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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background of the Research


At Junior High School, one of the objectives of English lesson is

developing

the

communication

ability

in

English,

oral

and

written.

Communication in this term means comprehending and expressing the


information, idea, feeling also developing the science, technology, and culture by
using that language (Depdiknas, 2003:14). All of those language skills have to be
taught in integrated way.
Reading as the language skill is one of the important aspects in learning
English at Junior High School level. As in that level, the students are expected to
be able in comprehending and identify the information of the text. It has a crucial
role because by reading, student will acquire the positive effect such as increasing
their ability to read English text fluently by practicing pronunciation, spelling, and
writing.
In reading, the reader is not only able to pronounce the text, but also
understanding the message from a text. As the example, by reading
comprehension, reader will be trained in answering the examination questions.
Because in examination needs comprehending to what the questions asked. It is
one of the implementation of reading comprehension that will be useful for
student not only in English, but also in another lesson.

This research begins with an observation at SMP Negeri 9 Tebo. From that
observation, there are some data acquired. It is such lack of the reading sources
for the students; because they only have an exercise book or LKS to be their
source for reading. Secondly, teacher only uses one coursebook, and there is no
coursebook for students except a few students who are lucky to get it from the
library.
In this case, the teacher is not paying attention to the students reading
material. The text materials are only provided from student worksheet called LKS.
It has to be an activity to explore their understanding, not as their main material to
study. After closer observation to the LKS of the students, it is less attractive by
none of color. The text is very little and less related to the students context. The
most exercises in LKS is heavily asked about the structure. While in learning
English especially in reading, there is not only structure as the component of
language that has to be studied but also vocabulary and pronunciation. The
demand of the curriculum that formulate into syllabus in form of indicator is
difficult to achieved when the materials that used in teaching and learning are not
appropriate. So the teaching material which is designed by students analysis will
fulfill that weakness.
The English teacher at SMP Negeri 9 Tebo is using course book as the
teaching material. The available text that is not suitable to the students context is
one of the problems from the using of published coursebook. Treatment for
teaching reading strategies is being less focus. Actually, coursebook plays an
important role for teacher as the guidance and student as the learning sources. So

a supplement book that will be designed based on the students real life will
increase students skill in reading.
In teaching reading comprehension, the context of the text influence
student to understand. One of the three components in reading comprehension is
covered the difficulties and characteristics of the text material for students
(Caldwell, 2008:4). The students are reading only when the teacher asked them.
Whereas, increasing the students ability in reading comprehension means that
students are interested toward reading texts. Then they often read the texts by
their own interest. Therefore, the students reading comprehension will be
increased equally with the frequencies of reading.
The teaching material that designed based on the students characteristics
and environment is recommended by Permendiknas number 16 year 2007. It
means that the material for teaching reading is one of the important parts in
teaching reading comprehension successfully, the compatibility of the words
count and reading level; curriculum and the genre of the text; the objectives and
the kind of activity; also the exercises will be considered to ensure the most
appropriate material for the students. Therefore, designing teaching material that
fit to the learners and schools condition has to be main consideration to achieve
the learning objective.
From those reasons, teaching material development is one of the solutions
to increase the students ability in reading comprehension by developing the
reading material based on the contextual teaching and learning. It will help teacher
to connect the material to the students real situation and motivate the student in

making association between them. Therefore, the students could implement it in


social context. So the function of coursebook will be achieved effectively for the
teacher as a teaching material and for students as a learning source.
Many developmental researches develop multimedia or a teaching material
with interactive media to attract the students. However, it is developed for a
school that completed by computer facilities and projector. Therefore, this
research and development will develop a teaching material for SMP Negeri 9
Tebo, which does not have enough facility like computer and projector. So the
teaching material that will be developed in this research is based on the school
situation. According to the explanation above, the researcher is interested in doing
a research entitled The Development of Reading Comprehension Teaching
Material for the First Grade Students at SMP Negeri 9 Tebo.
1.2

