegrZnebebi gansazRvraven. amitom cod
nas mxolod SegrZnebaTa kombinacia warmoadgens.
skepticizmi (berZ. ganxilva) filosofiuri koncefcia,
romelsac eWvi Seaqvs codnis WeSmaritebaSi da yovelgvari
codna mxolod SefardebiTze dahyavs. skepticizmi warmoiSva
Zv. saberZneTSi (Zv, w. IV s.). misi warmomadgenlebi iyvnen piro
ni, arqezila, enezidemi, seqst empirikosi da sxva.
substancia (laT. arseba) samyaros sawyisi, safuZve
li, rac yvelafers gansazRvravs da razec damokidebulia
yvelaferi, romelic maradiulia, ar warmoiSoba da ar ispo
ba, romelic yovelgvari moZraobis mizezic aris da mizanic.
substanciis es daxasiaTeba pirobiTia, radgan substancia ga
nusazRvreli arsia da misi cnebebiT gansazRvra amouwuravia.
substanciis cneba sxvadasxva filosofiur sistemebSi gan
sxvavebulia, magram yvela aRiarebs, rom is aris yvelafris sa
fuZveli da pirvelmizezi. filosofiuri dava arsebobs mxo
lod imaze, materialuria is Tu idealuri, erTia Tu mravali.
vinc miiCnevs, rom samyaros substancia materialuria, mate
rialisti ewodeba; vinc miiCnevs, rom samyaros substancia
aris absoluturi idea an RmerTi, idealistia. filosofosTa
umetesoba miiCnevs, rom samyaros erTi substancia aqvs. aseT
Sexedulebas monizmi ewodeba. arsebobs idealisturi moniz
mi da materialisturi monizmi. vinc aRiarebs, rom samyaros
348

ori sawyisi aqvs, dualistia. maTTvis materia da suli Tana


bar sawyisebadaa gamocxadebuli (dekarte). vinc samyaros
mraval sawyiss aRiarebs, pluralisti ewodeba.
sqolastika (berZ. saskolo) Sua saukuneebis religiu
ri filosofia (saskolo filosofia), romlis warmomadgen
lebi cdilobdnen qristianuli rwmenisaTvis racionaluri
dasabuTeba miec
aT da moexdinaT misi sistematizacia. sqo
lastikis filosofiur baziss warmoadgenda platonis, aris
toteles da neoplatonizmis mimdevarTa filosofia. Sua
saukuneeb
is did sqolastikosebad iTvlebian eriugena, ken
terberieli, Toma aqvineli da sxvebi.
tabu religiuri akrZalva. Tanam. akrZaluli sagnebi,
azrebi.
tavtologia (berZ. ilaparake igiveze) raim
e gamoTqmis
zedmeti, usargeblo, zogjer saWiro gameoreba.
tendencia (laT. raRacisadmi miswrafeba) raime movle
nis ganviTarebis mimarTuleba, survili, miswrafeba, mizani.
termini (laT. zRvari) cneba; cnebis gamomxatveli
sityva; logikaSi msjelobis (subieqti da predikati) an si
logizmis Semadgeneli elementi.
teleologia (berZ. mizani) religiur-filosofiuri
moZRvreba samyaroSi adamianisagan damoukidebeli obieq
turi miznebisa da mizanSewonilobis arsebobis Sesaxeb. te
leologiur moZRvrebas icavs yvela filosofia, romelic
samyaros sawyis
ad uZrav da ucvlel RmerTs aRiarebs. es exe
ba platonis, aristoteles, neoplatonizms, sqolastikas,
hegelis da sxvaTa filosofias. yvela es filosofia uSvebs
winaswari ucvleli miznis cnebas, romliskenac yvelaferi
miiswrafvis da ver acdeba am gzas. aseTi gageba aucileblo
biT midis fatalizmis aRiarebamde, romlis mixedviTac yve
laferi bedisweras eqvemdebareba. RmerTis arsebobas arc
sicocxlis filosofia da arc religiuri eqsistencializmi
uaryofs, magram isini uaryofen absoluturad ucvleli miz
nis anu RmerTis arsebobas. maTi azriT, RmerTi TviTon aris
349

