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Chemical Sand Consolidation Trials

PTECH CoP - Technical


Sharing Session and
Meeting#4 in Miri, 6-Sept2012

Lim Hwei Fung


Production Technologist

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04 September 2012

Contents

SandAid

Non Resin based Chemical Treatment, SC2020

SandTrap ABC

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04 September 2012

SandAid Trial

Zone 1 reservoir produced high


sand (>1000pptb)

D(50) 120-130micron

Well test (August 2008):

- Gross 1400bb/d, Net1000bopd

Last sand production record: 6


Feb09 with

- 9084.2 pptb

- 1854.8 pptb
- 2060.7 pptb

SandAid was pumped (May 2010)


into Zone 1 to consolidate the sand

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Well-A

Perf:65ft

SandAid Chemical

Inner Salt of Very low Molecular weight Polymer that when added to
aqueous solutions coats rapidly any metal oxide or anionic substrate
like proppant, sand or coal

Alters the zeta potential of solid surfaces to the optimum range


(between -20 & +20 mV)

Creates an uneven or random charge distribution on the surface of


the solid particles.

Locations with high attraction (Van der Waals and electrostatic)


Locations with high electrostatic repulsion

Provides a strengthened attraction between the particles to optimally


align proppant, sand particles, fines or coal fines

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SandAid Chemical

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SandAid Treatment

SandAid Treatment

Injectivity test was done with brine NH4CL up to 5 bpm

Successfully pumped SandAid into the reservoir

Total brine pumped= 700bbls, total SandAid Pumped= 21.5bbls.

Spearhead (140bbls NH4CL), main treatment (261bbls NH4CL, 20bbls SandAid), Overflush (139bbls
NH4CL,1.5bbls SandAid), Final displacement (160bbls NH4CL)
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Results
KN
110L
Well
A Flow Back
120

12000

100

10000

80

8000

60

6000

40

4000

20

2000

Pounds per thousand barrels (pptb)

Percentage (%)

40335.00

Time
Water

Oil

Sand up stream

Initial Brine flowed back was normal since this was the liquid that was pumped during the treatment process

Sand spike of 10,000 pptb reading was observed with unknown reason

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Learning

The well was closed in due to sand production exceeding 15pptb


observed in more than 3 samples for the duration of 10 hours.

The Sand Aid clearly has done its job as was observed from the
sand that was produced. However, even at very low flow rates, still
massive amounts of sand were produced, so the sand free rate was
not increased.

HUD check on the LS show 120ft of sand accumulated after 3days


of flow back after SandAid treatment

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Learning

According to vendor, this is one of the few wells they treated that this
happened. They do not have a good understanding why it happened
and they are not able to find out the root cause why it did not work.
Vendor did not see any value in laboratory testing or other studies to
confirm the root cause.

The interval length was only 65 ft and that was short enough for the
product to work, but unfortunately it did not.

Likely the sand has conglomerated (looking at the sand that comes
back), but even at low flow rates, the forces on the conglomerated
sand are too high and therefore the sand still comes to surface.

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SC2020 Trial

Well B Zone 1 sanded up due to ESS


failure and it was closed in since
2007

Perforations interval of 486ft

Estimated locked in potential of


~150bopd

SC2020 was pumped (April 2010)


into Zone 1 to consolidate the sand

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Well-B

SC2020

04 September 2012

10

SC2020 Chemical

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SC2020 Treatment

Diesel spearhead reduces near well-bore region to residual Sw

Shut-in: reaction and polymerisation

Injection of Main Pill and placement

Controlled return to production

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SC2020 Treatment

SC2020Treatment

Injectivity test was tested with brine NH4CL up to 5 bpm

Total Pre-flush pumped (diesel) = 307 bbls to reduce Swi (dewater near wellbore) .Total Main Pill Pumped
(6% of SC2020) = 329 bbls via LAS pump which have average rate of~5gal/min. Total Displacement
pumped = 30 bbls, Total Overall Fluid pumped = 666 bbls

After the treatment, the well was shut in for 24 hours.


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Learning

April 2010

Some initial startup fluctuations, adjustments needed to find acceptable rate

Production of 500BPD reported

Historic PSD analysis from the well showed that 93% of the sand is larger than 100
micron.

After trial all sand passes through a 100 micron filter.

Positive response as it suggests bigger sand particles stopped

May 2010

Some sand peaks but production still at ~500BPD

July 2010

Gross production -315 bpd

Nett production -300 bpd, water cut 5-10%

Well is choked back, sand production below 15 pptb.

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04 September 2012

14

Learning

December 2010

Some shift in HUD but well flowing about 150bopd

Now (August 2012)

Well still flowing about 260bopd

Successfully Executed

The well is producing since treatment but under controlled bean size
to keep sand production on surface <15pptb

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04 September 2012

15

SandTrap ABC Trial

Well C Zone 1 was closed in


due to high sand production
as ESS failed.

The objective was to perform


sand consolidation treatment
on Zone 1, shut in for curing,
and flow back after minimum
72 hours curing time.