Formulation of the Research


The problem of the research is formulated as follows:

a. How is developing reading comprehension teaching material for the first


grade students at first semester of SMP Negeri 9 Tebo?
b. What is the form of contextual reading comprehension teaching material for
the first grade students at first semester of SMP Negeri 9 Tebo?
1.3

The Objective of the Research


The objectives of the teaching material development in reading

comprehension for the seventh grade students as follows:

a. Produce valid reading comprehension teaching material in form of


supplement book for seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 9 Tebo at first
semester.
b. Produce reading comprehension teaching material in form of supplementary
book based on contextual teaching and learning strategy for seventh grade
students of SMP Negeri 9 Tebo at first semester.
1.4

The Expected Product Specification


The expected product specification of this research:

a. The material of reading comprehension that develops is based on standard of


competence and basic competence of KTSP curriculum in the first semester
for seventh grade of Junior High School.
b. In developing this supplement book, the researcher consider:
1. The color. This supplement book is made brighten, clear and interesting
from cover to the content. This will attract the students and they will
enjoy to learn.
2. The size of the supplement book, this supplement book size is 25.5 cm
height and 19 cm width. This size is similar to another coursebook and
easy to bring everywhere.
3. The letter fonts, the letter in this supplement book are using fonts
variation. It is chosen by consider the fonts that clear to read. The size is

determined as the necessary. In writing the title, direction in this


supplement book fit to the needs by using boldface.
4. Picture choice, the pictures in cover also in the content of this supplement
book are made in variation. It will make the students interested when
reading and to help students in getting the idea about the text by looking
the picture.
5. The content. There are four functional texts that will be discussed in each
chapter: instruction, shopping list, greeting card, and announcement. The
chapter consists of topic, learning objective, starting up, language focus,
learning more, list of words, activity, and competence test.
1.5

The Significance of the Research


This research needs to be developed for:
a. Supplying a teaching material which appropriate for the students context
and characteristics for the first grader of Junior High School.
b. As the additional source for English teacher in teaching reading for the
first grade students at the first semester of Junior High School.

1.6

Assumption and the Limitation of the Research

Assumption
a. The development of the teaching material that agree with standard of
competence and the basic of competence, the choice of text based on the
students context, also the compatibility toward students characteristic, they

all packed in form of supplement book. It is supposed to attract the students


to read and increase the students ability in reading comprehension.
b. The teaching material that mention in previous point could be a guidance for
teacher and students learning source.
c. The teaching material is not designed to be the final product, but rather to be
adaptive, added, and flexible to be used fit to the students characteristic.
Limitation
a. This supplement book is developed by using Dick, et al. by consideration:
Table 1.1
No
1.

The Comparison Between Dick, et al. and ADDIE Design Model


Theory

Dick, et al.

Strength

Weakness

It has clear systematical

The

stages to be followed.

evaluation

It

long time.

has

repeated

formative
needs

evaluation to produce a
valid product.
2.

ADDIE

The basic design stages


are simple.

The evaluation stage


is rather not clear to
be followed.

By comparing both of the theories above, Dick, et al. is chosen because of the
clear systematical stages to be followed although it needs long time to
conduct formative evaluation.

b. This teaching material is only in form of print out, and it is not packed in
form of compact disk because of the limitation of the computer and screen
projector in the school.
c. This teaching material is experimented only at SMP Negeri 9 Tebo, in the
certain class.
1.7
a.

Operational Definition
Teaching material development is a process for develop and produce a
teaching material for the student based on the analysis of the students need.

b.

Contextual Teaching and learning approach is a concept of teaching and


learning that helps teacher to relate the instructional towards the students; real
context; and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and
its implication to their life.

c.

Reading comprehension is the process of the reader in comprehending of


what the information that the writer want to transfer from the text or passage.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF READING COMPREHENSION


TEACHING MATERIAL FOR THE FIRST GRADE
STUDENTS AT SMP NEGERI 9 TEBO

A Research Proposal

Ani Sintamurti
A1B208064

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ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM


LANGUAGE AND ART DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
JAMBI UNIVERSITY
2013