absoluturi qmnadoba da amis gamo adamianebsac eZlevaT Ta


visufali Semoqmedebis saSualeba. am gagebiT, adamianis si
cocxle da cxovrebis mizani ar aris mkacr gardauval CarCo
ebSi moqceul
i.
teqnokratia (berZ.) teqnikis batonoba; sazogadoebrivi
azris erT-erTi mimarTuleba, romelic socialur cxovreba
Si teqnikas aniWebs ganmsazRvrel rols da Tvlis, rom mxolod
industrializacias SeuZlia racionalurad moawesrigos da
srulyos sazogadoebisa da pirovnebis cxovreba. adamiani,
xSir SemTxvevaSi, ganixileba rogorc `manqanis mona~.
tolerantoba (laT. moTmineba):
1. gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis, poziciebis, zne Cveule
bebisadmi Semwynarebluri damokidebuleba;
2. organizmis unari Seeg
uos da gadaitanos garemos ama Tu
im araxelsayreli faqtoris zemoqmedeba.
totalitarizmi (laT. mTliani, sruli) sazogadoeb
riv politikuri wyoba, romelic xasiaTdeba avtoritaru
li saxelmwifos yovlismomcveli CareviT sazogadoebisa da
calkeul
i pirovnebis cxovrebasa da moRvaweobaSi. magali
Tad, totalitaruli xasiaTisaa bonapartistuli, faSistu
ri, socialisturi reJimebi. maTi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia
xelisuflebis usazRvro uflebamosileba, demokratiuli
institutebis akrZalva, moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da Tavisuf
lebebis likvidacia, erTpartiuli sistema, ekonomikis mili
tarizacia, represiebi opoziciisa da sxvagvarad moazrovne
ebis mimarT da sxva.
transcendentaluri (laT. gadabijeba) aRniSnavs ap
riorul, e. i. cdamde arsebul cnobierebas, romelic Tavisi
sayovelTaobiT da aucileblobiT gansazRvravs gare sinam
dviles. kantis filosofiaSi wminda azris formis transcen
dentaluri cnobiereba anu subieqti arsebobs empiriuli
subieqtis siRrmeSi da ar aris damokidebuli empiriul subi
eqtze. piriqiT, empiriuli subieqtis Teoriuli moRvaweoba
niSnavs transcendentalur subieqtamde amaRlebas.
350

transcendenturi imanenturis sapirispiro. aRniSnavs


imas, rac cnobierebisa da Semecnebis sazRvrebs miRmaa. am
termins gansakuTrebiT didi mniSvneloba aqvs agnosticiz
mSi, romlis mixedviTac transcendenturi niSnavs subieq
tisaTvis miuwvdomels, Seumecnebads `nivTs TavisTavads~
(kanti). Tu adamiani Seecdeba Semecnebis mizniT gavides ima
nenturi sferodan transcendenturSi, is veraviTar WeSmari
tebas ver daadgens, aramed aRmoCndeba gadauWreli proble
mebis anu antinomiebis winaSe.
universaluri (laT. zogadi) sayovelTao, yvelafris
momcveli, mravalmxrivi.
universumi erTiani samyaro, `samyaro, rogorc mTeli~.
fatalizmi (laT. sabediswero) religiur-filosofiu
ri rwmena bedis gardauvalobis Sesaxeb, romlis mixedviTac
samyaroSi yvelaferi gangebis ZaliT aris gansazRvruli; rac
moxda, rac xdeba da rac unda moxdes yvelaferi winaswaraa
dagenili RmerTis mier. es exeba mTel bunebas, adamians da
sazogadoebis istorias. aseTi gagebiT, adamianis Tavisuf
leba mxolod moCvenebiTia, radgan adamianis yovelgvar moq
medebas da gadawyvetilebis miRebas zebunebrivi RvTaebrivi
Zalebi gansazRvraven. amdenad, moRvaweobis procesSi ada
mianis Sinagani Tavisuflebis roli absoluturad gamoricx
ulia, yovelgvari moqmedeba mxolod garegani gangebis ZaliT
sruldeba.
fatumi (laT.) bedi, bunebis brma aucilebloba.
fenomeni (berZ. movlenili) cdaSi, grZnobad Semecneba
Si mocemuli movlena.
fenomenologia filosofiuri moZRvreba, romelic fi
losofiis upirveles amocanad sulieri fenomenebis TviTSe
mecnebas acxad
ebs. kvlevis meTodad iyenebs reduqcias, rome
lic induqciuri meTodis sapirispiroa. induqciuri meTodi
mizezebidan Sedegebis Ziebas emsaxureba, xolo reduqciuli
meTodi Sedegebidan mizezebis Ziebaze gadasvlas niSnavs.
induqciis
agan gansxvavebiT, saqme exeba ara winsvlas, aramed
351