Well C 1st Treatment (No


Foam), 31st May 2011

Well C 2nd Treatment (with


50Q Nitrogen), 14th June
2011

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Well-C

Perf:455ft

SandTrap ABC Trial

Well D Zone 1 was closed in


due to high sand production
as ESS failed.

Perforation interval~ 819ft

Well D Zone 1 SandTrap


ABC Treatment, 5th June
2011

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Well-D

SandTrap ABC Chemical

SandTrap ABC is a dispersion of the internally catalyzed resin in an


aqueous based carrier. It requires only a preflush to displace
reservoir fluids and condition the formation. The properties of the
system cause the consolidating material to be placed very effectively
at contact sand grain points to provide significant improvements in
mechanical properties with minimal loss in permeability

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SandTrap ABC Treatment

The SandTrap ABC treatments consisted of the following:-

Workstring Pickle

Injection Test

SandTrap ABC Treatment

- SandTrap ABC was bullheaded down the tubing in the stages of


Preflush I, Preflush II, SandTrap ABC main treatment, postflush and
displaced by Nitrogen. Well was shut in for 72-96 hours before open
up the well for flowback.

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Well C Treatment Summary-1stTreatment, 31stMay 2011

Injectivity Test

- Filled up tubing 3% KCL, 28 bbls

- Step up rate to 3 bpm, max WH press observed 138 psi


- Start pump 5 bbls of SandTrap ABC
- Overflush& Displace with 3% KCL, 42 bbls

SandTrapABC Main Treatment

- Bullheaded treatment in below stages with no foam:


- 19 bblsof PreflushI (Solvent)
- 62 bblsof PreflushII (3% KCL)

- 62 bblsof SandTrap ABC


- 19 bblsof Postflush(3% KCL)
- 12,800 scf of Nitrogen displacement

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Well C Zone-1 1st SandTrap ABC Treatment


Well
C SandTrap ABC Main Treatment
SF-31
31st May 2011
2000

1800

PreFlush I,
19 bbls

PreFlush II, 62 bbls

SandTrap
ABC, 62 bbls

PostFlush,
19 bbls

4.5

Pressure, psi / Nitrogen Rate, scf/min

1600

1400

3.5

1200

1000

2.5

Pump Rate,
bpm

Displace with
Nitrogen, 12800 scf

Annulus Pressure, psi


Wellhead Pressure, psi

Liquid Volume pumped,bbl

PreFlush I @
formation

800

PreFlush II @
formation

MATP,psi
2

Postflush @
formation

600

SandTrap
ABC @
formatio

400

200

1.5

0.5

0.0
2.8
5.5
8.2
11.0
13.8
16.5
19.3
22.0
24.7
27.5
30.2
33.0
35.7
38.5
41.2
44.0
46.7
49.5
52.2
55.0
57.7
60.5
63.2
66.0
68.7
71.5
74.2
77.0
79.7
82.5
85.2
88.0
90.7
93.5
96.2
99.0
101.7
104.5
107.2
110.0

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Nitrogen Rate,scf/min

Pump Rate, bpm

Well C Treatment Summary-2ndTreatment, 11thJune 2011

InjectivtityTest

Filled up tubing 3% KCL, 28 bbls

Start injectivitytest, step up rate to 5 bpm, max WH press 361 psi

Start pump 15 bbls of foam 3% KCL with 50Q Nitrogen

Overflush& Displace with 3% KCL, 42 bbls

SandTrapABC Main Treatment

- Bullheaded treatment in below stages:


- 33 bblsof PreflushI (Solvent)
- 50 bblsof PreflushII (3% KCL) with 50Q foam (50%N2-50%liquid)

- 50 bblsof SandTrap ABC with 50Q foam


- 30 bblsof Postflush(3% KCL) with 50Q foam
- 17,700 scfof Nitrogen displacement

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Well C Zone-1 2nd SandTrap ABC Main Treatment


Well
C Zone 1 SandTrap ABC Treatment with 50Q Nitrogen
SF-31
14 June 2011 SFJKT-B Otto-3
2600

2400

PreFlush I

PreFlush II

SandTrap ABC

(33 bbls)

(50 bbls)

(50 bbls)

Postflush N2
(30 bbls)

4.5

Displacement
(17,700scf )

Wellhead Pressure,psi

Pump Pressure,psi

2200

Nitrogen Rate, scf/min


MATP,psi

3.5

2000
1800
1600

SandTrap ABC reached


formation

Pump Stop.
compressor down.

2.5

Pressure, psi
Nitrogen rate, scf/min

1400
1200

1000

Pump Stop.
compressor down.