ukusvlas, ukan dabrunebas, adamianis moqmedebidan da emo


ciuri gancdebidan maTi gamomwvevi mizezebis Ziebas. fenome
nologiuri Semecnebis mizania gaigos da daadginos is suli
eri Rirebulebebi, ris safuZvelzec qmnis adamiani sulier
kulturas, radgan sulieri Rirebulebebi anu eqsistenciuri
fenomenebi, warmoadgenen adamianis cxovrebis wesisa da ada
mian
ad yofnis safuZvlebs. sulis fenomenologiuri gamok
vlevebi mocemuli aqvs loks, iums, kants, hegels, eqsistenci
alizmisa da sxva filosofiuri Teoriebis warmomadgenlebs.
fobia (berZ. SiSi) SiSis akviatebuli mdgomareoba.
fsiqoanalizuri meTodi z. froid
isa da misi mimdevre
bis mier SemuSavebuli SemecnebiT saSualebaTa sistema; misi
gamoyenebiT, pirovnebis normatiul qcevebSi racionalur,
gacnobierebul mamoZravebel motivebTan erTad, SesaZlebe
lia aRmoCndes siRrmiseuli, qvecnobieri motivebi, romle
bic xSirad ganapirobeben individis normatiul-Rirebule
biT orientaciasa da mis praqtikul moqmedebebs.
fsiqologia samarTlis problemaTa kompleqsi, rome
lic dakavSirebulia individualuri da sazogadoebrivi
marTlSegnebis fsiqikuri mdgomareobis Camoyalibebasa da
samarTlebriv urTierTobaTa funqcionirebis motivaciur
uzrunvelyofasTan.
qarizma (berZ. madli, RvTis saCuqari) RvTis wyalobad
aRqmuli araCveulebrivi SesaZleblobebi an gansakuTrebuli
niWiereba.
qarizmatuli pirovneba cneba, romelic ixmareboda qris
tianul (kaTolikur) Teol
ogiaSi da aRniSnavda gamorCeuli,
gansakuTrebuli TvisebebiT (RvTaebrivi madlis gadmosvlis
safuZvelze) dajildoebul adamians. socialur TeoriaSi am
cnebis gamoyeneba XIX s-Si daiwyes germanelma sociologebma
e. trelCma da m. veberma.
qarizmatuloba ambivalenturia da Tavis TavSi Seicavs
rogorc kolosalur aRmSeneblur potencials, aseve uzar
mazar damangrevel energias. pirvel SemTxvevaSi igi vlindeba
352

rogorc RvTisrCeulobis naTeli madli, rogorc Semoqmede


biTi genia (mose, solomoni, perikle, buda, qriste, muhamedi,
luTeri, gandi da sxva), meoreSi, rogorc boroti genia (Cin
gisxani, ivane mrisxane, hitleri, lenini, stalini da sxva).
amasTan erTad, arseboben cnobili adamianebi, romelTa qa
rizmas erTmniSvnelovnad ver miakuTneb verc naTel da verc
bnel Zalebs. Ees, upirveles yovlisa, gamoCenili mxedarmTav
rebia, romelTa moRvaweob
as erTdroulad konstruqciuli
da destruqciuli Sedegebi hqonda (magaliTad, aleqsandre
makedoneli, iulius keisari, napoleoni da sxva).
qvecnobieri warmodgenaTa konceptualuri kompleqsi
adamian
is fsiqikis im sferoebis Sesaxeb, sadac ganlagebu
lia individis sulier-praqtikuli cxovrebis gansakuTrebu
li fsiqikuri mocemulobebi instinqturi, emocionalurgrZnobadi, intuitiuri da sxva Sreebi, romlebic scildebian
gonebisa da gansjis sazRvrebs da ar eqvemdebarebian racio
nalur axsnas.
qsenofobia (berZ. ucxos SiSi) ucxoebis (sxva rasis, gan
sxvavebuli religiuri Sexedulebebis, ucxoelebis, ltolvi
lebis, imigrantebis da a. S.) mimarT mtruli, SiSsa da siZul
vilTan Sezavebuli damokidebuleba.
Rirebulebebi materialuri da sulieri realobebi, rom
lebic saSualebas aZleven adamianebs daikmayofilon survi
lebi, moTxovnilebebi, ocnebebi, imedi da saWiroeben garkve
ul Zalisxmevas maTi miRwevis, dafuZnebisa da dacvisaTvis.
RirebulebiTi orientaciebi pirovnebis Sinagani struq
turis umniSvnelovanesi elementebi, romlebic gamyarebu
lia individis cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT, misi gancdebis
erTobliobiT da romelTa safuZvelzec pirovnebas SeuZlia
gamijnos erTmaneTisagan, misi mosazrebiT, arsebiTi araar
sebiTisagan, mniSvnelovani umniSvnelosagan. Camoyalibebu
li, fesvgadgmuli RirebulebiTi orientaciebis erTobli
oba ayalibebs pirovnebis myar pozicias, rac, Tavis mxriv,
uzrunvelyofs garkveuli tipis qcevebisa da moRvaweobis
353

memkvidreobiTobas, mimarTulebas aZlevs interesebs, moTx


ovnilebebsa da miznebs da motivirebuls xdis maT. aseTi miz
nebi SeiZleba iyos: a) cxovrebiseuli Rirebulebebi siyva
ruli, megobroba, ojaxi, zrunva STamomavlobaze, adamianuri
urTierTobebi; b) civilizaciis Rirebulebebi materialu
ri keTildReoba, kariera, Zalaufleba, teqnikuri miRwevebis
floba, piradi da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis garantirebuli
usafrTxoeba da sxva; g) kulturuli Rirebulebebi Semoqme
deba, Tavisufleba, rogorc sulieri moRvaweobis saSualeba,
tradiciebi da sxva.
Rirseba aRiareba, romelsac garemocva miagebs pirovne
bas misi individualuri Tvisebebisa da sulieri Rirebulebe
bis safuZvelze (pativiscema); aRiarebis is forma, romelsac
adamiani ganicdis sakuTari Tavisadmi, rogorc pirovnebi
sadmi (sakuTari Rirsebis grZnoba) an romelsac igi, misi mo
sazrebiT, imsaxurebs Tavisi socialuri wris adamianebisagan
(didebismoyvareoba, pativmoyvareoba).
SurisZieba msxverplis an misi axloblis mxridan, Cade
nili danaSaul
is, miyenebuli zianisaTvis damnaSavis dasjis
marTlsawinaaRmdego (TviTneburi) aqcia. warmoadgens `misa
gebeli samarTlianobis~ principis erT-erT yvelaze arqaul
formas, adamianTa Soris urTierTobaTa regulaciis saSua
lebas. Camoyalibda saxelmwifosa da samarTlis warmoSobam
de. axasiaTebda istoriuli ganviTarebis saxelmwifomdel
stadiaze myof yvela ers. SurisZiebis yvelaze radikaluri
formaa sisxlis aReba.
codna sinamdvilis aRqmis praqtikiT Semowmebuli Sede
gi, misi swori asaxva adamianis azrovnebaSi; subieqturi da
obieqturi TvalsazrisiT, swori wvdomis formebisa da ga
mocdilebis floba, romelTa safuZvelze SesaZlebeli xdeba
codnis gamomxatveli msjelobebisa da WeSmariti daskvnebis
Camoyalibeba.
civilizacia (laT. samoqalaqo) xelovnuri, anTropo
genuri, mravalmiznobrivi socialuri megasistema, romelic
354

miiswrafvis gawonasworebul-dinamiuri mdgomareobisaken,


xasiaTdeba TviTregulaciisa da TviTsrulyofis unariT da
mudmivi ZalisxmeviT, Seasustos da SeaC eros arsebuli des
truqciebi da qaosis saSiSroeba.
cinizmi sayovelTaod miRebuli sociok
ulturuli nor
mebisa da Rirebulebebis mimarT demonstratiuli totaluri
negativizmis pozicia. cneba `cinizmi~-s warmoSoba dakavSire
bulia Zveli berZeni filosofos-cinikebis saxelTan, romle
bic cnobili iyvnen civilizaciisa da kulturis miRwevebTan
Tavisi uaryofiTi damokidebulebiT.
Zaladoba msxverplze fizikuri da fsiqikuri zemoqme
debis saSualebiT ganxorcielebuli arasamarTlebrivi iZu
leba. msxverpli SeiZleba iyos calkeuli idividi, adamianTa
mcirericxovani an didi jgufi, mTeli eri. Zaladoba gulis
xmobs subieqtebisaTvis maTi bunebiTi uflebebis (sicocx
lis, janmrTelobis, adamianuri Rirsebis, TviTgamorkvevis
da sxva) CamorTmevas. Zaladobis subieqtebi SeiZleba gaxdnen
calkeuli pirovnebebi, sisxlis samarTlis damnaSaveebi, po
litikuri radikalebi, agreTve saxelisuflo struqturebi
da maTze daqvemdebarebuli damsjeli organoebi. ganasxvave
ben sporaduli (calkeuli danaSauli, teroristuli aqtebi)
da sistemuri (totalitaruli reJimebis mier ganxorciele
buli masobrivi represiebi) xasiaTis Zaladobas.
wanamZRvari is, rac sxvis pirobas warmoadgens.
wesi (laT.) - obieqturi azriT, cnebebis saSualebiT Ca
moyalibebuli (magram jer kidev Seumecnebeli, rogorc ka
nonzomierad arsebuli) yofierebis, movlenis an moqmedebis
Tanazomiereba, erTgvarovneba. subieqturi mosazrebiT, xSi
rad gamoiyeneba miTiTebebis mniSvnelobiT (magaliTad, rome
lime saxelisuflebo organos an piris miTiTeba). wesis cne
basTan dakavSirebulia e. w. gamonaklisebi (anu iseTi wesebi,
romlebic kanonis cnebas ar emTxvevian, magaliTad, `zneobri
obis oqros wesi~).