800
600

PreFlush I
reached
formation

400

Postflush
reached
formation

PreFlush II
reached
formation

1.5

0.5

200

0
0:00 0:12 0:16 0:18 0:25 0:30 0:35 1:02 1:05 1:10 1:13 1:16 1:20 1:22 1:25 1:29 1:34 1:39 1:44 1:49 1:55 2:00 2:04 2:09 2:11

Elapsed Time (hr: min)


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Liquid Pump Rate, bpm

Pump Rate,bpm

Well D Treatment Summary


Injectivity Test
- Filled up tubing 3% KCL, 31 bbls
- Start injectivity test, step up rate to 1 bpm, max WH press observed
570 psi
- Start pump 5 bbls of SandTrap ABC
- Overflush & Displace with 3% KCL
SandTrap ABC Main Treatment
Bullheaded treatment in below stages with no foam:
- 10 bbls of Preflush I (Solvent)
- 26 bbls of Preflush II (3% KCL)
- 13 bbls of SandTrap ABC
- 8 bbls of Postflush (3% KCL)
- 13,240 scf of Nitrogen displacement

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Well D Zone-1 Main Treatment


SF-33
Well
D SandTrap ABC Main Treatment
5th June 2011
1800

1600

PreFlush I,
10 bbls

PreFlush II, 26 bbls

SandTrap
ABC, 13 bbls

1.2

PostFlush,
8 bbls
Displace with
Nitrogen, 13240 scf

Stop Nitrogen
Pump

PostFlush @
Formation

Pressure,psi

1200

0.8

1000

800

ST ABC @
Formation

PreFlush I @
formation

0.6

Annulus Pressure.psi

600

0.4

200

0.0
3.3
6.5
9.8
13.1
16.4
19.6
22.9
26.1
29.4
32.7
35.9
39.2
42.5
45.7
49.0
52.3
55.5
58.8
62.1
65.3
68.6
71.9
75.1
78.4
81.7
84.9
88.2
91.5
94.7
98.0
101.3
104.5
107.8
111.1
114.3
117.6
120.9
124.1
127.4
130.7

Time, min

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Pump Pressure, psi

MATP, psi
0.2

Wellhead Pressure,psi

Total fluid pumped, bbls

PreFlush II @
formation

400

Pump Rate, bpm

1400

Liquid Pump Rate, bpm

Post Job Well Test Monitoring

Well C
Date
Choke (/64")
Gross (bpd)
THP (psi)
FLP (psi)
CHP (psi)
GL rate (Mscfd)
Watercut (%)
Net (bopd)
GOR (scf/stb)
Sand pptb

21/06/2011 22/06/2011 25/06/2011 26/06/2011 27/06/2011 27/06/2011


10
10
10
10
10
10
94
292
418
357
405
427
416
94
93
100
96
101
102
475
514
477
466
455
453
0
16
55
22
45
78.96
128
217
15
271
175
700

Well D

Date
25/06/2011 26/06/2011 28/06/2011
Choke (/64")
30
30
30
Gross (bpd)
THP (psi)
240
108
316
FLP (psi)
98
95
108
CHP (psi)
512
533
565
GL rate (Mscfd)
Watercut (%)
65
gas
52
Net (bopd)
GOR (scf/stb)
Sand pptb
3

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28/06/2011 29/06/2011 01/07/2011 02/07/2011 03/07/2011 04/07/2011


30
27
27
27
27
27
470
103
566

300
82
527

242
75
464

255
83
488

248
84
469

gas

gas

251

113

Learning Well C

Well C
1)

Well C: Well shut in for 3 days. Sanding out at choke size of


10/64.

2)

Sand fill log indicated that minimal sand fill material from
3115 3432 ft (upper Zone 1).

3)

The pre-job injectivity test also point towards good


connectivity with the formation.

4)

Due to the nature of long perforated interval (~455ft) or


various permeability distribution, the placement of ST ABC
could be unevenly distributed (even though foamed), causing
sand production from untreated interval.

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Learning Well C

Possible Cause
1)

Production of sand from the leak point at 3262ft and or 3761


ft.

2)

Treatment may only flow through SSD which has larger ID


than the leak points

3)

Sand fill behind the leak point, especially the compact sand
zone (>3668 ft) which may not be treated adequately by ST
ABC and thus flow back to surface during the flowback test.

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Learning Well D

Well D Zone-1
1)

Initial well test shows no sand produce on surface after the


curing period of 3 days.

2)

Sand produced at bean size of 30/60.

3)

Minimal sand production observed after bean down to 27/60.

4)

The compacted sand fill (indicated by low injectivity) receive


little or no resin treatment when the production rate
increases, some sand was dragged by the production to
surface.

5)

HUD check found that sand HUD covering the SSD.

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Post Job Investigation


Well C Flowback Sand sample after 1st treatment
XRD MINERALOGY RESULT

Lost on ignition Test (LOI) RESULT


Samples were divided into 3 portion for testing.
Percentage of wt loss observed were, 0.925%, 0.900%, 0.913%.
Average Weight Loss obtained = 0.9126%
-typical 3% loss if is coated with SandTrap ABC

Test was conducted at 1000C (SandTrap burnt off point).

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Summary of SandTrap ABC Application

X-ray diffraction indicated presence of dolomite.

Observed weight loss was due to decomposition of dolomite during


LOI test. Dolomite degradation happens at about 800 deg.C.

It can be concluded that the tested sand sample produced did not
come in contact with SandTrap ABC.

Review candidate selection:

preferably cased and perforated completion at the end of LS

Moderate sand production rate tubing is not filled with sand

Target treatment interval length:


- Short preferred
- Long (>10ft) foam treatment recommended for better placement
of resin treatment through diversion

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Q&A

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