355

wesi daskvnis gansazRvravs wanamZRvrebidan Sedegze ga


dasvlas; ufro zustad, adgens Sesabamisobas gamonaTqvamebis
garkveul erTobliobas (formulebs), romelTac wanamZRvrebi
ewodebaT da erT gansazRvrul gamonaTqvams (formulas) So
ris, romelsac am wanamZRvrebidan gamoyvanili Sedegi ewodeba.
WeSmariteba Semmecnebeli subieqtis mier sinamdvilis
sagnebisa da movlenebis swori, adekvateri asaxva.
xasiaTi adamianis qcevis gansakuTrebuloba, romelic
vlindeba mis manerebSi, qcevebsa da azrTa wyobaSi. igi warmo
adgens pirovnebis fsiqikuri mdgradobisa da zneobrivi po
ziciis safuZvels.
jerovani (saTanado) moralur-samarTlebrivi cnobi
erebis normatiul-RirebulebiTi kategoria, romelic aR
niSnavs 1) religiuri mcnebebis, rwmenis moTxovnebis formiT
warmodgenil RmerTis miTiTebebs; 2) sxvadasxva saxis sazoga
doebebis korporaciuli interesebiT nakarnaxeb garegan mo
ralur, samarTlebriv, politikur, ideologiur moTxovnebs;
3) subieqturad motivirebul, pirovnul imperativebs mova
leobis grZnoba, pasuxismgeblobis gacnobiereba da sxva.
heteronomia (berZ. hetero sxva, ucxo, nomia kanoni)
pirovnebis moraluri da kanonmorCili qcevis ganpirobe
buloba garegani mizezebiT da ara Sinagani moTxovnebiTa da
Tavisufali nebiT.
hiloZoizmi (laT. hil nivTiereba, Zoe sicocxle) filosofiur
i moZRvreba, romelic mTel materialur samya
ros gansulierebulad warmoidgens. aseT azrs icavdnen Zve
li berZeni materialistebi (heraklite, anaqsagora da sxvebi).
am Teoriis mixedviT, buneba cocxali sinamdvilea da Tavis
Tavs TviTon awarmoebs; mas ar sWirdeba garegani RvTaebri
vi Zalebis moSvelieba bunebis moZraobis asaxsnelad, aramed
buneba TviTon aris RmerTi; RmerTi bunebaSia da is ganagebs
bunebis qmnadobas.
hipoTeturi (berZ. safuZveli) pirobiTi, savaraudo;
msjeloba hipoTeturia, Tu meore debulebis arseboba gan
356

pirobebulia pirveli debulebis arsebobiT. magaliTad, Tu


aris AA, iqneba B
B -c.
humanizmi (laT. adamianuri) istoriulad cvalebad
SexedulebaTa sistema, romelic aRiarebs adamianis, ro
gorc pirovnebis Rirebulebas, mis uflebebs Tavisufleba
ze, bednierebaze, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebasa
da realizaciaz
e; adamianis sikeTesa da keTildReobas Tvlis
socialuri institutebis Sefasebis kriteriumad, xolo Ta
nasworobis, samarTlianobis, adamianurobis principebs miiC
nevs adamian
uri urTierTobebis sasurvel normad. viwro ga
gebiT, aRorZinebis epoqis kulturuli moZraoba.

357

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